You are on page 1of 76

US Air Force: Weapons

Introduction
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Ever since an Italian pilot threw a large grenade from his cockpit at a
Libyan oasis on 1 November 1911, airplanes and their weapons have been dedicated
to the proposition that the 'Bad Guys' of the world seem to behave best with a
knee on their chest and a knife at their throat. Today, warplanes are the knee,
their weapons are the knife. There is nothing 'nice' or humane about these tools
their job is to destroy things and people. Precision-guided weapons were not
developed to conduct more humane warfare, they simply enable more targets to be
destroyed more quickly with fewer aircraft. Cluster bombs specialize in killing
and maiming large numbers of people who happen to be outside shooting at
airplanes or friendly troops.
A warplane without its weapons is useless. This is why the questions, "How
fast does your airplane go?" or "How far can it fly?" usually elicit a reply of
"It depends," from a pilot. Just like the family car can not go as fast or far
as the salesman said it would when it is loaded with Mom and Dad and the kids,
and a luggage rack on the roof, neither will a warplane ready for the business
of war. How many weapons are carried, what kind they are, what altitude they are
delivered from, what defenses have to be penetrated, what other kinds of
aircraft are in the strike package, and even which fuzes are being used are
typical of the factors evaluated for their impact on a given mission (and
aircraft performance).
It is important to realize that just because an aircraft is able to carry a
given weapon does not mean that it actually trains to employ it operationally
and commanders are extremely reluctant to send their aircrew into combat with
weapons they have not trained with. Two examples: while A-10s are authorized to
deliver laser-guided bombs, they never do Mavericks are their forté; on the
other hand, F-111Fs are authorized to employ Maverick, but they never touch it
preferring their trusty LGBs instead.
It is interesting to note how warplane design is affected by weapon
performance. For instance, during the Vietnam War air-to-air missile performance
was abysmal. This, combined with the inability to positively identify aircraft
as friend or foe until they were within visual range, resulted in numerous
dogfights. It is no coincidence that every fighter produced since that war has
had a gun and incredible maneuverability. But, with airborne warning and control
system (AWACS) airborne radars to identify the bad guys and the increased
lethality of air-to-air missiles, almost all aerial engagements during the Gulf
War were over 'before the merge' (when dogfighting begins), leaving both the
maneuverability and gun virtually unused for their intended purpose. This is
even more interesting in light of the recent selection of the advanced tactical
fighter, when the engine/airframe combination with the lowest thrust and highest
drag was selected, at least in part because of a perception that it will be
slightly more maneuverable in a slow-speed dogfight something good fighter

pilots avoid like the plague, despite what the film 'Top Gun' might lead one to
believe.
This article 'demystifies' weapons designations as much as possible. Most
of the prefixes and suffixes which append the nomenclature have simple meanings.
For instance, the prefix ' AF/' indicates an item used only by the Air Force,
while ' AN/' means one used by both the Air Force and Navy. Using the current
weapon designation system, an '/A' indicates the device remains attached to the
exterior of the aircraft, a '/B' suffix that it is released from the aircraft to
do whatever it is designed to do, and a '/C' is retained within the bomb bay.
While the original design has just a numerical designation, subsequent models
are indicated by a letter following the number (e.g. GBU-12/B, -12 A/B, etc.).
Dropping and firing live weapons is something done infrequently during
training, and most of the time training ordnance is used. For missiles this
means rounds with working seekers, but no rocket motors, warheads or guidance
sections. Where a live missile would display black (guidance), yellow (warhead),
or brown (rocket motor) bands, training rounds display either blue bands or
paint the entire section blue.
Copyright (c) 1995 SoftKey Multimedia Inc.; All Rights Reserved.

US Air Force: Weapons
Cluster bombs
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------While structures and other 'hard' targets are best dealt with by classical 'bombs,'
area targets such as troop and armor concentrations, truck parks and artillery batteries
are more susceptible to cluster munitions. Many early cluster munitions were dispersed
from containers retained by the aircraft. This had two major drawbacks. First, it
increased aircraft drag, thus decreasing range. Also, the dispersion pattern of the
bomblets was very dependent on speed and altitude, forcing the aircraft to maintain a
predictable flight path during delivery—never a wise move in combat! For these reasons,
only dispensers released from the delivery aircraft are used today. Once these are
released from the aircraft, the dispenser shell breaks apart, scattering the bomblets.
Most cluster bomb dispensers have 14-in (35-cm) suspension lug spacing.
Modern cluster bombs, like general-purpose bombs, are employed by all tactical
fighters as well as B-52s. Unexploded cluster bomblets in general, especially the older
ones used with the USAF's SUU-30 and the Navy's Mk 20, were the most difficult weapons
to
dispose of after the end of the 1991 Gulf War.
M129 Cluster Bomb
The M129 cluster is used to deliver propaganda leaflets. Shaped generally like the
M117 750-pound class bomb, but constructed of fiberglass reinforced plastic, it weighs 92
pounds empty and about 200 loaded. It splits longitudinally to dispense about 30,000 5-in
x 7-in leaflets. Painted overall olive drab, the M129 is currently qualified for use with
the B-52 and F-16. During Desert Storm, two M129s were mixed into loads of M117 bombs
dropped by B-52Gs. Sixteen were also dropped over Baghdad by a four-ship of F-16s on 26
February 1991.
Mk 20 Rockeye II Cluster Bombs
The Mk 7 dispenser was the basis of most Navy cluster bombs from Vietnam well into
the 1990s. The $3,400 Mk 20 ' Rockeye II ' anti-armor weapon was the most widely used
version of the Mk 7. Developed by the Naval Weapons Center and adopted by the Air Force,
this subsonic-delivery dispenser first entered service in 1968 and was used extensively
during both Vietnam and Desert Storm. This was the ONLY cluster bomb to bear the title
'Rockeye II'. (The USAF's CBU-87 was often mistakenly identified as Rockeye II during
Desert Storm, but is a completely different weapon. The Mk 12 ' Rockeye I ' was a
pre-Vietnam developmental 750-pound dispenser containing 96 anti-armor bomblets that
wasn't produced.) Rockeye has been widely exported and used on all USAF combat aircraft
except the B-1, B-2 and F-117. Although many later Navy versions of Rockeye were thermal
protected for increased safety in case of a fire during carrier-based operations, non of
the versions used by the Air Force have this feature.
The Rockeye II's Mk 118 shaped-charge bomblets look very much like throwing darts
and are designed to be effective against both tanks and ships. The detonation of each
bomblet focuses a slug of copper against the point of impact with a force of 250,000 psi.
All versions of Rockeye use the Mk 118 Mod 0 bomblet except for the Mk 20 Mod 4, which
uses the Mod 1. The only difference between the two bomblets is that the Mk 118 Mod 0
requires 1.2 seconds to arm after being dispensed, while the Mk 118 Mod 1 only takes 0.5

Finally. and SUU-76 Cluster Bomb Summary Bomb Dispenser Sub-munitions Remarks Weight Mk 20 Mod 2 Mk 7 Mod 2 247 Mk 118 Mod 0 490 lb.6-cm) wide FSN 33538 yellow band around the nose. The Mk 20 Mod 0 and Mk 20 Mod 1 were probably preliminary designs. The SUU-30D/B through SUU-30G/B were used to test various fin configurations. It was also used by the USAF as the basis of the canceled GBU-1 LGB. a streamlined fuze cover. The Mk 20 Mod 2 was used by both the Navy and Air Force and was the only Rockeye II lacking a fuze timer setting observation window for its Mk 339 Mod 0 fuze. but featured some internal structural modifications. The Mk 20 Mod 4 (Mk 7 Mod 4) was the primary (and last) version used by the USAF and had several unique features. with fintip plates aligned with the air flow. Early production USAF Mk 20 Mod 2 bombs were overall FSN 24084 olive drab. The SUU-30B/B was a complete redesign which resulted in a blunter nose to the dispenser. but only five were actually produced. All of these SUU-30s were FSN 34087 olive drab with an 8-in (20-cm) diameter. with all having a 0. It was also unique in having only a single fuze arming wire. SUU-58.5 inches aft of the nose fairing joint. 3-in (7. and widely exported. The SUU-30/B(Mod) and SUU-30A/B featured a modified fin assembly. SUU-75.seconds. which meant only the 4. dual arming wires (enabling in-flight selection of either fuze setting). B-2 and F-117. Aside from using the already mentioned Mk 118 Mod 1 bomblet. it was also the only version to use a hat box-shaped fuze cover on the ground. It incorporated a fuze timer setting observation window.2 seconds on the ground. The original SUU-30/B was a redesign of the Navy's Mk 5 ' Sadeye ' dispenser that reduced the size of latter's fins enough to permit carriage on MERs and TERs. Mk 20 Mod 3 Mk 7 Mod 3 inflight fuzing option Mk 20 Mod 4 Mk 7 Mod 4 247 Mk 118 Mod 1 primary USAF version 496 lb. the SUU-30 family has been qualified for use by all present USAF combat aircraft up to the newer B-1. a longer fin release wire and conduit. allowing it to be used from the lower altitudes expected to be encountered in combat against the now defunct Warsaw Pact. two access holes on the lower nose fairing. The single 'live' band was shifted to 14. . Nine different versions of the subsonic dispenser were developed. centered 10±2 inches aft of the nose fairing joint.5-inch FSN 23638 or 33538 yellow semi-band over the top half of the weapon to mark the center of balance. The SUU-30C/B was externally identical to the SUU-30A/B. the Mod 4 had two sets of 14-in suspension lug wells. SUU-30 Cluster Bombs Developed during the Vietnam War. The 'live' band on these weapons was centered 11 inches aft of the nose fairing joint. The Mk 20 Mod 3 (Mk 7 Mod 3) was also used by both services. Mod 4s were fitted with either the Mk 339 Mod 0 or Mod 1 fuzes. with additional cutouts in the conduit. while all subsequent Rockeye IIs were FSN 27875 white. FSN 23538 or 33538 yellow band. and could use either the Mk 339 Mod 0 or Mod 1 fuzes. Mk 7. Distinctive markings were a single three-inch wide.0-second timer would function unless the fuze was manually reset to 1. but never entered production.

but is only orange-sized.000 ft (91 and 914 m) AGL. weighing about 1 lb. CBU-71/B 650 BLU-86/B $2. permitting ideal bomblet dispersion. The BLU-61A/B is a grapefruit-sized fragmentation bomblet that weighs about 3 lb and detonates on impact. SUU-30H/B Cluster Bomb Summary Bomb Dispenser Sub-munitions Remarks Weight CBU-52B/B 217 BLU-61A/B $1.000 frag/incendiary mine 810 lb. even when released from very low altitudes. All TMD dispensers are capable of carriage and release speeds of 700 kt IAS/Mach 1. The final SUU-30H/B configuration had drag plates attached to the trailing edges of the fins to stabilize the weapon during its separation from the aircraft. These cause the bomblets to spin-arm and self-disperse. CBU-58/B 650 BLU-63/B $2. The $14. both the CEM and Gator TMD-based munitions were widely used in the 1991 Gulf War.4. with the BLU-63A/B having an additional incendiary capability. This was the final SUU-30 produced. CBU-58A/B SUU-30H/B 650 BLU-63A/B 820 lb. They used the FZU-39 airburst fuze. and the only one used after the Vietnam War. Operational SUU-30H/B cluster bombs are filled with spherical bomblets with sharp-edged ridges called 'flutes' on their exteriors. It can be distinguished from the very similar $4.000 SUU-65 dispenser's fins unfold after release and cant to spin it to a preselected rate before opening.500 fragmentation 790 lb. The BLU-86/B is functionally identical to BLU-63/B except that it features a random time delay fuze.000 Aerojet General CBU-87/B combined effects munition (CEM) uses the . Managed by Odgen ALC.5-in (1.900 frag/incendiary 810 lb.600 SUU-64 and SUU-66 by the large crossbar at the back of its fin assembly. There are two basic versions of the TMD: the non-spinning SUU-64 and -66 and the spinning SUU-65. The $6. SUU-64/65/66 Cluster Bombs The Honeywell tactical munitions dispenser (TMD) was developed by the USAF in the 1980s to replace the Vietnam-era SUU-30 and Mk 7 dispensers. CBU-71A/B 650 BLU-86A/B 820 lb. The BLU-63/B bomblet is similar in function.but were not produced. These SUU-30s are FSN 34087 olive drab with a 0. which can be set to function at any of 12 altitudes between 300 and 3.3-cm) wide FSN 33538 yellow band around the front of the cylindrical portion of the dispenser.

Consideration has also been given to using the BLU-108 with the AGM-86C and BGM-109 cruise missiles. When targets are detected. manufacturing improvements subsequently reduced this by as much as $72.3-cm) diameter copper plate into a 6. Each OSD descends by parachute until properly aligned above the target area as it extends four 'skeet' explosively forged penetrator anti-armor sub-munitions from its body. The change to the FZU-39(D-4)/B fuze results in the CBU-87C/B. resulting in the BLU-97A/B. LRIP weapons were delivered in 1993.000 inertial guidance kits to provide 'PGM-like' accuracy . By the spring of 1994.31 lb and senses magnetic disturbances to determine when and where to fire its self-forging warhead at passing tanks. a change from piezo-electric to mechanical firing mechanisms was made. Built at the Kansas Army Ammunition Plant in Parsons. The direction of this 1-lb slug is controlled within the sensor's 0. Kansas. The CBU-89A/B features a factory-installed FZU-39/B fuze. Honeywell was the second source contractor for CEM. but budget cuts dropped this to only 5.000 SFWs. The CBU-87A/B features a factory-installed FZU-39/B fuze. leading to its identification as one of the four 'pillars' for halting a regional attack (along with the C-17. kill rates of over 2. Aerojet General's $613 BLU-92/B anti-tank mine weighs 4. (US Army designations for these mines are XM74 and XM75. each skeet actively searches for targets with a passive. the 3.5 degree field of view so as to penetrate reactive and/or main battle tank armor. Initial plans had been to build 20. followed by the production versions in April 1994. and military equipment prepositioning).828 m) per second kinetic energy projectile directed at the target.4-lb BLU-97/B bomblet is stabilized by a tail-mounted ballute. In tests against formations of armored vehicles. SFW's ability to kill multiple targets per pass became crucial as the size of the fighter force shrank. transforming a flat 5. two-color infra-red sensor. the parachute is released and a rocket fires to spin the OSD.000 Aerojet General/Honeywell CBU-89/B ' Gator ' uses the SUU-65 to deliver a combination of BLU-91 and BLU-92 mines.000 per weapon.5 tanks per CBU-97 dropped have been demonstrated. stopping its descent and flinging the skeets along a horizontal trajectory.000. E-8 J-STARS.755 cluster bombs proved unusable for the high-altitude delivery tactics adopted.000 ft (1. with about 100. Honeywell's $265 BLU-91/B anti-personnel mine weighs 3. Each CBU-97 spreads 10 BLU-108/B orientation and stabilization devices (OSD) over an area of 1. The $40. Similar in size and shape to a beer can. plans were announced to buy about 40.200 x 600 ft (365 x 183 m). Both mines eventually self-destruct. respectively.25-in (13. The CBU-87/B was rapidly qualified on British Jaguars during the 1991 Gulf War when their low-altitude BL. It features an anti-material shape charge in the nose along with a body that explodes into anti-personnel and incendiary fragments. Originally expected to cost $186. When positioned over a target the skeet explodes.000. destroying the interior of the tank and killing its crew.) The Textron Defense Systems CBU-97 sensor fuzed weapon (SFW) entered low-rate initial production (LRIP) in mid-1992. As they deploy from the OSD.SUU-65 TMD to dispense over 200 CEM bomblets.75 lb and deploys trip wires that detonate it when they are disturbed. The otherwise identical CBU-87B/B uses the BLU-97A/B bomblet. Because these bomblets suffered airburst malfunctions after being dispensed.000 TMDs of all versions in existence.

Initial plans called for WCMD to become operational with the bombers at about the turn of the century.7-km) range WCMD with the B-1B and B2A. providing much greater latitude in delivery parameters. heaving the runway upward. The 5. including the F-15E and Block 50/52 F-16C/D. The 45-lb Textron Defense Systems BLU-106 was similar in concept to many other runway penetrator munitions in that it was parachute retarded long enough to point it earthward before its rocket motor fired. The TMD-based CBU-98 direct airfield attack combined munition (DAACM) contained a mix of BLU-106 boosted kinetic energy penetrators (BKEP) and HB.000-$30. TMD Cluster Bomb Summary Bomb Dispenser Sub-munitions Type Weight CBU-87/B 202 BLU-97/B CEM w/field-installed FZU-39/B CBU-87A/B SUU-65/B 202 BLU-97/B CEM w/pre-installed FZU-39/B CBU-87A/B w/improved BLU-97 CBU-87B/B 202 BLU-97A/B CBU-87A/B w/FZU-39(D-4)/B 960 lb. waiting to greet a disturbance with a detonation. and nose ballast to maintain weapon CG limits. releasing its payload.876 self-destructs. Textron was never able to make the BLU-106 work reliably and.000 ft (12.from delivery altitudes as high as 40. CBU-87C/B 202 BLU-97A/B CBU-89/B 72 BLU-91/B Gator anti-personnel and anti-tank mines SUU-64/B 22 BLU-92/B 710 lb. Two types can be used. any aircraft fitted with a 1760 databus will be capable of employing it.876 JP. time delay and proximity. The $1. driving beneath the runway where it exploded. . the HB. moving tail fins and actuators. that is how the $5.233 area denial mine Cluster Bomb Fuzing Once again.100-class submunition was supposed to work. This modification will primarily be applied to the CBU-97 SFW.5-lb Hunting HB. A time delay fuze is set on the ground. Proximity fuzing uses a radar in the fuze to sense height above the ground. While initial plans focus on use of the 8-nm (14. All CBU fuzes are nose-mounted and serve to split open the dispenser.000. with funding beginning in FY96. After a preset interval. the need for runway-cratering munitions that required manned overflight of a highly defended airfield disappeared. By mid-1994. consideration was also being given to equipping the WCMD with 'Kit 2' carbon fiber warheads.233 anti-runway munition used successfully by British and Saudi Tornado GR.000 CBU-98.200 mine has a ring of curled springs legs around its base which help rotate it to an upright position after landing.Mk 1s during the 1991 Gulf War. as did the $119. with the end of the Cold War. fuzing is of critical importance.039 lb. CBU-98/B SUU-64/B 8 BLU-106/B BKEP anti-runway munition 1. The wind corrected munitions dispenser (WCMD) will correct ballistic and wind errors with a combination of a processor to accept target data. like those used by BGM-109s during the 1991 Gulf War. pop-out.192 m). and requires bomb release at a specific altitude and airspeed to produce optimum bomblet dispersion. 24 HB.876 area denial mines. It then sits. Each kit is expected to cost $20. At least.876 is used as part of the British JP. CBU-89A/B 72 BLU-91/B Gator w/pre-installed FZU-39/B 22 BLU-92/B CBU-97/B SUU-66/B 10 BLU-108/B SFW anti-armor 927 lb.

and Mk 20 Copyright (c) 1995 SoftKey Multimedia Inc. -64. and -66 M909 timer M129 Mk 339 timer SUU-30H.USAF Cluster Bomb Fuzes Fuze Type Remarks FMU-56 proximity SUU-30H FMU-107 timer M129 (also called AN-M147A1) FMU-110 proximity SUU-30H FZU-39 proximity SUU-30H. . -65. M129. All Rights Reserved..

Bombs fitted with this kind of fin are commonly called 'slicks'. Mk 82 All 500-lb class Mk 82 warheads have an exposed length of 71 in (180 cm) (not including fuze or nose plug) and are 13. Inert warheads have a non-explosive filler and either substitute a FSN 35109 blue band for the yellow. or are painted overall blue. This was developed after several tragic shipboard fires during the Vietnam War. general-purpose (LDGP) fin.000-lb Mk 84 bombs are the mainstays of USAF weaponry and have been widely exported. Because of this. There are also a number of fins that can be configured so as to either deploy or not deploy their retarding fins. including providing the warhead for many precision-guided munitions (PGM s). easy to produce. Oklahoma and Crain. High-drag bombs loaded in weapon bays of B-52s and B-1Bs have a MAU-111 strap that unwraps from around the bomb body as it falls. The most common fin fitted to GP bombs is the low-drag. The visually distinguishing characteristic of naval GP bombs is their very rough thermal protective (TP) coating. BLU-111 for the Mk 82. Odgen ALC manages all USAF conventional bombs. Live USAF warheads and fins are painted FSN 34087 olive drab with a single 3-in (7. They are inexpensive. During the early 1990s. are based on studies done by Douglas Aircraft in 1946. while bombs using their retarding devices are referred to as high-drag (HD) bombs. and BLU-112 for the Mk 84. Use of the 1000-lb Mk 83 was discontinued by the USAF after limited use during Vietnam. both the CFA and non-retarding retard finned bombs are referred to as low-drag (LD) bombs. Initial CFAs did not have independent designations. The 250-lb Mk 81 was found to be ineffective during Vietnam and its use was discontinued. Indiana. although it will apparently be used again for JDAM weapons for the F-22. It featured an electrical fuze charging well . Mk 82 conical fin). The Air Force only uses non-thermally protected (NTP) bombs.. and have numerous applications. also referred to interchangeably as the conical fin assembly (CFA). its Mk 80-series casings received new designations: BLU-110 for the Mk 83.9 in (35 cm) in diameter. The Mk 82 Mod 0 was an NTP warhead constructed from welded pipe. All bombs weighing less than 2. when the Navy switched its filler from H-6 to PBXN-109.6-cm) FSN 33538 yellow band around the nose. those weighing more use 30-in (76-cm) spacing. If not deployed. The Mk 80 series bombs.g. although they did not actually see service until Vietnam. The Tritonal-filled 500-lb Mk 82 and 2. which are built at plants located in McAlester. to make bombs burn in a fire instead of exploding. they have ballistics virtually identical to CFA bombs.US Air Force: Weapons General Purpose Bombs -------------------------------------------------------------------------------General-Purpose Bombs General-purpose (GP) bombs are the most commonly used weapons of aerial warfare. Production began during the Korean conflict. with an explosive content of roughly 50 per cent. and were simply referred to using the bomb designation (e.000 lb have suspension lugs spaced 14 in (35 cm) apart. delaying fin opening until the weapon is well clear of the aircraft.

The Navy's Mk 82 Mod 2 was probably introduced in 1973 and is thermally protected. This fin is 26 in (66 cm) long and has 15-in (38-cm) span fins. These practice bombs have no internal plumbing for fuzes. It was introduced in August 1974 and eliminated the single hoisting/suspension lug. The Goodyear Aerospace air-inflatable retard (AIR) fins allow Mk 80 series warheads to be released at much higher airspeeds than were possible with Snakeyes. Like the Mk 82 CFA. Mk 84 All 2. was introduced in February 1955 and featured 30-in (76-cm) suspension lugs.5 degree fin cant to spin-stabilize the bomb and several doors and panels to allow access to tail fuzes. The main changes to the Mk 82 Mod 1 warhead. The Mk 15 Mod 1 was introduced in April 1967. the Mk 84 Mod 1. In late 1987. it is 43 in (109 cm) long and has a 19. The Mk 82 AIR is often referred by its $600.5 degree metal wedges to the left rear corner of each fin to increase spin rate. The Navy's Mk 16 uses the BSU-49 shell with a parachute replacing the ballute and is used with mines. introduced on 4 January 1955. The first operational bomb.and a single hoisting/suspension lug located between two 14-in (35-cm) suspension lugs.6-in (50-cm) fin span. 55-lb fin's designation: BSU-49. The 60-lb Mk 15 Mod 0 Snakeye retarding fin was adopted for use in April 1964. and was the first version used by the USAF. Mk 82s cost about $500. The 22-pound Mk 82 Mod 1 has a 1. The Navy's BSU-33 was developed during the late 1980s. The other version used by the Air Force was the Mk 15 Mod 4. There are two versions: the BDU-50/B can only be configured with tail fins. The Navy's Mk 84 Mod 3 was introduced in May 1973 and was the first TP Mk 84.000-lb class Mk 84 warheads have an exposed length of 96 in (244 cm) (not including fuze or nose plug) and are 18 in (46 cm) in diameter. the Navy introduced the BSU-86 to replace the Mk 15. The Mk 84 Mod 0 was an NTP warhead with an electrical fuze charging well and a single hoisting/suspension lug located between two 14-in (35-cm) suspension lugs. The same length as the Mk 82 CFA. while the BDU-50A/B can also be fitted with LGB guidance kits. and was used extensively in Vietnam. These fins are painted FSN 36375 gray. The Air Force uses the inert BDU-50 to simulate the Mk 82. only two of which are used by the Air Force. The Mk 15 Mod 3 was introduced in April 1970. which was introduced in November 1971. the 27-lb MAU-93/B attaches to the bomb with six set screws. The NTP Mk 84 Mod 4 is the current version used by the Air Force. There are three operational Mk 82 conical fin designs. These warheads featured internal scoring to increase fragmentation effects. The Navy's 66-lb Mk 15 Mod 5 retained the release band and latching lever which had previously separated from the bomb to prevent damage to composite aircraft structures. Neither the NTP Mk 82 Mod 3 nor the TP Mk 82 Mod 4 were produced. The slightly modified Mk 84 Mod 2 was introduced in March 1972. and the Mk 15 Mod 2 in December 1967. were the switch to seamless tubing construction and the elimination of the single hoisting/suspension lug. The Mk 15 Mod 6 refined this design. this FSN 35376 gray fin adds 2. The main disadvantage to weapons fitted with Snakeye fins was that they forced many aircraft to slow down to deliver them. The Navy's Mk 84 Mod 5 was . However.

the Mk 84 Mod 1. the MAU-103A/B increased fin-span to 22 in (56 cm). Subsequently. a modified A1E1 filled with Tritonal. its release speed is so high that the Navy did not acquire it. M117s were exported. The NTP Mk 84 Mod 6 and TP Mk 84 Mod 7 were introduced in April 1989 and had their fuze arming wells relocated for compatibility with F/A-18 bomb racks. The USAF adopted the 450-lb French Durandal for use by F-111s as the BLU-107 runway denial weapon. Originally. The M117A1E2 was an A1 filled with Minol II. Mk 84s cost about $1. a 2 degree fin cant to spin-stabilize the bomb. and was followed by the Minol II-filled M117A2. and the final version was the M117A1E3. the original Minol-filled version was designated M117. commonly known as the M117R. and a 19-in (48-cm) fin span. a function it already filled for underwater mining operations. an aerodynamic . The M117 AIR was adopted after the Gulf War and uses the 95-lb BSU-93/B ballute fin. A modified version of this fin.3-in (64-cm) fin span. low-drag M117s were fitted with 52-lb M131 conical fins that were 49 in (124 cm) long with a 23-in (58-cm) fin span. The M117A1E1 was an A2 that could be filled with either Tritonal or Minol II.000 penetrator consists of a warhead. Unlike normal bombs. dispersing its contents. Inert Mk 84 s have no unique designation and are simply normal casings with non-explosive filler. with a 20-in (50-cm) fin span and a 40-in (101-cm) length. The MC-1 is a M117 case filled with 24 US gal (90 liters) of the lethal nerve gas Sarin (GB). The M117A1 deleted the single suspension lug.a TP version of the Mod 4 and was introduced in May 1979. The USAF's Mk 84 AIR uses the 97-lb BSU-50 fin. Designed for carriage on BRU-3 bomb racks. this chemical bomb is painted medium gray. was 53 in (135 cm) long and could be distinguished by its rounded cap behind the fins that did not allow access to tail fuzing. rocket motor and parachute. has several doors and panels to allow access to tail fuzes. The M117A3 was filled with Tritonal. These 22-in (56-cm) span fins are 48 in (122 cm) long and have minor differences in their fin latching mechanisms. Its delivery requires a non-maneuvering. It is fitted with bursters to rupture it on impact. The 114-lb production fin. level flight path at low altitude across the target—a highly defended runway. it was widely used in Vietnam. The high-drag bomb. Developed as the T54. In the early 1970s. The $43. The original Mk 84 Mod 0 conical fin had a 25. Originally classed as a demolition bomb because its explosive content was about 65 per cent. especially to Israel. with a green nose band. M117 While the Vietnam-era Mk 80-series bombs had Navy designations. the Navy decided it had a requirement for a retarded Mk 84 and authorized the 87-lb Mk 11 parachute fin for overland use. used the 117-lb MAU91A/B and MAU-91B/B 'Snakeye'-type fins through the 1991 Gulf War. a 50-in (127-cm) length. the Korean-vintage 750-lb M117 has a US Army Air Force designation. the $500 M117 has only been used by the B-52. During Desert Storm. the 64-lb MAU-103/B conical fin was introduced. and deletion of the rounded tail cap that shortens its length to 49 in (124 cm).900. Designed primarily for the F-111. featuring strakes. which used them frequently with F-4s during the Yom Kippur War of October 1973.

The answer to this requirement is built by Lockheed Missiles and Space Co.000-lb bomb. was developed. using LGBs almost exclusively.500. and is commonly referred to as the improved 2. commonly known by the term 'daisy cutter'. These shelters were impervious to most GP bombs. BLU-109s are only used as part of a PGM. or I-2000. the need arose for a bomb capable of penetrating HASs and other hardened facilities. When the proper downward angle is achieved. maximizing both its kinetic energy (five times that of the GBU-24/27) and impact angle. French Jaguar As actually dropped Durandels on the first day of the Gulf War.fairing is installed over the nose of BLU-107s carried on the front stations. although its actual designation is BLU-109. Naturally. Including an FMU-143 fuze. The rear of the bomb is flared slightly so as to be compatible with any Mk 84 fin group. Developed during Vietnam as a kind of poor man's proximity fuze. When released. BLU-109 The success of the Israeli air force in destroying the Arab air forces on the ground during the opening minutes of the 1967 Six Day War prompted the major tactical air forces on both sides of the Iron Curtain to spend billions of dollars on hardened aircraft shelters (HAS s). a braking chute extracts the main parachute and then drops away. enabling it to penetrate over 100 ft (30 m) of earth or 20 ft (6 m) of concrete to destroy command bunkers thought safe from all but nuclear attack. while the blunt. Since all of its targets require precise aiming. Used for the 4. the BLU-109 has an explosive content of only 25 per cent.000-lb LGBs at their intersections from an altitude safe from ground fire. penetrator nose is exposed on the aft weapons. it was nothing more than a length of explosive-filled pipe with an M904 fuze on the end (usually 36 in long. a delay fuze detonates the 33-lb warhead. The most easily identified of all nose fuzes was the M1A1. the different fuzes used with GP bombs are absolutely crucial to inflicting the desired damage to a given target. After it penetrates beneath the runway. but with an explosive content of only 15 per cent. thus making it unusable.700-lb GBU-28/B 'Deep Throat' bombs. They had great success in making the runways and taxiways unusable by detonating 2. heaving the runway surface upward. To prevent it from breaking up before it penetrates the hardened exterior of its target. The main chute slows the weapon and points it at the ground. each BLU-109 costs about $12. . This allowed the bomb to explode before it buried itself in the soft soil of Vietnam. thus increasing its blast effect. although some were tested with conical fins when carried by F-16 test aircraft. they were machined from spare 8-in howitzer barrels to resemble very long BLU-109s. BLU-113 The ultimate penetration warhead. General-Purpose Bomb Fuzes Often overlooked. Versions include the Air Force's BLU-109/B and the Navy's thermal protected BLU-109A/B. the Lockheed BLU-113/B.and 24-in lengths). F-111Fs attacked the vast Iraqi airfields repeatedly. deployed and used in combat in only 17 days. the main chute is released and the rocket motor fires the warhead through up to 16 in (40 cm) of unreinforced concrete. produced. Published reports indicate the bomb was dropped from relatively high altitude. but also available in 18.

or short delay Mk 82. In line with a change in US policy announced in September 1991. but it only had three fins. While there may be several variants to a given weapon. The weapons are sometimes referred to by the term 'Mk' instead of 'B'. A modular design. proximity Mk 82. and was detonated by a 4-ft long 'daisy cutter'. 84. Five yields were available. external' carriage) also had a streamlined shape. the 15. with the tactical versions having the lower values. Yield of these weapons could not be adjusted in the field. 84.000-lb class BLU-82 blast bomb was the largest bomb in the Air Force arsenal by 1990. Mk 82. or short delay Mk 82. ranging from 70 kT to 1. 84. M117 (LD only) FMU-54 tail inst. the capability to quickly mount a massive nuclear strike with manned aircraft that existed prior to 1990 had virtually evaporated. all tactical nuclear weapons were removed from USN ships and stood down from alert at USAF bomber bases. inst. The explosive content of the BLU-82 was about 80 per cent. or short delay Mk 82. hydrogen bombs). but was not equipped with a retarding parachute. M117 M905/ATU-35 tail mech. -113 FMU-113 nose elect. 84. 84. All have incorporated parachutes as a standard feature to assist in level weapon delivery and aircraft escape. it was produced as five different types of bombs and was also used as a warhead on the MGM-13 'Mace' and AGM-28 'Hound Dog' missiles. inst. No one is happier about that than the crews who were charged with their care and delivery. The bomb's descent was slowed and stabilized by parachutes. General-Purpose Bomb Fuzes Fuze Location Type Function Uses FMU-26B/B nose/tail inst. M117 (LD only) Blast Bomb Used in Vietnam to clear helicopter landing zones and in Iraq to detonate minefields. M117 (HD only) FMU-72 nose/tail elect. Several training versions existed. including the BDU-10 and Mk 104 ballistic shapes as well as the MD-6 and BDU-26 load trainers. Nuclear Bombs All modern US nuclear bombs are thermonuclear (i. 84. Most electrical fuzes are cylindrical devices hidden by either a nose plug or the fin assembly. or short delay Mk 82. hemispherical radome. Delivery options are dependent on the bomb/aircraft combination and the type of target destruction required. which were mounted well forward . BLU-109. M117 FMU-143 tail inst.e. 84. while B61 and B83 weapons remain in the inventory. The B28EX (for 'external' carriage) had a streamlined shape and four tail fins. long delay Mk 82. to ensure an above-ground explosion and maximize blast and fragmentation effects. shoved out the cargo door strapped to a cargo pallet. By the mid-1990s. M117 (LD only) M904E2/3 nose mech. The B28RE (for 'retarded. Design work on the B28 family of nuclear weapons began in 1954.45 mT. M117 (LD only) FMU-139 nose/tail inst. The FMU-113 proximity fuze is easily identifiable by its black.Mechanical fuzes are identifiable visually by their distinctive vanes or the M905's ATU-35 anemometer. and they remained in service until about 1990. only the basic designations are presented here. it had ground and airburst options. During the 1991 Gulf War it was delivered only by MC-130Es.

it gave a whole new meaning to the claim by an American beer that. F-105 and F-111. while the BDU-9 was its load trainer. the nosecone was jettisoned and the spike enabled the bomb to penetrate hard targets and be held in place for several seconds (to allow the aircraft to escape) before detonating. as well as the BDU-11 and BDU-19 load trainers. including the BDU-12 and BDU-20 ballistic shapes. It weighed about 760 lb. The B83 is designed for attacking hardened strategic targets such as command bunkers. its delivery options included laydown. Nicknamed the 'Dr Pepper' bomb (after the American soft drink). The B61. It was targeted against deeply buried Soviet command centers and submarine pens. It had a steel nose spike covered by an aerodynamic nosecone. Flight testing began in mid-1989. While it had freefall and parachute-retarded airburst options. A total of five yields were available. F-16 and F/A-18. Several training versions existed. A-7. F-111. B-58. FB-111. A-7E. and toss (sometimes called loft) with either air or surface burst. Nicknamed the 'Silver Bullet. The program was canceled following the change in US nuclear policy in September 1991. F-111. including the BDU-38 ballistic shape.of the tail. F-4. it was probably only operational with B-2As and B-52Hs (and B-1Bs until they were dedicated to conventional missions in the mid-1990s). the yields could not be adjusted in the field. in addition to its strategic use. F-4. or retarded laydown. A-6. It also had ground and airburst options. as well as the BDU-36 and BDU-39 load trainers. with initial drop testing beginning in early 1990. F/A-18. F-100. but was later adopted for use as a low-yield tactical nuclear weapon. was the most commonly used weapon by tactical fighters. and nuclear weapon storage sites. The B43-1 was a multi-purpose weapon with a longer nose. A-7. F-104. and toss (with either air or surface burst). as well as surface burst and laydown delivery options. B57s were carried externally by the A-4. it would normally use a laydown (delayed surface burst) or immediate contact (surface) burst. 'Silver Bullets won't slow you down!' Delivery options included freefall or retarded airburst. It was recalled into the inventory for use by B-52s pending arrival of the B83 weapon. Its ballistic shape was the BDU-4. B43-0 could only be used for parachute-retarded laydown deliveries. F-105. The B90 was designed to replace the B57 and B61 for use by Navy A-6E. was 117 in (297 cm) long and 13 in (33 cm) in diameter. FB-111. The B57 was designed as a nuclear depth charge. F-105. S-3A/B and P-3C. The B53 was based on the warhead used by the Titan II missile.' because of its shape and color. B61s were carried externally by the A-4. It could be used with freefall airburst. F-16 and F/A-18. Although tested on F-111s. laydown. including the BDU-18 (freefall) and BDU-8 (retarded) ballistic shapes. After the bomb separated from the aircraft. B57s were painted in the same manner as B43s. The BDU-13 was its ballistic shape. but could be delivered from low altitude. There were two versions designed for external carriage. Several training versions existed. The B43 program began in 1955. F-104. A-7. It has freefall and retarded airburst. B43s were carried externally by the A-4. Nuclear Weapons Used By US Aircraft . Several training versions existed. as well as the BDU-6 / 24 / 35 load trainers. A-6. A-6. with the weapons remaining in service until about 1990. which contained a fuzing radar. They were painted gloss white with chocolate brown radomes. retarded airburst (with or without a ground burst backup). FB-111. with the largest about one megaton. F-104.

B-45. AJ-1.000 105 B-36 Mk 27 58-64 3. AD-5.170 B28RI 60-80 2. B-36. A2D. F-86F.320 A3J. F-84F. B-52 B28EX 58-8? 2. B-47. F-84G. AJ-2. AD-7. AD-4. A2D. AJ-2 Mk 6 51-62 8. A4D-1. B-36. B-50 (Fat Man) Mk 4 49-53 10. AJ-2. B-52.300 120 B-29. A3J 40 AJ-1. F-84G. F-101A. F-100F. F-84F.100 B-29. AJ-2 Mk 5 52-63 3.500 A-6. B-47.Bomb Years Weight Quan Aircraft Mk I 45-51 8. B-52. F-104C B-47B. A2D. B-36. F-84F. F-84G. B-47 Mk 24 54-56 42. F-84E. F2H-2B.500 Mk 12 54-62 1. F-105B. B-45. B-57B.200 B-47B. F-101A. B-47B.000 200 B-36 Mk 18 53-56 9. F2H-2B.980 B28RE 59-90 2. F-84E.000 275 B-36. AJ-1. F-100F. F-105D 4. F-104C. B-47E. A4D-1.040 A-6. F-86H. B-66B.150 700 A3D.250 40 AJ-1. B-50. F-100D.100 Mk 14 54-54 29. AJ-2 Mk 7 52-67 1.700 470 AJ-1. B-45. B-47 Mk 21 55-57 15. F9F-8B. F104A. AD-4. AJ-1. A2D. F-84G. B-50. B-52 . F-84E. F-100D. FJ-4B 250 AJ-1. B-57C. B-47E. FJ-4B Mk 8 52-57 3. AD-7. AJ-2. FJ-4B 5 B-36 (First H-bomb) 1. F-100D. F-101C.600 Mk 17 54-57 42. F-100F. B-47. F-84E.175 140 B-29.900 550 B-29. B-45.850 Mk 15 55-65 7. F-101C. F104A. B-50.500 1.900 5 B-29 (Little Boy) Mk III 47-50 10. B-47E. AD-4. B-52.000 90 B-36. F-4 B28IN 58-80 1. AD-6. F2H-2B. AD-4. F-84F. A4D-1. A4D-1. B-47. FJ-4B Mk 11 56-60 (Mk 91) 3. F2H-2B. B-45. AD-7. B-66B. AJ-2.

B-47E. All Rights Reserved. FB-111A 2. FB-111.. F-105D. A-6. B-47E.675 600 (W28) B-52 300 (W72) F-4 1. A-7. A-6. F-100F. F-100F.150 (W25) F-89J. F-111. B-58 (pod). F-102A. F-15. F-100F. F-111. B-58 (pod) Mk 41 60-76 10. A-6. F-100D. A-7.000 (W54) F-89J.000 500 B-47B. B-70 B57 63- 510 3.850 340 B-47B. F-106A. A-7. B-2 219 3. B-52. B-58. F-101A. F-100F.B28FI 62-90 2. F104A. F-104G. F/A-18 B83 83- 2. B-47E. F-106B 1. B-52 B43-0 61-76 1.000 B-52. F-4.000 B43-1 62-90 Mk 53 62- 2. F-101C.200 (W69) B-52G.150 A-4. F-104G. F-4 2.000 700 B-47B. F-101B 150 50 100 (W45) F-100D. F-100F. F104A. B-52. F-100D.100 A-4.500 600 USN (W34 Hotpoint) Mk 36 56-62 17.125 F-100D. . B-52 Mk 39 57-66 10. B-52H B-52H Copyright (c) 1995 SoftKey Multimedia Inc.320 B-52 Mk 105 58-77 1. F-104C. B-47B. F-111. FB-111. F/A-18 B61 66- 720 3. F-4 8. F-101B.060 A-4. F-104C. F-105D. FB-111. F-100D. F-4. B-47E. F-105B. F-16. B-47E.000+ (W80) B-52G. F-105D 2. B-1. B-52H.500 940 B-47B. B-52.400 AIR-2 56-84 AGM-12D AIM-26 61-70 61-72 AGM-28 60-76 AGM-62 70-79 AGM-69 71-91 AGM-86 81- AGM-127 91- 1.

electro-optical guided bombs. In practical terms.300 ft (1. A computer simulation by Texas Instruments in the early 1970s asserted that a group of 100 targets which would require 21. D. Operational US Paveway II Laser-Guided Bombs Bomb CCG Warhead Weight AFG Remarks GBU-10C/B MAU-169/B WS-2123 GBU-10D/B MAU-169A/B Mk 84 2. actual results from the 1991 Gulf War proved LGBs to be unsurpassed for destroying point targets. both in terms of ordnance expended and crew/aircraft exposure to enemy defenses.083 lb MXU-651/B GBU-10E/B MAU-169B. Laser guided bombs (LGB s) were arguably the most revolutionary improvement in bombing accuracy in the history of military aviation. this meant that 9.000 continuously computed impact point (CCIP) aimed bombs would only require 100 LGBs.US Air Force: Weapons Guided Weapons -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Paveway Laser-Guided Bombs World War II bombers had a circular error probable (CEP)—the radius within which half of their bombs would fall—of 3.005 m). D. Although actual performance was not quite as impressive (no weapon has ever achieved 100 per cent success).000 manually aimed bombs or 4. By Vietnam. C. E.000 bombs were required to achieve a 90 per cent likelihood of destroying a 60 × 100 ft (18 × 30 m) building. E & F/B GBU-10F/B MAU-169C/B & D/B GBU-10G/B MAU-169/B GBU-10H/B MAU-169A/B BLU-109/B 2. Then came laser-guided bombs. in the more important comparison of 'cost per target killed' they are far cheaper.103 lb MXU-651/B 'GBU-10I' GBU-10J/B MAU-169B & D/B GBU-12B/B MAU-169/B WS-212D GBU-12C/B MAU-169A/B Mk 82 611 lb MXU-650/B GBU-12D/B MAU-169B. C. thus making . which also included the other class of 'smart'. only those based on the Mk 80 series bombs were retained and improved by the performance enhancement program (PEP). Their MAU-169 computer control groups (CCG) differed from the Paveway I's MAU-157 in its ability to guide on coded laser illumination. only 300 bombs were required. These weapons were eventually redesignated under the larger GBU class. Although the LGBs are more expensive than unguided bombs. Paveway II bombs were externally distinguishable from Paveway Is by their 'pop-out' wings which made handling and carriage easier. unpowered weapons. E & F/B GBU-16/B MAU-169/B GBU-16A/B MAU-169A/B Mk 83 1. & F/B Paveway II Laser-Guided Bombs Of all the Paveway I LGBs used in Vietnam.110 lb MXU-667/B USN only GBU-16B/B MAU-169D.

these bunkers were impervious to ordinary conventional bombs. which in . Initial discussions about how to attack this class of target were held in the weeks leading up to the 15 January UN deadline. at a price of $65. (The GBU-28's suspension lugs are 10 in/25 cm farther forward when used on the F-15E when compared with the F-111F. four bombs were constructed. The latter warhead requires the ADU-548 adapter kit with saw-tooth adapters to smooth air flow over the tail section and a hardback to compensate for the reduced diameter of the BLU-109 warhead. thus shortening its normal ballistic range. Paveway I and II bombs were dropped ballistically.it possible to attack multiple targets simultaneously while reducing the probability of successful countermeasures. Paveway II GBU-10s cost $22.000 and GBU-12s $9. Meanwhile. The final go-ahead to develop the bomb was not granted until 11 February 1991. with the weapon referred to as the hard target penetrating munition (HTPM). canards.These stripes were yellow for GBU-10s and orange for GBU-12s. fitted with an artillery shell nose and shipped to Eglin AFB where they were loaded with explosives.6 cm long). The GBU-24/B uses a Mk 84 warhead while the GBU-24A/B uses the BLU-109/B penetration warhead. with two used for testing and the others reserved for combat use.5-cm) wide ID stripes on the left side of their wings (4 in/10 cm long). For this reason. the bomb's requirement for four arming lanyards to be pulled would have required a computer delivery from the F-15E. The GBU27/B Paveway III bomb is modified to fit within the F-117A weapons bay. LLLGB kits were developed for both the 500-lb GBU-22/B and 2. cut and machined to size. Initially. pulse repetition frequency (PRF) selectors were mounted on the exterior of the CCG. The final Lockheed-proposed design called for an 8-in (20-cm) howitzer barrel machined to a shape resembling an elongated BLU-109 and fitted the GBU-27's airfoil group. The bomb proved too long for carriage on the F-15E's centerline station. both because of take-off and landing clearance and loading requirements. Paveway III Laser-Guided Bombs Paveway III low-level laser-guided bombs (LLLGB s) use proportional guidance CCGs to increase both bomb range and accuracy. It has shorter canards and Paveway II wings and an adapter collar between the CCG and the warhead shortened from the GBU-24's 9 in (23 cm) to only 6 in (15 cm). the F-111F or F-15E. All operational Paveway II weapons had 1-in (2. an evaluation was carried out to determine which would be the better delivery vehicle. three weeks into the air war. and CCG (both 3 in/7.000-lb GBU-24 bombs but. Because of their length. only the latter generated a performance increase warranting production.) Also. The GBU-28/B ' Deep Throat ' bomb was developed during the 1991 Gulf War to implement attacks against several deeply buried bunker complexes in the Baghdad area containing the main Iraqi command and control facilities. With 20-ft (6-m) reinforced concrete ceilings buried 100 ft (30 m) in the ground. with the laser only being turned on during the last few seconds of flight to refine the impact point. but with the GBU-24's longer adapter collar.000 each. The barrels were taken out of storage at Watervilet Arsenal in New York. Both Paveway I and II bombs used 'bang-bang' CCGs that utilized full control deflection to alter a bomb's trajectory. To incorporate this feature. each bomb nose was lowered into a pit and filled with explosive filler by means of a bucket brigade (after giving the safety officer some Valium).000 each.

315 lb BSU-84/B . including the F-16 and F/A-18. then switching to Mk 20 ballistics to establish ranging. Also. this time on a one-way trip to Baghdad. The bombs were airborne again only four hours after arriving. a Mk 84 LDGP on right wing—until after take-off when it was jettisoned—and shoulder-mounted AIM-9L/Ms).000 ft (7. Saudi Arabia on a C-141.5 in/8. The bomb was first flown on an F-15E on Wednesday 20 February (configured with LANTIRN pods. a technique was developed at Eglin to permit F-15E delivery of the GBU-28 using the computer program in use by aircraft still in Saudi Arabia. but faced a minor problem in that it could only lower its flaps to 30 degrees (instead of the normal 34 degrees) for take-off while carrying the bomb. No operationally significant restrictions were found with either airframe as a result of these flights. while weather delayed the F-111F flight until next day. New Mexico to evaluate bomb fuzing—the weapon cleanly punched through a 20-ft (6-m) reinforced concrete wall and continued another 0.5 mile (0. the 116-in (295-cm) long bomb could also be carried externally by other aircraft. still warm to the touch from the freshly poured molten explosive filler. The final test before use was a sled run at Holloman AFB. It required use of Mk 84 ballistics to establish azimuth aiming. with the bomb burying itself so deep in the ground that it was never recovered. The successor to Deep Throat is the Boosted Penetrator. the GBU-28 on left the wing. (Later in 1991.) On Friday afternoon.turn would have required non-existent ballistics and a risky computer change. and a test drop was conducted at the Nellis AFB. the F-15E's LANTIRN pods. were not pressurized and would arc if used at high altitude.5-cm) wide ID stripes on the left side of their wings (3.These stripes were gray for GBU-24s and green for both the GBU-27 and 28.000-lb bomb fitted with a rocket motor to drive it deep underground. Initially only 30 GBU-28s were procured for use by F-111Fs and F-15Es. Dropping the GBU-28 required delivery at high subsonic speeds from above 25. canards and CCG (both 3 in/7. By the time this happened. a reluctant decision was made to proceed with the F-111F. the two combat bombs were en route to Taif. Of greater concern was the F-111F's longer moment arm (the distance from the aircraft centerline at which the bomb was carried). a clean centerline station. All operational Paveway III weapons had 1-in (2.8 km) before coming to earth.620 m) to achieve the desired kinetic energy and impact angle. The F-111F could drop the bomb with manual ballistics. a second aircraft was required to lase the target from altitudes compatible with LANTIRN. These differed from the original weapons in that their software enables them to be delivered from lower altitudes. In FY94.6 cm long).9 cm long). US Paveway III Laser-Guided Bombs Bomb CCG Warhead Weight AFG GBU-24/B WGU-12/B Mk 84 Remarks 2. This is projected to be a 2.000. In addition to the airframe constraints already discussed. arriving just four hours before the end of the war. Nevada range complex on Saturday. The test dropped was deemed successful.250 to 3. an additional 100 'GBU-28 follow-on' bombs were ordered for delivery in FY95 at a unit cost of about $170. designed for use at low altitude. Designed for internal carriage by B-2As and F-117As.

It was originally planned to equip 180 F-4Es and 60 RF-4Cs with Pave Tack. Unlike on the F-4E. while the two smaller laser windows are basically clear. Looking forward.392 lb BSU-84/B USN GBU-27/B WGU-25/B Mk 84 2. the cradle rotates clockwise to stow the pod and counter clockwise to expose it. About 150 pods were built. because of a protracted and difficult development program. the actual number was substantially lower. Paveway Fuze Options Fuze Location Type FMU-81 nose or tail short delay FMU-124 nose or tail inst.385-lb pod with the F-4E was its large size. Although this information could be used for the delivery of laser-guided ordnance. The FLIR window has a milky amber color. It is used to sense laser energy from ground.335 lb BSU-84/B GBU-24B/B WGU-39/B BLU-109A/B 2. Pave Tack is totally integrated with the host aircraft's avionics system.GBU-24A/B WGU-12B/B BLU-109/B 2. laser (TISL).170 lb BSU-88/B F-117 GBU-28/B WGU-36/B BLU-113/B 4. The outer weapon bay doors have a 'cut out' section towards the rear. Remarks Paveway II & III Paveway II .or air-based designators reflecting off targets. However. displaying a cueing symbol on the HUD to assist the pilot in locating the target. Phantom crews referred to the pod as 'Pave Drag'. usually from medium altitudes. but have a distinct bluish tint. while the inner ones are replaced by the cradle. allowing it to be cued to where the radar is looking. However. is used by the OA-10A and A-10A. This capability. A practical drawback to using the 1. this laser detector is carried on its own pylon from the forward right fuselage of the A-10. Not a designator. It is a direct descendent of Vietnam-era Pave Arrow (F-100) and Pave Sword (F-4) programs. the F-111C/F Pave Tack installation mounts the pod on a rotating cradle in the weapon bay. and limited numbers of F-16s. Although normally installed. Earlier systems had relied heavily on 'buddy' lasing. The F-111F community used Pave Tack to great effect during the 1991 Gulf War. enables Pave Tack-equipped aircraft to autonomously deliver LGBs at night from extremely low altitudes. the cradle can be removed and replaced by weapon bay doors in about an hour. with one aircraft lasing the target for others. Pave Tack The AN/AVQ-26 Pave Tack pod features all the modes first developed for the Vietnam-era Pave Knife pod. which required carriage on the centerline station. using it to deliver the majority of LGBs employed by the USAF against Iraq. unlike earlier laser designators. in concert with the replacement with an imaging infra-red sensor of the TV sensors used by earlier designators.150 lb BSU-88/B F-117 GBU-27A/B WGU-25/B BLU-109/B 2. In the end. displacing the 600-US gal 2270-liter) external fuel tank. and all eventually ended up being used by F-111Fs (and later Australian F-111Cs). in practice the targets would normally be attacked with 'dumb' bombs or (in the case of the A-10) gunfire. The pod is painted FSN 34087 olive drab with predominately black markings.576 lb BSU-92/B Pave Penny The AN/AAS-35 Pave Penny target identification set.

be contained in a single pod and employ a laser radar (LADAR) terrain-following system. allowing F-16s and A-10s to attack Warsaw Pact armored formations at night. Then reality set in. up. integration of these with the older flight control system of the F-15E proved exceeding difficult. or down. for Night (LANTIRN) emerged from the 'black' world in late 1979. right. Without auto-TFR. it was recognized that there were high and low risk portions to the program and action was taken to separate these. being replaced with a single terrain-following radar (TFR). To overcome a relatively slow gimble rate by the Maverick seekers. The TgtFLIR's very narrow field of view (NFOV) was also expected to automatically boresight the six Maverick missiles carried on two LAU-88 triple rail launchers. the first thing to go was the LADAR. it was soon discovered that just the slop . when coupled with automatic target recognition. with the control switch spring-loaded to the 'straight ahead' position. while distinguishing friend from foe in the process. but whose tank. while the much more challenging technologies were merged into a second. LANTIRN was no longer low cost and had become an integral part of the F-15E's avionics. which they quite literally do. Very early on. Named by then commander of Tactical Air Command. Targeting FLIR (TgtFLIR) pod. The total area available for the pilot to look at with the FLIR defines its 'field of regard' (FOR).000.FMU-139 nose or tail inst. Its target recognition objectives drove a requirement for enough picture elements. Navigation and Targeting. unlike soon-to-be-discarded F-111s which have routinely flown 'in weather' TFR since the mid-1960s. the F-15Es are limited to 'under the weather' terrain following. but also the second's. promised to make possible the remarkable performance of automatically launching six Mavericks at separate tanks within 20 seconds. Its targeting FLIR. The F-16's fly-by-wire flight control system was able to integrate auto TFR quite easily. To facilitate low-level flight at night. The pilot has the ability to 'snap-look' roughly one FOV left. The number of pixels that could be packed into a given space were limited by the size of the pod. The AN/AAQ-13 NavFLIR pod had a reasonably straightforward gestation. the pod would not only direct the first missile's seeker to its target. Although the TFR generates automatic terrain-following commands. and the two requirements drove the field of view available. Since lasers can not see through clouds. and operating on the presumption that all the targets would be located in relatively close proximity to one another. LANTIRN was to cost $500. or short delay Paveway II & III FMU-143 tail inst. General Wilbur Creech. forcing 'Beagle' pilots to focus on the task of manually flying low level at night like their lives depend on it. very similar to what had been used for years by the F-111. it was perceived by the Carter administration as a low-cost alternative to the recently proposed F-15 Strike Eagle. However. As originally conceived. or short delay penetration warheads LANTIRN Low-Altitude. or 'pixels' to define with great certainty not only that it was looking at a tank. Infra-Red. By the time it was fielded. and at a range that would allow a Maverick to be locked onto and launched at it. The TFR was combined with the wide field of view Navigation FLIR (NavFLIR) to form one pod. it overlays cues from the TFR on the FLIR image displayed full scale on the aircraft's wide field of view (WFOV) HUD. The AN/AAQ-14 TgtFLIR pod eventually had to settle for less lofty goals than had been initially set for it. so it would be looking close to where it needed to be when its turn came to locate a target. but the extra drag created by the LANTIRN pods exacerbate its already anemic low-altitude range performance.

Eventually. As many as two of TAC's 4th TFW squadrons were operational with GBU-15 and Pave Tack. and later MGGB-I). high-value targets during Desert Storm. Datalink control is exercised through the AXQ-14 pod. The former were known as modular guided glide bombs (MGGB. originally called electronic datalink pod (MGGB EDLP ). so the idea quickly died (although Israel became a major GBU-15 customer). With their deactivation in 1991. GBU-15s can also be locked on at any point during flight. the pod was accepted without the auto-recognition feature. called lock-on after launch (LOAL). After Desert Storm. The MGWS test program initially suffered from abysmal reliability problems.between the missile and its rail could result in the missile's seeker being outside the FOV of the TgtFLIR.5 in 15 in 530 lb 6 × 6 deg. The GBU-15 CW weapon was first proposed for use during the 1973 war. using both the Mk 84 bomb and SUU54 dispenser. with the planar wing version eventually being canceled. Originally there were to be many versions. TgtFLIRs had just started to become operational. By the time of the Gulf War. Production weapons are basically Maverick missile seekers mated to Mk 84 warheads and fitted with large wings. FOR AN/AAQ-14 98. and the whole idea began to unravel. often from a second aircraft well away from the combat zone. NFOV Modular Guided-Weapon System The GBU-15 modular guided-weapon system (MGWS) bomb family was initially called EOGB-II. While they are normally guided manually all the way to impact. More bombs would not have been available until early 1974. this workload-intensive weapon was employed only by USAFE's 493rd TFS F-111Fs. the AXQ-14 was gradually replaced by the newer (but externally identical) ZSW-1 pod. Both clear electro-optical (EO) and amber-colored imaging infra-red (IIR) seeker heads were used (the . LANTIRN Pod Characteristics Pod Length Diameter Weight Viewing Areas AN/AAQ-13 72. Germany with GBU-15 were abandoned in favor of Lakenheath F-111Fs. They launched 70 GBU-15s against well-defended. but at that time only two bombs' datalink pods were being tested. allowing the launching aircraft to concentrate on its egress from the target area. they are usually launched from beyond the range of enemy defenses and guided by datalink. In practice. Two types of wings were designed: a cruciform wing (CW) for short-range bombs and a planar wing (PW) for long range. and the latter as MGGB-II or the extended range version (MGGB-ERV). although the requirement to blunt hordes of Red armor faded away with the Cold War. and had a performance roughly comparable to the older Pave Tack system used operationally by F-111Fs for 10 years in a package about one-fourth as heavy. FOV 77 × 84 deg. Add to that the considerable amount of flexing done by the F-16 wing.7 deg.0 in 14 in 450 lb 21 × 28 deg. Initial plans to equip USAFE F-4Es at Spangdahlem AB.7 × 1. WFOV 1. The only PACAF F-4E unit to employ the GBU15 was the 3rd TFS at Clark AB. Philippines. which continued in development.

The first set of Block 30 stores . GBU-15s utilize the FMU-124 instantaneous or short-delay impact fuze. When Block 30 aircraft become available in early-1997. When the F-111F employs the GBU-15. GATS will be loaded with preplanned aim points which the aircrew will be able to refine in flight.former costing about $195.8 m).385 lb short-chord IIR GBU-15(V)-31 DSU-27 BLU-109 MXU-787 2.335 lb short-chord EO GBU-15(V)-22 WGU-10 2. This involves making an initial target identification using the aircraft's SAR. then flying a low-observable arc towards the target to create a relative bearing change of at least 25 degree from the initial SAR image.000 each). which can be as much as 30 ft/2. 31. The WSO in the 'launching' aircraft directs the 'bomb' using datalink commands which are actually flown by the pilot of the 'bomb' aircraft. and the latter about $300. the datalink pod is mounted on the aft fuselage station where the ALQ-131 ECM pod is normally located. they will be capable of inflight retargeting.000. Trainer designations include the GBU-15(V)1. All Mk 84 versions of the GBU-15 were expended during Desert Storm. MGWS Bombs Bomb Seeker Warhead Fin Group Weight Remarks GBU-15(V)-1 DSU-27 Mk 84 MXU-724 2. It is only configured with the BLU-109 warhead and short-chord wings. These are captive devices normally used in conjunction with datalink pods. Both the GBU-15 and GBU15I became operational with F-15Es during 1993. A second image will then be generated and used to automatically refine aim points and eliminate GPS-bias (the differential between a target's real location and its GPS location. 2. The original 'long-chord' and the newer 'short-chord' wings both have the same glide performance. with slightly more of the IIR seekers and 'short chord' wings being used. and 32(T-1)/B.510 lb long-chord EO GBU-15(V)-2 WGU-10 long-chord IIR GBU-15(V)-21 DSU-27 Mk 84 MXU-787 2. Since it is not required. The GBU-15I was introduced after Desert Storm.450 lb 'GBU-15I' IIR GATS/GAM This is a Northrop/Hughes-developed proposal to provide the B-2A with a stop-gap PGM capability until JDAM becomes operational in 1999. using the ADK-723 adapter kit to compensate for its narrower diameter when compared with Mk 84-based versions. When flown on the F-15E. the Pave Tack is removed and the shallow (two-band) ALQ-131 is mounted on its cradle. the bombs are carried on the wing pylons with the datalink pod on the centerline.400 lb 'GBU-15I' EO GBU-15(V)-32 WGU-10 2. Initially. The GPS-aided targeting system (GATS) portion of the program is managed by the B-2 program office and uses the aircraft's synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and GPS positioning information to accurately determine target location. with one aircraft representing the launching aircraft and the other the bomb.

It is hoped that advanced GPS techniques can lower this figure to as little as 25 ft (7. each capable of being directed against a separate target. Expected accuracy is 45-60 ft (14-18 m) for Block 10 aircraft. Initially planned only for 2. The other flew 25.000 ft (12.192 m). JDAM Joint direct attack munition (JDAM) is an Air Force-led amalgamation of programs to increase the accuracy and lethality of conventional bombs. Eliminated from the program were Hughes. and achieved a 90 degree impact angle 44 ft (13 m) from its intended target. Tests using GBU-15(V)-1 airframes with seeker heads replaced by INS/GPS guidance packages were conducted in early 1993 from a Block 40 F-16C (880441).8 and $35. Congress appropriated $25 million to procure 128 GPS-Aided Munitions (GAM s). and an airfoil group. A draft request for proposals (RFP) was released in October 1992. JDAM engineering and manufacturing development (EMD) contracts were awarded in April 1994 to Martin Marietta and McDonnell Douglas ($13. followed by a formal RFP in January 1993.000 ft (7. The first six of 28 demonstration versions of GAM were delivered by late 1994 for ground and flight testing. a guidance and control unit (GCU). and the Navy expressed interest in ensuring it is compatible with its aircraft. In 1994. and 20 ft (6 m) for Block 20.management software began flight tests in a KC-135 in November 1994.000-lb weapon is .6 m). traveled 32.0 million.000 ft (3.430 m). impact distances ranged from 6.754 m) downrange. respectively). The first drop test was conducted on 23 November 1994 from an F-4 at China Lake. Lockheed.048 m) cross range.6 to 36 ft (2 to 11 m) from the target.000 ft (4.000-lb class Mk 84 and BLU-109 bombs.620 m) downrange and 10. The first was from 16. It was released from 37. The goal is to permit the accurate delivery of conventional bombs against multiple targets per pass. The 2. Rockwell/Boeing. Texas Instruments. Three more GAM drop tests from a B-2 are scheduled in 1995.000-lb class. Two more drops from an F-4 occurred in December 1994.000-lb Mk 83-based JDAM variant for the F-22. In six test launches under varying conditions. overcoming the limitations weather placed on the delivery of PGMs. achieving a 110 degree impact angle. in 1994 a need was recognized for a 1.877 m) downrange.500 ft (11. This 2. California.000 ft (9. Initial operational capability is expected in July 1996. The weapon will use a steerable tail unit coupled to a relatively inexpensive GPS-aided inertial guidance system to hit within 43 ft (13 m) of preprogrammed targets in any weather. Before it became known as JDAM in early 1994. the program had been known as JDAM-Phase 1 (JDAM-1) and inertially aided munition (IAM). and Raytheon. The 128 GAMs will allow eight B-2As to be equipped with 16 RLA-mounted weapons. GAM has an eight to 10-mile (13 to 16-km) long footprint when launched from an altitude of 40. Mk 84-based weapon has a tail-mounted guidance section containing a combined inertial measuring unit (IMU) and GPS receiver. prior to the beginning tests of the entire GATS/GAM system in August.

imaging infra-red was selected for use on the AGM-154C JSOW. With the goal of reducing miss distance for the 14-nm (26-km) ranged weapon against preprogrammed targets to under 10 ft (3 m) in any weather. and the adverse weather precision-guided munition (AWPGM). Testing of the GBU-30 with the F-22 will begin in 2001 following initial testing with the F-16. Candidates that survived this evaluation were synthetic-aperture and millimeter-wave radars. B-1B in 2001. Beginning in October 1993.000 GBU-30s. total acquisition figures could rise to 100. in large part because of JDAM's status as a acquisition pilot program.000 initially. The USAF plans to buy 59. it focuses on three areas: reducing target location errors. with the cost eventually falling to less than $25. . All Rights Reserved. The Navy priority for GBU-29 capability is the F/A-18C/D in 1999.000 GBU-29s and 3. Also renamed in 1994 was the JDAM performance improvement program (JDAM PIP). Ultimately. with particular attention being paid to seeker performance in battlefield smoke and haze. while the 1. P-3. enough kits may be bought to equip 30-50 per cent US Mk 82 and Mk 84 inventories. with the placement of an initial production order of 500 kits. The first Air Force aircraft to become operational with the GBU-29 will be the B-2A in 1997. It will be followed by the B-52 in 2000.designated GBU-29. followed by the F/A-18E/F and F-14 in 2000. while the Navy plans to buy 12. Initial JDAM flight testing will begin in October 1996 with the F-16. which had previously been known as JDAM-Phase 3 (JDAM-3). but no decision will be made until FY98 about which seeker to fit to JDAM. as well as terrain comparison.000-50.000 to 150.000 GBU-30s. and S-3. Plans for the F-15E are uncertain at this point. In addition.000. by 1995 goal each guidance kit is expected to cost about $40.. and adding a seeker to the nose of the weapon. with the goal being to eventually eliminate 'dumb bombs'. At those prices.000.000-lb weapon will be known as the GBU-30. However.000 kits for allies. along with another 35. and F-16C/D in 2002. Its goal is to develop a 500-lb bomb with improved accuracy over the previous Mk 82. Copyright (c) 1995 SoftKey Multimedia Inc. several terminal guidance seeker concepts were evaluated.000. increasing GPS accuracy. and eventually the AV-8B. Unit price in 1991 was expected to be as much as $53. The name advanced all-up round (AAUR) was adopted in 1994 for a program previously known as joint programmable fuze (JPF) and JDAM-Phase 2 (JDAM-2). Selection of the winning EMD competitor is scheduled for October 1995.

000 ending in 1978. During terminal guidance power from the gas generator allows the control fins to react to commands from the guidance section. the 400-lb class AGM-45 Shrike was the first anti-radiation missile (ARM). Both the AGM-45A and AGM-45B missiles use the same guidance sections. and free flight. The Mk 37 (AGM-45-7) is used only by the Air Force. Except as noted otherwise. There are three types of free flight functioning: most missiles simply glide until the gas generator in the control section is activated by the electronic attitude sensor (EAS). They operate in four modes: captive. Developed by the Naval Weapons Center as the ASM-N-10 during the Vietnam War. and the Mk 23's is FSN 15080 gloss blue. Use of the Mk 36 (AGM-45-6) requires use of a special control section. In missiles prior to the -9. The Mk 23 is an inert section used with the ground loading trainer (ATM-45A-1) and separation test item (ATM-45-2). Most Shrikes are 120 in (305 cm) long. The Mk 22 (AGM-45-2) was withdrawn from service about 1985. Shrike guidance sections are designed to attack radars which emit in different frequencies. directing the missile towards or. depending on the components used.3-in (92-cm) wing span and an 18. The Mk 49 (AGM-45-9 and -9A). with a 36. In the -9 and -10 missiles EAS bypass (EASB) allows this option to be selected in flight. just above the target. All missiles are 8 in (20 cm) in diameter. with the -7 the longest at 122 in (310 cm). its single-piece shell lacks a radome. with production of 16. Weights of the $89. The Mk 77 (ATM-45-8) is an unfuzed trainer converted from the Mk 36. Powered flight defines the period of rocket motor burn and can be commanded either automatically or manually. this function has to be selected before flight by installing a component called a dive plug. During captive flight the missile provides the crew with target detection signals by using aircraft power. it became operational in 1965. and Mk 50 (AGM-45-10) are only used by the Air Force.0-in (46-cm) tail span. which can be programmed. These sections have no color bands. . followed by terminal guidance. just after motor burnout. This component monitors flight path angle by sensing pressure changes and fires the gas generator after the missile descends through 18.000 missile vary between 394 and 426 lb. in the case of the gravity bias (G-Bias) missiles. powered.000 ft (5. All other radomes are FSN 17875 gloss white. The Mk 41 (ATM-45-6) exercise guidance section contains no fuzing.486 m) and the desired dive angle is reached.US Air Force: Weapons Air-to-Ground Missiles -------------------------------------------------------------------------------AGM-45 Shrike Produced by Texas Instruments. The Mk 24 (AGM-45-3) and Mk 25 (AGM-45-4) are used by both the Air Force and Navy. In missiles modified for dive delivery the EAS is bypassed and the gas generator fires three seconds after launch. Shrike seekers are 'hard wired' for a single function. Unlike the later HARM. The Mk 22's radome was FSN 17038 gloss black. all exterior surfaces are FSN 17875 gloss white. which determine the 'dash' number of the missiles. Although similar to the Mk 22.

Motors have a 2 to 3-in (5 to 7. Shrikes can be launched from the LAU-34 or the newer LAU-118. The full-deflection (bang-bang) Mk 1 and Mk 5 control sections have a 2-in (5-cm) wide band of FSN 30117 flat brown.300 lb-second total impulse Mk 78 motor. With little or no capability against modern SAMs. While utilizing a variety of guidance and warhead sections. they are kept in storage 'just in case'. The ATM-45B-4 and ATM-45B-6 are used for live-fire operational training. The inert Mk 46 is FSN 15080 gloss blue. The Mk 86 (AGM-45A/B) warhead has only a single 2-in (5-cm) wide yellow band. 5. The Mk 5 (AGM-45A/B). Developed during the Vietnam War as a subsonic. The ATM-45B-2 was used for safe separation testing of the AGM-45B. The Mk 83 (ATM-45A/B) inert practice warheads are FSN 15080 gloss blue. 14.000 lb-second total impulse Mk 39 motor with a 2. with a 29-in/74-cm fin span). The ATM-45A-1 is a non-flight qualified ground handling trainer. all AGM-65s are the same size (98 in/249 cm long. The AGM-45A uses the single burn 22. As with the wings. All are fitted with four. The ATM-45A-2 was used for safe separation testing of the AGM-45A.7-in (14. WAU-8 (AGM-45A). The ATM-45A-4 and ATM-45A-6 are used for live-fire operational training. However. with a yellow band like that on the Mk 86. the Mk 53 was withdrawn from service in the mid-1980s. All motors are fitted with four.0-second acceleration thrust supplemented by a 20-second period of lower sustained thrust.5-cm) high Mk 21 tail fins. while the inert Mk 2 is overall FSN 15080 gloss blue. shaped-charge WDU-20 has been replaced in later Mavericks with the 300lb WDU-24 blast-penetration warhead. and WAU-9 (AGM-45B) warheads have a 2-in (5-cm) wide bands of FSN 14187 gloss green. and FSN 23538 semi-gloss dark yellow. The original 125-lb high-explosive. indicating the presence of a red phosphorus (RP) spotting charge. It has also been used by the USN and exported to Britain during the Falklands War and to Israel during the 1973 Yom Kipper War. The AGM-45B introduced the dual burn 22. The ATM-45A-3 can be fitted with any seeker and used either as a captive operational trainer or to train ground crew.0-in (36-cm) high Mk 2 wings. the Shrike has almost passed into history.The AGM-45As and Bs each have three interchangeable warheads that detonate either when signaled by the guidance section or upon impact. The Mk 85 (ATM-45A/B-4) is FSN 15080 gloss blue. The Shrike in USAF service can be carried by F-4Gs and 'Wild Weasel' F-16Cs.6-cm) wide band of FSN 30117 flat brown about 8 in (20 cm) from the front edge of the motor.8-second burn time. the Hughes Maverick has continued to evolve and remained in production through FY91. with an initial 1. these are sometimes left off captive trainers. with maximum launch range dependent on target size and seeker performance. A second AGM-45A motor. launch-and-leave replacement for the AGM-12 Bullpup. All versions use the same rocket motor. 12 in/30 cm in diameter. While maximum aerodynamic . also used for the AGM-88. with second-source supplier Raytheon receiving the final contract. which are sometimes left off of captive trainers.

000 missile was introduced in 1972. Four hundred were transferred from US stocks to Israel during the 1973 Yom Kippur War. a more realistic range is nearer 8 nm (15 km). and this version became the first to feature the larger warhead. During the Gulf War. It also differs from the AGM-65F in that its guidance and fuzing options must be selected prior to flight. this missile has a slightly decreased maximum range AGM-65G combines the guidance features of both the 'D' and 'F' with the latter's warhead. An Air Force missile. combining the C's larger warhead with the D's IIR seeker. After designating the target and ensuring that the missile is locked on. AGM-65E is the operational version of the earlier AGM-65C. AGM-65C was a semi-active laser (SAL) version developed in the late 1970s. with the words 'SCENE MAG' stenciled on the side of the seeker. Called 'scene-magnification'. Because of the heavier warhead. and can most easily be identified by their lack of tail fins. many were later painted FSN 34087 olive drab.range is about 12.5 nm (23 km). A-10s fired 203 AGM-65Gs. are usually fitted with a video recorder to aid in training. Built for the Navy. it first became operational during 1986 with 81st TFW A-10As. similar to some sunglasses. it can be locked onto the same target as an AGM-65A from twice the range.000 each in FY90. The AGM-65E was first delivered in 1985 and is FSN 36375 gray. single-seat aircraft. A-10s fired 3.000 IIR missile over earlier EO versions is its ability to be used at night and in conditions of smoke and haze. this capability was used fewer than 10 times. such as the F-16. 99 were fired operationally with an 88 per cent success rate. and all were FSN 17875 gloss white.5 degree FOV. The $22. in 1979 both the USAF and USN decided to forgo this seeker in favor of IIR guidance and this missile was never produced.682 AGM-65Bs. During the Gulf War. These missiles are FSN 34087 olive drab with a silverish seeker. A-10s fired 1. The advantage of the $110. They are ballasted to weigh as much as the live missiles. The USMC is the only user of SAL guidance. AGM-65B features an optional 2. he fires it and can either select another target or commence escape maneuvering. A/A37A series captive Maverick trainers are commonly called TGM-65s. the missile can be locked on to targets at greater ranges than it is capable of flying aerodynamically. AGM-65A has a 5 degree field of view (FOV) electro-optical (EO) television seeker that the pilot uses to acquire the target. AGM-65F entered production in 1987. the $64. Both missiles can be identified by their clear seeker domes. The . However. it is olive drab in color. With the IIR seeker. During Desert Storm. It differs from the AGM-65D in that it is better capable of being locked onto larger targets. Introduced in 1983. However. over 90 per cent of the AGM-65s fired were from A-10s. Maverick is a very workload-intensive weapon which pilots of faster.000 AGM-65Bs were initially painted white. SAL permits ground troops to designate targets for close air support. AGM-65D was the first Maverick with an imaging infra-red (IIR) seeker. Introduced in 1975.128 AGM-65Ds. it has a modified tracking function optimized for attacking ships. found very difficult to employ in combat. They cost about $121. During the Vietnam War. During Desert Storm. During Desert Storm. It also introduced inflight selectable fuzing to allow warhead effects to be optimized for the target being attacked.

Once the target is sighted. F-15E. It also improves the missile's reliability.) The A/A37A-T9 simulates the AGM-65E. approval for full-rate production was approved late 1994. This would reduce the amount of datalink transmissions. with plans to also qualify it with the B-1B and B-2A. In addition to the USN and USMC. The rocket motor separates after burn out. while captive AGM-65Fs are called CATM-65Fs. F-111F. Further proposed upgrades included the incorporation of an INS/GPS navigation package to increase the weapon's operational utility by delaying man-in-the loop guidance to the final 15-20 seconds of weapon's flight.300 in 1993 because of a combination of budget pressures and the . it is only operational with the F-111F and F-15E. Initial testing with the B-52H is expected to begin in 1995. increase launching position and weather flexibility. One important upgrade from the GBU-15 is the incorporation of a charge coupled device (CCD) that will extend its usability for two additional hours per day. and a radar altimeter allows terrain clearance to be selected in 200-ft (60-m) increments. and single-rail LAU-117 that can be used with any version. It would be equipped with either IIR or millimeter wave guidance sections and have triple the range of existing versions. It has been exported to Greece. Maverick launchers include the three-rail LAU-88 (for A. and allow the WSO to be more involved in target area egress (rather than being totally involved in weapon guidance from launch to impact). Procurement of the $400. Launched from a prebriefed location. EO sensor clarity and sensitivity while reducing cost. Israel. the missile can either be manually guided or locked on for automatic terminal guidance. Sweden (AJ37 as the Rb 75). Korea and Turkey (F-4E). USAF Mavericks can be employed by the A-10A. NM with F-111Fs of the 524th FS. but was reduced to only 2. Although tested with the F-4E and fit checked on the F-16 and Tornado. and Switzerland (Hunter).A/A37A-T1 is used to simulate the AGM-65A and B. Saudi Arabia (F-5E). B and D versions). has been proposed. and F-16. Operational testing began in July 1994 at Cannon AFB. F-4G. called ' Longhorn '.000 missile was originally intended to reach 4. (Unlike the live missiles. IIR training missiles have yellowish seeker domes. glide profile while receiving man-in-the-loop guidance inputs via datalink. After the completion of production verification flight testing.048. AGM-65 Maverick Variants Version Guidance Weight Warhead Remarks AGM-65A AGM-65B AGM-65C AGM-65D AGM-65E AGM-65F AGM-65G EO 462 lb EO (Scene Mag) 462 lb 125 lb SAL 465 lb not produced IIR 485 lb USAF only WGU-9/B SAL USMC only WGU-13/B IIR (anti-ship) 677 lb 300 lb USN only IIR 642 lb 675 lb USAF only AGM-130 The Rockwell AGM-130 stand-off weapon system (SWS) is a GBU-15 equipped with a rocket motor to increase its stand-off range from 15 nm (28 km) to over 40 nm (74 km). rocket-powered. the AGM-130 flies a glide. A turbine-engined variant. Iran. the A/A37A-T8 and -T10 simulate the AGM-65D.

It also features a refined pop-up maneuver. such as JSOW. Deliveries of the 1. All versions of this subsonic missile are powered by a 600-lb (2. By mid-1993 the first three production lots were under contract.4 kN) of thrust for 2. where a frequency-agile radar seeker controls terminal guidance. the missile performs a pop-up maneuver to enhance warhead penetration. while Lot 6 would have improved IIR seekers. The Harpoon warhead weighs about 500 lb. the ability to navigate to several turn points en route to the target area. It uses a radar altimeter to fly at sea-skimming heights and has an inertial guidance section programmed prior to launch to direct it to the target area. The Block 1A AGM-84B 'Sub-Harpoon' is used by the British Royal Navy. 1987 BLU-109 " 2. The inlet cover is jettisoned after the missile separates from the aircraft and just prior to starting the turbojet. which feature improved ECCM. The warhead is also fitted with crush sensors to increase warhead survivability as it .7-kN) thrust turbojet that is fed by a NACA inlet located on the bottom of the missile between its 36-in (91-cm) span wings. The initial contract award for weapons using the BLU-109 was made in August 1992. 367-lb rocket boosters that create 12. incorporates the British features into US missiles.000 lb (53. which it could replace. The ship-launched versions have 30. as well as aircraft (AGM-84). As it attacks its target. with Lots 4 and 5 planned to be equipped with CCD seekers and improved. Its range has been increased over previous versions from 57 to 75 nm (106 to 139 km). the new wing is being developed by Brunswick.170-lb Block 1C AGM-84D began in 1984.9 seconds before burning out and separating from the missile. allowing it to penetrate into the target before exploding. with two hits required to disable a destroyer. The warhead has a delay fuze.9-in (78-cm).150-lb initial production (IP) AGM-84A Harpoons are 152 in (386 cm) long. the 1.917 lb AGM-84 Harpoon The McDonnell Douglas Harpoon anti-ship missile entered production for the US Navy in 1975.980 lb EO " 3. However. a selectable search priority. It can be launched from ships (RGM-84) and submarines (UGM-84). first delivered in June 1982.anticipated procurement of newer weapons. This version was initially unveiled in 1992 and would use the same engine (and have nearly the same 180-nm/332-km range) as the canceled AGM-137. It incorporates an indigenous guidance program that decreases cruise altitude and dispenses with the terminal pop-up maneuver. and several optional terminal attack maneuvers. anti-jam datalinks. The Block 1B AGM-84C. Introduced in 1976. The IPs were followed in 1978 by Block 1 missiles. A turbojet-powered version of the AGM-130 has been proposed for the British Conventionally Armed Stand-Off Missile (CASOM) requirement.026 lb IIR SUU-54 " canceled. which also makes the ADM-141 TALD. or five for a 'Kiev'-class helicopter carrier. The AGM-84A through D are externally identical. A further 102 were authorized in the FY95 budget. AGM-130 Components Version Seeker Warhead Fin Group Weight AGM-130A DSU-27 " WGU-10 " AGM-130B DSU-27 AGM-130C DSU-27 Remarks Mk 84 MXU-787 2. Another proposal to increase the AGM-130's range is to revive the planar-wing concept originated with the GBU-15 in the 1970s to increase its range to about 100-nm (184 km).

On B-52s.1A inert warhead air launch missiles have a FSN 35109 flat blue warhead band. and two types of terminally guided unitary warheads. The ATM-84A/C/D/G. the Block 1D guidance improvements are being made to AGM-84D airframes as the Block 1CR.29 cm). Some missiles were fueled at the factory with JP 5 fuel while others received JP 10 (which increases their weight by about 20 lb). It also featured a 22. USCG and 20 foreign customers. as well as the Army and Navy.1C ballistic air test vehicle is also completely inert and has a FSN 35109 flat blue band around the guidance section. while the 'Gray' missiles have a 13. command and control complexes and communication centers to be struck with .59-in (34. resulting in the AGM-84G designation. The 14-ft (4-m) long missile had an 8. AGM-137 Tri-Service Stand-off Attack Missile (TSSAM) The Northrop AGM-137 TSSAM was a stealthy missile developed by the USAF for itself. rather than AGM designation. Its major guidance improvement was the ability to execute a cloverleaf reattack pattern to search for a target if it was not detected during the initial attack. The original TSSAM mission was to attack well protected Warsaw Pact and Soviet targets during the first few days of a conflict.3-in (57-cm) fuselage extension behind the wing but in front of the inlet. The ATM-84A/C/D/G. used by the USN. The development contract for the 1. As of July 1992. Harpoon capability has been added to 19 B-52Hs. USAF.1B inert training missiles are not flight worthy and used as only as ground crew trainers. and a sub-munition version that would be developed but not produced to keep program costs down. They are painted either FSN 17858 gloss white or FSN 36440 flat gray.400-lb Block 1D AGM-84F was awarded in September 1989. The AGM-84F was tested and. However. while the warhead's yellow band is either FSN 13538 gloss or 33538 flat. Harpoons are mounted on the HSAB's MAU-9A/A bomb rack.1 exercise air launch missiles replace the warhead with a telemetry section marked with a FSN 35109 flat blue band. containing additional fuel for increased range. four versions were to be developed. Originally. 30 B-52Gs were equipped with AGM-84A/D Harpoons. The ATM-84A.52-cm) diameter (with a weight increase of 50 lb).3-ft (2. The Army's ground-launched version was to be designated MGM-137. By 1994. Harpoons are normally referred to by their 'Block'. Its range would allow hardened air defense sites.5 in (34. brilliant anti-tank (BAT) sub-munitions.5-m) wing span and a range of slightly more than 180 nm (332 km). The sustainer motor section's flat brown band is either FSN 30117 or 30140. with production approval being given during 1992 for upgrades to existing missiles. more than 6. Beginning in July 1984. although production did not materialize. The 'White' missile's diameter is 13. only two versions remained: a 1. The similar captive carry ATM-84A.000-lb class unitary warhead version which was to go into production. All color bands are 2-in (5-cm) wide. As these aircraft were earmarked for retirement.500 Harpoons had been produced. The missile has also been fit-checked on the Block 50 F-16. employing the BLU-97 CEM.penetrates the target. this Block 1D option was only exercised for the sea-launched RGM-84 version.

However.and low-level pop-up attacks. By late 1994. The 63-nm (116-km) plus range Popeye became operational with conventionally dedicated B-52Gs in the early 1990s and was also evaluated with the F-111F and F-15E.2 million ($13. by the FY94 budget cycle. The Navy plans to acquire additional AGM-84E and SLAM(ER) missiles. The Air Force planned to employ AGM-137 with the B-52H (12 external). and F-22. the Air Force is exploring options to procure an additional AGM-86C. reportedly because of concerns about the effects using an Israeli-developed weapon would have had on the coalition.631 USAF and 525 USN) at a unit cost of $3.000." on 10 February 1995.3 billion for the program).000 for each of the 86 missiles bought).minimum warning while allowing the launching aircraft to remain well beyond enemy air defenses.300-lb conventional stand-off missile armed with either 750-lb high-explosive/fragmentation or 800-lb hard structure munition (HSM) warhead (using the FMU-124 C/B fuze). avoid other obstacles. F-16 (two external). and first USN delivery in FY02. completion of flight test in 1997. B-2A (eight internal).4 million. Film of the tests showed the missiles striking targets less than 9-ft (2. These advantages are offset by its larger size. and much smaller warhead. B-1B (eight internal).06 million ($9. that will be stealthy from only the front aspect in hopes of reducing unit costs to about $750. AGM-130. With the program about halfway through EMD.050 missiles over five years at a unit cost of $1. while the Navy originally hoped to use it with the A-6E and F/A-18 (two external). initial USAF delivery in FY99. The TSSAM program was canceled "for the convenience of the government. It was not used during the Gulf War. the 190-in (483-cm) long weapon features inertial guidance coupled with EO and IIR terminal homing. and perform high. the total buy had shrunk to 4. The original program plan was to procure 9. Navy participation was reduced to $75. The Air Force will embark on what is commonly called 'Son of TSSAM'.156 (3. It was developed by Israel's Rafael Armament Development Authority in the early 1980s and procured by the US Air Force under the ' Have Nap ' program. results of two 1994 test launches (5 August from an F/A-18C and 13 August by an F-16C) were quickly made public by the USAF to help preserve the troubled TSSAM development effort during Congressional budget deliberations. while its all-aspect stealth design would make it difficult to locate and attack.7-m) wide after flying to maximum range. Initial test launches were performed by the B-52 and A-6E. higher cost ($726. AGM-142 Popeye Popeye is a 3.6 billion for the program). The schedule by that time called for a long-lead production decision in January 1996. or AGM-142. Popeye differs from the USAF's GBU-15 and AGM-130 in two major respects: its inertial platform allows greater flexibility in guidance and navigation and its sustainer rocket motor allows it to be powered all the way to target impact. Its wide airfoil body was designed to impart extreme maneuverability to evade air defense concentrations. It is also operational with Israeli air force F-4Es. . Co-produced in the US by Martin Marietta. and the Army withdrew from the program entirely. To fill the stand-off void left by the AGM-137's cancellation.

000 missile is designed for use by Israeli F-16s and other tactical aircraft. with production to follow in 1997. Thirty of these missiles were bought for B-52Hs using FY93 funds. and any future attack capable aircraft. AGM-154 JSOW Formerly known as the advanced interdiction weapon system (AIWS). About 8. with the initial separation/jettison test on 8 March 1994 (on NF/A-18A 161925. F-14. F/A-18. There is the possibility that foreign participation in the program will be allowed before the full-scale production decision is made in 1998. Testing of the AGM-142D is expected to begin as early as 1996. The Tornado was fit checked with the weapon in late 1993. The Navy plans to replace its Rockeye II and CBU-59 APAM cluster bombs with the AGM-154A. s/n 106).Testing of the 2. The $650. The B-1B can carry four per weapon bay on CSRLs.600 JSOWs will be $6 billion. The F-15E fit check evaluated six weapons mounted to the wing pylons and front and rear-bottom CFT stations (although the rear stations may not have be usable because of acoustic loads). AGM-154A will be equipped with 145 BLU-97 CEM cluster munitions (see SUU-64).000-lb class weapon will use GPS-aided inertial guidance to navigate to the target area with a terminal accuracy of less than 33 ft (10 m). a new inertial measurement unit (IMU). The . penetration warhead. Other likely candidates include the F-15E and B-1B. Program costs through the first 21. Consideration is being given to a turbojet-powered version with a range in excess of 200 nm (370 km). began in the fall of 1994. The primary Navy JSOW delivery vehicle will be the F/A-18C/D (and later the new F/A-18E/F). Improvements to the 168-in (427-cm) long missile include use of a IIR seeker. Fit checks were also conducted with the B-52H and F-111F. laminated wings and fins. JSOW is also designed to be compatible with all NATO tactical combat aircraft. the early retirement of the A-6E led to it being dropped from the program. The Harrier II has an additional requirement to take off with two weapons and land vertically with just one. (Initial plans called for Navy versions to be delivered from the A-6E. Low-rate production is planned for 1996. thus still allowing two wing fuel tanks to be carried. An additional $31 million was provided in 1994 to fund 36 more missiles.000 each.500-lb AGM-142D. Total inventory of Have Nap is expected to reach 130. AV-8B. The first guided launch occurred on 13 December 1994 (from F/A-18C 163476 s/n 101) at China Lake. the Texas Instruments AGM-154 joint stand-off weapon (JSOW) was a $400-million Navy-led research and development program to develop a gliding PGM with a stand-off range of about 40 nm (74 km). AGM-154B will deliver the BLU-108 SFW (see SUU-64) for anti-armor applications. It is also small enough to be carried internally by the B-1B and B-2A.800 of this version will be procured at a cost of $100. with two weapons being loaded to the center wing pylons. However. dubbed Have Lite or Popeye 2.) The primary Air Force JSOW delivery vehicle will be the F-16C. s/n 100). The integration process for the AV-8B will begin in 1998. and a lighter rocket motor casing. leading to an initial operational capability (IOC) in 1999. This 1. with consideration being given to doubling this by use of the F/A-18's BRU-33A/A CVER. Flight testing began on 19 November 1993 at Patuxent River (on F/A-18C 163985.

using an RF package to emit aircraft-like radar signals. The miniature decoy would perform a ferret function. and the 'Kit 2' carbon fiber warhead (like those used by BGM-109s during the 1991 Gulf War). (A Russian-exported SA-8 . allowing it to attack point targets such as bridges. launched from a fighter aircraft. imaging infra-red (IIR). probably by a stand-off system.000 weapon with a 10-ft (3-m) accuracy. Renamed Preemptive Destruction. As a study program. AGM-154C is scheduled to become operational with the Navy in 2001. By late FY96 or early FY97. non-emitting surface-to-air and theater ballistic missile sites. Other payloads being considered include the Gator and BAT sub-munitions. In addition.) The decoy would also identify and prioritize the threat for later attack by the lethal system. and doing enough damage to take them out of the battle for several days. It will be fitted with a 500-lb BLU-111 GP bomb warhead and a IIR terminal guidance seeker developed by Phase III of the JDAM program. FL. and laser radar (LADAR). a non-lethal decoy and a lethal bomb or missile. The Air Force originally did not plan to buy any of this version.Air Force plans to acquire 5. AGM-65 Maverick. SHarK went unfunded in FY93. SHarK A USAF program to develop a Silent Hard Kill (SHarK) capability was announced in mid-1993. AGM-123 Skipper II. the engine program would be transferred to the USAF for production of 24 complete systems in FY98. Use of JSOW as a SEAD weapon to counter SA-4 and SA-11 SAMs is also considered likely. Then its position would be refined by using a short-range. ARPA contracted Sundstrand to develop a very small engine for the decoy. By September 1994. Expected to eventually become a joint program with the USN. beginning in 2000. global positioning system (GPS). The study narrowed the list of potential non-lethal sensor technologies to millimeter-wave radar (MMWR).800 are expected to be acquired. One possible follow-on effort would equip JSOW with a more powerful penetration warhead. to find the most cost-effective way to accomplish the SHarK task. (In a joint development effort. its research team identified and evaluated 124 SEAD tasks through mid-1995. The addition of the seeker will provide this $400. with the Navy using them to replace the AGM-62 Walleye. such as JSTARS. The preemptive destruction mission differed from reactive suppression by being less time sensitive. air-launched decoy. it was thought that the mission would be broken into two parts. and even as a resupply container carrying food and ammunition for long range patrols are being evaluated.000. it was managed by the Conventional Munition Systems SPO at Eglin AFB. and 'some LGBs'. the threat would be generally located. lethal attack would need to be within a few minutes of threat identification and location. First. but is reconsidering this position in the wake of the AGM-137 TSSAM's cancellation. SHarK was tasked with preemptively striking silent. synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Because of the inherent mobility of modern SAM systems. About 7. Unlike previous suppression of enemy air defense (SEAD) programs. proposals to use it to deliver Gen-X disposable radar jammers. but was redirected to study the overall process of destroying non-emitting air defense radars.

or AGM-130.. AGM-65. such as the SA-11. Copyright (c) 1995 SoftKey Multimedia Inc. such as an SFW modified to expel up to 54 fragments rather than a single. HARM. All Rights Reserved. which could have up to 0. AMRAAM. using datalink instead of hard wired communication links. The warhead was anticipated to be some sort of area munition.8 km) between various system elements. JSOW.could move 24 miles/39 km in two hours.) It was expected that the actual kill mechanism would be based on an existing delivery system such as TMD. This would be necessary to counter modern systems.5 mile (0. . focused warhead. JDAM.

equipped with the F7U-3M Cutlass.000 were produced . of Bristol. The AAM-N-3 Sparrow II was another Douglas project. Eventually. which set the standard for all subsequent Sparrows. became the first squadron to receive the new missile. an infra-red guided version was canceled.) Reaching the fleet in August 1958.US Air Force: Weapons Air Intercept Missiles -------------------------------------------------------------------------------AIM-7 Sparrow.000 and 6. a standard which was maintained for the entire Sparrow family. was asked to submit a proposal for a missile based on the HVAR with a range between 1. In September 1952 Sparrow became the first project of the newly established VX-4 of the Naval Air Missile Test Center at Pt Mugu CA. Fleet service began in 1956 with deliveries to F3D-1M Skynight. was subcontracted to produce the airframe while Sperry concentrated on guidance. the 140-in (355-cm) long Sparrow I's beam-riding design lacked a true all-weather capability because its APG-51 guidance radar required visual identification of the target.000 ft (305 and 1830 m) and fast enough to overtake a Mach 1. but featured a completely different guidance system with an active radar seeker. With this type of guidance system the launching aircraft illuminated the target with radar and the missile simply attempted to stay in the center of the radar beam. The 420-lb missile was belatedly redesignated AIM-7B in 1962. (Although successfully tested in 1957. In January 1951 the Navy placed an advance order for 1. The genesis of ultimate Raytheon 500-lb class AIM-7 Sparrow began in 1951 with their 380-lb AAM-N-6 Sparrow III. a 65-lb continuous-rod warhead. This increased the missile's length to 144 in (365 cm). VA-83. and it replaced the Sparrow I in production in 1956. this was a completely new missile that featured SARH guidance behind a 'tangent ogive' radome. In 1962. Unpowered separation testing began at Pt Mugu in January 1948. and other F7U-3M squadrons. XJ 521 Sky Flash and Aspide The original Navy air-to-air missile program began near the end of World War II when BuAer advanced the concept of a beam-riding 5-in (13-cm) high-velocity aircraft rocket (HVAR). In reality. officially designated air-to-air missile-Navy (AAM-N) -2. nearly 10 years after development began. with the last of 2. TN. In 1955. but when that program was canceled in 1956 it was taken over by the Canadian government for their CF-105 Arrow. An 8-in (20-cm) diameter missile body was recommended. was canceled in 1959. The development contract was signed in May 1947. the entire concept was abandoned.000 of the 310-lb Sparrow Is being delivered in April 1957. under Project Hot Shot. about 2. and a solid fuel rocket motor. too. but that. Douglas Aircraft Co. after it was out of service. The following March. In May 1946. However.000 Sparrow I s. Sparrow I was redesignated AIM-7A. Sperry Gyroscope Co. with project being named Sparrow in July. F3H-2M Demon.0 target. The first guided launch occurred in February 1953. It was designed originally for the F5D Skylancer. Sperry reported that the HVAR's 5-in (13-cm) diameter was too small to accommodate the design requirements.

to arm the F3H-2M Demon. The USAF had designated the Sparrow III as the AIM-101 prior
to
1962, when the joint designation system redesignated it the AIM-7C.
The 440-lb AAM-N-6A Sparrow IIIA replaced the AAM-N-6 in production during 1959.
It
was the first Sparrow to supplement earlier rail launchers with an ejector launch
capability. Its performance was increased by a limited proximity fuzing capability,
enabling head-on intercepts, and a storable liquid fuel rocket motor which permitted
supersonic launches and increased range. It was redesignated the AIM-7D in 1962, with
7,500 being produced to arm the F4H-1 and F-110A Phantom II.
The AIM-7E Sparrow IIIB entered production in 1963 and incorporated a new 7,600-lb
thrust (33.81-kN), 2.9-second burn Mk 38 solid fuel rocket motor which resulted in a 75
per cent range increase. The later Mk 52 motor was similar, but weighed 3 lb more, at 157
lb. Its DPN-72 GCS was composed of the CW-646 radome, OA-4137 target seeker, OA4136
flight control group (/B through D/B versions), as well as the tunnel cable and waveguide.
Although it had a launch envelope of Mach 0.7 to 2.2, from sea level to 90,000 ft (27,430
m) at targets up to 13 miles (21 km) away, its utility in Vietnam was severely hampered by
a minimum range of 1 mile (1.6 km). There, it to be virtually useless against maneuvering,
fighter-sized targets, especially at low level.
The Italian Aspide missile used the AIM-7E as a jumping-off point. Work began in
1969 to incorporate an Italian SAR seeker to the Sparrow airframe. It is believed to have
finally replaced the AIM-7E on Italian F-104Ss in the late 1980s.
The AIM-7E-2 was an AIM-7E with the ALMC No. 27 'dogfight' modification, to give
the
missile a shorter minimum range (1,500 ft/457 m), as well as maneuverability and fuzing
improvements. It was introduced in 1969 to correct AIM-7E performance shortcomings and
was
also exported to Britain for use with the F-4K/M. This version of the Sparrow was rushed
to Southeast Asia where it replaced the AIM-7E within months.
Combat AIM-7Es were overall FSN 17925 gloss white, except for the radomes, which
were left unpainted (a very light gray color). Color bands included a '1 to 3-in' wide FSN
23538 yellow band at the front of the warhead, and a '2 to 3-in' wide FSN 30117 brown band
on the rocket motor beginning about three in behind the aft launch hook. The AIM-7E-2 (and
subsequent versions of the AIM-7E family) were identifiable by the 1-in wide FSN 17038
black 'L' markings on their wings.
All AIM-7E serial numbers were prefixed by 'R-' and suffixed by 'b'. This
nomenclature was applied to both the target seeker and flight control sections. As a
missile was upgraded, its suffix would reflect the version it had been upgraded to (e.g.
R-8956-b would become R-8956-b-2 if it was upgraded by ALMC No. 27 to the AIM-7E-2
standard). Also, there were no leading zeros on the numbers applied to the missiles.
Finally, the table only reflects original production, not upgrades. All blocks beginning
with the letter 'b' denoted AIM-7E-2 production. In the following table, the first suffix
and last prefix in each sequence have been omitted. Of the 20,650 missiles built, 8653
(almost 42 per cent) were originally built as AIM-7E-2s. In FY65, the USAF allotted
serials 65-995 to 2194 for AIM-7E production, but the order was canceled.

The AIM-7E-3 was an E-2 modified by AWC-78 (dated 27 August 1976), the 'reliability
and fuze improvement modification'.
The AIM-7E-4 was an E-3 modified by AWC-93, also called the 'spillover
modification', to allow it to be used with early F-14A Tomcats. Its DPN-85 GCS was
composed of the CW-646 radome, OA-8888(V)2 target seeker, OA-8886(V)1 flight control
group, as well as the tunnel cable and waveguide.
The RIM-7E-5 Sea Sparrow was a short-range self-defense weapon for ships that was
used with the basic point defense surface missile system (BPDSMS). Unlike later RIM-7s, it
had fixed wings. AIM-7E-2s were modified to RIM-7E-5 standard by AWC-78, Amendment
3
(dated 30 April 1979). AIM-7E-3s were modified by AWC-78, Amendment 4 (beginning 30
April,
further modified on 29 August 1979).
AIM-7E Components
Component
Nomenclature

Length Weight Remarks

Radome
CW-646
19.24
Target Seeker OA-4137
23.63
CW
Flight Control OA-4136
37.39 155.7 weight for entire GCS
Wings (4)
2063-5147
37.4 16.00-in span, 18.62-in chord
Warhead
Mk 38 Mod 0
12.99 69.4 expanding rod
Rocket Motor Mk 38 or Mk 52 50.72 157.0 various Mods
Fins (4)
MX-4421
12.0 12.0-in span, 18.50-in chord
Miscellaneous
5.1 waveguides and tunnel cable
All Up Round AIM-7E
143.97 436.6
AIM-7E-2 Components
Component
Nomenclature

Length Weight Remarks

Radome
CW-646
19.24
Target Seeker OA-4137A
23.63
CW
Flight Control OA-4136A or C 37.39 150.8 weight for entire GCS
Wings (4)
380031
34.4 16.00-in span, 18.62-in chord
Warhead
Mk 38 Mod 0
12.99 69.4 expanding rod
Rocket Motor Mk 38 or Mk 52 50.72 157.0 various Mods
Fins (4)
MX-4421
12.0 12.0-in span, 18.50-in chord
Miscellaneous
5.1 waveguides and tunnel cable
All Up Round AIM-7E-2
143.97 428.7
AIM-7E/E-2 Production
Block Serial Numbers Quantity Block Serial Numbers
af R-0001 to 0375-b
375 ax R-09521 to 10020-b
ag R-0376 to 0750-b
375 ay R-10021 to 10575-b
ah R-0751 to 1125-b
375 az R-10576 to 11259-b
ai R-1126 to 1500-b
375 ba R-11260 to 11733-b-2
aj R-1501 to 2250-b
750 ga R-11734 to 12135-b
ak R-2251 to 3000-b
750 gb R-12136 to 12219-b
al R-3001 to 3750-b
750 bb R-12220 to 12939-b-2

Quantity
500
555
684
474
402
84
720

am
an
ao
ap
aq
ar
as
at
au
av
aw

R-3751 to 4350-b
R-4351 to 5100-b
R-5101 to 5850-b
R-5851 to 6600-b
R-6601 to 7350-b
R-7351 to 7550-b
R-7551 to 7750-b
R-7751 to 8355-b
R-8356 to 8555-b
R-8556 to 8955-b
R-8956 to 9520-b

600 bc
750 gc
750 bd
750 be
750 bf
200 bg
200 bh
605 gd
200 bi
400 ge
565 bj

R-12940 to 13352-b-2
R-13353 to 13436-b
R-13437 to 13686-b-2
R-13687 to 14616-b-2
R-14617 to 15546-b-2
R-15547 to 16476-b-2
R-16477 to 17415-b-2
R-17416 to 17455-b
R-17456 to 18596-b-2
R-18597 to 18724-b
R-18725 to 20650-b-2

413
84
250
930
930
930
939
40
1141
128
1926

AIM-7E-3 Components
Component
Nomenclature Length Weight Remarks
Radome
CW-646
19.24
Target Seeker OA-8887(V)1
23.63
CW
Flight Control OA-8886(V)1
37.39 150.8 weight for entire GCS
Wings (4)
595033
34.4 16.00-in span, 18.62-in chord
Warhead
Mk 38 Mod 0
12.99 69.4 expanding rod
Rocket Motor Mk 38 or Mk 52 50.72 157.0 various Mods
Fins (4)
MX-4421
12.0 12.0-in span, 18.50-in chord
Miscellaneous
5.1 waveguides and tunnel cable
All Up Round AIM-7E-3
143.97 428.7
AIM-7E-4 Components
Component
Nomenclature

Length Weight Remarks

Radome
CW-646
19.24
Target Seeker OA-8888(V)2
23.63
CW
Flight Control OA-8886(V)1
37.39 150.8 weight for entire GCS
Wings (4)
595033
34.4 16.00-in span, 18.62-in chord
Warhead
Mk 38 Mod 0
12.99 69.4 expanding rod
Rocket Motor Mk 38 or Mk 52 50.72 157.0 various Mods
Fins (4)
MX-4421
12.0 12.0-in span, 18.50-in chord
Miscellaneous
5.1 waveguides and tunnel cable
All Up Round AIM-7E-4
143.97 428.7
RIM-7E-5 Components
Component
Nomenclature

Length Weight Remarks

Radome
CW-646
19.24
Target Seeker OA-8887(V)2
23.63
CW
Flight Control OA-8886(V)2
37.39 150.8 weight for entire GCS
Wings (4)
2623601
34.4 16.00-in span, 18.62-in chord
Warhead
Mk 38 Mod 0
12.99 69.4 expanding rod
Rocket Motor Mk 38 or Mk 52 50.72 157.0 various Mods
Fins (4)
2623602
12.0 12.0-in span, 18.50-in chord
Miscellaneous
5.1 waveguides and tunnel cable
All Up Round RIM-7E-5
143.97 428.7

and a boost/sustain rocket motor. Sky Flash entered service with the RAF in 1979 on the F-4K/M and was also exported to Sweden where it entered service with JA 37 Viggens in 1981 as the Rb 71.0 various Mods Fins (4) MX-4421 12.000 AIM-7Es.4 16. Development of a Thomson-CSF active seeker began in 1989. wing.5-kN 11-second sustainer). Rev. 18. earlier versions of Sky Flash were brought up to Super TEMP standards. and rocket motor. while BSU57 fins were attached to the rocket motor.72 157. Avionics improvements enabled the primary WAU-10 continuous rod. It was essentially an AIM-7E-2 with an indigenous monopulse seeker and a new fuze. These missiles featured modest aerodynamic changes for drag reduction. Up to this point. allowing the Mk 58 rocket motor to be enlarged (5. Continued improvement led to the 1985 introduction of the Super TEMP Sky Flash for both British and Saudi Tornado F.5-second boost. Also in 1981. Over a period of 10 years 25. the configuration of AIM-7s had been guidance and control section.018-lb/4.0-in span.0 12. Development the AIM-7F began in 1966. while the aft was 61. warhead. thinner wings. This virtually new missile used a CW-1178B/D 'von Karman' radome to cover the nose of the new OA-8877 target seeker section.AIM-7E-6 Components Component Nomenclature Length Weight Remarks Radome CW-646 19.24 Target Seeker OA-8888(V)2 23. followed by 1.62-in chord Warhead Mk 38 Mod 1 12.00-in span. The original Swedish designation of this missile was Rb 71A when it was initially proposed. The forward AIM-7F waveguide was 59. which used either pulse-Doppler (PD) or continuous wave (CW) guidance and was designed to make the missile more capable against maneuvering.63 CW Flight Control OA-8886(V)1 37. The missile had an 8.8 in (152 cm) long.97 437.1 waveguides and tunnel cable All Up Round AIM-7E-6 143. but changed to Rb 73 for a second proposal (for the JAS 39 Gripen).750-lb/25.Mk 3s.Mk 2/3. Four BSU-56 wings were attached to the flight control group. which incorporated the Mk 38 Mod 1 warhead as AWB 110.8 weight for entire GCS Wings (4) 595033 34. low-altitude targets. blast-fragmentation warheads to be located in front of the OA-8878 flight control group. although it did not enter service until 1975.0-in (20-cm) diameter .000. of various versions were produced at a unit cost of about $74. with a formal Active Sky Flash proposal being made to the RAF in January 1992. with these missiles becoming basic equipment for the Tornado F. but with the lower aerodynamic performance of the older missile.6 expanding rod Rocket Motor Mk 38 or Mk 52 50. production of the Tornado essential modification package (TEMP) Sky Flash began. an improved seeker. but none remain operational with the USAF or USN.5 in (156 cm) long. giving it performance similar to the AIM-7M's seeker against low-flying targets. or newer WAU-17 high explosive.39 158.50-in chord Miscellaneous 5. Work on the British XJ 521 Sky Flash began in 1972.9 The final 'E' was the AIM-7E-6. Beginning in 1988.6-kN 4. thus improving range. 18.99 70. A.

The RIM-7F Sea Sparrow II was a version of the AIM-7F. The AIM-7G was intended to arm the F-111D. was the captive trainer Sparrow for the AIM-7F.97 432.62-in chord Left Wings (2) BSU-39 19.3 Mods 2.6 expanding rod Flight Control OA-8878 22.8 weight for entire GCS Rt.4 8.6 . This was the first Sparrow fitted with folding wings and clipped fins (23. as well as the tunnel cable and waveguide. Production began in 1972 and ended in 1980. After AWC-97 (the 'rapid runup' modification).5 earlier versions 19. The RIM-7H-5 was a RIM-7H-2 modified by AWC 78.78 7.84 57. it could be used as an air-to-air missile (although the reverse was not true of the AIM-7E-2). when it tapered to a 6.24 Target Seeker OA-4137B 23.18 Wings (4) BSU-56A/B 38. 3. OA-8888(V)1 target seeker.45-in span. All missiles eventually went through a product optimization program (POP) retrofit. 17. However. 18. The RIM-7H-2 Sea Sparrow was developed from the AIM-7E-2 as a short-range self-defense weapon for ships.45 15.6 11.0 various Mods Fins (4) BSU-25 11. and 5 Fins (4) BSU-57 24. F-16ADF.25-in span.99 69. as well as the tunnel cable and waveguide. if fitted with the proper wings and fins.00-in span. AIM-7Fs were withdrawn from service by 1994 after being used to arm the F-4E/G/S. It could be launched six seconds after commitment.3-in folded span) Warhead Mk 38 Mod 0 12. Wings (2) BSU-38 19. 18. Its DPN-84B GCS was composed of the CW-646 radome.33-in long Target Seeker OA-8877 26. and P.39 150. It was developed at the same time as the AIM-7E-4 for use with the NATO Sea Sparrow surface missile system (NSSMS).11 RIM-7H-2 Components Component Nomenclature Length Weight Remarks Radome CW-646 19. which was probably indicated by the AIM-7F-11 designation.64 76.4 expanding rod Rocket Motor Mk 38 or Mk 52 50. 18.66-in chord Rocket Motor Mk 58 59. In addition to AWC-97. M.5-in chord Miscellaneous 6. OA-8886(V)1 flight control group. Amendment 4-1 (dated 30 April 1979).51 PD/CW Warhead WAU-10 15. it incorporated parts of AWC-78.50-in chord Miscellaneous 5.63 CW Flight Control OA-4136D 37.62 waveguides and tunnel cable All Up Round AIM-7F-11 141. F-15.from the back of the radome to 8 in (20 cm) from the tail. AIM-7F Components Component Nomenclature Length Weight Remarks Radome CW-1178B/D 16. it was canceled. OA-4136D flight control group. as well as the F-14.000 each. The CATM-7F-3.45 (23. also known as the Goldenbird airborne inert missile simulator (AIMS).72 157.76 85. with the missiles costing about $276.6-in (17-cm) diameter. OA-4137B target seeker.5-in span.48 508.5-in/57-cm span).8 16.46 211. and FA-18. Its DPN-84A GCS was composed of the CW-646 radome.1 waveguides and tunnel cable All Up Round RIM-7H-2 143.

The WGU-5 GCS (A/B through E/B versions) was composed of the CW-1178B/D radome. BSU-64 folding wings.RIM-7H-5 Components Component Nomenclature Length Weight Remarks Radome CW-646 19. It could be distinguished from other AIM-7Ms by the 'H' suffix to its serial number. comprised of the Mk 57 NSSMS and the Mk 23 target acquisition system (TAS).1 waveguides and tunnel cable All Up Round RIM-7H-5 143. WAU-17 focused blast fragmentation warhead and numerous other evolutionary improvements to increase reliability and decrease cost (to $225. BSU-63 clipped fins (with 7.99-in/20-cm spans).4 8.62 waveguides and tunnel cable All Up Round AIM-7M 141.3-in folded span) Warhead Mk 38 Mod 0 12.4 expanding rod Rocket Motor Mk 38 or Mk 52 50. B. . as well as the tunnel cable and waveguide. 12.45-in span.3 PD/CW Warhead WAU-17 15. 3.46 211.00-in span.97 440. Mk 58 Mod 4 remotely armed rocket motor. The 502-lb RIM-7M was developed at the same time as the AIM-7M to replace the RIM-7F.84 62.62-in chord Left Wings (2) BSU-39 19. To eliminate a wing-buzz problem discovered with the BSU-56A/B wings used by the AIM-7F. active radar fuze.76 85. featured an inverse monopulse seeker. These missiles were used with the self-defense surface missile system (SDSMS). It differed from the air-launched version by having 43. WGU-6 guidance (A. They could also be used with the older Mk 41 and Mk 48 NSSMS.50-in chord Miscellaneous 5.5-in span.63 CW Flight Control OA-8886(V)1 37.24 Target Seeker OA-8888(V)1 23. and F/A-18. it entered service in 1983.8 weight for entire GCS Rt.3-lb.99 69. F-15.66-in chord Rocket Motor Mk 58 59.4-lb. Aircraft equipped with AIM-7Ms included the F-14.39 158.9-lb.0 various Mods Fins (4) BSU-25 11. The 510-lb AIM-7M (H-Build) missile featured GCS modifications including inertial observer guidance (IOG). 18.3 Mods 2. Wings (2) BSU-38 19.48 509.1 blast-fragmentation Control WCU-5 22.78 7. 17. improved ECCM. and a 212. 18.72 157.000 each).25lb weights affixed to their tips. WCU-5 control sections (/B through D/B versions). 18.8 16. and a more sophisticated interface between the missile and its launch aircraft. First produced by General Dynamics-Camden (Arkansas).5-in chord Miscellaneous 6. with production ending in 1992.5 Guidance WGU-6 (early) 26.45 15. the AIM-7M's BSU-56C/B wings each had 0.64 72.0 Wings (4) BSU-56C/B 39.6 AIM-7M Components Component Nomenclature Length Weight Remarks Radome CW-1178B/D 16. and 5 Fins (4) BSU-57 24.22 The 509-lb AIM-7M (F-1).25-in span.6 11.45 (23. or C/B versions).

but with a comparable performance. whereupon the missile could transition to IR guidance. The ATM-7R and RTM-7R designations were assigned to identify AIM/RIM-7P missiles with the warhead replaced by a AN/DKT-76 telemetry unit. Eventually. New missiles were built at a rate of 800 per year in both FY92 and FY93. with FOT&E conducted from July 1993 through March 1994. The 514-lb AIM-7R and RIM-7R were only used only by the USN. allowing the illuminating radar to break lock and engage a new target. One of these missiles. Initial flight testing ran from October 1989 through March 1991.The ATM-7M and RTM-7M were AIM/RIM-7M missiles with the warhead replaced by a AN/DKT-61 telemetry unit. with Hughes-Tucson producing the largest share. Eventually all missiles will be brought up to Block II standards. the same fuze. because equipment malfunction or bad weather). the IR seeker was activated and its dome cover ejected. only about half the size of that used by the AIM-9. Its inverse monopulse seeker was compatible with either CW or pulse-Doppler illumination. There were two types of modification kits: Block I. These missiles were also offered to NATO countries. It then began a preprogrammed search pattern to lock onto the same target as the SAR seeker. The IR terminal guidance was incorporated without compromising the performance of the existing SAR seeker. and Block II with WGU-6E/B guidance section. Initial flight testing was scheduled from October 1993 through September 1994.g. The first public disclosure of the operational use of a passively-guided version of the Sparrow (AIM-7R?) was made during the spring of 1994. The ATM-7P and RTM-7P designations were assigned to identify AIM/RIM-7P missiles with the warhead replaced by a AN/DKT-61A telemetry unit. It was basically the same as the RIM-7P. After launch. computer. The initial new production contract was released in June 1992. including in a vertical launch configuration. . which incorporated new WGU-6D/B guidance section with the new DSU-34/B fuze (150 in FY91 and 390 in FY92). AIM-7Ps were only used by the F-14 and F/A-18 (although they also underwent testing on the USAF's F-15). and a new rear antenna (474 in FY94 and 422 in FY95). reportedly shot down the first Iraqi aircraft of the 1991 Gulf War. and fuze to improve the Sparrow's capability against cruise missiles. all surviving USN AIM/RIM-7M missiles were upgraded to AIM/RIM-7P standards. A modification of Block II AIM-7Ps by the missile homing improvement program (MHIP). If the transition to IR guidance did not occur (e. it incorporated a dualmode high-speed missile infra-red (HSMIR) IR/SAR seeker. but with the new seeker fitted. The 507-lb RIM-7R was developed as the same time as the AIM-7R. Infra-red guidance was provided by a nose-mounted seeker. said to be fitted with either an infra-red or charge coupled device (CCD) TV seeker. The 503-lb AIM-7P and RIM-7P missiles incorporated a new autopilot. with FOT&E scheduled to begin in January 1996. F1 and H-Build missiles and new missiles were procured. Both modifications of AIM/RIM-7M. the missile could still be guided to the target using the illuminating radar.

8 16. and 5 Fins (4) BSU-57 24. with a new airframe.1 blast-fragmentation Control WCU-5 22. Preliminary aerodynamic testing was conducted by constructing a small model of the missile and mounting it on a simple mechanism stuck out the side window of a 1949 Kaiser.84 62. The Sidewinder program benefited from this management system.5 including radome Warhead WAU-17 15.64 72. develop and produce cheap.8 16. and F-16 (16S1500).00-in span.6 11. in-house program to produce a cheap. effective AAM. 10-to-30-man groups were empowered to design.3 Mods 2.0 74.62 waveguides and tunnel cable All Up Round AIM-7P 141.46 211. CA.48 509. The engineers gathered their 'wind tunnel data' while hanging out the window as the car was driven back and forth over the dry lakebed at 90 mph (145 km/h).5-in span. effective weapons using approximately 10 per cent of the test director's budget. 17.3 Warhead WAU-17 15.22 AIM-7R Components Component Nomenclature Length Weight Remarks Radome Guidance 48.66-in chord Rocket Motor Mk 58 59.5 Guidance WGU-6 (late) 26.76 85. At that time. The ultimate program goal was a missile with a three-fold improvement in aerodynamic performance at twice the range of the RIM-7P.66-in chord Rocket Motor Mk 58 59. 18.46 211. Launchers included the AERO 7A (F-4 fuselage). LAU-106 (F-15). the Sidewinder was by far the most .64 72.3 Mods 2.00-in span.5-in span. being developed as an unofficial.0 Wings (4) BSU-56C/B 39. It was also proposed as a replacement for the canceled AAAM Phoenixreplacement program. and tail control.78 7.5-in chord Miscellaneous 6. LAU-115 and -116 (F/A-18). bigger motor. LAU-17A (F-4 pylon).1 blast-fragmentation Control WCU-5 22. 17.76 85. Initial designations for ESSM are RIM-7PTC and RIM-7RTC (the TC standing for 'tail control'). LAU-92 (F-14). Forty years and nearly 30 versions later.The evolved Sea Sparrow missile (ESSM) was a virtually new missile.6 11. 18.92 Development of the 200-lb class Sidewinder missile family began in 1951 at the Naval Ordnance Test Station (NOTS) at China Lake. 3.62 waveguides and tunnel cable All Up Round AIM-7R 145.5-in chord Miscellaneous 6.86 513. 3.0 Wings (4) BSU-56C/B 39. AIM-7P Components Component Nomenclature Length Weight Remarks Radome CW-1178B/D 16. and 5 Fins (4) BSU-57 24.

to an all-aspect. One thousand were built for the USN. Later launchers for Sidewinders included the 93. 6. Eventually modified for use as AGM-122 seekers. Mk 8 blast-fragmentation warhead. 'I wish you were dead'. 25. covered by a glass dome. lead-sulphide (PbS) IR seeker.5-in (65-cm) long seeker with 16-in (40-cm) span BSU-14 fins. Modification of the original AERO 3B launcher rails to accept the AIM-9L/M/R missiles resulted in the LAU-7 (Navy).5-in (293-cm) long LAU-127 (F14/18). It also served as the basis for the MIM-72 Chaparral and AGM-122 Sidearm.successful and deadly air-to-air missile in the world. Some 9. and had 15-in (38-cm) span fins. beginning in 1951. The AIM9L (introduced in the mid-1970s) and AIM-9M (introduced in 1982) are standard armament on all USN/USAF tactical fighters except F-111s.5-in (16. Its Swedish designation was Rb 324. IOC was 1956 at a unit cost of $3. The original designation of this 185-lb missile was Sidewinder 1B. 13. as well as three AMRAAM launchers with Sidewinder capability. similar in appearance to the AIM-9B. This persisted throughout the Vietnam war. while Air Force missiles were internally cooled. 106-in (269-cm) long LAU-128 (F-16 wingtip). 75-in (190-cm) long Mk 17 rocket motor (2. LAU-57. The LAU-139 was a LAU-127 modified to accommodate carriage of Swiss AIM-9P-5s. 3-in (7. AIM-9B FGW Mod 2 was a European-built AIM-9B that weighed 167 lb. LAU-58.5-in long guidance control section (GCS) had an uncooled. About 71. LAU-101.3-nm/4. Swedish designation was Rb 24. AIM-9A was also known as XAAM-N-7 Sidewinder 1.24-km range) with 22-in (56-cm) span wings. Produced mainly by Ford Aerospace and Raytheon. AIM-9B was the initial production missile. requirements soon drove the two services along separate development paths.5-in (237-cm) long LAU-114 (Air Force) which had a much more angular appearance than earlier launchers.5-in (34-cm) long. The AMRAAM launchers could be distinguished from the LAU-114 by their blunter noses and included the 115.6-cm) long Mk 303 (contact) and Mk 304 (influence) fuze section. the AIM-9 has evolved from a missile which could only be launched at close range from directly behind a non-maneuvering target.000. AIM-9C was a USN-developed SARH variant. and LAU-129 (F-15). The 24.5-cm) long Mk 15 target detection device .700 of the 155-lb missiles were built. and LAU105 (Air Force). Beginning as a Navy missile adopted by the Air Force.200 were built. carbon-dioxide (CO ) cooled seeker and silicon (Si) dome.2 AIM-9B-2 was an AIM-9B with 75-in (190-cm) long improved-performance SR116 rocket motor. Its original designations were AAM-N-7 Sidewinder 1A (USN) and GAR-8 (USAF). the difference being that the Navy launchers contained a bottle of gaseous nitrogen for cooling the missile seeker. About 300 produced for USN. GCS had improved electronics. weapon with up to five times the range of the original. which use the AIM-9P-3. until costs forced common development of the AIM-9L and subsequent versions. LAU-100. 10-lb. copied by friend and foe alike.

600 each). with about 16. AIM-9J-3 was an AIM-9J-1 with SR116 rocket motor. Swedish designation was initially Rb 24L. 22.5-in (65-cm) long AN/DSQ-29 GCS has an indium-antimony (InSb) seeker which gives it an all aspect capability.5-cm) long DSU-15/B AOTD.6-cm) long Mk 303/304 TDD or Mk 303 Mod 4 with combined functions. AIM-9E About 5. Believed to have been used by Sweden with designation of Rb 24H. both AIM-9B/E/J modifications and new-builds.000 were produced. BSU-32/B 22-in span 'pointy' fins.4-lb.500 for Europe. AIM-9D was an AIM-9C except with an IR seeker. 3-in (7. Positioning of warhead and fuze reversed from AIM-9B. Over 7. but changed to Rb 74. Some 7. A total of 2.5-in (67-cm) long GCS had ogive nose and a Peltier thermoelectric cooler.5-in (16. Sidewinder expanded acquisition mode (SEAM). AIM-9K China Lake developed alternative to AIM-9L. anodized nose. 75-in (190-cm) long Mk 17 motor. 26.5-in (29-cm) long . Not produced AIM-9L Introduced in 1977. 11.6-cm) long target detecting device unit (DSU)-21/B active optical target detector (AOTD) which utilized gallium-arsenide (GaAs) lasers. PbS seeker.000 built from 1970.000 of this 188-lb missile were built for the USN and USAF ($97.120 of these 191-lb missiles was built for the USN.000 were built for USN beginning in 1956. AIM-9H was an AIM-9G with solid-state GCS.5-in (77-cm) long GCS with modified servo. 25.(TDD).000 being purchased in 1984 for use with JA 37 Viggens. AIM-9J-1 was a modified AIM-9J with 25. 71-in (180-cm) long Mk 36 rocket motor (11nm/52-km maximum range) with 25-in (64-cm) span Mk 1 wings. 11. AIM-9E-2 was an AIM-9E with SR116 rocket motor. 3. AIM-9F This designation reserved for possible USAF purchase of FGW Mod 2 variant known as the Mod 14K. Incorporated the off-boresight. AIM-9J-2 was an AIM-9J with 75-in (190-cm) long SR116 rocket motor. AIM-9I was not assigned as a designation.720 were built for the USN from 1972. This 194-lb missile's original designation was Sidewinder 1C. with initial 1. electronics and 130211 double-delta fins. decreasing the missile's weight to 186 lb. Approximate weight was 172 lb. 24-in (60-cm) long Mk 18 GCS had a ogive-shaped. AIM-9J About 13. GCS was nitrogen (N ) cooled from a bottle contained22 within the LAU-7 launcher rail. Some 1. Mk 48 continuous-rod warhead. 3-in (7. covered by a magnesium-floride (MgF ) dome. 30.5-in (29-cm) long. AIM-9G was an AIM-9D with improved GCS. USAF versions are argon (A) cooled from a bottle contained in the missile while USN versions are N2 cooled from a launcher rail bottle. 6.000 AIM-9Bs were modified to this 164-lb configuration for the USAF beginning in 1967.5-in (65-cm) long GCS which incorporated rate bias and solid state electronics.

AIM-9S was a Raytheon-developed AIM-9L modification for FMS.660-lb/11. AIM-9M Originally AIM-9L product improvement program (PIP). AIM-9P-1 was an AIM-9P with DSU-21/B TDD.000 AIM-9B/Es modified for foreign military sales (FMS) from 1973.000 of these 192-lb missile were built from 1982. Introduced in 1976. Using the 'Box Office' airframe described below has been considered. AIM-9N-1 was an AIM-9N with DSU-21/B fuze.000 per missile. Reduced-smoke version of Mk 36 rocket motor. These missiles were also evaluated with the LAU-127 AMRAAM-capable launcher beginning in late 1991. with hopes of producing the missile for the Navy until the AIM-9X can be fielded. However. Contains most features . 13. development and testing continued for some time after cancellation. with a unit cost quoted as $108. Introduced in 1976. This seeker would not have required a refrigeration system.83-kN thrust) with Mk 1 wings. DSU-21/B TDD. AIM-9N-2 was an AIM-9N with SR116 rocket motor. 71-in (180-cm) long Mk 36 rocket motor (2. also introduced in 1986. AIM-9P was a re designation of the AIM-J-1. after costs exceeded $125. Mk 8 warhead and an improved SR116 rocket motor.000 in 1994.900). with about 8. AIM-9P-3 was an AIM-9P-1 with SR116 rocket motor.000 P-4/5s having been delivered through FMS programs. AIM-9P-2 was an AIM-9P with SR116 rocket motor. Modified with closed cycle cooling. AIM-9R was a Loral-developed AIM-9M with a daytime only EO GCS developed from a commercial video camera. and AIM-9R PM. Mk 17 rocket motor. AIM-9P-5 was an AIM-9P-4 with improved IRCCM features. improved infra-red counter countermeasures (IRCCM) and background discrimination. Over 12. FMS only. Flight test designations for this design included AIM-9R EM. introduced in 1986 ($32. Three hundred were approved for sale to Saudi Arabia in 1992. AIM-9R ET. AIM-9JULI was a German program to upgrade AIM-9J/N/Ps to AIM-9L performance standards. AIM-9N-3 was an AIM-9N-1 with SR116 rocket motor.5-in (77-cm) long GCS with same features as AIM-9J-1 GCS. Same TDD options as AIM-9J. AIM-9Q was not assigned as a designation. AIM-9P-4 was an AIM-9J GCS modified to be all-aspect capable. Swedish designation was Rb 24J. Canceled in favor of AIM-9X in 1992.WDU-17 annular blast-fragmentation (ABF) warhead. AIM-9N About 23.5-in (34-cm) long Mk 54 blast-fragmentation warhead. 30. AIM-9O was not assigned as a designation.

This provided chances to have ASRAAM technology evaluated both as part of the Hughes AIM-9X team and again through the Pentagon-sponsored FCT. it was proposed to buy and test ASRAAM's motor. low-cost processing. This led to Hughes and Raytheon being awarded demonstration and validation (Dem/Eval) contracts to be completed by June 1996. with IOC expected in 2003. but also drew from their work on the Navy's Lightweight Exoatmospheric Projectile (Leap) anti-theater ballistic missile project. which employed a staring imaging seeker and miniaturized.921 million to Raytheon. a single 5. Competition with foreign competitors. The CPIF contract awards were for $22. AIM-9X was a program to develop a vastly more efficient missile capable of internal-carriage on the F-22. the inclusion of foreign partners on US teams. In addition to the Hughes/Raytheon competition. foreign missile technology was examined for possible insertion in the AIM-9X program during mid-1996. $528 million contract for engineering and manufacturing development (EMD) was awarded. This design entered flight test in late 1997 or early 1998. French Mica. and some sort of international cooperative effort. FL range facilities. Livefire and flight tests began in mid-1995 using an F-16 at the Eglin AFB.096 million to Hughes/TI (80/20 per cent) and $24. Some of these technologies included canards plus TVC. infra-red missile seeker/computer processor components were prototyped and tested. Their efforts also encompassed missile system designs including helmet-mounted sights (HMS). Box Office. In the latter program. During the 18-month Dem/Eval program. Concerns about existing AIM-9 shortcomings after it was tested against former East German 'Fulcrums' equipped with the Russian-built AA-11 'Archer' secured widespread support for the AIM-9X program . in particular the British AIM-131. Hughes' other partner. After a cost and operational effectiveness analysis (COEA) was completed in late 1993. In January 1997. The alternatives considered included: a foreign comparative test (FCT) of components purchased from foreign builders. and the use of active control thrusters around the missile body to enable a missile to change direction more quickly. and derivatives of both). Britain had spent about $1 billion on the AIM-131 ASRAAM program.of the AIM-9M. These include an improved seeker and the low-smoke motor. as well as other concepts. with guided tests in the fall. also participated in the missile design. casing and warhead.5-year. and 300 were approved for sale to Saudi Arabia in 1992. By 1995. including approaches to airframe maneuverability beyond simple thrust vector control (TVC ). Israeli Python and Russian AA-11 was also considered so long as it "could prove worthwhile" in uncovering new technology that could be adopted by the US. Raytheon was expected to continue flight testing of advanced wide-angle focal plane array seekers on Box Office airframes. British Aerospace (BAe). a request for proposals (RFP) encouraging foreign participation was released in mid-1994. airframes (including the Boa. The combination of a HMS and a seeker with 140-180 degree field of regard (compared to 40 degree for AIM-9L/Ms) gave Archer-equipped fighters a . Missile design and fighter aircraft integration studies were also conducted. except for IRCCM. Flight testing began in mid-1990. Hughes' offering was partially based on their Tophat seeker/tracker flight demonstration.

mid-wave infra-red staring focal plane array seeker integrated with a Texas Instruments tracker. Eight successful live firings of the airframe were conducted during its development. . Hughes/BAe (with the AIM-132). day or night. Using a clear. including those from three separate IR wavelengths. Navy programs called helmet-mounted cueing/display (HMC/DS) and high off boresight seeker (HOBS) to develop possible solutions to these problems began in October 1993. 5.000 detector staring focal plane array.000-12. The advantage of the pseudo imager was that. A digital roll control autopilot linked to an inertial reference unit provided the stability needed to control the missile with small tail surfaces.000 by the 5. while the latter's best performance would be about 8 nm (15 km).000th missile. Three missiles were used to test new control concepts.000 to 10.2 to 1. and temporal inputs. In the spring of 1994. WDU-17 warhead and Mk 36 rocket motor were retained. Both seekers had about a 4-nm (7 km) detection range against a ground clutter background. using control surfaces similar to the AIM-120. it was less costly and complex. and had lower processing demands than the 16. to enable it to discriminate between a target and its background clutter. The Loral/BGT team was eliminated by the early 1995 Dem/Eval decision. and a speed advantage of 1. US needs were expected to require an initial production run of 8. The goal of the AIM-9X program was to 'meet or exceed' these capabilities. It featured a 3-5-micron. The 11-in (28-cm) span X-shaped fins could fit in a 7. the existing AIM-9L/M's BSU-15 AOTD. featuring an AIM-9M with 16-in (40-cm) span wings and AIM-9D canards controlled by a digital autopilot. and Raytheon (using their Box Office airframe).6-in (14-cm) diameter airframe. twice the range and g available. the seeker's computer processed its spatial. the missile had half the drag.000 missiles. but no canards. Against a blue sky background. The Israeli Python 4 also had a similar seeker. and have improved IRCCM to counter new flares. • General Dynamics/NWC ' Boa-M '. It had movable tail fins with smaller surfaces than the AIM-9M. spectral. with only 12 to 200 detectors. the former would be able to detect a target at 10 nm (18. segmented nosecone similar to that used by the British Firestreak AAM. Compared to an AIM-9M. competing teams included Loral/BGT (using either Box Office or Boa configurations). This IIR GCS was contained in a 115-in (292-cm) long. • Hughes/Texas Instruments ' Tophat ' was another USAF-supported program.3 Mach anywhere in the flyout.000 AIM-9L/Ms and German AIM-9I/Ls would be converted to AIM-9X standards at a unit cost of about $170. To save costs.considerable advantage in a close-in dogfight. About 8. The final version of the AIM-9X was expected to combine either a IIR staring focal plane array or pseudo imaging seeker with 90 degree gimbal angles to create a 180 degree field of regard. with the Raytheon and General Dynamics versions expected to participate in the dem/eval: • Raytheon began developing the USAF-supported ' Box Office ' tail-controlled Sidewinder in 1988.4 km). Martin Marietta developed a multispectral seeker between 1988 and 1993 to meet this set of requirements.8-in (20-cm) square box instead of the 18-in (45-cm) square box of the AIM-9M.

technology demonstration culminated in early 1994 with the off-boresight launch of a Box Office Sidewinder. or about 12 in/30 cm longer than the AIM-9M. The AIM-9M seeker could be cued by radar to acquire a target up to 27. seeker sensitivity decreased as it moved off boresight because the assembly that contained the primary and secondary mirrors for focusing IR energy were positioned at oblique angles to the single-element detector. This allowed the pilot to look and cue the missile anywhere in the front hemisphere. The Honeywell HMD used a magnetic head tracking system to follow pilot head movement and slave the missile seeker to it. As the missile was fired. The seeker provided up to 90 degrees of pitch and 360 degrees of roll. with the free gyro providing yaw. the F-16C attempted to position itself so the Beech MQM-107 target drone was 2 nm (3. The seeker achieved a maximum deflection of 72 degrees as it tracked the target. 67 degrees right and flying at 388 kt (715 km/h). causing a significant CG shift. For the demonstration. but often produced less information and sensitivity than a staring focal plane array-based seeker.7 km) away and 60 degrees to the left. Because it could detect two to three times further in the entire front hemisphere. although no IRCM flares were used. or protected by new countermeasures. providing slightly greater challenge than planned. The firing actually occurred when the drone was at 1. It also allowed the seeker to track the target while the missile rolled. It was designed for low cost by adding two gimbals to the AIM-9M's existing free gyro assembly. the drone began a 3g turn to the right. Following an Air Force challenge. but would have been two seconds less without the safety buffer. because of technological growth issues. This restricted growth potential for intercepting stealthy targets. However. The HALM seeker was developed when the USAF was interested in the AIM-9M+ as an interim step before acquiring the AIM-9X. it extended the length of the missile by 5. Loral had offered a scanning seeker which was cheaper.3 nm (2.2 seconds.37 in/13. It also added about 13 lb to the nose. a two-year. flying at 350 kt (645 km/h). . avoiding gimbal lock. not technical shortcomings.6 cm beyond the previously tested configuration.) The missile then pulled 30g for two seconds and 25g for nearly four seconds as it reached 27 degrees AoA (10 degrees more than planned) before passing within lethal distance of the drone.4 km). a situation where it did not have the freedom of motion to maintain track. contractor-funded. The missile was fitted with Raytheon's high angle-of-attack/low mach (HALM) seeker slewed by a helmet-mounted display (HMD). the HMD made it easier for the pilot to quickly help the seeker acquire the target by simply moving his head slightly instead of maneuvering the whole aircraft. This was why the missile flew straight for the first three seconds.despite having had a 10-12 per cent lower bid than Raytheon. Because of the narrow field of regard of IR seekers. It was launched by an F-16C with slightly modified fire control software and minor hardware modifications. or defeating targets in ground clutter. Total flight time was 9. As a safety measure. the volume of airspace the HALM seeker could acquire a target in was actually about 60 times greater than AIM-9M seeker. which moved in azimuth and elevation while tracking a target. the missile flew straight for three seconds (when Box Office was fitted with the HALM seeker.5 degrees (and continue tracking up to 40 degrees) off boresight before breaking lock.

to $386. Although the full-scale development (FSD) contract was awarded to Hughes in December 1981. However.000. The first public disclosure of a passively-guided AMRAAM (AIM-120B?) was made during the spring of 1994. Raytheon completed production qualification in January 1989 as the second-source supplier. ' Phase 2 ' improvements.000-3. Production costs decreased from $1. total production was only expected to reach 13. Getting this feature right was one of the main reasons it took so long to get the AIM-120 into full-rate production. with yearly production rarely exceeding 1. AMRAAM's most important improvement is the incorporation of an active radar seeker. increasing speed and range. Sparrow was infamous during the Vietnam War for its unreliability. including reducing motor smoke. AMRAAM finally entered full-rate production in April 1992. The disadvantage of this was dramatically demonstrated during the famous air intercept missile and air combat evaluations (AIMval/ACEval) during the mid-1970s. By mid-1993 its mean time between failure (MTBF) had risen to 450 hours. The other three elements were designed for decoy rejection. four F-15s engaged four F-5s with simulated AIM-7s. Its believed that production of these missile began with Lot VI.000 missiles being bought per year. to be delivered in mid-1997. AMRAAM would have allowed a single F-15 to target all four F-5s before withdrawing beyond the range of their AIM-9s. and an improved target . The Sparrow. to $645. ensuring a mature missile will be available for the F-22.000. the F-5s were able to launch simulated AIM-9s which 'destroyed' all the F-15s. This detector provided better resolution than the AIM-9M's. low-rate initial production (LRIP) did not begin until March 1988.The HALM seeker was designed to keep the mirror assembly within 10 degrees of the two-hue detector to better focus the IR energy. Before they were all 'shot down' by the Sparrows. requires the launching aircraft to maintain radar contact with a single target until the missile hits it.4 per cent of test firings were rated successful. it had a long and difficult gestation. Virtually all areas of performance have been improved over the AIM-7 as well. featuring a directional warhead. Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM) The 345-lb Hughes AIM-120 is the replacement for the AIM-7 Sparrow. putting this feature into a Sparrow-sized airframe is a significant achievement. by comparison. 75 USN and 200 FMS missiles—a 933/349 split?).000 in FY93 (for 1. and 82. which finally happened in early 1992. An extremely controversial weapon.000 in FY94 (for 1. Although done before with the AIM-54 Phoenix.000 each in FY87. with 2. with first delivery to the USAF in the fall of that year. These ' Phase 1 ' (AIM-120C) missiles will feature ECCM improvements and 'clipped' wings. Initial expectations were for production of 24. Ten of the detector's 13 indium antimonide elements were keyed to tracking target hot spots. The first major improvement to the AIM-120 will be introduced with Lot 8.800. and better electronic counter countermeasures (ECCM).000 missiles.007 AF. In one engagement.000 in FY92.165 missiles). with the end of the Cold War. which became known as 'The Towering Inferno'. giving it two to three times the range while slewing twice as fast. to $229. AIM-120 Advanced. improving warhead fuzing and lethality. It allows the launching aircraft to simultaneously engage several targets and maneuver 'out of the fight' before the missiles hit their targets. The other main area of emphasis with AMRAAM has been reliability and maintainability.

F-16s (beginning in January 1992). bi-plateau propellant rocket. Concerns about the ability of the Russian AA-12 'AAM-AE' to strike targets maneuvering at 12g from a 50-nm (92-km) launch range have given a sense of urgency to efforts to improve AMRAAM propulsion. Although ECCM improvements were ongoing. permitting terminal maneuvers to be increased from 35g to as much as 50g. and LAU-129 (F15). F-22As and German F4Fs. These missiles were not fitted with seekers. F-15s (beginning in September 1991). beginning in late 1998. Plans are to also fund an advanced seeker technology demonstration contracts with the two AAAM teams. graphite-composite airframe without wings or a guidance. multipulse rocket. Warhead improvements will be aimed at making it more capable against twin-engined aircraft. The original warhead was designed to counter the MiG-23. Have Dash Program Have Dash was a test program to develop 'bank-to-turn' flight control systems for air-to-air missiles. but will fit into the same volume as the Phase 1 missiles. and may be a wingless lifting body.5-in (293-cm) long LAU-127 (F-14/18). This improvement will come by incorporating a liquid fuel integral ramjet. AMRAAM can be rail-launched from stations previously associated only with AIM-9s. Because it only weighs about 350 lb. AIM-120 began replacing the AIM-7 on all F-14Ds. ' Phase 3 ' missiles will actually feature the advanced rocket motor and may be accelerated to minimize the effects of the cancellation of the Navy's advanced air-to-air missile (AAAM) AIM-54 replacement. variable flow ducted rocket (VFDR). The goal is to increase AMRAAM's range by about 50 per cent (20-30 nm/37-55 km) with enough energy and maneuverability to defeat 9g maneuvers by a chaff-dispensing target. while Have Dash 2 planned six actual launches. To reduce costs it used an AIM-7 rocket motor. and it will be necessary to focus the new warhead's blast (in conjunction with the TDD). Its configuration has yet to be defined. this would allow the missile to generate lift more efficiently. sustainable speed. F/A-18s (in September 1993). and use more and perhaps differently shaped fragments in it. will be introduced with Lot 10. The Have Dash missile featured a triangular-section. The Have Dash 1 program demonstrated safe separation techniques from the weapons bay of Eglin's F-111E. In theory. 106-in (269-cm) long LAU-128 (F-16 wingtip). Some Phase 2 missiles will also be tested with modified seekers and a 'bank-to-turn' flight control system as part of a risk-reduction program for incorporation of a ducted-rocket motor. .detecting device. specific attention was directed towards guidance improvements aimed at improving the missile's abilities to counter chaff and active jamming such as that provided by ALQ-99-equipped aircraft. navigation and control computer (GNCC). Hughes/Raytheon and General Dynamics/Westinghouse. or a booster rocket on advanced AIM-120s to increase their range. and terminal maneuverability. AMRAAM launchers can be distinguished from the earlier LAU-114 Sidewinder rails by their blunter noses and include the 115.

when an F-16C participating in Operation Southern Watch shot down an Iraqi MiG-25. -9s and -120s. and Norway. In February 1994.The LAU-139 was a Swiss modification of the LAU-127 to permit carriage of the AIM-9P-5. The first combat use of the missile came on 27 December 1992. Norway placed a production order with Hughes and Norsk Forszvarsteknologi (NFT) for 36 launchers and support equipment to use a surface-launched AMRAAM-based system to replace its Hawk SAM system. Turkey.. Switzerland. All Rights Reserved. when the F-15Cs of the 33rd TFW took it into combat. . In addition to the US. another MiG-25 was probably killed and a MiG-23 was definitely shot down (on 17 January 1993) over Iraq using AMRAAMs. The next kill was made by an F-16C from the 86th FW over Bosnia on 28 February 1994 against a Serbian-flown Galeb light attack aircraft. Subsequently. AMRAAM will be bought by the United Kingdom. by the time the aircraft software was set up to allow carriage of AIM-7s. Finland. Copyright (c) 1995 SoftKey Multimedia Inc. South Korea. Germany. Unfortunately. The first operational use of AMRAAM was during the Gulf War. and there was no opportunity to actually use the new missile in combat. the Iraqi air force was hiding in its shelters (or fleeing to Iran).

in former Minuteman III silos.000-lb LGM-30G Minuteman III has a 7. surface attack. A controversial system. three-stage missile is named for the quickness of its response as much as the volunteer soldiers of the American Revolution. Wyoming.000-lb LGM-118 was originally conceived as a mobile system to decrease its vulnerability to attack. Current plans call for the LGM-118s to be retired between 2000 and 2004.US Air Force: Weapons Silo-Launched and Cruise Missiles -------------------------------------------------------------------------------LGM-118 Peacekeeper Commonly known as MX. First delivery of an HGM-80B Minuteman IB to an operational unit was on 20 April 1963 to the 44th SMW at Ellsworth AFB. multiple warhead ICBMs. in response to the dramatic changes in the world situation. becoming operationally ready on 11 December 1962 with the 10th SMS. The Peacekeeper began alert duties on 10 October 1986. Built by Boeing. As an interim solution. a railroad-based system was eventually settled upon.908-km) range and carries three 335-kT warheads. E.000-lb LGM-30F Minuteman II had a 6.064-km) range and carried a single. The final LGM-30As stood down from alert with the 10th SMS on 15 January 1969.000-nm (12. development of the hardware proceeded faster than the political debate surrounding its basing. First delivery of an LGM-30 F to an operational unit was on 5 August 1965 to the 447th SMS of the 321st SMW at Grand Forks AFB. LGM-30 Minuteman The Minuteman silo-launched. First launched in 1968. First delivery of an SM-80 Minuteman IA (later HGM-80A) to an operational unit was on 27 July 1962 to the 341st SMW at Malmstrom AFB. at F. While several concepts were considered. The 78. Warren AFB. South Dakota. Plans to develop the rail basing system were canceled in September 1991. These 450 missiles stood down from alert during September 1991 as part of a US initiative to reduce nuclear tensions.2-mT warhead. Ten missiles are controlled from each two-man command site. this solid-fuel.000-nm (11. Wyoming. The Peacekeeper is a four-stage missile which can deliver 10 500-kT warheads at intercontinental ranges. The other missiles were stored as they were produced. The final LGM-30Bs stood down from alert with the 320th SMS on 3 September 1974 at F. Montana. President Bush announced cancellation of further production during his State-of-the-Union Address in January 1992 and proposed scrapping of existing missiles if the former Soviet Union would scrap their large. North Dakota. guided missile (LGM)-30 has been operational for over 20 years. Warren AFB. E. becoming operationally ready in January 1966. The 73. Martin Marietta's 195. 50 of the 100 authorized missiles were deployed beginning on 13 September 1986 with the 90th SMW. 1. becoming operationally ready in July 1963 with the 66th SMS. initial delivery to an operational unit .

Fifty of the original force of 550 were been replaced by the LGM-118. President Bush announced plans to remove two of each missile's three warheads.was on 14 April 1970 to the 91st SMW at Minot AFB. the new missile had a longer fuselage. The length of the AGM-86A was defined by the length of the B-1A's weapons bay. with the remainder staying operational. It was finally developed as the AGM-86A to be a long-range complement for the AGM-69 SRAM. North Dakota. After cancellation of the B-1A. since it would only be used with the B-52. the AGM-86 was redesigned prior to competing against the AGM-109H Tomahawk to see which missile would arm the B-52G. during his January 1992 State-of-the-Union Address. with which it had launcher compatibility. However. Minuteman Production XSM-80 59-05963/05988 26 XSM-80 61-02084/02117 34 SM-80 62-03598/03602 5 SM-80 63-00001/00228 228 SM-80 64-00001/00448 448 SM-80 64-00460/00483 24 SM-80 64-15463/15475 13 SM-80 64-15502/15542 41 SM-80 64-17543/17556 14 SM-80 64-18022/18024 3 LGM-30 65-00001/00208 208 LGM-30F 65-00282/00579 298 LGM-30 66-02504/02612 109 LGM-30 66-08255/08302 48 LGM-30F 66-09245/09248 4 LGM-30F 67-00470/00668 199 LGM-30F 67-00669/00694 26 cnx LGM-30F 68-03832/03891 60 LGM-30G 69-00048/00235 188 LGM-30G 70-00689/00928 240 LGM-30G 71-00380/00499 120 LGM-30G 71-00855/00857 3 LGM-30G 72-00289/00435 147 LGM-30G 73-00719/00838 120 LGM-30G 73-01614/01615 2 LGM-30G 73-01700 1 LGM-30G 74-00822/00957 136 LGM-30G 75-00310/00313 4 LGM-30G 76-00143/00157 15 LGM-30G 77-00001/00060 60 AGM-86 ALCM Boeing's Air Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM) was initially envisioned as a replacement for the ADM-20 Quail decoy missile and called subsonic cruise armed decoy (SCAD). . Called AGM-86B. First delivered to the 416th BMW at Griffiss AFB. becoming operationally ready with the 741st SMS on 19 August 1970.

The most interesting aspect of cruise missiles is their guidance system. B-52Hs became ALCM carriers. It was revealed a year after the Gulf War that seven B-52Gs fired 35 AGM-86C conventional ALCMs (CALCM) against eight targets in northern Iraq. but requires extensive.500 nm (2. so the missile flies just high enough to avoid hitting terrain rising faster than the radar altimeter and flight controls can compensate for. although the crews called them 'Secret Squirrels'. but more were modified after the war. consideration was being given to equipping CALCMs with carbon fiber warheads like those used by BGM-109s during Desert Storm and electromagnetic pulse (EMP) generator warheads.000-lb blast-fragmentation warhead and incorporation of GPS guidance. the clearance level commanded varies during the mission. Although the altitude flown is controlled by a radar altimeter. Although the B-1B was designed with ALCM carriage in mind. Early in the flight. painstaking mission planning. The classified codename for the program was Senior Surprise. This type of guidance system can be frighteningly accurate. The announcement of this attack provided the first public knowledge of this previously secret ALCM variant. -130s. Planners referred to the missiles as extra long range bombs (XLRB) to maintain the secret of their existence for as long as possible.New York. Escalating costs of the AGM-137 led to its cancellation in February 1995 and consideration of buying more AGM-86Cs. The relative elevations of these areas are stored in the navigation computer. Flight testing began in August 1987. and/or -142s.000 per missile and included a 1. the 800-lb class AGM-88 High-Speed . these areas are fairly large. it compares the actual radar readings with those in the computer and uses this information to update its inertial navigation system. it was never used in that role operationally. and the telephone exchange in Basara. The CALCM option is favored by some because those missiles have already been paid for and are available because of their disappearing nuclear attack role. AGM-88 HARM Based on lessons learned in Vietnam. ALCMs were equipped with the 200-kT W80-1 warhead. As the missile flies over an area. get progressively smaller and more accurate. as the mission progresses. including hydroelectric and geothermal power plants near Mosul. By September 1994. The modifications to each of the 'more than three dozen' AGM-86Cs cost $380. but.200-lb AGM-86B is a subsonic. Most of the CALCMs were expended during the Gulf War missions. with the CALCM being declared operational in January 1988. which began development in July 1986 as a result of requirements generated in the wake the Libyan bombing raid the previous April.775 km). The latter would produce a momentary burst of microwave energy to disable electronic devices associated with enemy command and control facilities. As B-52Gs were withdrawn from service. The latter feature vastly simplifies mission planning requirements and increases flexibility by enabling missions to be planned over featureless terrain like that found in Middle Eastern deserts. on 11 January 1981 (where it began alert duties on 16 December 1982). The 3. turbojet-powered missile with a range in excess of 1. The flight path is painstakingly planned to pass over several areas of distinctive terrain. depending on terrain.

A-7E. thus relying on the target to emit and identify itself.000 guidance head retrofits). . new seekers to upgrade Block III missiles during FY94 and FY95.041 AGM-88Cs to replace HARMs expended during the 1991 Gulf War (USN A-6E. The missiles are overall FSN 36622 gray with a 2-in (5-cm) FSN 23538 yellow band two in behind the front edge of the warhead and a 2-in FSN 20117 brown band two in behind the front edge of the motor. They enticed the SAM sites into turning on their radars for an incoming barrage of HARMs. software changes to the aircraft-mounted command launch computer (CLC) were released to take advantage of the Block IV missile's seeker ability to self-guide in the TOO mode. Block III is essentially a new software program for the Block II hardware that is installed during depot maintenance (Block I seekers were not upgraded because it would have required a major hardware modification).Anti-Radiation Missile (HARM) is fast enough to give SAM operators minimum opportunity to shut down their radar before the HARM does it for them. not range. All versions use BSU-59 wings. Upon detecting one of the sites. HARM has three modes of employment.100). The AGM-88A used both Block I & II seekers. The Block IV incorporates a doubling of seeker range.000 (plus another 1. The target of opportunity (TOO) mode uses the HARM's seeker to help determine when to launch against a previously unknown threat. it guides in azimuth only. Although HARM can be launched in the direction of a target. BSU-60 tail fins. EA-6B. known as the AGM-88C-1 completed testing before a proposed competitor. Texas Instruments was contracted to produce 2. The AGM-88B used both Block II & III seekers. In the prebriefed mode the missile is programmed on the ground for up to three specific missile sites. while USMC EA-6B and F/A-18s launched 241. and replacement of the steel cubes in the warhead with considerably more lethal tungsten alloy ones. and F/A-18 aircraft launched 661 HARMs. it is launched on a ballistic trajectory towards it. a WAU-7 146-lb blast fragmentation warhead (AGM-88A and B only) and different versions of the WGU-2 guidance section. The Block III AGM-88B was the main version used during the Gulf War. Block I seekers require the seeker to be sent back to a depot in the US to be reprogrammed using hardware changes. and USAF F-4G and F-16Cs launched about 1. There were no plans to export Block IV missiles. The self-protection mode launches the missile against threats detected by the launching aircraft's radar warning receiver. This brings HARM production totals to approximately 21. improved performance against frequency agile radars. a WCU-2 control section (with DSU-19 pulsed laser.000 lb-second total impulse rocket motor. and the Air Force 750. In early 1994. One interesting technique used during the opening stages of the Gulf War was to use BQM-74C targets and ADM-141 TALDs as decoys. The Block IV AGM-88C entered service in early-1993. and its reprogramming capability was used on both USAF and USMC missiles. Loral's AGM-88C-2 low-cost seeker was ready to enter testing. The Block II seeker introduced electronically erasable/programmable read only memory (EEPROM) which allowed the seeker to be reprogrammed on the flight line. The TI seeker. a YSR 113-TC-1 64. differing mainly in the features of the guidance section electronics. In addition. There are three versions of the AGM-88. proximity/contact target detector). the Navy acquired 624.

The AGM88B has been exported to Germany and Italy (Tornado ECRs).320 km) and features improved accuracy and targeting flexibility. but this would have required rewiring its wing stations. and there are no plans to integrate the missile with any other airframes. Australia (F-111C). that can also launch the older AGM-45. identify and precisely locate threat radars. with deliveries of production AGM-129As beginning in June 1990.. Passing consideration was given to arming EF-111As with HARM. the final number actually built was only 461. AGM-129 Advanced Cruise Missile (ACM) Intended as a stealthy replacement for the AGM-86B. . The F-4G is by far the HARM's most effective launch platform because its APR47 system allows it to detect. About 640 missiles were under contract.The USAF only employs HARM from F-4Gs and F-16C 'Wild Weasels'. Due to cost overruns and funding cuts. but the same W80-1 warhead as the AGM-86. South Korea and Turkey (F-16). launching them from the LAU-118(V)2A launch rails (modified from LAU-34s). the 2. with plans for 1.800 nm (3. Spain (F/A-18). Copyright (c) 1995 SoftKey Multimedia Inc.750-lb ACM has a range of more than 1.461 missiles to arm B-52Hs. then attacking or directing other aircraft to attack them. Operational training launches began during 1991. Built by General Dynamics (now Hughes). the ACM first flew in July 1985. when President Bush announced cancellation of further production during his State-of-the-Union Address in January 1992. All Rights Reserved.

which enables them to mimic their live Mk/Mod counterparts. They are delivered like an actual mine and are primarily used for realistic training exercises. Actuation mines (flight-qualified OA designations suffixed by the letter B) are functionally identical to actual mines. which is unique to mines. The Operational Assembly (OA). The two major considerations for moored mines are position stability and mooring depth. There are two categories of air-delivered mines. In addition to the normal electronics package. or case/anchor combination. such as the type of flight gear installed.US Air Force: Weapons Underwater Mines. The two modern classes of underwater mines are bottom and moored. while the second uses techniques that depend on the mine. containing a Mk 64 delay switch to set off sonar transmitters at the end of the exercise to aid in mine recovery for reuse. the remaining mines are hunted by mine sweepers using sonar. Rockets. and Miscellaneous Stores -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Mines have three interactive designations: The Mark (Mk) designation is applied to the basic mine case. Clock delay mechanisms delay arming until a preset time has elapsed. the only active electronic component is a sonar transmitter to aid in recovery for reuse (not required for obsolete mines). while a sterilizer deactivates or detonates the mine at a preset time. Ship counters prevent a mine from detonating until several ships have passed nearby. As the mines float to the surface they are destroyed by gunfire. Modern mine sweeping operations generally have three phases. The former are normally used in shallow water. applies to external differences. Non-flight qualified ET mines include the FSN 35109 blue Shop mines (OA designations suffixed by the letter N) used in component assembly training. such as the type of influence firing mechanism used. These mines are painted FSN 32246 orange and FSN 37875 white. but can also be used against submarines in very deep water. and the bronze-painted Handling mines (OA designations suffixed by the letter J) used for load training. Hydrostatic arming devices prevent arming until the mine reaches the desired depth. but have inert warheads. the helicopters drag a sled with acoustic and magnetic characteristics similar to a passing ship through the water to activate bottom mines. A Mk 117 'drill shield' is attached to the rear of each mine. Next. These mines are painted FSN 32246 orange with two 6-in (15-cm) wide FSN 37875 white bands to enhance their visibility . The first is satisfied by an anchor to fix the mine to a known position on the seabed. these mines are equipped with smoke/flare buoy-signals which are set off to indicate when a service mine would have detonated. Service mines are the operational devices with live warheads. They are identified by letters suffixed to their OA designations. The Mk 117 also contains a recording device to log the time of each mine activation to aid in exercise evaluation. First the tethers of moored mines are cut by a long blade dragged through the water by a helicopter. Various safety devices and accessories are also used with mines. Finally. Laying mines (OA designations suffixed by the letter K) are used to conduct aircrew training of delivery techniques. The Modification (Mod) applies to internal differences. While all flight-required equipment functions like an actual mine. The latter are deep-water mines and are effective against both surface vessels and submarines. thus making it more difficult to sweep. Exercise and Training (ET) mines are used for training and fleet exercises.

A 360-lb warhead is contained in a non-magnetic. and their Mod designations were assigned with reference to the actuation methods used: pressure (0). and parapaks to ease water entry.underwater. and a single 2-in (5-cm) diameter yellow dot was stenciled on the back of the parachute pack.270 lb. high-speed submarines. just behind the nose fairing. acoustic. A single 2-in (5-cm) diameter yellow dot is stenciled on the back of the parachute pack. with additional flight gear for aircraft launch attaches to the tail.6-cm) diameter FSN 33538 yellow dots are spaced 90 degrees apart around the mine circumference. The nose fairing. and tail fins are FSN 34087 olive drab.3-cm) diameter yellow dots were located on the arming device. acoustic (1). just behind the dot above the arming device. parachute pack. Four 3-in (7. 'HBX-3' is stenciled in 3-in high yellow letters on the left side of the mine. Mk 56 Moored Mine The Mk 56 is a 2.200-lb class Mk 55 s weighed 1. They can be carried both internally and externally by HSAB-equipped B-52D/G/Hs. 'HBX-1' was stenciled in yellow between (and aligned with) the two dots on the left side of the mine. a dull. Their unique flight hardware included nose fairings and box fins for stability. Service Mk 55s were painted FSN 34087 olive drab.5-in (1.3-cm) diameter yellow dots are located. in line with the arming device at the rear of the mine. while the 2. a slow-burning propellant (called a mud agitator) is used to free it. Mk 52 and Mk 55 Bottom Mines First deployed in the late 1950s. completing the mine. Most stenciling is in 0. with white stenciling. However. and pressure. Although designed primarily for anti-submarine use. The Mk 56 mine case is painted with copperpac. brick red (no FSN). while the anchor is FSN 37038 black.5-in high FSN 37875 white letters. The mine then rises until reaching the desired depth. anti-fouling paint. and magnetic (6). the Mk 56 deploys hydrostatically. acoustic and magnetic (5). An optional nose fairing is fitted over the cast steel anchor at the front of the mine. starting 45 degrees off the vertical centerline. Once planted. these mines were also effective against surface targets.200-lb class air-laid moored mine designed specifically for use against deep-diving. inert 'Laying' versions of these mines continue to be used for training because of their similarity in size and delivery technique to the Mk 56 and Mk 60. pressure and acoustic (4). these bottom mines introduced modular assembly. starting 45 degrees off the vertical centerline. allowing its firing assembly to be stored separately from the mine case that contained the warhead. Eight can be carried internally and 12 externally by HSAB-equipped B-52D/G/Hs. magnetic (2 and 12). If the mine sinks into mud before separating from the anchor. magnetic and pressure (3 and 13).200-lb class Mk 52 had a 595-lb warhead. The 1. which means that the entire mine sinks to the seabed where the buoyant mine deploys from the anchor. Four 3-in (7. stainless-steel case along with the detection mechanism. . Declared obsolete in late 1993.5-in (1. Two 0. adjacent to the control unit well.6-cm) diameter FSN 33538 yellow dots were spaced 90 degrees apart around the mine circumference. adjacent to the control unit well. the Mk 52 and 55 shared common firing mechanisms. where two 0.

CAPTOR's detection and control unit (DCU) is capable of discriminating between surface ships and submarines. It was hoped at that time that this weapon could reduce mine barrier costs by a factor of 100. Production of CAPTOR began in 1977.Mk 60 Captor Moored Mine The 2. when the name CAPTOR was first used. the 2.6-cm) diameter FSN 33538 yellow dots are spaced 90 degrees apart around the mine circumference. Four 3-in (7. starting 45 degrees off the vertical centerline. When the anchor eventually reaches the seabed it will lock to keep the mine at the desired depth. high-speed. but it did not become operational until early 1980. while the Mk 65 Mod 1 uses the Mk 58. The Mk 65 Mod 0 uses the same Mk 57 TDD as other Quickstrikes. with the specific operation requirement being laid out in May 1964. As CAPTOR enters the water. If the water is shallow. Both use the Mk 45 Safe and Arming device. The Mod 4 used with the CAPTOR mine has a speed of about 40 kt (74 km/h). It initially operates in a passive mode. if the water is deep. and aircraft as an anti-submarine weapon. The Aerojet Mk 46 Torpedo is a deep-diving. thin-walled mine casing. Once a target is detected and judged to be within range. listening for submarines. 'PBXN-103' is stenciled in 3-in high yellow letters between (and perpendicular to) the two dots on the left side of the mine. However. and mine quantities by a factor of 400.5-in (1. The only difference between the OA 01 and OA 02 is the internal battery each uses. uses a helical search pattern for target acquisition.350-lb class Goodyear/Loral Mk 60 CAPTOR (for enCAPsulated TORpedo) is a moored mine which contains a Mk 46 torpedo. the mine will remain just above the seabed. entered service in 1965. Eight CAPTORs can be carried internally and 10 externally by HSAB-equipped B52G/Hs. determining the optimum time to release the torpedo. Air-Delivered Underwater Mines Mine Carriage Operational Flight Assemblies Hardware Remarks . The original requirement for this weapon was first stated in 1962. lightweight torpedo which features active/passive acoustic homing and a 100-lb warhead. Mk 65 Quickstrike Bottom Mine Instead of using a Mk 80 series bomb body. submarines.3-cm) high FSN 37875 white stenciling. the anchor will continue to deploy while the mine remains at a constant depth. and began replacing the earlier Mk 44 in 1967. A single 2-in diameter yellow dot is stenciled on the back of the parachute pack. It resembles earlier purpose-built mines more than the other Quickstrikes. The Mk 65 is painted FSN 36087 olive drab with 0.300-lb Mk 65 Quickstrike bottom mine introduced a completely new. it shifts to an active mode. and is capable of multiple reattacks if it misses the target. just behind the nose where the mine becomes cylindrical. It began development in 1960. its anchor deploys from the main part of the mine on a precut cable to the seabed or until it is completely extended. Deployed by ships.

13 none Mk 20 Mk 35 Obsolete 01 (Mod 11 only) Mk 13 02. 05K. 01. Obsolete Obsolete Obsolete Obsolete Obsolete Quickstrike Underwater Mine Actuation Devices Underwater mines are designed to detonate near ships with sufficient explosive force . Mk 21 12K n/a Mk 28 none n/a Mk 28 05. none none Obsolete Mk 35 Obsolete Mk 10 Mk 20 Mk 20 Mk 20 Obsolete Obsolete none Mk 10 Mk 35 Obsolete 01 (Mod 11 only) none Mk 20 Mk 35 Obsolete 04. 05. 08. 09K. 03B./Ext. 05. 02B none 01. 07. 04K. 03B. inc. 03. 02 (Mod 11 only). 02./Ext. 14 Mk 52 Internal 02. 01K. 09. 02 Mk 65 Mk 7 Obsolete Mk 24 Mk 18 Mk 36 inc. 01K Mk 38 Launching Kit Mk 65 Int. Mk 20 10. 03K. 06. 04. 10.Nose External 01 Fin Parapak Mk 7 07 inc. 07 Mk 60 Int. 12 Mk 56 External 08 inc. 06B inc. Mk 19 inc. 12. 04K. none 11K n/a Mk 28 01. 04. 03. 09. 11. 10K 12. 02B. Mk 19 05K. 11. 10. 01. 09. 08 Mk 55 External Internal Mk 20 Mk 24 Mk 36 Mk 9 Mk 21 n/a Mk 28 06. none 05B. 03K. 11 Internal Mk 20 Obsolete 03. 06K. 02K 06. 02 (Mod 11 only.

since it makes the mine highly resistant to mine sweeping efforts. coastal ships. They are also the first mines capable of use as land mines. but rarely used mines. 5. If the ship is traveling at sufficient speed to create the required pressure change. Their name comes from the short amount of time required to modify Mk 80 series GP bombs for use as bottom mines against both submarines and ships. 6 & 13 Mk 22 pressure 7 Mk 37 dual channel magnetic 11 Mk 42 magnetic/seismic Mk 56 0 Mk 25 & 26 total field magnetometer Mk 60 0 & 1 Mk 17 detector control unit Mk 65 0 Mk 57 magnetic/seismic TDD 1 Mk 58 magnetic/seismic TDD Destructor and Quickstrike Bottom Mines Developed to alleviate the need to build large stockpiles of specialized. the mine is detonated. Acoustic influence mechanisms use hydrophones. and small craft. 5. 4. canals. This technique is always used in conjunction with acoustic and magnetic sensors. freighters. If ship sounds became loud enough. but it was never deployed operationally. burying themselves in the ground to be actuated by passing vehicles or personnel. Most Mk 55 mines use a combination of influence fuzing mechanisms to reduce their susceptibility to mine countermeasures. 6. 3. Mk 40 and (now obsolete) Mk 41 Destructors (DST s) are Mk 80 series GP bombs fitted with mine components. Magnetic influence uses two basic techniques. Pressure influence mechanisms sense reduction in water pressure to determine if a ship is passing nearby. Underwater Mine Actuation Devices Mine Mods Device Type Mk 55 2. transducers. channels. the Mk 36. which detects the magnetic. US mines during and since World War II have relied on Influence detonation. expensive. Destructors are primarily designed for use in rivers. 12. The Mk 64 designation was assigned as the Mk 84-based QS. the mine is detonated. Mk 56 moored mines use the Mk 25 or Mk 26 total field magnetometers.to cause the ship to abort its mission. 4. The Mk 62 and Mk 63 Quickstrike (QS) bottom mines are the eventual successors to the Destructors. & 13 Mk 20 magnetic 1. 6. three-dimensional device that analyze the magnitude and rate of magnetic field change before initiating detonation. and is particularly valuable. then analyze them to reject non-ship sounds. acoustic. and other devices to detect underwater sounds. using the ship's own magnetic field to generate the electrical current to detonate the mine. and harbors for use against ships. which senses magnetic field changes caused by a ship's passage. Mk 36 OAs with conical fins were mixed in with loads of GP bombs and dropped by B-52D/F/Gs during Vietnam Arc Light missions to disrupt operations in recently bombed areas. Bottom mines normally use a magnetic induction system. more sophisticated. and pressure fields of passing vessels. 12 & 13 Mk 21 acoustic 0. . 3.

and the Mod 3 never became operational. which can carry the Mk 40. Currently. The USAF's M117D (sometimes called the Mk 59) also uses the Mk 75. (On the B-52G/H. two new TDDs were developed for use with QS mines. Except for the B-52G/H. 20. Differences between the various Destructor Mods are defined by the internal batteries used. funding dried up with the end of the cold war. seismic. Mines with retard fins designed to be carried internally use a 'cable and strap' assembly which unwraps from around the bomb body. QS and DSTs can be delivered by any aircraft that can drop the basic bomb/fin combination. The Mk 71 was developed to equip Mod 3 QSs and added a ship counter to the Mk 70s capabilities. Operational Destructor and Quickstrike Mines Warhead Mk 82 Mine Mk 36 Fin Operational Assemblies Mk 82 CFA 40. 48K External 54 540 Obsolete 570 Obsolete 44. 22. The combination of the Mk 32 and Mk 42. 44K 51 Remarks 530 USN only 500 USN only . The nose-mounted Mk 32 mechanical arming device arms these mines after sensing both release from the aircraft and surface impact. while the OAs define external configurations. USAF aircraft are only cleared to use the Mk 36 and M117D. the FM has been replaced with the Mk 57 Target Detector Device (TDD). both the Mk 11 and Mk 12 'Paratails' were purpose-built for mining operations. along with other minor components which form the basis for the Destructor. However. 18. 39. 23. In the Quickstrike. replacing the former's 'ballute' with a parachute.Because of their similarity to GP bombs. which is fitted in the warhead tail fuze cavity. It features arming-delay. Target type and detonation time is determined by Destructor's Mk 42 Firing Mechanism (FM). 15. are known as the Mk 75. the only difference between the two mine families. sterilization. 43. depending on the battery being used. 40K Mk 15 SE Mk 16 BSU-86 Weight 14. 47 Internal 48. During the late 1970s and early 1980s. The Mk 16 Paratail is externally similar to the USAF's BSU-49 AIR. 16. 38. serving as a lanyard spacer to delay fin opening until the weapon is clear of the weapon bay. and 'x' for eternal carriage. mine fins are set in a '+' configuration for internal. 19.) While most DSTs and QSs use fins developed for GP bombs. and pressure fuzing. 42. 24. 46. The abortive Mk 70 would have equipped Mod 2 QSs and is believed to have incorporated magnetic. the Mk 75 Mod 12 kit is used to form either Mod 7 or 15 DSTs. and self-destruct capabilities.

02K 03. 40 Mk 11 49.6-cm wide FSN 33538 yellow bands around the nose). 39. 20.970 Internal 50 M117 1.070 Internal 03. 19. MAU-91. 03K External 08 500 Internal Mk 12 09 Mk 83 Mk 40 570 Internal External Mk 83 CFA 40.070 Obsolete 44. 02K External 06 1. 38. four 2-in (5-cm) diameter FSN 33538 yellow dots are aligned with. 48K External 49. 27. 51 MAU-91A/A Mk 41 External 02. and Mk 15 Snakeye fins are FSN 34087 olive drab. 16.020 External Mk 84 CFA 02. 03K Mk 12 Mk 84 1. 24. 43. 26.000 Obsolete External 01 860 Internal External There is no difference in the markings of Destructor and Mk 80 series Quickstrike mines. 50K. MAU-91A/B 18. 38. 49K 1. and about 4 in (10 cm) in front of. 04. 46.Mk 62 Mk 15 SE 02. On the latter fins. 42. 15. While the older conical.970 Obsolete 1. 15. 49K M117D MAU-91B/A 02 1. the newer BSU-86 and Mk 11. 12. Two more . 22. 39. 28. and 16 fins are FSN 36375 gray. The unpainted nose-mounted Mk 32 arming device has a gold tinge. the tail fins. 44K Mk 12 Mk 63 1.020 Internal 50. 16. 03. while the rest of the mine has standard markings of its associated bomb body (overall FSN 34087 olive drab with 3-in/7. 47 Internal 48. 14. 40K 14. 23.

rockets were relegated to the air-to-ground role and were widely used during the Vietnam War by all services. Others arm when the motor actually burns out. The Mk 176 features a slight functioning delay to increase target penetration before detonation. they served as the primary armament of numerous early jet interceptors. making it more suited to aircraft use. causing the warhead to function. Although they claim all of the following. experience showed that Destructors marked with these stripes were often defused and salvaged by enemy forces. Finally. The 3-in (7. The Mk 181 is used exclusively with the Mk 5 HEAT warhead and functions instantaneously. M156 smoke warhead. spaced 90 degrees apart around the bomb circumference. and Mk 66 motor combination in the LAU-131 launcher (along with the WTU-1/B for training). In addition to the standard bomb body markings. Various fuzes of the same class differ from one another by evolutionary internal improvements. The M427 is a M423 that arms more slowly. but requires steep impact angles to be effective against armor. 1-in (2. Acceleration/deceleration fuzes sense deceleration as the motor burns out.75-in Rocket Fuzes Most 2. the mine control number is stenciled on the left side of the nose.5-in high white letters. During Vietnam. starting 45 degrees off the vertical centerline (although not specified.5-cm) wide white reflective tape is applied to make the mines distinctive. and Mk 181 fuzes lack any explosive content and are used with inert training warheads. With the advent of radar guided air-to-air missiles. these stripes appear to be about 6-in/15 cm long). The Mk 178 is a Mk 176 which detonates instantaneously. 2. 2. 2.75-in Rockets Developed under the ' Mighty Mouse ' program after World War II. and four stripes are applied between the aft lug and the rear of the bomb body. By the end of the war their use with the USAF for other than target marking duties ceased. It arms more quickly and has an improved capability against soft and water targets. One stripe girdles the bomb between the suspension lugs. Mk 178.75-in Rocket Warheads . therefore the stripes are often not applied. Entering service in 1956.75-in (7-cm) rockets were initially designed as air-to-air weapons. it is believed that the only rockets actually still being used by the USAF are the M427 fuze. then functions as the rocket decelerates through 11g.2-in diameter yellow dots are stenciled on the back of the parachute pack. 2.75-in rocket fuzes are armed by being subjected to 20g acceleration for about one second. The M423 is a Mk 178 primarily used by helicopters. making the half-buried body appear the same as a GP bomb. The Model 113A arms after being subjected to 25g. They are generally about 2 in (5 cm) long and unpainted with black markings. Both are used exclusively with the Mk 1 warhead.6-cm) long M423 and M427 are the most widely used USAF fuzes. Inert M435. just behind the yellow band in 0. It is an integral part of and used exclusively with WDU-4A/A flechette warheads. Impact fuzes function after striking a surface and are called 'point detonating' (PD) because they are nose-mounted.

Blue with white lettering. and 13. it is restricted to LAU-61/-68 length launchers. The Mod 3 is a HERO modification . Considered effective against personnel and lightly armored vehicles. and bunkers.Explosive warheads only use nose fuzing and are olive drab with yellow letters (and sometimes nose bands). The Navy's Mod 0 never entered production. heavy vehicles. light metal casing with white letters and plastic nose assemblies of various colors.5-in (34-cm) long WTU-1/B (M151 with a M423/427 fuze). The 8-in (20-cm) long Mk 1 high-explosive (HE) warheads have a relatively thin soft steel case filled with 1. The 15.5-in (16.3 lb of explosive and is constructed of either soft steel or cast iron. With the advent of the Mk 66. forming the basis of the US Army's Hydra 70 family. It is green with red letters and has a soft steel case similar to the M151. The Mk 40 low-speed FFAR (LSFFAR) was introduced during Vietnam. HEAT rounds are effective against tanks. overland. Service versions Mk 1 Mods 1. featuring a 'scarfed' nozzle to spin-stabilize it when launched from helicopters and propeller-driven aircraft. sometimes called pearlite malleable iron (PMI). Design of the 42-in (107-cm) long Mk 66 was completed in 1967. etc. 2. but production of the wrap-around-fin aircraft rocket (WAFAR) did not begin until 1976. personnel carriers. with most being built in 1967 during the Vietnam War. Initial deliveries of the Mk 4 occurred in 1954. considered effective against relatively soft targets such as parked aircraft. radar emplacements. while the Mod 7 is more rounded. 4. The Army's Mod 1 was developed for the M151 and M261 warheads in 1982.5-in (27-cm) long M156 smoke warhead is used for daylight. The Mod 2 trainer is inert-loaded. The Navy/Air Force Mod 2 features safeguards against hazards of electromagnetic radiation to ordnance (HERO) and entered service in 1988. virtually all having been expended or condemned by the mid-1990s. HE warheads are included as part of the HE-Frag classification. only filled with white phosphorus (WP). 3. The 10. and 5 all look the same. The 6. It differs from the Mk 1 in that it creates higher velocity fragments and can be used with the Mk 66 motor.5-in (39-cm) long WDU-4A/A Flechette warhead has a black. they include the 10-in (25-cm) long Mk 61 (Mk 1 with a Mk 176/178 fuze). It expels hundreds of anti-personnel darts in a shotgun-like cloud after motor burnout.75-in Rocket Motors The 39-in (99-cm) long Mk 4 folding-fin aircraft rocket (FFAR) motors are white with black markings and a brown band. The Mk 1 and Mk 5 are both restricted to use with the older Mk 4 and Mk 40 motors. The 10. When exposed to the atmosphere it creates about two minutes of white smoke and a minor incendiary effect. the Mk 4/40 series motors were relegated to training duties. Dummy heads are single-piece castings used to simulate given warhead/fuze combinations. target marking.5-in (27-cm) long M151 HE-Frag warhead contains 2. trains.4 lb of high explosive. WAFARs create less smoke and have about 40 per cent more range than FFARs because of design improvements and the fact that the new fin configuration allows carriage of more propellant in the same overall motor length. trucks.5-cm) long Mk 5 high-explosive anti-tank (HEAT) warhead features a shaped-charge which uses less than 1 lb of explosive to create a high-energy jet capable of piercing armor.

4 in LAU-3A/A 76 lb 18. although later pods are longer so they can accept longer warheads. while the expendable 19-tube pods fire out in only about a second.to the Mod 1.75-in Fuze.3 lb 163 lb 442 lb M156 Smoke/WPractice Mk 66 55.8 lb 124 lb 338 lb Mk 5 HEAT Mk 4/40 47.2 lb 163 lb 441 lb WTU-1/B Mk 66 55. Mk 4/40 pods are FSN 17875 gloss white while the Mk 66 LAU-131 is FSN 34087 olive drab.3 in 23.7 in LAU-131/A 7 × Mk 66 78 lb LAU-5003/A 19 × Mk 66 78 lb 15. Canadian rocket vehicle CRV7 system as tested by the USAF is very similar to the LAU-3 launcher and Mk 66 rocket motor.1 in (140 cm) into its 59. Reusable pods (with metal rocket tubes) replace the aft fairings with metal funnels to perform this function.0 lb 126 lb 342 lb Mk 61 Practice Mk 4/40 49. and Motor Combinations Warhead Type Motor Length Weight x7 x19 Mk 1 HE-Frag Mk 4/40 50.75-in Rocket Pods Pod Type Weight Diameter Nose Length Tail LAU-3/A 19 × Mk 4/40 71 lb 15. Mk 66 motors are white with black markings and a brown band. All use 14-in suspension lug spacing.75-in Rocket Pods All rocket pods are made of treated paper with a thin aluminum outer skin.4 in LAU-3B/A 76 lb LAU-60/A 79 lb LAU-68A/A 7 × Mk 4/40 42 lb 9.75 in forward.8 in 18.7 in 22.2 in 59.4 in 49. Air Force 2.4 in 49.8 lb 146 lb 395 lb M151 HE-Frag Mk 66 55.6 in 18. Air Force 2.8 in 22.9 in 20. The pods can ripple-fire their rockets at a rate determined by the pod's intervalometer. Expendable pods can be jettisoned after use. Warhead. The RLU-5002/B (developed as C15) was primarily designed for use by helicopters and could also be surface .9-in (152-cm) long launcher. Air Force seven-tube pods are reusable and can be fired singly or fired out in about three seconds.9 lb 125 lb 340 lb WDU-4A/A Flechette Mk 4/40 54.3 in 17. Ltd. WAFAR pods have stops in the tubes that keep them another 1. They were shipped with rockets already loaded.2 in 17.1 lb 161 lb 438 lb 2.9 in 3.4 in 18. Nose fairings shatter on rocket impact.8 in 9. They vary little in external appearance.9 in LAU-68B/A 7 × Mk 4/40 51 lb 8. While FFAR rockets reach virtually to the back of the tube (about 1. warheads and motors can not. The long ogive paper fairings of early pods has given way to progressively blunter shapes.4 in 23. Although fuzes can be mixed within a pod. but warheads are attached in the field.0 in CRV7 System The Bristol Aerospace. Expendable pods (with paper rocket tubes) also have paper aft fairings which shatter to form a funnel that protects the aircraft from rocket debris.9 in 7.5 in from the rear edge of the pod). A Mk 66 rocket is inserted 55.3 in 23.

The 16-ft (4.75-in rockets (the latter option is rarely used). or A/A37U-15 tow target system (TTS) is used by the F-100 and F-4 (from the left outboard pylon). No rocket capability exists with the SUU-21. the fins were unpainted. The ballistics of these bombs most closely resemble a retarded nuclear weapon. The Mk 106 ' Beer cans ' are painted orange.640 ft (500 m) behind the aircraft and deploys a Dart-sized tetraplane target. the F-15's centerline station. weigh 5 lb. with different aircraft using bullets dyed various colors. Training Bomb Dispensers The SUU-20 dispenser holds six practice bombs and four 2. The 900-lb A/A37U-36 AGTS is designed for carriage on the F-4's left outboard station. It consisted . that simulates the ballistics of a Mk 82 SE. and the F-16's center wing stations. It is comprised of the 357-lb RMK-33 tow set and 107-lb TDK-36 target set. Miscellaneous Stores Sub-Scale Training Bombs Both of the most commonly carried training bombs were developed by the Navy and adopted by the Air Force.300 ft (700 m) behind the towing aircraft. It is comprised of the 482-lb RMU-10 tow reel pod and 195-lb TDU-10 ' Dart ' gunnery target. miscellaneous model 15'. The motors are white with black markings. and are shaped like a beer can with fins. beginning about 1990 the Air Force gave a 10-lb version the designation of BDU-48. Its bombs are contained within enclosed bomb bays and ejected by springs. which is towed 1. The explosively ejected bombs are exposed on the bottom of the dispenser and a mix of Mk 106s and BDU-33s is common. Real-time acoustic scoring is used. probably using the CM151 rocket. However. WDU-4A/A. and WTU-1/B warheads. M156.launched. or in SUU-20 and SUU-21 dispensers. The RLU-5003/B (developed as C16) was designed to be compatible with the US Hydra 70 (Mk 66) launchers and evaluated with M151. Scoring was accomplished by counting bullet holes in the recovered dart. called BDU-33 by the Air Force. Both can be fitted with several types of spotting charges to aid in scoring delivery accuracy and are mounted on modified multiple and triple ejector racks (MER and TER). These motors could only be fired from Canadian launchers because their firing contacts were on the aft face of the nozzle.8-m) long Dart was reeled out 2. a WTU-1/B dummy head mounted to the C15 motor. electromechanical. The Mk 76 ' blue bomb ' is a streamlined 25-lb bomb. The Air Force evaluated the CRV7 on the A-7D and A-10A in May 1987. it produced more smoke and had higher dispersion than the Mk 66 during US ground tests in October 1989. The SUU-21 was developed because aircraft based in Europe overfly populated areas more frequently than those based elsewhere. The A/A37U-33 aerial gunnery target system (AGTS) replaced the TTS and is also used by USAF F-4s. Air-to-Air Gunnery Targets The 'aeronautical system/non-mission expendable. Called by their naval designation of for years.

is datalinked to ground stations for use in recreating the mission for analysis and debriefing purposes. Cargo Pods and Delivery Containers The miscellaneous unit (MXU) -648 was a baggage pod converted from old BLU-1/27 firebomb shells. including the extendedarea test system (EATS) and advanced range data system (ARDS) pods. Some of these pods allow interface with aircraft electronic warfare systems (EWS) or have a radar altimeter tied to a UHF uplink that permits the ACMI operator to transmit one of 12 prerecorded messages to the aircrew at the touch of a button. The AKQ-T1 pod is mounted to the right-front Sparrow station of pre-MSIP F-15A/Bs . weapons bus monitor. and accelerations. A real-time RF scoring system is used. Virtually all USAF fighter and attack aircraft (as well as the AV-8B) carried these on flights away from their home base. all ASQ pod differences are internal. a laser detector assembly (LDA). work began on the global positioning system range applications program (GPS/RAP). a flight termination transponder (FTT). most had a small door on the left side of the pod. To this end. which has a ram air scoop on its side. Each pod contains an air data sensor. transponder. a radar altimeter. all 141 in (358 cm) long and 5 in (12. Information sensed by the pod. which were combined as the high dynamics instrumentation set (HDIS) and became known as HDIS/ARDS and HDIS/EATS pods. This resulted in several new AIS-type pods. or. These systems allow the battle to be viewed from any angle. Other systems include an inertial sensor assembly (ISA). While a few had removable tailcones. Other pods are compatible with the high-accuracy multiple-object tracking system (HAMOTS) and the HAMOTS upgrade system (HUS).of the RMK-35 reeling machine and TDK-39 target group. the latter capability being called no-drop bomb scoring (NDBS). which used their large weapons bay instead. in the case of pods used with the gulf range drone control upgrade system (GRDCUS). These will be compatible with selected USAF aircraft.7 cm) in diameter.000 ft (610 m) behind the aircraft. Use of this system was illustrated by the movie 'Top Gun'. There are several versions of AIS pods. even from the 'cockpits' of opposing aircraft. including aircraft velocities. In the early 1990s. AIS pods resemble unfinned Sidewinder missiles with pitot tubes. Except for the T-11. except for non-Pave Tack F-111s. angular rates. and an inertial unit to aid in the simulation of weapons employment by sensing actual aircraft flight performance. and are mounted to AIM-9 launchers. the Red Flag mission debriefing system (RFMDS) permitted evaluation of surface-to-air and air-to-air engagements as well as bombing accuracy. which is towed about 2. Beginning in the early 1990s. Most of those compatible with AMRAAM launcher rails can be tied into the aircraft's Mil Std 1760 databus for access to additional aircraft information. Instrumentation Pods The aircraft instrumentation sub-system (AIS) pods are used as part of the air combat maneuvering instrumentation (ACMI) and related systems to allow real-time and post-mission evaluation of training exercises. they are fitted with a digital interface processing unit (DIPU).

When used as a pesticide disseminator it is redesignated as PAU-7. They are 96 in (244 cm) long. and for dispensing the lethal nerve agent VX it is called a TMU-28. or A/B45Y. They feature a timer to determine how many feet below the aircraft the flare ignites. Flare and Sonobuoy Dispensers The SUU-25C/A and E/A are LAU-10 5-in rocket pods modified to dispense 30-lb class flares. AIS Pods Official Name Vendor Name Weight Remarks AN/ASQ T-11 P3 150 Ram air inlet. It weighs 570 lb and is used to dispense 1. and LUU-2B/B all burn at about 2 million candlepower for 5 minutes. Their basic designation grouping is 'aeronautical system/mission expendable. called a R2393. ISA. not chemical retaliation. non-LRU design AN/ASQ T-13 P4 120 LRU design AN/ASQ T-17 P4A 122 RFMDS. The LUU-2/B. It is worth noting that the warning given to Iraq during the Gulf War was that use of chemical weapons would be met with nuclear. and LDA AN/AKQ T-1 75 Sparrow telemetry pod R2393 51 Modified AERO-3B AIM-9 launcher Spray Tanks Several biological and chemical agent spray tanks have been developed. ISA and Radar altimeter AN/ASQ T-27(V)-1 P4BX 126 T-13 upgraded with DIPU and ISA AN/ASQ T-29 P4AW 122 T-25 with DIPU.340 lb of defoliant. mounted to the R2393 then down links this information to the ACMI. It accesses information about Sparrow launching and guidance information and transmits it to a modified AERO-3B launcher rail. while the LUU-5/B burns green. AMRAAM launcher compatible AN/ASQ T-27 P4B 126 T-25 with DIPU. LUU-2A/B. The differences between the flares are minor. and the LUU-6/B fuchsia. The first can be set to delay opening of the cruciform parachute from 5 to 30 seconds after release. Weight of the dispensers is 260 lb empty and 500 lb when loaded. 4.9 in (12 cm) in diameter and weigh 29 lb. while the second delays ignition of the marker another 10 to 30 seconds. including EW link only AN/ASQ T-21 HAIS 123 HAMOTS compatible T-17 123 AN/ASQ T-25 P4AM 125 RFMDS. . biological dissemination model'.and F-4s. Flares are 36 in (91 cm) long. The LUU-1/B burns with a red flame. but none is ever known to have been used operationally. The two dispensers have very minor internal differences. Target markers are the same size as flares and weigh 29 lb. including EW link & UHF uplink GRDCUS T-17 with FTT AN/ASQ T-20 P4AX RFMDS. They are fitted with two timers. The TACTS pod. Kept on hand as a hedge to ensure such a capability is maintained is the A/B45Y-3. 14 in (36 cm) in diameter and hold four rearward ejection tubes that hold eight flares or target markers. with associated designations of external dispensing device (PAU) and miscellaneous tank unit (TMU).

and have been upgraded through the AN/ALQ-119(V)-3. At the beginning of Desert Storm. Like the related ALQ-119. and -16. it is favored for use by drag-sensitive aircraft like the F-16. special purpose (ALQ) designations. are 105 in (267 cm) long and weigh 319 lb. are 20 in (51 cm) tall. and 5 versions. and 6. They are the most common variant and have been upgraded over the years through the AN/ALQ-119(V)-1. -7. This makes radar-guided SAMs detonate just far enough away to allow the aircraft to escape. with options for a further 400. both configurations of this pod are 10 in (25 cm) wide and 15 in (38 cm) deep. Short pods cover only bands 4 and 5. Most Air Force pods began as quick reaction capability (QRC) programs before being assigned airborne. Only 40 were available at the beginning of Desert Storm. and 5. Medium pods cover medium and high bands. which is 22 in (56 cm) deep. They exist in the AN/ALQ-184(V)2. Long pods are 143 in (363 cm) long. -13. Long pods are 156 in (396 cm) long. 4. -6. They can be most easily distinguished from the ALQ-119s by their much longer gondola. while the Block II AN/ALQ-131(V)-12 weighs 640 lb and the -14 680 lb. 5. -4. -14. Because of its lower drag profile. first entering service with F-4Gs in February 1987. Adversary aircraft use a small number of threat simulator pods. Deep pods are 24. -10. All are 10 in (25 cm) wide and 15 in (38 cm) deep. -9. which is 21 in (53 cm) deep. The Block I AN/ALQ-131(V)-9 and 10 weigh 600 lb. while the Block II AN/ALQ-131(V)-13 weighs 540 lb and the -15 580 lb. They are the most common variant and exist in the AN/ALQ-184(V)-1. Over the years they have been refined and updated to cope with new threats. Shallow pods cover only bands 4 and 5. are 116 in (295 cm) long and weigh about 475 lb. all of which have a . many have completely new electronics. The Block I pods required manual mode selection. They are 115 in (292 cm) long and weigh 400 lb. except for the front gondola. countermeasures. The QRC 80-01(V)-3 is a related pod with the same external configuration. 4. weigh 640 lb and cover bands 3. The Block I AN/ALQ-131(V)-4. with orders for a further 590 pending. and -15 versions. and 6 weigh 675 lb. -5. and -17. The QRC 80-01(V)-4 is a related pod with the same external configuration. The Westinghouse ALQ-119 was developed under the QRC-522 program and has been deployed in three basic configurations. Short pods cover only the low band. medium and high bands. They have been upgraded through the AN/ALQ-119(V)-2. -11.Countermeasures Pods Electronic countermeasures (ECM) pods were introduced during the Vietnam War to counter surface-to-air missiles (SAM). Although some new pods look very similar to earlier ones. While noise jamming was used initially. 3. The Westinghouse ALQ-131 was developed under the QRC-559 program and has been deployed in two basic configurations.5 in (62 cm) high and cover bands 3. weigh 575 lb and cover low. newer pods use deception techniques to make radars think an aircraft is in a slightly different location than where it actually is. while the Block IIs are more highly automated. -12. both 111 in (282 cm) long. and 5. except for the front gondola. The Raytheon ALQ-184 has been deployed in two basic configurations. All use 30-in (76-cm) suspension lug spacing. -8. and weigh about 475 lb. there were 130 of the former and 260 of the latter available. 4.

000 crew-served weapon weighs 1.000 weapon used a linkless feed system and is externally powered from the aircraft hydraulic or electrical system. weighs 320 lb and is based on the AN/ALQ-71(V)-3. fighters now rely on a combination of expendable flares and maneuverability. The $200. The 265-lb General Electric M61A1 Vulcan 20-mm.62-mm machine gun uses a disintegrating link feed system and is gas-operated. M56 HEI and M242 HEIT ammunition. The self-powered aircraft gun unit (GAU) -4.800 fps and an maximum range of 3. was virtually identical except for being driven by gun gas.050 lb and fires at a rate of 120 shots per minute (spm) with a dispersion of 0. It fires 600 rpm with a muzzle velocity of 2. The 250-lb Northrop AN/AAQ-8 is based on the shell of the ALQ-71 and attached to the fuel tanks of Combat Talon MC-130Es. F-16 and FA-18 (GAU-11). AC-130A/H (two). Both pods had a capacity of 1. The US Army designed M60 7. The H-3 also uses this gun. The ALQ-176 exists in two versions. In all probability. Guns The M2A1 Bofors is a recoil-operated. while the SUU-23 was also used by the F-4K/M. Four of the 25-lb M60s are used in the OV-10. one by the AC-130H and U. crewserved . Although still used with large aircraft.067 m).200 rounds. six-barrel Gatling gun was developed in the 1950s to fire M53 API.000 lb of reverse thrust. weighs 260 lb and is based on the AN/ALQ-71(V)-2. F-15. air-cooled 40-mm cannon originally designed as a AAA weapon.702-lb SUU-16 (which used the M61) could be distinguished by the former's air inlet just above and behind the muzzle. At maximum rate of fire. The Band 3 AN/ALQ-176(V)-1 is 78 in (198 cm) long. clip-fed. B-52H.400 fps and a dispersion of 5 mils. while two are used with the HH-60H. The $128.10-in (25-cm) diameter.6 mils. Active aircraft equipped with internal with M61s include the A-7D/E. F-14. while the SUU-23 was the XM25. both based on the Vietnam era ALQ-71. One M102 105-mm howitzer was used by the AC-130H and U. F-111s can carry the M61 in their weapons bay. The Band 5 AN/ALQ-176(V)-2 is 102 in (259 cm) long. Infra-red countermeasures (IRCM) pods employ sophisticated techniques to defeat infra-red missiles.500 ft (1. prolonged bursts can generate nearly 4. while the latter deployed a ram air turbine (RAT) from a large hatch located towards the middle of the pod prior to being fired. The ALQ-188 is a derivative of the Navy's ALQ-167(V)-4 and is 109 in (277 cm) long. Both the M61 and GAU-4 fire at up to 6. The F-4C/D/E were the only users of the SUU16. F-4E. of which about 60 were unusable. but have not since the 1970s. It fired PGU-9 HEI ammunition and two are used by the AC-130A. The 1. The 1. the F-22 will also be equipped with it. weighing 291 lb.000 rpm with a muzzle velocity of 3. used in the SUU-23 gun pod.739-lb SUU-23 and earlier 1.450-lb. This restricted its use to a maximum of 350 kt IAS. The SUU-16 was originally called the M12. Neither of the pods described here are believed to have reached operational status.

AT-38B.865 lb.600 rpm of PGU-20 API and PGU-22 HEIT ammunition with a muzzle velocity of 3.62-mm six-barrel Gatling gun is a scaled-down version of the M61 which weighs 67 lb. When loaded with 353 rounds of PGU-13 HEI and PGU-14 API ammunition. Both pods had a capacity of 1. have been evaluated with the GPU-5. The General Electric $336. It uses a closed loop feed and storage system and is pneumatically driven. five-barrel Gatling gun was developed from the M61 for use with the AV-8B and AC-130U (one).weapon could fire three to five HE.000 rpm. The General Electric GAU-2 7.500 rounds which could be fired at 3. WP or TP shots per minute with a dispersion of only 0. while the SUU-11B/A could use either ac or dc. The AC-130A uses it as part of MXU-470 gun module.6 mils. It uses a linkless feed system from the 300-round magazine in the Harrier's right fuselage pod to the 275-lb gun in the left pod.000 gun pod unit (GPU) -5 anti-tank cannon pod.000 rpm with a muzzle velocity of 2.200 fps and a dispersion of 4.400 rpm with a muzzle velocity of 3. The GAU-2 forms the basis for the 325-lb SUU-11 gunpod (sometimes identified by its Army designation M18). It fires up to 6. which is powered from engine bleed air.600 fps and a dispersion of 3. BQM-34 FIREBEE The Teledyne Ryan BQM-34 Firebee family included Firebee Versions KDA pre-1959 Q2 pre-1959 BGM-34A/B 1971-75 BQM-34A 1959-93 Firebee MQM-34D 1959-93 Firebee Model 147 A 1962 Model 147 B 1964-65 Model 147 C 1965 Model 147 D 1965 Model 147 E 1965-66 Model 147 F 1966 Model 147 G 1965-67 Model 147 H 1967-71 Model 147 J 1966-67 .850 fps. It fires at 2.5 mils. the gun pod weighs 1. AH-1J/T/W.000 or 6.3 mils. It uses either linkless or belted feed systems and is externally powered from the aircraft electrical system. but normally at 3. The SUU11A/A was dc powered.000 GAU-12 ' Equalizer ' 25-mm. The SUU-11 was used by the A-37. Several aircraft. The GAU-13 ' Pave Claw ' 30-mm four-barrel Gatling gun is the basis of the $544.200 rpm. including the F-4D/E and A-7D. It fires up to 4. and OV-10. Aircraft equipped with the GAU-2 have included the A-37 and HH-53. and F-16As of the 174th TFW (NY ANG) used it during Desert Storm.

Model 147 N 1966 Model 147 NC 1972 Model 147 NP 1967 Model 147 NQ 1968 Model 147 NRE 1967 Model 147 NX 1966-67 Model 147 S/SA 1968 Model 147 SB 1968-69 Model 147 SC/TV 1972 Model 147 SD 1974/75 Model 147 SDL 1972 Model 147 SK 1969-70 Model 147 SRE 1968-69 BQM-34E/F 1965-77 Firebee II AQM-34G Model 147 NA/NC 1968-71 Compass Bin/Combat Angel AQM-34H Compass Bin/Combat Angel AQM-34J Compass Bin/Combat Angel AQM-34K Compass Bin AQM-34L Model 147 SC 1969-73 Compass Bin/Buffalo Hunter AQM-34M Compass Bin/Buffalo Hunter AQM-34M (Ex Rng) Compass Bin/Buffalo Hunter AQM-34P 1969-70 Compass Bin AQM-34Q Model 147 TE 1970-73 Compass Bin AQM-34R 1973-75 Compass Bin/Combat Dawn Firebee Production BQM-34A 59-02256/02330 75 BQM-34 59-05024/05029 6 BQM-34A 60-02248/02487 240 BQM-34A 60-06813/06912 100 USN BQM-34A 61-02780/02914 135 BQM-34A 62-04626/04844 219 BQM-34A 63-08889/09064 176 BQM-34A 64-14870/15049 180 BQM-34A 64-17683/17730 48 BQM-34A 65-10690/10822 133 BQM-34A 66-02665/02854 190 BQM-34A 66-08155/08254 100 MQM-34A 66-08308/08348 41 BQM-34A 66-13341/13523 183 BQM-34 66-13571/13610 40 MQM-34D 67-14910/14914 5 BQM-34 67-20000/20552 553 BQM-34 67-21501/21700 200 MQM-34D 67-22492/22516 25 BQM-34A 68-08287/08931 645 BQM-34A 68-10370/10377 8 BQM-34A 69-05933/06187 255 BQM-34A 69-05933/06187 255 BQM-34F 69-07765/07780 16 .

All Rights Reserved. .BQM-34A 70-01057/01258 202 BQM-34 70-01633/01946 314 BQM-34F 70-02496/02523 28 Model 147 71-01167/01366 200 cnx BQM-34A 71-00500/00789 290 BQM-34F 71-01809/01838 30 BQM-34A 72-00450/00569 120 BQM-34A 72-01066/01110 45 BQM-34F 72-01542/01566 25 BQM-34A 73-00115/00226 112 BQM-34A 74-00667/00760 94 BQM-34A 74-00761/00774 14 cnx BQM-34A 74-00793/00821 29 USA AQM-34V 74-02135/02150 16 BQM-34S 75-00126/00209 84 BQM-34A/S 76-00555/00804 250 BQM-34A 76-02107/02118 12 BQM-34S 77-00380/00463 84 BQM-34A 78-02448/02483 36 BQM-34A 79-01727/01848 122 BQM-34S 79-01849/01915 64 BQM-34A 83-00514/00568 55 BQM-34A 86-00850/00899 50 BQM-34A 91-23105/23191 87 AF/USN Copyright (c) 1995 SoftKey Multimedia Inc..