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# 2-1 Fluid as a continuum

## Continuum means that properties vary smoothly from one point

to another, fluid properties such as (density, temperature,
velocity, pressure) are continuous function of position & time.
,
Continuum means no voids.
Specific gravity (S.G): is defined as the ratio of the materials
density to the maximum density of water.
Specific weight (): is defined as the weight per unit volume.

## 2-2 Velocity filed

Steady flow term is used when properties at every point in flow
field do not change with time
In mathematics:

## Where ( ) represent any fluid properties

One, two and three dimensional flow:Flow classified as 1D, 2D, 3D depending on the number of space
coordinates required to specify velocity field:

2.

## Uniform flow at given cross section the velocity is constant across

that section (dont change with position).
Uniform flow field is used to describe a flow in which the (v) is
constant (independent of the space coordinates).

## Sometimes we want usual representation of the flow, this

provided by path lines, time lines, streak line and stream
lines.
1. Timeline: a line that form by joining / marking a number of
adjacent fluid particles at constant instant of time.
2. Path line: a line traced out by moving fluid particle.
3. Streak line: a line joining fluid particles that passes through
affixed location in space.
4. Stream lines: Lines that are tangent to the direction of the
flow (they are tangent to the velocity vector), no flow can
cross streamline.
For steady flow, path line stream line and streak line are
identical

Example:
The velocity field is given by the following equation:

Find:
(a)
The equation for the stream line.
(b)
The equation of the stream line at point (2, 8).
(c)
Velocity of the particle at point (2, 8).
(d)
The particle passing through point (2,8)at t=0, find the
location of the
Particle at time 6.
(e)
Velocity of that particle at t=6.
(f) Path line equation at (2, 8).

Solution:
(a)

(b)

(c)

,

, where
At

(e)

(F)

## 2-3 Stress field

Each fluid particle can experience two kinds of forces:
(a) Surface force :( acting on area)
Example: pressure, friction
Generated by contact with other fluid particles or solid surfaces.
(b) body force :( acting on volume)
Example: gravity, electromagnetic

## First subscript indicates the normal to the surface.

Second subscript indicates the direction of the shear.

2-4 Viscosity
Where stresses do came from?
For fluid shear stress arise due to fluid viscous flow.

## For fluid at rest there are no shear stresses.

rate of deformation (shear rate)

## df: the applied force

du: small change in velocity

## Relation between shear rate and shear

stresses:
1. Newtonian fluid: is a fluid in which shear stresses is directly
proportional to the shear rate.

Where (

## is the dynamic viscosity (

Most fluids are Newtonian like (air, gasoline, oils, water, and
blood)
2. Non_newtonian fluid: is a fluid in which shear stresses is not
directly proportional to the shear rate.
Example: blood, honey, mastered, toothpaste.

## 2-6 Description and classification of fluid

motion

F (drag force)

Viscous and invicid flow:What is the nature of the drag force of the air in the ball?

## 1. Due to friction of air as it moves over the ball.

2. Pressure builds up in the front of the ball.

## Can we predict ahead of time the relative importance of viscous

force due to pressure build up?
Yes, by computing Reynolds number

Where:
V: reference velocity of the flow.
D: characteristic length or size of the flow.
Absolute viscosity of the fluid.
: Density of the fluid.
If Re is small, viscous effect will be
important (dominant), on the other hand

F(Lift force)

Example:
Basic equation:

## Viscous effect in this case can be neglected.

Case (2): dust particle in air

## viscous effect in this case is significant.

Conclusion:
The flow is considered to be friction dominated not only based on
the viscosity of the fluid, but the complete flow system.
Laminar and turbulent flows:-

## Laminar flow: is one in which fluid particles move in smooth

layer.
Turbulent flow: is one in which there is a rapid mixing between
fluid particles as they move due to three dimensional random
velocity fluctuation.
Flow of water in the pipe is unwanted turbulent but unavoidable;
because it generates more resistance to the flow.
If Re 2300 turbulent.
Re> 2300 laminar.

## Turbulent in the flow of the blood:

Through blood vessel is wanted because it allows random mixing
for exchanging

## However for turbulent flows there is no simple relation is valid,

so we depend heavily in experimental data and semi empirical
theories.
Compressible and incompressible flow:Incompressible flow is a flow in which variation in density is
negligible
(Liquids except at high pressure)
Compressible flow a flow in which variation in density is not
negligible. (Gases except at low velocity)
Notes:
(1)
Gas flow considered compressible (generally) and liquid
flow considered incompressible.

(2)
Gas flow at relatively low speed is compared to the
speed of sound might be incompressible.
(3)
Mach number :

## If (M<0.3) gas flow incompressible

Example:
Consider flow in parallel plates, the lower plate is fixed, upper
plate moving with a constant speed. Find the shear stress at both
plates assuming (d) is very small

Sol:
Governing equation

Assumptions:
(1)Linear velocity distribution.
(3) Constant.
Where a and b obtained from boundary conditions.
No slip

For direction:
At the upper plate the shear stress act in the negative x
direction.
At the lower plate the shear stress act in the positive x
direction.
Example:
A pair of parallel disk is used is to measure the viscosity of
the liquid, the upper disk rotates at high H from the lower,
obtain an algebraic expression for the torque required to turn
the disk??
Solution:
,

But