Continuum Theory
Fluid mechanics

© All Rights Reserved

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Continuum Theory
Fluid mechanics

© All Rights Reserved

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to another, fluid properties such as (density, temperature,

velocity, pressure) are continuous function of position & time.

,

Continuum means no voids.

Specific gravity (S.G): is defined as the ratio of the materials

density to the maximum density of water.

Specific weight (): is defined as the weight per unit volume.

Steady flow term is used when properties at every point in flow

field do not change with time

In mathematics:

One, two and three dimensional flow:Flow classified as 1D, 2D, 3D depending on the number of space

coordinates required to specify velocity field:

steady, 2D

2.

steady, 1D

that section (dont change with position).

Uniform flow field is used to describe a flow in which the (v) is

constant (independent of the space coordinates).

provided by path lines, time lines, streak line and stream

lines.

1. Timeline: a line that form by joining / marking a number of

adjacent fluid particles at constant instant of time.

2. Path line: a line traced out by moving fluid particle.

3. Streak line: a line joining fluid particles that passes through

affixed location in space.

4. Stream lines: Lines that are tangent to the direction of the

flow (they are tangent to the velocity vector), no flow can

cross streamline.

For steady flow, path line stream line and streak line are

identical

Example:

The velocity field is given by the following equation:

Find:

(a)

The equation for the stream line.

(b)

The equation of the stream line at point (2, 8).

(c)

Velocity of the particle at point (2, 8).

(d)

The particle passing through point (2,8)at t=0, find the

location of the

Particle at time 6.

(e)

Velocity of that particle at t=6.

(f) Path line equation at (2, 8).

Solution:

(a)

(b)

(c)

,

, where

At

(e)

(F)

Each fluid particle can experience two kinds of forces:

(a) Surface force :( acting on area)

Example: pressure, friction

Generated by contact with other fluid particles or solid surfaces.

(b) body force :( acting on volume)

Example: gravity, electromagnetic

Second subscript indicates the direction of the shear.

2-4 Viscosity

Where stresses do came from?

For fluid shear stress arise due to fluid viscous flow.

rate of deformation (shear rate)

du: small change in velocity

stresses:

1. Newtonian fluid: is a fluid in which shear stresses is directly

proportional to the shear rate.

Where (

Most fluids are Newtonian like (air, gasoline, oils, water, and

blood)

2. Non_newtonian fluid: is a fluid in which shear stresses is not

directly proportional to the shear rate.

Example: blood, honey, mastered, toothpaste.

motion

F (drag force)

Viscous and invicid flow:What is the nature of the drag force of the air in the ball?

2. Pressure builds up in the front of the ball.

force due to pressure build up?

Yes, by computing Reynolds number

Where:

V: reference velocity of the flow.

D: characteristic length or size of the flow.

Absolute viscosity of the fluid.

: Density of the fluid.

If Re is small, viscous effect will be

important (dominant), on the other hand

F(Lift force)

Example:

Basic equation:

Case (2): dust particle in air

Conclusion:

The flow is considered to be friction dominated not only based on

the viscosity of the fluid, but the complete flow system.

Laminar and turbulent flows:-

layer.

Turbulent flow: is one in which there is a rapid mixing between

fluid particles as they move due to three dimensional random

velocity fluctuation.

Flow of water in the pipe is unwanted turbulent but unavoidable;

because it generates more resistance to the flow.

If Re 2300 turbulent.

Re> 2300 laminar.

Through blood vessel is wanted because it allows random mixing

for exchanging

so we depend heavily in experimental data and semi empirical

theories.

Compressible and incompressible flow:Incompressible flow is a flow in which variation in density is

negligible

(Liquids except at high pressure)

Compressible flow a flow in which variation in density is not

negligible. (Gases except at low velocity)

Notes:

(1)

Gas flow considered compressible (generally) and liquid

flow considered incompressible.

(2)

Gas flow at relatively low speed is compared to the

speed of sound might be incompressible.

(3)

Mach number :

Example:

Consider flow in parallel plates, the lower plate is fixed, upper

plate moving with a constant speed. Find the shear stress at both

plates assuming (d) is very small

Sol:

Governing equation

Assumptions:

(1)Linear velocity distribution.

(2)Steady flow.

(3) Constant.

Where a and b obtained from boundary conditions.

No slip

For direction:

At the upper plate the shear stress act in the negative x

direction.

At the lower plate the shear stress act in the positive x

direction.

Example:

A pair of parallel disk is used is to measure the viscosity of

the liquid, the upper disk rotates at high H from the lower,

obtain an algebraic expression for the torque required to turn

the disk??

Solution:

,

But

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