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Moralrelativism
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Moralrelativismmaybeanyofseveralphilosophicalpositionsconcernedwiththedifferencesinmoral
judgmentsacrossdifferentpeopleandcultures.Descriptivemoralrelativismholdsonlythatsomepeople
doinfactdisagreeaboutwhatismoralmetaethicalmoralrelativismholdsthatinsuchdisagreements,
nobodyisobjectivelyrightorwrongandnormativemoralrelativismholdsthatbecausenobodyisright
orwrong,weoughttotoleratethebehaviorofothersevenwhenwedisagreeaboutthemoralityofit.
Notalldescriptiverelativistsadoptmetaethicalrelativism,andmoreover,notallmetaethicalrelativists
adoptnormativerelativism.RichardRorty,forexample,arguedthatrelativistphilosophersbelieve"that
thegroundsforchoosingbetweensuchopinionsislessalgorithmicthanhadbeenthought",butnotthat
anybeliefisequallyasvalidasanyother.[1]
Moralrelativismhasbeenespoused,criticized,anddebatedforthousandsofyears,fromancientGreece
andIndiatothepresentday,indiversefieldsincludingphilosophy,science,andreligion.

Contents
1Variations
1.1Descriptive
1.2Metaethical
1.3Normative
2History
3Viewsonmetaethicalrelativism
3.1Scientificviews
3.1.1Moralquestionsandscience
3.1.2Moralityandevolution
3.2Philosophicalviews
3.2.1R.M.Hare
3.2.2WalterTerenceStace
3.2.3Philosophicalpoverty
3.3Religiousviews
3.3.1RomanCatholicism
3.3.2Buddhism
3.4Literaryviews
4Seealso
5References
6Bibliography
7Externallinks

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Variations
Descriptive
Descriptivemoralrelativismismerelythepositiveordescriptivepositionthatthereexist,infact,
fundamentaldisagreementsabouttherightcourseofactionevenwhenthesamefactsholdtrueandthe
sameconsequencesseemlikelytoarise.[2]Itistheobservationthatdifferentcultureshavedifferent
moralstandards.Descriptiverelativistsdonotnecessarilyadvocatethetoleranceofallbehaviorinlight
ofsuchdisagreementthatistosay,theyarenotnecessarilynormativerelativists.Likewise,theydonot
necessarilymakeanycommitmentstothesemantics,ontology,orepistemologyofmoraljudgements
thatis,notalldescriptiverelativistsaremetaethicalrelativists.Descriptiverelativismisawidespread
positioninacademicfieldssuchasanthropologyandsociology,whichsimplyadmitthatitisincorrect
toassumethatthesamemoralorethicalframeworksarealwaysinplayinallhistoricalandcultural
circumstances.

Metaethical
Metaethicalmoralrelativistsbelievenotonlythatpeopledisagreeaboutmoralissues,butthatterms
suchas"good","bad","right"and"wrong"donotstandsubjecttouniversaltruthconditionsatall
rather,theyarerelativetothetraditions,convictions,orpracticesofanindividualoragroupof
people.[3]TheAmericananthropologistWilliamSumnerwasaninfluentialadvocateofthisview.Inhis
1906workFolkwayshearguesthatwhatpeopleconsiderrightandwrongisentirelyshapedbythe
traditions,customsandpracticesoftheirculture.Moreover,sincethereisnohighermoralstandardthan
thelocalmoresofaculture,notransculturaljudgementabouttherightnessorwrongnessofaculture's
morescanbejustified.
Metaethicalrelativistsare,firstly,descriptiverelativists:theybelievethat,giventhesamesetoffacts,
somesocietiesorindividualswillhaveafundamentaldisagreementaboutwhatoneoughttodo(based
onsocietalorindividualnorms).What'smore,theyarguethatonecannotadjudicatethesedisagreements
usingsomeindependentstandardofevaluationthestandardwillalwaysbesocietalorpersonal.
Thisviewcontrastswithmoraluniversalism,whicharguesthat,eventhoughpeopledisagree,andsome
mayevenbeunpersuadable(e.g.someonewhoisclosedminded),thereisstillameaningfulsensein
whichanactionmaybemore"moral"thananotherthatis,theybelievethereareobjectivestandardsof
evaluationthatseemworthcalling"moralfacts"regardlessofwhethertheyareuniversallyaccepted.

Normative
Normativemoralrelativistsbelievenotonlythemetaethicalthesis,butthatithasnormative
implicationsonwhatweoughttodo.Theyarguethatmetaethicalrelativismimpliesthatweoughtto
toleratethebehaviorofothersevenwhenitrunscountertoourpersonalorculturalmoralstandards.
Mostphilosophersdonotagree,partiallybecauseofthechallengesofarrivingatan"ought"from
relativisticpremises.[2]Metaethicalrelativismseemstoeliminatethenormativerelativist'sabilityto
makeprescriptiveclaims.Inotherwords,normativerelativismmayfinditdifficulttomakeastatement
like"wethinkitismoraltotoleratebehaviour"withoutalwaysadding"otherpeoplethinkintoleranceof
certainbehavioursismoral".PhilosopherslikeRussellBlackfordevenarguethatintoleranceis,tosome
degree,important.Asheputsit,"weneednotadoptaquietismaboutmoraltraditionsthatcause
hardshipandsuffering.Norneedwepassivelyacceptthemoralnormsofourownrespectivesocieties,
totheextentthattheyareineffectiveorcounterproductiveorsimplyunnecessary."[4]Thatis,itis
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perfectlyreasonable(andpractical)forapersonorgrouptodefendtheirsubjectivevaluesagainstothers,
evenifthereisnouniversalprescriptionormorality.Wecanalsocriticizeotherculturesforfailingto
pursueeventheirowngoalseffectively.
Themoralrelativistsmayalsostilltrytomakesenseofnonuniversalstatementslike"inthiscountry,
it'swrongtodoX"oreven"tome,itisrighttodoY".[2]
Moraluniversalistsarguefurtherthattheirsystemoftendoesjustifytolerance,andthatdisagreement
withmoralsystemsdoesnotalwaysdemandinterference,andcertainlynotaggressiveinterference.[2]
Forexample,theutilitarianmightcallanothersociety'spractice'ignorant'or'lessmoral',buttherewould
stillbemuchdebateaboutcoursesofaction(e.g.whethertofocusonprovidingbettereducation,or
technology,etc.)

History
Moralrelativismencompassesviewsandargumentsthatpeopleinvariouscultureshaveheldover
severalthousandyears.Forexample,theancientJainaAnekantavadaprincipleofMahavira(c.599527
BC)statesthattruthandrealityareperceiveddifferentlyfromdiversepointsofview,andthatnosingle
pointofviewisthecompletetruth[5][6]andtheGreekphilosopherProtagoras(c.481420BC)
famouslyassertedthat"manisthemeasureofallthings".TheGreekhistorianHerodotus(c.484420
BC)observedthateachsocietyregardsitsownbeliefsystemandwayofdoingthingsasbetterthanall
others.Variousotherancientphilosophersalsoquestionedtheideaofanobjectivestandardofmorality.
IntheearlymoderneraBaruchSpinoza(16321677)notablyheldthatnothingisinherentlygoodor
evil.[7]The18thcenturyEnlightenmentphilosopherDavidHume(17111776)servesinseveral
importantrespectsasthefatherbothofmodernemotivismandofmoralrelativism,thoughHume
himselfdidnotespouserelativism.Hedistinguishedbetweenmattersoffactandmattersofvalue,and
suggestedthatmoraljudgmentsconsistofthelatter,fortheydonotdealwithverifiablefactsobtainedin
theworld,butonlywithoursentimentsandpassions.ButHumeregardedsomeofoursentimentsas
universal.Hefamouslydeniedthatmoralityhasanyobjectivestandard,andsuggestedthattheuniverse
remainsindifferenttoourpreferencesandourtroubles.
FriedrichNietzschebelievedthatwehavetoassessthevalueofourvaluessincevaluesarerelativeto
one'sgoalsandone'sself.Heemphasizedtheneedtoanalyzeourmoralvaluesandhowmuchimpact
theymayhaveonus.Theproblemwithmorality,accordingtoNietzsche,isthatthosewhowere
consideredgoodwerethepowerfulnobleswhohadmoreeducation,andconsideredthemselvesbetter
thananyonebelowtheirrank.Thus,whatisconsideredgoodisrelative.Agoodmanisnotquestioned
onwhetherornotthereisabad,suchastemptations,lingeringinsidehimandheisconsideredtobe
moreimportantthanamanwhoisconsideredbadwhoisconsidereduselesstomakingthehuman
racebetterbecauseofthemoralswehavesubjectedourselvesto.Butsincewhatisconsideredgoodand
badisrelative,theimportanceandvalueweplaceonthemshouldalsoberelative.Heproposedthat
moralityitselfcouldbeadanger.[8]Nietzschebelievedthatmoralsshouldbeconstructedactively,
makingthemrelativetowhoweareandwhatwe,asindividuals,considertobetrue,equal,goodand
bad,etc.insteadofreactingtomorallawsmadebyacertaingroupofindividualsinpower.[9]
ItiscontroversialwhetherthelatemodernphilosopherFriedrichNietzsche(18441900)isananti
realistorarelativisticrealistaboutmorality.
Seee.g.:Nietzsche'sViewsOnEthicsProminentMoralSkeptics.
Onescholar,supportinganantirealistinterpretation,concludesthat"Nietzsche'scentralargument
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forantirealismaboutvalueisexplanatory:moralfactsdon'tfigureinthe'bestexplanation'of
experience,andsoarenotrealconstituentsoftheobjectiveworld.Moralvalues,inshort,canbe
'explainedaway.'"[10]
ItiscertainthatNietzschecriticizesPlato'sprioritizationoftranscendenceastheForms.The
Platonistviewholdsthatwhatis'true',ormostreal,issomethingwhichisotherworldlywhilethe
(real)worldofexperienceislikeamere'shadow'oftheForms,mostfamouslyexpressedinPlato's
allegoryofthecave.Nietzschebelievesthatthistranscendencealsohadaparallelgrowthin
Christianity,whichprioritizedlifedenyingmoralqualitiessuchashumilityandobedience
throughthechurch.(SeeBeyondGoodandEvil,OntheGenealogyofMorals,TheTwilightofthe
Idols,TheAntichrist,etc.)
AnthropologistssuchasRuthBenedict(18871948)havecautionedobserversagainstethnocentricism
usingthestandardsoftheirownculturetoevaluatetheirsubjectsofstudy.Benedictsaidthat
transcendentmoralsdonotexistonlysociallyconstructedcustomsdo(seemoralnihilism)andthatin
comparingcustoms,theanthropologist"insofarasheremainsananthropologist...isboundtoavoid
anyweightingofoneinfavoroftheother".Tosomeextent,theincreasingbodyofknowledgeofgreat
differencesinbeliefamongsocietiescausedbothsocialscientistsandphilosopherstoquestionwhether
anyobjective,absolutestandardspertainingtovaluescouldexist.Thisledsometopositthatdiffering
systemshaveequalvalidity,withnostandardforadjudicatingamongconflictingbeliefs.TheFinnish
philosopheranthropologistEdwardWestermarck(18621939)ranksasoneofthefirsttoformulatea
detailedtheoryofmoralrelativism.Heportrayedallmoralideasassubjectivejudgmentsthatreflect
one'supbringing.HerejectedG.E.Moore's(18731958)ethicalintuitionisminvogueduringtheearly
partofthe20thcentury,andwhichidentifiedmoralpropositionsastrueorfalse,andknowntous
throughaspecialfacultyofintuitionbecauseoftheobviousdifferencesinbeliefsamongsocieties,
whichhesaidprovidedevidenceofthelackofanyinnate,intuitivepower.

Viewsonmetaethicalrelativism
Scientificviews
Moralquestionsandscience
AuthorandneuroscientistSamHarris,aprominentfigureintheNewAtheistmovement,hasarguedthat
therearecorrectandincorrectanswerstomoralquestionsthatmayonedayfallwithinreachofa
maturingneuroscience.[11][12]Headvocatesanempiricallybasedmoralsciencefoundeduponethical
realismor,morespecifically,ethicalnaturalism,andpresupposesalooselyutilitarianconsequentialism.
Harriswroteextensivelyonhowsciencecaninfluencehowweviewmoraltruth.Heclaimsthathuman
wellbeing,whichincludespeaksofhappinessandvalleysofdistress,indicatethatmoralityandits
consequencescanbestudiedwithintherealmofscience.Thesestatesofthehumanbraindependon
eventsintheworld.Consequently,theremustbescientifictruthstobeknownaboutit.(Harris2).
Everyonecandistinguishbetweenwhatahappypersonandamiserablepersonlookslike.Furthermore,
wecandistinguishbetweenagoodlife"andabadlife.Harrispresentsadisturbingaccountofthe
differencesbetweenthetwoinTheMoralLandscape,inwhichhedescribesthebadlifeasbeinga
youngwidowwhohaslivedherentirelifeinthemidstofcivilwarandwitnessedhersevenyearold
daughter[being]rapedanddismemberedatthehandsofherfourteenyearoldson,whowasgoadedto
thisevilatthepointofamachetebyapressgangofdrugaddledsoldiers(15).Thegoodlife,however,
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ismuchdifferentandmorefamiliartomostAmericans,inwhichyouaremarriedtothemostloving,
intelligentandcharismaticpersonyouhaveevermet.Bothofyouhavecareersthatareintellectually
stimulatingandfinanciallyrewarding.(15).[13]
Moralityandevolution
Someevolutionarybiologistsbelievethatmoralityisanaturalphenomenonthatevolvesbynatural
selection.[14]Inthiscase,moralityisdefinedasthesetofrelativesocialpracticesthatpromotethe
survivalandsuccessfulreproductionofthespecies,orevenmultiplecooperatingspecies.[15]

Philosophicalviews
R.M.Hare
Somephilosophers,forexampleR.M.Hare(19192002),arguethatmoralpropositionsremainsubject
tohumanlogicalrules,notwithstandingtheabsenceofanyfactualcontent,includingthosesubjectto
culturalorreligiousstandardsornorms.Thus,forexample,theycontendthatonecannothold
contradictoryethicaljudgments.Thisallowsformoraldiscoursewithsharedstandards,notwithstanding
thedescriptivepropertiesortruthconditionsofmoralterms.Theydonotaffirmordenythatmoralfacts
exist,onlythathumanlogicappliestoourmoralassertionsconsequently,theypostulateanobjective
andpreferredstandardofmoraljustification,albeitinaverylimitedsense.Nevertheless,accordingto
Hare,humanlogicshowstheerrorofrelativisminoneveryimportantsense(seeHare'sSortingout
Ethics).Hareandotherphilosophersalsopointoutthat,asidefromlogicalconstraints,allsystemstreat
certainmoraltermsalikeinanevaluativesense.Thisparallelsourtreatmentofothertermssuchasless
ormore,whichmeetwithuniversalunderstandinganddonotdependuponindependentstandards(for
example,onecanconvertmeasurements).Itappliestogoodandbadwhenusedintheirnonmoral
sense,tooforexample,whenwesay,"thisisagoodwrench"or"thisisabadwheel".Thisevaluative
propertyofcertaintermsalsoallowspeopleofdifferentbeliefstohavemeaningfuldiscussionsonmoral
questions,eventhoughtheymaydisagreeaboutcertain"facts".
WalterTerenceStace
"EthicalRelativity"isthetopicofthefirsttwochaptersofTheConceptofMoralsinwhichWalter
TerenceStacearguesagainstmoralabsolutism,butformoraluniversalism.[16]
Philosophicalpoverty
Criticsproposethatmoralrelativismfailsbecauseitrejectsbasicpremisesofdiscussionsonmorality,or
becauseitcannotarbitratedisagreement.Manycritics,includingIbnWarraqandEddieTabash,have
suggestedthatmetaethicalrelativistsessentiallytakethemselvesoutofanydiscussionofnormative
morality,sincetheyseemtoberejectinganassumptionofsuchdiscussions:thepremisethatthereare
rightandwronganswersthatcanbediscoveredthroughreason.Practicallyspeaking,suchcriticswill
arguethatmetaethicalrelativismmayamounttoMoralnihilism,orelseincoherence.
Thesecriticsarguespecificallythatthemoralrelativistsreducetheextentoftheirinputinnormative
moraldiscussionstoeitherrejectingtheveryhavingofthediscussion,orelsedeemingbothdisagreeing
partiestobecorrect.Forinstance,themoralrelativistcanonlyappealtopreferencetoobjecttothe

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practiceofmurderortorturebyindividualsforhedonisticpleasure.[17]Thisaccusationthatrelativists
rejectwidelyheldtermsofdiscourseissimilartoargumentsusedagainstother"discussionstoppers"
likesomeformsofsolipsismortherejectionofinduction.
PhilosopherSimonBlackburnmadeasimilarcriticism,[18]andexplainsthatmoralrelativismfailsasa
moralsystemsimplybecauseitcannotarbitratedisagreements.
Themoralrelativistmightrespondthattheirconceptionofmorality(asbeingcapableonlyofdescribing
preferences)ismoreaccurate,regardlessofthepracticaluseofthisconception.Thecritics,however,
maintainthattheirconceptionofmoralityis,forthatexactreason,inadequate.Ultimatelycriticscando
littlemorethantoinvitemoralrelativiststoredefine"morality"inpracticalormorallyrealisticterms.

Religiousviews
RomanCatholicism
CatholicandsomesecularintellectualsattributetheperceivedpostwardecadenceofEuropetothe
displacementofabsolutevaluesbymoralrelativism.PopeBenedictXVI,MarcelloPeraandothershave
arguedthatafterabout1960,Europeansmassivelyabandonedmanytraditionalnormsrootedin
Christianityandreplacedthemwithcontinuouslyevolvingrelativemoralrules.Inthisview,sexual
activityhasbecomeseparatedfromprocreation,whichledtoadeclineintheimportanceoffamiliesand
todepopulation.Asaresult,currentlythepopulationvacuuminEuropeisfilledbyimmigrants,often
fromIslamiccountries,whoattempttoreestablishabsolutevalueswhichstandatoddswithmoral
relativism.[19]ThemostauthoritativeresponsetomoralrelativismfromtheRomanCatholicperspective
canbefoundinVeritatisSplendor,anencyclicalbyPopeJohnPaulII.Manyofthemaincriticismsof
moralrelativismbytheCatholicChurchrelatelargelytomoderncontroversies,suchaselective
abortion.
Buddhism
BhikkhuBodhi,anAmericanBuddhistmonk,haswritten:"Byassigningvalueandspiritualidealsto
privatesubjectivity,thematerialisticworldview...threatenstoundermineanysecureobjective
foundationformorality.Theresultisthewidespreadmoraldegenerationthatwewitnesstoday.To
counterthistendency,meremoralexhortationisinsufficient.Ifmoralityistofunctionasanefficient
guidetoconduct,itcannotbepropoundedasaselfjustifyingschemebutmustbeembeddedinamore
comprehensivespiritualsystemwhichgroundsmoralityinatranspersonalorder.Religionmustaffirm,
intheclearestterms,thatmoralityandethicalvaluesarenotmeredecorativefrillsofpersonalopinion,
notsubjectivesuperstructure,butintrinsiclawsofthecosmosbuiltintotheheartofreality."[20]

Literaryviews
TheliteraryperspectivismbeginsatthedifferentversionsoftheGreekmyths.Symbolismcreated
multiplesuggestionsforavers.Structuralismteachesusthepolysemyofthepoems.Examplesof
relativisticliteraryworks:Gogol'sDeadSouls.TheAlexandriaQuartetbyLawrenceDurrellRaymond
Queneau'sZaziedanslemtro.OrNuriaPerpinya'stwentyliteraryinterpretationsoftheOdyssey.

Seealso
Atheistexistentialism
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Axiology
Culturalrelativism
Degustibusnonestdisputandum
Ethicalegoism
Ethicalintuitionism
Moralnihilism
Secularethics

References
1. Rorty,Richard(1982).ConsequencesofPragmatism.Minneapolis:UniversityofMinnesotaPress.ISBN0
816610649.
2. Swoyer,Chris(February22,2003).http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/relativism/#1.2.RetrievedMay10,2010.
Missingorempty|title=(help)
3. ChrisGowans,"MoralRelativism"articlelinkatStanfordEncyclopedia
(http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/moralrelativism/#ForArg)
4. attheendofhisreviewathttp://jetpress.org/v21/blackford3.htm
5. Dundas,Paul(2002)p.231
6. Koller,JohnM.(July,2000)pp.40007
7. KelleyL.Ross(1999)."BaruchSpinoza(16321677)"(http://www.friesian.com/spinoza.htm).Historyof
PhilosophyAsISeeIt.Retrieved20091207.
8. Smith,Douglas(2008).FriedrichNietzsche.Oxford:OxfordUniversityPress.pp.362363.
9. Spinks,Lee(2003).FriedrichNietzsche.Florence,KY:Routledge.p.5.
10. BrianLeiter,"Nietzsche'sMoralandPoliticalPhilosophy"articlelinkatStanfordEncyclopedia
(http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/nietzschemoralpolitical/)
11. "Moralconfusioninthenameof'science'SamHarris,ProjectReasonRichardDawkins.net"
(http://richarddawkins.net/articles/5343).5July2010.Retrieved5July2010."Manypeoplewholovedmy
talk,misunderstoodwhatIwassaying,andloveditforthewrongreasonsandmanyofmycriticswereright
tothinkthatIhadsaidsomethingextremelycontroversial.Iwasnotsuggestingthatsciencecangiveusan
evolutionaryorneurobiologicalaccountofwhatpeopledointhenameof"
morality."NorwasImerelysaying

thatsciencecanhelpusgetwhatwewantoutoflife.Bothofthesewouldhavebeenquitebanalclaimsto
make(unlessonehappenstodoubtthetruthofevolutionorthemind'
sdependencyonthebrain).RatherIwas

suggestingthatsciencecan,inprinciple,helpusunderstandwhatweshoulddoandshouldwantand,
perforce,whatotherpeopleshoulddoandwantinordertolivethebestlivespossible.Myclaimisthatthere
arerightandwronganswerstomoralquestions,justastherearerightandwronganswerstoquestionsof
physics,andsuchanswersmayonedayfallwithinreachofthematuringsciencesofmind."
12. SamHarris:Sciencecananswermoralquestions
(http://www.ted.com/talks/sam_harris_science_can_show_what_s_right.html)
13. SamHarris:TheMoralLandscape

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14. Joyce,Richard(2006).TheEvolutionofMorality(http://books.google.ca/books?
id=3nk5Lq2hY9EC&printsec=frontcover&dq=evolution+of+morality+joyce&source=bl&ots=9R9Y9kkFv4&s
ig=Zoa2FImAz58WT1NxEVcvSsedh6w&hl=en&ei=6ZMLTezrFIGusAO2tOXTCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&
ct=result&resnum=1&sqi=2&ved=0CBgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false).Cambridge,MA:MITPress.
ISBN9780262101127.
15. Shermer,Michael."TranscendentMorality"(http://books.google.com/books?
id=eevvWAcMBaAC&pg=PA19&dq=shermer+exegesis&ei=EIC1SNOiE4uWyATTmaj2Bg&sig=ACfU3U3
KFh8kP8Ns8YgpqBuI03N1JrpEg).TheScienceofGoodandEvil.ISBN0805075208."Giventhis
presupposition,itseemsreasonabletobebothatranscendentalistandanempiricist,orwhatIcalla
transcendentempiricist."
16. Stace,WalterT.(1937,Reprinted1975bypermissionofMacMillanPublishingCo.Inc.).TheConceptof
Morals.NewYork:TheMacMillanCompany.p.67.ISBN0844629901.Checkdatevaluesin:|date=
(help)
17. ReasonableDoubtsPodcast,IbnWarraqinterviews"DefendingtheWest"and"WhattheKoranReallySays"
(http://www.podcast.tv/videopodcasts/reasonabledoubtspodcast121147.html)
18. PhilosophyBitespodcast,SimonBlackburnonMoralRelativism(http://philosophybites.com/2007/08/simon
blackburn.html)
19. JosefCardinalRatzinger,MarcelloPera,WithoutRoots:TheWest,Relativism,Christianity,Islam(Basic
Books,2006.ISBN0465006345).
20. BhikkhuBodhi,"ABuddhistResponsetoContemporaryDilemmasofHumanExistence"articlelinkat
AccesstoInsight(http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/bodhi/response.html)

Bibliography
GuyAnkerl,GlobalCommunicationwithoutUniversalCivilization.volI:Coexisiting
ContemporaryCivilizations:AraboMuslim,Bharati,Chinese,andWestern.(Geneva,
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JoxeAzurmendi1998:"Theviolenceandthesearchfornewvalues"inEuskalHerriakrisian,
(Elkar,1999),pp.11116.ISBN8483315726
KurtBaier,"DifficultiesintheEmotiveImperativeTheory"inPaulWTaylor(editor):TheMoral
Judgement:ReadingsinContemporaryMetaEthicsEnglewoodCliffs,N.J.:PrenticeHall,1963
RuthBenedict,PatternsofCulture(Mentor)
PanayotButchvarov,"SkepticisminEthics"(BloomingtonandIndianapolis,IndianaUniversity
Press,1989).
RonaldF.Duska,"What'sthePointofaBusinessEthicsCourse?",1BusinessEthicsQuarterly
335352(1991),reprintedinSterlingHarwood,ed.,BusinessasEthicalandBusinessasUsual
(Belmont,CA:WadsworthPublishingCo.,1996),pp.1121.
R.M.Hare,SortingoutEthics(OxfordUniversityPress)
GilbertHarman&JudithJarvisThomson,MoralRelativismandMoralObjectivity(Blackwell
Publishing),1996.
SterlingHarwood,"TakingEthicsSeriouslyMoralRelativismversusMoralRealism"in
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SterlingHarwood,ed.,BusinessasEthicalandBusinessasUsual(Belmont,CA:Wadsworth
PublishingCo.,1996),pp.24.
SterlingHarwood,"AgainstMacIntyre'sRelativisticCommunitarianism"inSterlingHarwood,
ed.,BusinessasEthicalandBusinessasUsual(Belmont,CA:WadsworthPublishingCo.,1996),
pp.510.
DavidHume,AnEnquiryConcerningthePrinciplesofMorals,ed.TomL.Beauchamp(Oxford
UniversityPress)
G.E.Moore,PrincipiaEthica(CambridgeUniversityPress)
JeanPaulSartre,"ExistentialismisaHumanism"inExistentialismFromDostoevskytoSartre,ed.
byWalterKaufmann(WorldPublishingCompany)
WalterTerenceStace,TheConceptofMorals,(TheMacMillanCompany,1937,reprinted,1975
byPermissionofMacmillanPublishingCo.,Inc.,(MacmillanPublishers),ISBN0844629901),
SeeChapters1and2entitled"EthicalRelativity",pp168.
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BernardWilliams,EthicsandtheLimitsofPhilosophy(HarvardUniversityPress)
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Externallinks
Moralrelativism(http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/moralrelativism)entryintheStanford
EncyclopediaofPhilosophy
MoralRelativism(http://www.iep.utm.edu/moralre/)entryintheInternetEncyclopediaof
Philosophy
LivingwithRelativism(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Aejz5usFAk)

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