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GHANABUILDINGCODE

PART3USEANDOCCUPANCY

TABLEOFCONTENTS

3.1 GENERAL3

3.1.1

Scope

3.1.2

Definitions

3.2CLASSIFICATIONOFBUILDINGSORPARTSOFBUILDINGS
BYMAJOROCCUPANCY
6

3.2.2

3.2.3

3.2.4

3.2.5

BuildingSizeDetermination

10

ProvisionofCompartmentWallsandCompartmentFloors

11

FireResistanceofElementsofStructure

13

FireResistanceofFloorsinConjunctionwithSuspendedCeilings

3.2.6ExternalWalls

3.2.7CalculationofPermittedLimitsofUnprotectedAreas

3.2.8RulesforCalculationbyReferencetoanEnclosingRectangle

3.2.9 SeparatingWalls

3.2.10 CompartmentWallsandCompartmentFloors

3.2.11ProtectionofOpeningsinSeparatingWalls,CompartmentWalls
andCompartmentFloors

3.2.12 FireStopping

3.2.13RestrictionofSpreadofFlameOverSurfaceofWallsandCeilings

3.2.14 RoofCovering

3.2.15 SmallGaragesandSmallOpenCarports

3.2.16 OccupantLoad

41

42

43

44

57

60

61

71

73

76

81

84

3.3

SAFETYREQUIREMENTSWITHINFLOORAREAS86

3.3.1

RequirementsApplyingtoallFloorAreas

ResidentialOccupancy

3.3.2

3.3.3
InstitutionalOccupancy

3.3.4
BusinessandPersonalServicesOccupancy

3.3.5
Mercantileoccupancy

3.3.6
IndustrialOccupancy

3.3.7AssemblyOccupancy

3.4

3.4.1

3.4.2

3.4.3

3.4.4

3.4.5

3.4.6

3.4.7

3.4.8

86

91

93

94

95

96

98

REQUIREMENTSFOREXITS105

GeneralRequirements

105

NumberandLocationofExitsfromFloorAreas

106

WidthandHeightofExits

109

FlameSpreadRatingforExits

112

RequiredFireSeparationforExits

112

ExitSigns

114

LightingforExits

115

TypesofExitFacility

115

3.5

3.5.1

3.5.2

3.5.3

3.5.4

HEALTHREQUIREMENTS121

HeightandAreaofRooms

121

Windows

121

Ventilation

121

PlumbingFacilities

122

APPENDIX1REFERREDSTANDARDS126
2

PART3USEANDOCCUPANCY

3.1 GENERAL
3.1.1 Scope:Thispartcoverstherequirementsoffireprotectionofbuildingsandthehealth
ofthebuildingenvironment,throughtheclassificationofbuildingsbasedonoccupancy,
typeofconstruction,andtheirrequirements.

3.1.1(1)Thispartappliestoallbuildingsofmorethantwostoreysorwhosetotalfloorareaexceeds

220m2.

(2)Forbuildingsnotlistedin3.1.1(1),requirementsrelatingtouseandoccupancywillbefound

inPart7oftheCode.

3.1.2 Definitions
3.1.2.1Forthepurposeofthispart,thefollowingdefinitionsshallapply;andinthecaseofstorey
levels,refertotheBritishsystem:

basementstoreymeansastoreywhichisbelowthegroundstorey;or,ifthereisnogroundstorey,
meansastorey,thefloorofwhichissituatedatsuchalevelorlevelsthatsomepointonitsperimeteris
more than 1.2m below the level of the finished surface of the ground adjoining the building in the
vicinityofthatpoint.Fig.3.1.2.1A

compartment means any part of a building which is separated from all other parts by one or more
compartmentfloorsorbybothsuchwallsandfloorsandforthepurposesofthispart,ifanypartofthe
top storey of a building is within a compartment, the compartment shall also include any roof space
abovesuchpartofthetopstorey.Fig.3.1.2.1B

compartmentwallandcompartmentfloormeanrespectively,awallandafloorwhichcomplieswith
subsection3.2.8andwhichisprovidedforthepurposesofsubsection3.2.3ortodivideabuildinginto
compartmentsforanypurposeinconnectionwithsubsection3.2.4,3.2.5or3.2.6.

doorincludesanyshutter,coverorotherformofprotectiontoanopeninginanywallorfloorofa
building,orinthestructuresurroundingaprotectedshaft,whetherthedoorisconstructedofone or
moreleaves.

elementofstructuremeans
(a)
any member forming part of the structural frame of a building or any other
beamorcolumn(notbeingmemberformingpartofaroofstructureonly).
(b)
afloor,includingacompartmentfloor,otherthanthelowestfloorofabuilding.
(c)

anexternalwall

(d)

aseparatingwall

(e)

acompartmentwall

(f)

structureenclosingaprotectedshaft

(g)

aloadbearingwall
3

(h)
agallery.Fig.3.1.2.1C
externally noncombustible means externally faced with, or otherwise externally consisting of non
combustiblematerials.

firestopmeansabarrierorsealwhichwouldpreventorretardthepassageofsmokeorflamewithina
cavityoraroundapipeorductwhereitpassesthroughawallorfloororatajunctionbetweenelements
ofstructure.

ground storey means a storey the floor of which is situated at such a level or levels that any given
pointonitsperimeterisatorabout,ornotmorethan1.2mbelow,thelevelofthefinishedsurfaceof
thegroundadjoiningthebuildinginthevicinityofthatpoint;or,iftherearetwoormoresuchstoreys,
meansthehigherorhighestofthese.Fig.3.1.2.1E

heightofbuildinghasthemeaningascribedtoitinsubsection3.2.2.

opencarpotmeansacarpotofnotmorethanonestorey,whichisopenontwoormoreofitssides;
andforthepurposeofthisdefinitionasidewhichincludesorconsistsofadoorshallnotforthatreason
beregardedasanopenside.

permittedlimitofunprotectedareasmeansthemaximumaggregateareaofunprotectedareasinany
sideorexternalwallofabuildingorcompartment,calculatedasprescribedinsubsection3.1.7.7.

protected shaft means a stairway, lift, escalator, chute, duct or other shaft which enables persons,
thingsorairtopassbetweendifferentcompartmentsandcomplieswithsubsection3.1.10.

relevantboundaryinrelationtoasideorexternalwallofabuildingorcompartment,meansthatpart
oftheboundaryofthepremisesorofthenotionalboundarywhichisadjacenttothatsideorwalland
eithercoincideswithisparalleltoorisatanangelofnotmorethan180owiththatsideorwall.
Fig.3.1.2.1D

separatingwallmeansawallorpartofawallwhichiscommontotwoadjoiningbuildings.

unprotectedareainrelationtoanexternalwallorside,ofabuildingmeans

(a) awindow,doororotheropening

(b) anypartoftheexternalwallwhichhasfireresistancelessthanthatspecifiedbythispart
forthatwall,and

(c) any part of the external wall which has combustible material more than 1 mm thick
attachedorappliedtoitsexternalface,whetherforcladdingoranyotherpurposes.

(2) Anyreferenceinthisparttoabuildingshall,inanycasewheretwoormorehousesadjoin,he
construedasreferencetooneofthosehouses.

(3) Ifanypartofabuildingotherthanasinglestoreybuilding

(a) consistsofgroundstoreyonly

(b) has a roof to which there is only such access as may be necessary for the purposes of
maintenanceorrepair;and

(c) compartmentwallorcompartmentwallsinthesamecontinuousverticalplane,thatpart
maybetreated,forthepurposesofthispart,asapartofasinglestoreybuilding.
Fig.3.1.2.1F

(4) Any reference in this part to a roof of a specified designation shall be construed as a
requirementthattherooforpartoftheroofshallbesoconstructedtothesamespecification,if
exposedtotestbyfireinaccordancewithBS476:Part3:1958,wouldcomplywiththerelevant
testcriteriaspecifiedinrelationtothatdesignation.

Anyrooforpartofaroofshallbedeemedtobeofthespecifieddesignationifitconformswith
oneofthespecificationssetoutagainstthatdesignationinTable3.1.10.7B.

3.2 CLASSIFICATIONOFBUILDINGORPARTSOFBUILDINGSBYMAJOROCCUPANCY

3.2.1 (1)

(2)

Everybuildingorpartthereof,whetherexistingorhereaftererected,shallbeclassified
by the authority having jurisdiction, as belonging to one of the following groups
according to the use or its major character of occupancy and as described and
exemplifiedin Table3.2.1A
Thepurposeofclassificationistodeterminewhichrequirementsapply.Thispartofthe
code requires classification in accordance with very major occupancy for which the
buildingisusedorintendedtobeused.Thisgivestheauthorityhavingjurisdictionthe
righttoenforceregulationsforeverysuchoccupancy.

(3)

Except as provided in 3.2.1 (4) when a building is divided into compartments used or
intended to be used for more than one major occupancy, the occupancy of each
compartmentshallbedeterminedseparately.
(4)Wherethewholeorpartofabuildingorcompartment(asthecasemaybe)isusedor

intended to be used for more than one major occupancy only the main occupancy of

that building or compartment shall be taken into account in determining which

occupancygroupitfalls.

Table3.2.1A
FormingpartofArticle3.2.1(1)

CLASSIFICATIONBYGROUPOFTYPICALOCCUPANCIES
Group

Description
Occupancies
Residential occupancies used for
sleeping accommodation is provided
fornormalresidentialpurposes,withor
without cooking or dining or both
facilities, excluding those covered in
GroupCoccupancies,including:

Educational
occupancies
where
building is used for school, college or
daycare purposes involving assembly
forinstruction,educationorrecreation
and which is not covered by Group F,
including:

Institutionaloccupanciesinwhich:
(i) persons are detained for penal or
correctional
purposes,
or
for
involuntary detention, or whose
libertiesarerestricted,including:

(ii) persons because of age, mental or


physicallimitationsrequirespecialcare
ortreatment,including:

Examples

Apartments(flats)
BoardingHouses
Clubs,residential
Convents
Dormitories
1or2familyprivatehouses

Schools(residential)
Colleges(residential)

Jails
Penitentiaries
Policestations(1)

Minorscorrectional
centres(3)
Convalescenthomes(3)
Hospitals
Infirmaries

Hotels
Lodging
Monastries
Motels

Prisons
Psychiatrichospitals(1)
Reformatories(1)

Orphanages
Psychiatrichospitals(2)
Reformatories
Sanitoria(2)


Business and personal services
occupancies for conducting business
and rendering professional and
personalservicesincluding:
B

Mercantile occupancies for displaying,


or selling of retail goods wares, or
merchandise,eitherwholesaleorretail,
M

including:

Factory occupancies in which persons


are employed in any process for or
incidentalto:

(a)makingofanyarticleorpartofany
articleor

(b) altering, repairing ornamenting,


finishing, cleaning or washing or
breakingupordemolitionofanyarticle

(c) the adapting for sale of any article,


including:

Assembly occupancies used for the


attendance of persons for or in
connection with social, amusement,
recreational, religious, patriotic, civil,
travel, educational, business or other
activities and not comprised within
groupsAtoFincluding:

Banks
Barber and hair dressing
shops
Beautyparlours
Dentaloffices
Drycleaning,
selfservice
notemploying
flammableorexplosive
solventsorcleaners
Firestations

Laundry
selfservice
Medicaloffices
Offices
Policestation(2)
Radiostations
Smalltool
and
appliance
rentalandservice
Telephone
exchanges

Departmentstores
Exhibitionhalls
Markets(areaupto500m2)

Shops
Stores
Supermarkets(witharea
morethan500m2)
Underground shopping
centres

Factories
Laboratories
Powerplants
Assemblyplants
Drycleaningplants
Pumpingstations
Laundries
Gasplants
Refineries
Sawmills

Motionpicturehouses
Theatres
Placesofworship
Courtrooms
Dancehalls
Exhibitionhall
Arenas
Reviewingstands
Stadia
Grandstands
Passengerstationsand
terminalsofair,surfaceand
marinepublic
transportation
services
8

Televisionstudios
admitting a viewing
audience
Lecturehalls
Lodgerooms
Museums
Libraries
Gymnasia

General Storage buildings or part of a


buildingusedprimarilyfor;

(i) the storage or sheltering of


goods, wares, merchandise
(except those that involve
highlycombustibleorexplosive
productsormaterials),vehicles
oranimals,including:(4)

HighHazard Storage Buildings or part


ofabuildingusedprimarilyfor:

(ii) thestorage,handling,
manufacture or processing of
highlycombustibleorexplosive
materialsorproductswhichare
liable to burn with extreme
rapidity and/or which may
produce poisonous fumes or
explosions;
for
storage,
handling, manufacture or
processingwhichinvolvehighly
corrosive, toxic or noxious
alkalis,acidsorotherliquidsor
chemicals producing flame,
fumes
and
explosive,
poisonous, irritant or corrosive
gases; and for the storage,
handling or processing of any
material producing explosive
mixtures of dust which will
result in the division of matter
into fine particles subject to
spontaneous
ignition,
including:

Warehouses
ColdStorage
Freightdepots
Transitsheds
Storehouses
Grainelevators
Barns
Stables

Bulkplantsforflammable
liquids
Aircraftrepairhangers
Boxfactories
Distilleries
Rubberprocessingplants
Manufactureofartificial
flowers,
synthetic
leather,
ammunition,explosives
andfireworks.

Printingplants
Truck and Marine
terminals
Garages
Hangers (other than
aircraftrepairhangers)

Storageunderpressure
ofmorethan
0.1N/mm2andin
quantitiesexceeding
70m3,ofacetylene,
hydrogen,
illuminatingand
naturalgases,
ammonia,chlorine,
phosgene,sulphur
dioxide,carbon
dioxide,methyloxide
andallgasessubject
toexplosion,fumeor
toxichazard,
cryogenicgases,etc.

Col.1

UtilityandMiscellaneous

Includes the following types of


buildingsandstructures:
Accessorybuilding
Miscellaneous buildings not
classifiedinanothercategory
Aircraft
hangers
where
accessory is to a 1 or 2family
residence
Grain silos where accessory is
toabuildinginOccupancyclass
R
Buildingtypesinclude:

Agriculturalbuilding
Carports
Fences(>1.8mhigh)
Greenhouses
Livestockshelters
Privategarages
Sheds
Tanks
Towers

NotestoTable3.1.2A
(1) Withdetentionquarters
(2)

Withoutdetentionquarters

(3)

Wheretheoccupantsareambulatoryandliveasasinglehousekeepingunitinadwellingunitwithsleepingaccommodationfornot
morethan10people,theoccupancymaybeconsideredtobeGroupR
Storagepropertiesarecharacterizedbythepresenceofrelativelysmallnumberofpersonsinproportiontothearea.Anynewuse
whichincreasesthenumberofoccupantstoafigurecomparablewithotherclassesofoccupancyshallchangetheclassificationof
thebuildingtothatofthenewuse,forexample,hangarsusedforassemblypurposes,warehousesusedforofficepurposes,garage
buildingsusedformanufacturing.
BuildingsnotlistedinoneoftheoccupancycategoriesbytheCodearetobeassignedtothecategorywiththemostsimilarfireand
otherhazards.
Aspacewithchangeableoccupanciesmustcomplywiththerulesofalloccupanciesinvolved.
Buildingswithmorethanoneoccupancymustcomplywithmixedoccupancyrequirements.

(4)

(5)
(6)
(7)

3.2.2 Buildingsizedetermination

3.2.2 (1)Inthispart:

(a) The height of a building, or (where relevant) of part of a building, means the height of such
buildingorpart,measuredfrommeanlevelofthegroundadjoiningtheoutsideoftheexternal
wallsofthebuildingtothelevelofhalftheverticalheightoftheroofofthebuildingorpartor
topofthewallsoroftheparapet(ifany)whicheveristhehigher.
Fig.3.2.2A
(b) (i)theareaofanystoreyofabuildingorcompartmentshallbetakentobethetotalareaofthat
storeyboundedbytheinnerfinishedsurfacesofenclosingwallsor,onanysidewherethereis
noenclosingwallbytheoutermostedgeoftheflooronthatside;

(ii)theareaofanyroomorgarageshallbetakentobethetotalareaofitsfloorboundedbythe
innerfinishedsurfacesofthewallsformingtheroomorgarage.

10

(iii) the area of any part of a roof shall be taken to be the actual visible area of such part
measuredonaplaneparalleltothepitchoftheroof.Fig.3.2.2B

(c) thecubiccapacityofabuildingorcompartmentshallbeascertainedbymeasuringthevolume
ofspacecontainedwithin

(i)theinnerfinishedsurfacesoftheenclosingwallsor,onanysidewherethereisnoenclosing
wall,aplaneextendingverticallyabovetheoutermostedgeoftheflooronthatsideand

(ii)theuppersurfaceofitslowestfloorand

(iii)inthecaseofabuildingorofacompartmentwhichextendstotherooftheundersurfaceof
theroofor,inthecaseofanyothercompartment,theundersurfaceoftheceilingofthehighest
storeywithinthatcompartmentincludingthespaceoccupiedbyanyotherwallsoranyshafts,
ductsorstructurewithinthespacetobemeasured.Fig.3.2.2C,Fig.3.2.2D

3.2.3 ProvisionofCompartmentWallsandCompartmentFloors

3.2.3(1)Exceptasprovidedin3.2.3(2)anybuildingofanoccupancygroupspecifiedincolumn(1)of
Table3.2.3Awhichhas:

(a) anystoreyorfloorareawhichexceedsthatspecifiedasrelevanttoabuildingofthat
occupancy group and height in column (3) of the Table; or (b) a cubic capacity which
exceeds that specified in column (4) of the Table shall be divided into compartments by
meansofacompartmentwallsorcompartmentfloorsorbothsothat;

(i)
nosuchcompartmenthasanystoreythefloorareaofwhichexceedsthearea
specifiedasrelevanttothebuildingincolumn(3)oftheTable;and
(ii)
no such compartment has a cubic capacity which exceeds that specified as
relevantincolumn(4)oftheTable.

3.2.3(2)
For any building of occupancy group D fitted throughout with an automatic sprinkler
system,thelimitsofdimensionsspecifiedincolumns(3)and(4)ofTable3.2.3Ashallbe
doubled.

11


12

3.2.3(3)Inanybuildingwhichexceeds28minheight,anyfloorwhichseparatesonestoreyfromanother
otherthanafloorwhichis

(a)withinamaisonette;or

(b)abovethegroundstoreybutataheightnotexceeding9mabovetheadjoininggroundshall
beconstructedasacompartmentfloor.Fig.3.2.3A

3.2.3(4)Thefollowingwallsandfloorsshallbeconstructedascompartmentwallsorcompartment
floors:

(a)anyfloorinabuildingofoccupancyGroupB;

(b)anywallorfloorseparatingaflatormaisonettefromanyotherpartofthesamebuilding;
Fig.3.2.3B

(c)anywallorfloorseparatingpartofabuildingfromanyotherpartofthesamebuildingwhich
is used or intended to be used mainly for an occupancy falling within a different occupancy
groupinTable3.2.3A;and
(d)anyfloorimmediatelyoverabasementstoreyifsuchastorey

(i)formspartofabuildingofoccupancyGroupAwhichhasthreeormorestoreysora
buildingorcompartmentofoccupancygroupD;and(ii)hasanareaexceeding100m2.

3.2.4 Fireresistanceofelementsofstructure

3.2.4(1)InthissubsectionandTable3.2.4A:

(a) anyreferencetoabuildingofwhichanelementofstructureformspartmeansthebuilding
or (if a building is divided into compartments) any compartment of the building of which
theelementformspart;and

(b) referencetoheightmeanstheheightofabuildingnotofanycompartmentinthebuilding,
but if any compartment is completely separated, throughout its height both above and
belowgroundfromallotherpartsbyacompartmentwallorcompartmentwallsinthesame
continuousverticalplane,anyreferencetoheightinrelationtothatpartmeanstheheight
solelyofthatpart.Fig.3.2.4A

3.2.4(2)Subjecttotheprovisionsof3.2.4(3),3.2.4(4)and3.2.5everyelementofstructureshallhave
fireresistanceofnotlessthantherelevantperiodsetoutinTable3.2.4Aprovidedthat:

(a)anyexternalwallshallnothaveafireresistanceoflessthanonehour;

(b)anyseparatingwallshallnothaveafireresistanceoflessthanonehour;

(c) any compartment wall or compartment floor which separates a part of a building falling
within occupancy group other than occupancy groups R , E and B shall not have a fire
resistanceoflessthanonehour;
13


(d) anyrelevantofstructurewhichformspartofmorethanonebuildingorcompartmentshall
be so constructed as to comply with the greater or greatest of the relevant requirements
specifiedinTable3.2.4A;and

(e) any relevant of structure shall not have fire resistance of less than the minimum period
requiredbytheseprovisionsofthecodeforanyelementwhichitcarries.

14

15

Table3.2.3A
(DimensionsofbuildingsandCompartments)
Fig.3.2.3C

Occupancy

Heightofbuilding

(2)

(1)

Limitsofdimensions

Floorareaofstorey
Cubic capacity of
buildingor
building
or
2
3
compartment(inm ) compartment(inm )

(3)
(4)

PartIBuildingsotherthansinglestoreybuildings

Notexceeding28m

3000

8500

R(Residential)

Exceeding28m

2000

5500

EandI

Anyheight

2000

Nolimit

Anyheight

2000

7000

Nolimit

2000
Nolimit

1000

28000

5500
21000

Nolimit

(Educational/Institutional)
BandM
(Business/Mercantile)

F(Industrial)

S,H(General
HazardousStorage)

Notexceeding28m

Exceeding28m
Notexceeding28m
and
Exceeding28m

Part2Singlestoreybuildings

R(Residential)

Anyheight

EandI(Educational/

Institutional)

Anyheight

16

3000

Nolimit

3000

Nolimit


3.2.4(3)

Anycompartmentwallseparatingaflatormaisonettefromanyotherpartofthesame
buildingshallnotberequiredtohavefireresistanceexceedingonehourunless

3.2.4(4)

(a) Thewallisaloadbearingwallorawallformingpartofaprotectedshaft;or

(b) Thepartofthebuildingfromwhichthewallseparatestheflatormaisonetteisofa
differentpurposegroupandtheminimumperiodoffireresistancerequiredbythe
provisionsofthesubsection3.2.4foranyelementofstructureinthatpartisone
andahalfhoursormore.

Provisionsof3.2.4(2)shallnotapplyto
(a) Anypartofanexternalwallwhichisnonloadbearingandwhichinaccordancewith
subsection3.2.6maybeconsideredanunprotectedarea;or

(b) Inthecaseofasinglestoreybuildingorabuildingconsistingofagroundstoreyand
one or more basement storeys, any element of structure which forms part of the
groundstoreyandconsistsof

(i) part of an external wall which does not support a gallery and which may in
accordancewithsubsection3.2.6beanunprotectedarea;or

(iii)
a structural frame or a beam or column; provided that any beam or column
whichgivessupporttoawallorgalleryshallhaveafireresistancenotlessthan
theminimumperiodrequiredbyprovisionsofthiscode;or

17

(iv)

Aninternalloadbearingwalloraloadbearingpartofawallunlessthatwallor
partis,orformspartofacompartmentwalloraseparatingwall,orformspart
ofthestructureenclosingaprotectedshaftorsupportsagallery.

Table3.2.4A
MinimumPeriodsofFireResistance
Part1:BuildingsOtherthanSingleStoreyBuildings

Maximumdimensions
Occupancygroup

Height
Cubiccapacity
Floorarea

(inm)
(inm3)
(inm2)
(1)
(3)
(4)
(2)

R(Residential)
Buildinghavingnotmorethan
twostoreys
Buildinghavingthreestoreys
Buildinghavinganynumber
ofstoreys
Buildinghavinganynumberof
storeys

EandI
(Educational/Institutional)

B(Businessand
PersonalService)

M(Mercantile)

F(Industrial)

Minimumperiodoffire
resistance(inhours)for
elementsofstructureforming
partof
Groundstorey
Basement
upperstorey
storey
(5)
(6)

NoLimit

500

NoLimit

1x

NoLimit

250

NoLimit

1(a)

28

3000

8500

NoLimit

2000

5500

28

Over28

2000

2000

7.5
7.5
15
28
NoLimit
7.5
7.5
15
28
NoLimit
7.5
7.5
15
28
28
Over28

250
500
Nolimit
5000
NoLimit
150
500
Nolimit
1000
2000
250
Nolimit
Nolimit
Nolimit
NoLimit
2000

1(a)
1
1
0

1(a)
1
2
0

1(a)
1
2
2

1(b)x
1
1
1
2
1(b)
1
1
2
4(y)
1(b)
1
1
2
4
4

18

NoLimit

NoLimit

NoLimit
NoLimit
3500
1400
NoLimit
NoLimit
NoLimit
3500
7000
7000
NoLimit
1700
4250
8500
28000
5500

Table3.2.4APart1(Contd.)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

7.5

250

NoLimit

1(b)

7.5

500

NoLimit

A(Assembly)

15

Nolimit

3500

1(a)

28

5000

154000

NoLimit

Nolimit

Nolimit

(6)

S,H(GeneralandHazardous
Storage)

7.5

150

NoLimit

1(b)

7.5

300

Nolimit

15

Nolimit

1700

1(a)

15

Nolimit

3500

28

Nolimit

7000

28

NoLimit

21000

Over28

1000

NoLimit

NotestoTable3.2.4aPart1

(*)

A floor which is immediately over a basement storey shall be deemed to be an element of structure
formingpartofabasementstorey.

(a) Thisperiodisreducedtohalfanhourinrespectofafloorwhichisnotacompartmentfloorexceptasto
thebeamswhichsupportthefloororanypartofthefloorwhichcontributestothestructuralsupportof
thebuildingasawhole.

(b) No fire resistance is required if the elements form part of a basement storey which has an area not
exceeding50m2.

(x) The items thus marked are applicable only to buildings, not to compartments, except in relation to
occupancygroupR

(y) If the building is fitted throughout with an automatic sprinkler system any maximum limits specified in
columns(3)and(4)shallbedoubled.

19

Table3.2.4APart2 Singlestoreybuildings

MinimumperiodsofFireresistance

Occupancygroup

(1)

Minimumfloorarea
(inm2)

(2)

Minimumperiodof
fireresistance(in
hours)forelementsof
structure
(3)

R(Residential)

EandI
(Educational/Institutional)

B(Businessand
PersonalService)

M(Mercantile)

F(Industrial)

G(Assembly)

S,H(Generaland
Hazardous
Storage)

3000

3000

3000

NoLimit

2000

3500

NoLimit

2000

3000

NoLimit

3000

Nolimit

500

1000

3000

NoLimit

NotestoPart2:z,SeeArticle3.2.6(4)(i)

20

Table3.2.4B

NationalPeriodsofFireResistance

Inthistable:

(a) Class 1 aggregate means foamed slag, pumice, blast furnace slag, pelleted fly ash, crushed
brick and burnt clay products (including expanded clay), wellburnt clinker and crushed
limestone.
Class 2 aggregate means flint gravel, granite and all crushed natural stones other than
limestone.

(b) Anyreferencetoplastermeans:

i)
inthecaseofanexternalwall1mormorefromtherelevantboundary,plasterapplied
ontheinternalfaceonly;

ii)
inthecaseofanyotherwall,plasterappliedonbothfaces;

iii)
iftoplasterofagiventhicknessontheexternalfaceofawall,exceptinthecaseofa
referencetovermiculitegypsumorperlitepypsumplaster,renderingontheexternal
faceofthesamethickness;

iv)
iftovermiculitegypsumplaster,vermiculitegypsumplasterofamixwithintherangeof
1to2:1byvolume.

(c) Loadassumedtobeoninnerleafonlyexceptforfireresistanceperiodoffourhours.

21

A.Masonryconstruction

Table3.2.4B(contd.)

Part1:Walls

ConstructionandMaterials
1.Reinforcedconcrete,minimum
concretecovertomainreinforcementof
25mm.

a)unplastered
b)12.5mmcementsandplaster
c)12.5mmgypsumsandplaster
d)12.5mmvermiculitegypsumplaster

2.NonfinesconcreteofClass2aggregate

a)12.5mmcementsandplaster
b)12.5mmgypsumsandplaster
c)12.5mmvermiculitegypsumplaster
3.Bricksofclay,concreteorsandlime

a)unplastered
b)12.5mmcementsandplaster
c)12.5mmgypsumsandplaster
d)12.5mmvermiculitegypsumplaster

4.ConcreteblocksofClass1aggregate

a)unplastered
b)12.5mmcementsandplaster
c)12.5mmgypsumsandplaster
d)12.5mmvermiculitegypsumplaster

5.ConcreteblocksofClass2aggregate

a)unplastered
b)12.5mmcementsandplaster
c)12.5mmgypsumsandplaster
d)12.5mmvermiculitegypsumplaster

4hrs

180
180
180
125

Minimumthicknessexcludingplaster(inmm)forperiodoffireresistanceof
LoadbearingNonloadbearing
2hrs
1hrs
1hr
hr
4hrs
2hrs
1hrs
1hr

100
100
100
75

100
100
100
75

75
75
75
63

hr

75
75
75
63

150
150
150

200
200
200
100

100
100
100
100

100
100
100
100

100
100
100
100

100
100
100
100

170
170
170
100

100
100
100
100

100
100
100
100

75
75
75
75

75
75
75
75

150
150
150
100

100
100
100
100

100
100
100
100

100
100
100
100

100
100
100
100

150
100
100
75

75
75
75
75

75
75
75
62

75
75
75
50

50
50
50
50

100

100
100
100
100

100
100
100
100

100
100
100
100

100
100
100
100

150
150
150
100

100
100
100
75

100
100
100
75

75
75
75
75

50
50
50
50

22

Table3.2.4B(contd.)

Part1:Walls(contd.)

ConstructionandMaterials

6. Autoclaved aerated concrete blocks density


4751200kg/m3

7.Hollowconcreteblocks,onecellinwall
Thickness,ofClass1aggregate

a)unplastered
b)12.5mmcementsandplaster
c)12.5mmgypsumsandplaster
d)12.5mmvermiculitegypsumplaster
8. Hollow concrete blocks, one cell in wall
thicknessofclass2aggregate

a)unplastered
b)12.5mmcementsandplaster
c)12.5mmgypsumsandplaster
d)12.5mmvermiculitegypsumplaster

9.Cellularclayblocknotlessthan50%solid

a)12.5mmcementsandplaster
b)12.5mmgypsumsandplaster
c)12.5mmvermiculitegypsumplaster

4hrs

180

Minimumthicknessexcludingplaster(inmm)forperiodoffireresistanceof
LoadbearingNonloadbearing
2hrs
1hrs
1hr
hr
4hrs
2hrs
1hrs
1hr

hr

100

100

100

100

100

62

62

50

50

100
100
100
100

100
100
100
100

100
100
100
100

100
100
100
100

150
150
150
100

100
100
100
75

100
75
75
75

100
75
75
62

75
75
75
62

150
150
150
125

150
150
150
100

125
125
125
100

125
125
125
100

125
100
100
75

200

100

100

100
100
100

75
75
62

23

Table3.2.4B(contd.)

Part1:Walls(contd.)

ConstructionandMaterials

4hrs

10.Cavitywallwithouterleafofbricksorblocks

orclay,composition,concreteorsandlime,not

lessthan100mmthickand

a) inner leaf of bricks or blocks of clay


100
compositionorsandlime

b)innerleafofsolidorhollowconcretebricksor
100
blocksofclass1aggregate

11. Cavity wall with outer leaf of cellular clay


150
blocks/9 above and inner leaf as of autoclaved
aerated concrete blocks, density 475 1200
kgm3.

Minimumthicknessexcludingplaster(inmm)forperiodoffireresistanceof
Loadbearing
Nonloadbearing
2hrs
1hrs
1hr
hr
4hrs
2hrs
1hrs
1hr

hr

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

75

75

75

75

75

75

75

75

75

75

100

100

100

100

75

75

75

75

75

*Perlitegypsumplastertoclaybricksonly

24

Table3.2.4B(contd.)
Part1:Walls(contd.)

B.

Framedandcompositeconstruction(nonloadbearing)contd.

ConstructionandMaterials
1.

2.
3.

4.

5.

Steelframewithexternalcladdingof16mmrenderingonmetal
lathing and internal lining of autoclaved aerated concrete
blocks,density4801120kg/m3ofthicknessof:

50mm
62mm
75mm
Steel frame with external cladding of 100mm concrete blocks
andinternalliningof16mmgypsumplasteronmetallathing
Steelframewithexternalcladdingofbricksofclay,concreteor
sandlime 100mm thick and internal lining of cement pulp
asbestosinsulatingboardofthicknessof9mm
Steelframewithexternalcladdingof16mmrenderingonmetal
lathingandinternalliningof9mmasbestosinsulatingboard

16mmgypsumplasteronmetallathing
Steelortimberframewithfacingsoneachsideof:

(a) Metal lathing with cementsand or gypsum plaster of


thicknessof:

19mm
12.5mm

(b) Metal lathing with vermiculite gypsum or perlite


gypsumplasterofthicknessof:

25mm
19mm
12.5mm

(c) 9.5mm plasterboard with gypsum plaster of thickness


of5mm
(d) 9.5mm plasterboard with vermiculite gypsum plaster
ofthicknessof

25mm
16mm
10mm
5mm

25

Periodsoffireresistanceinhours

2
3
4

2
1
1

2
1
1

B.

Table3.2.4BPart1:Wallscontd.

Framedandcompositeconstruction(nonloadbearing)contd.

ConstructionandMaterials

6.

(e) 12.5mmplasterboard
unplastered with gypsum plaster of thickness of
12.5mm

(f) 12.5mmplasterboardwithvermiculitegypsumplaster
ofthicknessof:

25mm
16mm
10mm
(g) 19mm plasterboard (or two layers of 9.5mm fixed to
breakjoint)withoutfinish

(h) 19mm plasterboard (or two layers of 9.5mm) with


vermiculitegypsumplasterofthicknessof:

16mm
10mm
(i) 12.5mmfibreinsulatingboardwithgypsumplasterof
thicknessof12.5mm

(j) Cement pulp asbestos insulating board not less than


9mmthickwith9mmfilletstofaceofstuds

(k) Cement pulp asbestos insulating board not less than


12mmthick

(l) 25mm wood wool slabs with gypsum plaster of


thicknessof12.5mm

Compressed straw slabs in timber frames finished on both


faceswithgypsumplasterofthicknessof5mm

Periodsoffireresistanceinhours

2
1
1

2
1

7.

8.

Plasterboard9.5mmcellularcorepartition:

(a) Unplastered
(b) 12.5mmgypsumplaster
(c) 22mmvermiculitegypsumplaster

Plasterboard19mmfinishedonbothfaceswith16mmgypsum
plaster

26

Table3.2.4BPart1:Walls(contd.)

B.

Framedandcompositeconstruction(nonloadbearing)contd.

Periodsoffireresistanceinhours

Plastered12.5mmcellularcorepartition:

(a) Unplastered

(b) 12.5mmgypsumplaster
1

(c) 16mmvermiculitegypsumplaster
2

Plasterboard 12.5mm bonded with neat gypsum plaster to

eachsideof19mmplasterboard
1

Threelayersof19mmplasterboardbondedwithneatgypsum

plaster
2

Woodwoolslabwith12.5mmrenderorplasterofthicknessof:

75mm
2

50mm
1

Compressed straw slabs, with 75mm by 12.5mm wood cover

stripstojoints,ofthicknessof50mm

ConstructionandMaterials

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

27

C.

Table3.2.4BPart1:Walls(contd.)

Externalwallsmorethan1mfromtherelevantboundary(nonloadbearing)

ConstructionandMaterials

1.

2.

Steel frame with external cladding of noncombustible sheets


andinternalliningof:

(a) 9mmcementpulpasbestosinsulatingboard

(b) 12.5mm cementsand or gypsum plaster on metal


lathing

(c) Sprayedcementpulpasbestosofthicknessof12.5mm

(d) Twolayersof9.5mmplasterboard

(e) 9.5mm plasterboard finished with gypsum plaster of


thicknessof12.5mm

(f) 12.5mm plastered board finished with 5mm gypsum


plaster

(g) 50mmcompressedstrawslabs

(h) 50mm compressed straw slabs finished with 5mm


gypsumplaster

Timberframewithexternalcladdingof10mmcementsandor
cementlimerenderingandinternalliningof:

(a) 9mmcementpulpasbestosinsulatingboard

(b) 16mmgypsumplasteronmetallathing

(c) 9.5mm plasterboard finished with 12.5mm gypsum


plaster

(d) 50mmcompressedstrawslabs

(e) Aeratedconcreteblock

50mm
62mm
75mm
100mm

28

Periodsoffireresistanceinhours

3
4
4
4

Table3.2.4BPart1:Walls(contd.)

C.

Externalwallsmorethan1mfromtherelevantboundary(nonloadbearing)

ConstructionandMaterials

3.

*4.

Timberframewithexternalcladdingof100mmclay,concrete
orsandlimebricksorblocksfinishedinternallywith:

(a) Cementpulpasbestosinsulatingboard

(b) 16mmgypsumplasteronmetallathing

Timber frame with external cladding of weather boarding or


9.5mmplywoodandinternalliningof:

(a) 9mmcementpulpasbestosinsulatingboard

(b) 16mmgypsumplasteronmetallathing

(c) 9.5mm plasterboard finished with 12.5mm gypsum


plaster

(d) 12.5mm plasterboard finished with 5mm gypsum


plaster

(e) 50mmcompressedstrawslabs

(f) 75mmwoodwoolslabsfacedeachsidewithasbestos
cement

(g) Aeratedconcreteblock

50mm

62mm

75mm

100mm

29

Periodsoffireresistanceinhours

Table3.2.4B(contd.)

PartII:ReinforcedConcreteColumns

ConstructionandMaterials

1.(a)Withoutplaster

(b)With12.5mmcementsandof
gypsumsandplasteronmesh
reinforcementfixedaroundcolumn

(c) Finishedwith12.5mmencasement
ofvermiculitegypsumplaster

(d) With 2.5mm hard drawn steel


wire fabric, of maximum pitch
150mm in each direction, placed
in concrete cover to main
reinforcement

(e) With limestone or lightweight


aggregateascoarseaggregate

2.Builtinto+anyseparatingwall,
compartmentorexternalwalls++

(a) Withoutplaster

(b) Finished
with
12.5mm
of
vermiculitegypsumplaster

Minimumdimensionofconcretecolumn*withoutfinish
(inmm)forafireresistanceof

4hrs
2hrs
1hrs
1hr
hr

450

300

250

200

150

300

225

150

150

150

275

200

150

120

120

300

225

200

150

150

300

225

200

200

150

180

125

100

75

100

75

75

63

75

63

*Theminimumdimensionofacircularcolumnisthediameter
+Nopartofcolumnprojectingbeyondeitherfaceofwall
++Havingnotlessfireresistancethanthatofthecolumnandextendingtothefullheightof,andnot
lessthan600mmoneachsideofthecolumn

30

Table3.2.4B(contd.)

PartIII:ReinforcedConcreteBeams

Minimumdimensionofconcretecolumn*withoutfinish
(inmm)forafireresistanceof
ConstructionandMaterials

1.(a)Withoutplaster

(b)finishedwith12.5mmvermiculite
gypsumplaster

(c) With12.5mmcementsandorgypsum
sand plaster on mesh reinforcement
fixedaroundbeam

4hrs

2hrs

1hrs

1hr

hr

63

45

35

25

12.5

25

12.5

12.5

12.5

12.5

50

30

20

12.5

12.5

Table3.2.4B(contd.)

PartIV:PrestressedConcreteBeamswithPostTensionedSteel

Cover
Reinforcement

None

AdditionalProtection
(a)

None

(b)

Vermiculite concrete slabs (permanent


shuttering)12.5mmthick
plaster 12.5mm thick on mesh reinforcement
fixedaroundbeam

(c)

(d)

Light
mesh
reinforcement
(having
a
minimum
concrete cover
of 25mm) to
retain
the
concrete
in
positionaround
thetendons

(a)
(b)
(c)

vermiculitegypsum plaster 12.5mm thick or


sprayedcementpulpasbestos10mmthick
None

Minimumconcrete coverto
tendons(inmm)forafire
resistanceof
4hrs 2hrs 1hrs
1hr

38

38

25

25

50

38

25

38

25

25

100

63

63

90

75

50

75

(e)

plaster12.5mmthickonmeshreinforcement
Vermiculite concrete slabs (permanent
shuttering)12.5mmthick
Vermiculite concrete slabs (permanent
shuttering)25mmthick
Vermiculitegypsumplaster12.5mmthick

(f)

vermiculitegypsumplaster25mmthick

50

(g)

Sprayedcementpulpasbestos10mmthick

75

(h)

Sprayedcementpulpasbestos19mmthick

50

(d)

31

A.

Table3.2.4B(contd.)

PartV:StructuralSteel

EncasedSteelStanchions(masspermetrenotlessthan45kg)

ConstructionandMaterials

(A)SolidProtection*(unplastered)
1.ConcretenotleanerthanC20mix
withnaturalaggregates+
(a) Concretenotassumedtobeload
bearingreinforced
(b) Concrete assumed to be load
bearing, reinforced in accordance
withBS5950:Part2:2000

2.Solidbricksofclay,compositionorsand
Lime

3.Solidblocksoffoamedslagorpumice
concretereinforced+ineveryhorizontal
joint
4.Sprayedcementpulpasbestosof
density140240kg/m3
5.Sprayedvermiculitecement
(B)HollowProtection+
1.Solidbricksofclay,compositionorsand
limereinforcedineveryhorizontaljoint,
unplastered

2.Solidblocksoffoamedslagorpumice
concretereinforcedineveryhorizontal
joint,unplastered
3.Metallathingwithgypsumorcement
limeplasterofthicknessof
4.(a)Metallathingwithvermiculite
gypsumorperlitegypsumplasterof
thicknessof
(b) Metal lathing spaced 25mm from
flangeswithvermiculitegypsumorperlite
gypsumplasterofthicknessof

Minimumthickness(inmm)ofprotectionforafire
resistanceof
4hrs

2hrs

1hrs

1hr

hr

50

25

25

25

25

75

50

50

50

50

75

50

50

50

50

62

50

50

50

50

44

19

15

10

10

115

38

50

32

50

19

50

12.5

50

75

50

50

50

50

38

25

19

12.5

50

19

16

12.5

12.5

44

19

12.5

12.5

12.5

32

A.

Table3.2.4B(contd.)

PartV:StructuralSteel

EncasedSteelStanchions(masspermetrenotlessthan45kg)

Minimumthickness(inmm)ofprotectionforafire
resistanceof

ConstructionandMaterials

4hrs

2hrs

1hrs

1hr

hr

12.5

12.5

12.5

10

16

12.5

10

32

10

10

(B)HollowProtection++(contd.)

5.Gypsumplasterboardwith1.6mmwire
bindingat100mmpitch
(a) 9.5mm plasterboard with gypsum
ofthicknessof
(b) 19mm plasterboard with gypsum
plasterofthickness

6.Gypsumplasterboardwith1.6mm
wirebindingat100mmpitch
(a) 9.5mm
plasterboard
with
vermiculite gypsum plaster of
thicknessof
(b) 19mm
plasterboard
with
vermiculite gypsum plaster of
thicknessof

Solidprotectionmeansacasingwhichisbeddedclosetothesteelwithoutinterveningcavitiesandwith
alljointsinthatcasingmadefullandsolid.

++

Reinforcement shall consist of steel binding wire not less than 2.3mm in thickness, or a steel mesh
weighing not less than 0.48 kg/m2. In concrete protection, the spacing of that reinforcement shall not
exceed150mminanydirection.
Hollowprotectionmeansthatthereisavoidbetweentheprotectivematerialandthesteel.Allhollow
protectiontocolumnsshallbeeffectivelysealedateachfloorlevel.
Lightmeshreinforcementrequired12.5mmto19mmbelowsurfaceunlessspecialcornerbeadsareused.

AsreadwithBS5950:2000andEurocode3

33

Table3.2.4B(contd.)
PartV:StructuralSteel(contd.)
A.

Encasedsteelstanchions(Masspermetrenotlessthan45kg)contd.

Minimumthickness(inmm)ofprotectionforafire
resistanceof
ConstructionandMaterials
4hrs
2hrs
1hrs
1hr
hr

(B)HollowProtection*(contd.)
7.Metallathingwithsprayedasbestosof
thicknessof:

44

19

15

10

10

8. Vermiculitecement slabs of 4:1 mix


reinforced with wire mesh and finished
63
25
25
25
25
withplasterskim.Slabsofthicknessof:
9.Cementpulpasbestosinsulatingboards
of density 510880 kg/m3 (screwed to

25
19
12
9
25mmthickcementpulpasbestosbattens
forhourand1hourperiods)

B.Encasedsteelbeams(Masspermetrenotlessthan30k)

Minimumthickness(inmm)ofprotectionforafire
ConstructionandMaterials
resistanceof
4hrs
2hrs
1hrs
1hr
hr
(A)SolidProtection+(unplastered)
1. Concrete not leaner than 1:2:4 mix
(C20)withnaturalaggregates
(a) Concretenotassumedtobeload
bearing,reinforced

63

25

25

25

25

(b) Concrete assumed to be load


bearing, reinforced in accordance
withBS5950/Eurocode3

75

50

50

50

50

2. Sprayed cement pulp asbestos of


density140240kg/m3

44

19

15

10

10

38

32

19

12.5

3.Sprayedvermiculitecement

+Solidprotectionmeansacasingwhichisbeddedclosetothesteelwithoutinterveningcavitiesandwithalljointsin
thatcasingmadefullandsolid.
++
Reinforcementshallconsistofsteelbindingwirenotlessthan2.3mminthickness,orasteelmeshweighingnotless
than0.48kg/m2.Inconcreteprotection,thespacingofthatreinforcementshallnotexceed150mminanydirection.

*
Hollowprotectionmeansthatthereisavoidbetweentheprotectivematerialandthesteel.Allhollowprotectionto
columnsshallbeeffectivelysealedateachfloorlevel.

34

Table3.2.4B(contd.)
PartV: StructuralSteel(contd.)

B.Encasedsteelbeams(Masspermetrenotlessthan30kg)contd.

Minimumthickness(inmm)ofprotectionforafire
resistanceof
ConstructionandMaterials
4hrs
(B)HollowProtection*

1.Metallathing

(a) With cementlime plaster of

thicknessof:

(b) With gypsum plaster of thickness

of:

(c) Withvermiculitegypsumorperlite
32
gypsumplasterofthicknessof:
2.Gypsumplasterboardwith1.6mmwire
bindingat100mmpitch
(a) 9.5mm plasterboard with gypsum
plasterofthicknessof:
(b) 19mm plasterboard with gypsum
plasterofthicknessof:

3. Plasterboard with 1.6mm wire binding

at100mmpitch

(a) 9.5mm plasterboard nailed to

wooden cradles finished with

gypsumplasterofthicknessof:

(b) 9.5mm
plasterboard
with

vermiculitegypsum plaster of

thicknessof:

(c) 19mm
plasterboard
with
32+
vermiculitegypsum plaster of
thicknessof:

(d) 19mm
plasterboard
with
vermiculitegypsum plaster of
thicknessof:

35

2hrs

1hrs

1hr

hr

38

22

12.5

12.5

25

19

12.5

10

19

16

12.5

12.5

12.5

12.5

12.5

12.5

16

10

12.5

12.5

10

10

12.5

Table3.2.4B(contd.)
PartV:StructuralSteel(contd.)

B.Encasedsteelbeams(Masspermetrenotlessthan30kg)contd.

Minimumthickness(inmm)ofprotectionforafire
ConstructionandMaterials
resistanceof
4hrs
2hrs
1hrs
1hr
hr
4.Metallathingwithsprayedcementpulp
asbestos of density 140240 kg/m3 and
thicknessof:

5.Cementpulpasbestosinsulatingboards
of density 510880 kg/m3 (screwed to
25mmthickcementpulpasbestosbattens
forhourand1hourperiods)

6. Vermiculitecement slabs of 4:1 mix


reinforced with wire mesh and finished
withplasterskim.Slabsofthicknessof:

7. Gypsum sand plaster 12.5mm thick


applied to heavy duty (Type B as
designatedinB.S.1105:1963).Woodwool
slabsofthicknessof:

44

19

15

10

10

25

19

12

63

25

25

25

25

50

38

38

38

Hollowprotectionmeansthatthereisavoidbetweentheprotectivematerialandthesteel.All
hollowprotectiontocolumnsshallbeeffectivelysealedateachfloorlevel.
Lightmeshreinforcementrequired12.5mmto19mmbelowsurfaceunlessspecialcornerbeads
areused.

36

Table3.2.4B(contd.)
PartVI:StructuralAluminium

Encasedaluminiumalloystanchionsandbeams(Masspermetrenotlessthan16kg)

Minimumthickness(inmm)ofprotectionforafire
resistanceof
ContructionandMaterials
4hrs
2hrs
1hrs
1hr
hr
(A)SolidProtection*

1. Sprayed cement pulp asbestos of


density140240kg/m3

2.Sprayedvermiculitecement

(B)HollowProtection+

1.Metallathingwithvermiculitegypsum
orperlitegypsumplasterofthickness
of:

2.Metallathingfinishedwithneatgypsum
plasterofthicknessof:

3. Gypsum Plasterboard 19mm thick with


1.6mm wire binding at 100mm pitch
finishedwithgypsumvermiculiteplaster
ofthicknessof:

4. Cement pulp asbestos insulating board


of density 510 880 kg/m3 (screwed to
25mmthickcementpulpasbestosbattens
forthehourperiod)

48

32

19

44

32

22

22

16

34

16

19

10

21

10

12.5

12.5

10

Solidprotectionmeansacasingwhichisbeddedclosetothealloywithoutinterveningcavitiesandwithalljointsin
thatcasingmadefullandsolid.

Hollowprotectionmeansthatthereisavoidbetweentheprotectedmaterialandthealloy.Allhollowprotectionto
columnsshallbeeffectivelysealedateachfloorlevel.

37

Table3.2.4B(contd.)
PartVII:TimberFloors

Minimumthick(inmm)forfireresistance
ConstructionandMaterials
of:

1hr
hr
Modifiedhr++

(A) Plainedgeboardingontimberjoistsnotlessthan

38mmwidewithceilingof:

16

(i) Timberlathandplasterthicknessofplaster

(ii)Timberlathandplasterwithplasterofminimum

12.5
thicknessof16mmcoveredonundersidewith

plasterboardofthickness

16
(iii)metallathingandplasterthicknessofplaster:

12.5
(a) Gypsum

(b) Vermiculite

12.5

(iv)onelayerofplasterboardofthickness

(v) one layer of plasterboard of minimum thickness


12.5

9.5mmfinishedwithgypsumplasterofthickness

12.5
(vi) one layer of plasterboard of minimum thickness

12.5mmfinishedwithgypsumplasterofthickness

25

19

(vii)twolayersofplasterboardoftotalthickness

(viii) two layers of plasterboard each of minimum

thickness9.5mmfinishedwithgypsum plaster of

thickness

(ix) one layer of fibre insulating board of minimum

thickness12.5mmfinishedwithgypsumplasterof
12.5

thickness

12
(x)onelayerofasbestosinsulatingboardofminimum

thickness

5
(xi)woodwoolslab25mmthickfinishedwithgypsum
plasterofthickness

++

ThetermmodifiedhourreferstotherequirementsspecifiedinBS476Part2023:1987andBS476Part1:2004
forfloorsofupperstoreyinsmallresidentialbuildingswhichhave2storeys.

38

Table3.2.4B(contd.)
PartVII:TimberFloors(contd.)

ConstructionandMaterials

(B) Tongued and grooved boarding of not less than

16mm (finished) thickness* on timber joists not

lessthan38mmwidewithceilingof:
(j) timberlathandplasterthicknessofplaster

(ii)timberlathandplasterwithplasterofminimum
thicknessof16mmcoveredonundersidewith
plasterboardofthickness

(iii)metallathingandplasterthicknessofplaster:
(a) gypsum
(b) vermiculite
(iv)onelayerofplasterboardofthickness
(v) one layer of plasterboard of minimum thickness

9.5mmfinishedwith:
(a) gypsumplasterofthickness
(b) vermiculitegypsumplasterofthickness

(vi) one layer of plasterboard of minimum thickness

12.5mmfinishedwithgypsumplasterofthickness

(vii)twolayersofplasterboardoftotalthickness

(viii) one layer of fibre insulating board of minimum

thickness12.5mmfinishedwithgypsumplasterof

thickness

(ix)onelayerofcementpulpasbestosinsulatingboard
ofminimumthickness

(x)onelayerofasbestosinsulatingboardofminimum
thickness of 12mm finished on top with glass fibre

ormineralwoolofthickness

(xi)woodwoolslab25mmthickfinishedwith
(a) gypsumplasterofthickness
(b) vermiculitegypsumplasterofthickness

Oranequivalentthicknessofwoodchipboard

39

Minimumthick(inmm)forfireresistance
of:
1hr
hr
Modifiedhr++

16

9.5

16
22

12.5
12.5
9.5

12.5

12.5

22

25

10

Table3.2.4B(contd.)
PartVII:TimberFloors(contd.)

Minimumthick(inmm)forfireresistanceof:
ConstructionandMaterials

(C)Tonguedandgroovedboardingofnotlessthan
16mm(finished)thickness*ontimberjoistsnotless
than175mmdeepby50mmwidewithceilingof:

(i)Timberlathandplasterthicknessofplaster

(ii)metallathingandplasterthicknessofplaster

(iii)metallathingandsprayedcementpulpasbestosto
thicknessof

(iv)onelayerofplasterboardofthickness

(v) one layer of plasterboard of minimum thickness

9.5mmfinishedwith:
(a) gypsumplaster
(b) vermiculitegypsumplasterofthickness

(vi)onelayersofplasterboardofminimumthicknessof
12.5mmfinishedwithgypsumplasterofthickness

(vii)twolayersofplasterboardoftotalthickness

(viii)onelayeroffibreinsulatingboardofthickness

(ix)onelayeroffibreinsulatingboardofminimum
thicknessof12.5mmfinishedwithgypsumplaster of
thickness

(x)onelayerofcementpulpasbestosinsulatingboard
ofthickness

(xi)woodwoolslab25mmthickfinishedwith:

(a) gypsumplasterofthickness

(b) vermiculitegypsumplasterofthickness

1hr

hr

Modifiedhr++

19

12.5

10

16

16

12.5

12.5

9.5

12.5

19

12.5

*Oranequivalentthicknessofwoodchipboard
++ThetermmodifiedhourreferstotherequirementsspecifiedinBS476Part2023:1987andBS476Part1:2004for
floorsofupperstoreyinsmallresidentialbuildingwhichhave2storeys

40

Table3.2.4B(contd.)
PartVIII:ConcreteFloors

ConstructionandMaterials

Solidflatslaborfillerjoist
floor.UnitsofchannelorT
section
Solidflatslaborfillerjoist
floorwith25mmwoodwool
slabceilingbase
UnitsofinvertedUsection
withminimumthicknessat
crown
Hollowblockconstruction
unitsofboxorIsection
Cellularsteelwithconcrete
topping

Minimumthickness
ofsolidsubstance
includingscreed
(inmm)
90
100
125
150
90
100
125
150
63
75
100
150
63
75
100
150

63

Ceilingfinishforafireresistance
4hours

2hours

1hours

25mmVor25mmA
19mmVor19mmA
10mmVor12.5mmA
Nil

10mmVor12.5mmA
7mmV
Nil
Nil

Nil
Nil
Nil

Nil
Nil

Nil
Nil
12.5mmGsuspendedon
metallathing

10mmVor12.5mmA
7mmV
Nil
Nil
12.5mmG
Nil
Nil
Nil

12.5mmG
Nil

Nil

Nil
12.5mmVsuspendedon
metallathingor
12.5mmA(direct)

Nil
Nil

Nil
Nil
12.5mmGsuspended
onmetallathing

VVermiculitegypsumplaster.
Asprayedcementpulpasbestos
Ggypsumplaster

Note: Whereacolumnrelatingtoceilingfinishcontainsnoentryoppositeaspecification,thenotionalperiodof
fireresistancespecifiedinthatcolumnisnotapplicable.

41

3.2.5

3.2.5

FireresistanceofFloorsinconjunctionwithSuspendedCeilings
(1)

Thissubsectionisconcernedonlywiththeeffectmadebysuspendedceilingstothefire
resistance of floors. It is not related to the protection given by suspended ceilings to
structuralsteelwork.

(2)

In the application of subsection 3.2.4 to floors, no account shall be taken of any fire
resistance attributable to any suspended ceiling other than a suspended ceiling
constructedasdescribedinTable3.2.5A.

Table3.2.5ASuspendedCeilings

Typeoffloor

Requiredfire
resistanceoffloor

DescriptionofSuspended
Ceiling

Noncompartment

1hourorless

Lessthan1hour

Surface of ceiling exposed


withinthecavitynotlowerthan
class1

Height

Lessthan15m

Compartment

Compartment

1hour

15mormore

Any

1hourorless

Any

Any

Morethan1hour

Surface of ceiling exposed


withinthecavitynotlowerthan
Class O supports and fixings for
theceilingnoncombustible
Surface of ceiling exposed
withinthecavitynotlowerthan
Class O and jointless, supports
and fixings for the ceiling non
combustible
Ceiling of noncombustible
construction and jointless;
supports and fixings for the
ceilingnoncombustible

3.2.6 ExternalWalls

(1) Thissubsectiondoesnotapplytosmallgaragesandsmallopencarports.

(2) Anypartofaroofshallbedeemedtobepartofanexternalwallorsideofabuildingifitis
pitchedatanangleof700ormoretothehorizontalandadjoinsaspacewithinthebuilding
to which persons has access not limited to the purposes of maintenance and repair.
Fig3.2.6A
42


(3) If a building is to be erected on land which will be occupied in common with another
buildingandeitherthebuildingtobeerectedortheotherbuildingisofoccupancygroupA
then:

(i) intheapplicationoftheprovisionsofthisregulationtoanysideorexternalwallofthe
building to be so erected which faces a side of external wall of the other building a
notionalboundaryshallbeassumedtopassbetweenthosebuildings.
(ii) suchnotionalboundaryshallbesosituatedastoenabletheadjacentsidesandexternal
wallsofbothbuildingstocomplywiththerequirementsofthispartofthecode.

(iii)ifthatotherbuildingisanexistingbuildingitshallbetreatedasitwereanewbuilding
of the same occupancy group and having the same unprotected areas and fire
resistanceastheexistingbuilding.Fig.3.2.6B

(4) Any external wall which is situated within a distance of 1m from any part on the relevant
boundaryandanyexternalwallofabuildingwhichexceeds15minheightshall:

(a) be constructed of wholly of incombustible materials apart from any external cladding
whichcomplieswith3.2.6(5)orinternalliningwhichcomplieswith3.2.9(6)and

(b) be so constructed that any fire resistance required by these regulations is attained by
thenoncombustiblepartalone.

(5) Therequirementsof3.2.6(4)shallnotapplyto:

(i) AnexternalwallofabuildingwhichiswithinthelimitsofsizeindicatedbyletterXin
Part 1 of Table 3.2.4A or of a building which is not divided into compartments and is
withinthelimitsofsizeindicatedbyZinPart2ofTable3.2.4Aprovidedthebuilding
doesnotexceed15minheight.

(ii)anexternalwallofabuildingofoccupancygroupAwhichconsistsofflatsormaisonettes
if that building has not more than 3 storeys or that part is separated as described in
3.2.4(1)bandhasnotmorethan3storeys:or
(iii) an external wall of a part of a building if that wall is situated 1m or more from the
relevant boundary and that part is separated as described in 3.2.4 (1)b and does not
exceed15minheight.

(6) Any external cladding which is situated within a distance of 1m from any point on the
relevantboundaryandanyexternalcladdingorabuildingwhichexceeds15minheightshall
haveasurfacecomplyingwiththerequirementsforclassspecifiedin3.2.9.6(1)(e).
Fig.3.2.6C

(7) Anybeamorcolumnformingpartof,andanystructurecarrying,anexternalwallwhichis
requiredtobeconstructedofnoncombustiblematerialsshallcomplywiththeprovisionsof
3.2.6(4)and3.2.6(5)astononcombustibility.

43

CalculationofPermittedLimitsofUnprotectedAreas
3.2.7.1 Generalrulesapplicabletothissubsection:

3.2.7

3.2.8

3.2.8

3.2.8

(1) Thepermittedlimitofunprotectedareasinanysideofabuildingorcompartmentshallbe
calculatedbyreferencetoTable3.2.7.1Aand3.2.7.1B.

(2) In calculating the size of unprotected areas or the permitted limit of unprotected areas,
thefollowingprovisionsshallapply:

(a) Where any part of an external wall is an unprotected area, only because it has
combustiblematerialattachedtoitascladdingthesizeofunprotectedareashallbe
deemedtobehalftheareaofsuchcladding. Fig.3.2.7A

(b) Noaccountshallbetakenofanyofthefollowing:

(i) exceptasprovidedin3.2.7.1(2)b(iii),anunprotectedareawhichdoesnotexceed
0.1m2 and which is not less than 1.5m from any other unprotected area in the
samesideofthebuildingorcompartment..

(ii)oneormoreunprotectedareashavinganarea(orifmorethanoneanaggregate
area)notexceeding1m2andnotlessthan4mfromanyotherunprotectedareain
thesamesideofthebuildingorcompartment(exceptanysuchareaasisspecified
in(i)above).Fig.3.2.7B

(iii) an unprotected area in any part of an external wall which forms part of a
protectedshaft.

(iv)anunprotectedareainthesideofabuildingnotdividedintocompartments,ifthe
areaisnotlessthan28maboveanygroundadjoiningthesideofthebuilding.

Fig.3.2.7C

RulesforcalculationbyreferencetoanEnclosingRectangle
(1)

Thepermittedlimitofunprotectedareasinanysideofabuildingorcompartmentshall
becalculatedbyreferencetotherequirementsofTables3.2.8Aor3.2.8B.

(2)

Definitions:Forthepurposeofthissubsection:
(a) planeofreferencemeansanyverticalplanewhichtouchesthesideofsomepartof
thesideofabuildingorcompartment,butwhichdoesnotpasswithinthestructure
ofsuchabuildingorcompartment;andtherelevantplaneofreferenceshallineach
case be taken as that most favourable in that respect to the person erecting the
building.Fig.3.2.8A

44

45

46

(a) enclosingrectanglemeansthesmallestrectangleontherelevantplaneofreference
whichwould:

(i)enclosealltheouteredgesofanyunprotectedareasofthebuildingor,ifthe

building is divided into compartments the outer edges being for this
purposeprojectedontheplaneofcommonbylinesperpendiculartosuch
plane;
(ii) havenohorizontalsides;and

(iii) have height and width falling within those listed in Tables 3.2.8A Fig.
3.2.8B
(c) Unprotected percentage means the percentage of the area of the enclosing
rectangle which is equal to the aggregate of the unprotected areas taken into
accountincalculatingtheenclosingrectangleandasprojectedonit.

3.2.8
(3) Theconditionsofthissubsectionshallbesatisfiedifabuildingorcompartmentisso

situatedthatnopointontherelevant boundaryiseitherbetweentherelevantplaneof
referenceandthesideofthebuildingorcompartmentoratadistancefromtherelevant
planeofreferencewhichislessthanthedistancespecifiedinTable3.2.8A,accordingto
the purpose group of the building or compartment, the dimensions of the enclosing
rectangleandtheunprotectedpercentage.

47

48

Table3.2.8ABuildingsorCompartmentsofPurpose
GroupsR(Residential),I(Institutional),B(Office)andA(Assembly)

Widthof
rectanglein
metres

3
6
9
12
15
18
21
24
27
30
40
NoLimit

Distanceinmetresfromrelevantboundaryforpercentagenotexceeding
20

30

40

1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0

1.0
1.0
1.0
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5

1.0
1.5
1.5
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0

50

60

70

80

90

100

EnclosingRectangle3mHigh
1.5
1.5
1.5
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
3.0
2.5
2.5
3.0
2.5
2.5
3.0
2.5
3.0
3.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
2.5
3.0
3.5
2.5
3.0
3.5
2.5
3.0
3.5
2.5
3.0
3.5

2.0
2.5
3.0
3.0
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0

2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0

2.0
3.0
3.5
3.5
4.0
4.0
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
5.0
5.0

2.5
3.5
4.5
5.0
5.5
5.5
6.0
6.0
6.5
6.5
7.0
7.5
7.5
7.5
8.0
8.0

2.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.0
7.0
8.0
8.0
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.5

3.0
4.0
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.0
8.0
8.0
8.5
9.0
9.5
9.5
10.0
10.0

3
6
9
12
15
18
21
24
27
30
40
50
60
80
100
NoLimit

1.0
1.0
1.0
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5

1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5

1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.0
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5

EnclosingRectangle6mHigh
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.5
4.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
4.0
4.5
5.0
4.0
5.0
5.5
4.5
5.0
5.5
4.5
5.0
6.0
4.5
5.0
6.0
4.5
5.5
6.5
4.5
5.5
6.5
5.0
5.5
6.5
5.0
6.0
7.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
5.0
6.0
7.0

49

Table3.2.8A(contd.)

Widthof
rectanglein
metres

3
6
9
12
15
18
21
24
27
30
40
50
60
80
100
120
NoLimit

Distanceinmetresfromrelevantboundaryforpercentagenotexceeding
20

30

40

1.0
1.0
1.5
1.5
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0

1.0
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.0
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0

1.5
2.5
3.5
3.5
4.0
4.5
4.5
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5

50

60

70

EnclosingRectangle9mHigh
2.0
2.5
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.0
4.5
5.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
4.5
5.5
6.0
5.0
6.0
6.5
5.0
6.5
7.0
5.5
6.5
7.5
5.5
7.0
7.5
6.0
7.0
8.0
6.0
7.5
8.5
6.5
8.0
9.0
6.5
8.0
9.5
7.0
8.5
10.0
7.0
8.5
10.0
7.0
8.5
10.0
7.0
8.5
10.6

80

90

100

3.0
4.5
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5
9.0
9.5
10.0
11.0
11.5
11.5
11.5
12.0

3.0
4.5
5.5
6.5
7.0
8.0
8.5
9.0
9.5
9.5
10.5
11.5
11.5
12.5
12.5
12.5
12.5

3.5
5.0
6.0
7.0
7.5
8.5
9.0
9.5
10.0
10.5
11.5
12.5
13.0
13.5
14.5
14.5
15.0

3.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
8.0
9.0
9.5
10.5
10.5
12.0
13.0
13.5
14.5
15.0
15.0
15.5

3.5
5.0
6.5
7.5
8.5
8.5
10.0
10.5
11.5
11.5
13.0
14.0
14.5
16.0
16.5
17.0
17.0

3.5
5.5
7.0
8.0
9.0
9.0
10.5
11.5
12.0
12.5
14.0
15.0
16.0
17.0
18.0
18.5
19.0

3
6
9
12
15
18
21
24
27
30
40
50
60
80
100
120
NoLimit

1.0
1.5
1.5
1.5
2.0
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5

1.5
2.5
3.0
3.5
3.5
4.0
4.0
4.5
4.5
4.5
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0

2.0
3.0
3.5
4.5
5.0
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.0
6.5
6.5
7.0
7.0
7.0
7.5
7.5
7.5

Enclosingrectangle12mhigh
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
4.5
5.0
5.5
5.0
6.0
6.5
5.5
6.5
7.0
5.5
6.5
7.5
6.5
7.5
8.5
7.0
8.0
8.5
7.0
8.0
9.0
7.5
8.5
9.5
8.0
9.5
10.5
8.5
10.0
11.0
9.0
10.5
12.0
9.0
11.0
13.0
9.5
11.5
13.5
9.5
11.5
13.5
9.5
12.0
14.0

50

Table3.2.8A(contd.)

Widthof
rectanglein
metres

3
6
9
12
15
18
21
24
27
30
40
50
60
80
100
120
NoLimit

Distanceinmetresfromrelevantboundaryforpercentagenotexceeding
20
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.5
2.5
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5

30
1.5
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.0
5.5
5.5
6.0
6.0
6.5
6.5
6.5
6.5
6.5

40
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
6.5
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5
8.5
9.0
9.0
9.0
9.0

50

60

70

EnclosingRectangle15mHigh
2.5
2.5
3.0
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.0
5.5
6.0
5.5
6.5
7.0
6.5
7.0
8.0
7.0
8.0
8.5
7.5
8.5
9.5
8.0
9.0
10.0
8.5
9.5
10.5
8.5
10.0
11.0
9.5
11.0
12.5
10.0
12.0
13.5
10.5
12.5
14.0
11.0
13.5
15.0
11.5
14.0
16.0
11.5
14.0
16.5
12.0
14.5
17.0

80

90

100

3.5
5.5
6.5
8.0
9.0
9.5
10.5
11.0
11.5
12.0
13.5
15.0
15.5
17.0
18.0
18.5
19.0

3.5
5.5
7.0
8.5
9.5
10.5
11.0
12.0
12.5
13.5
15.0
16.5
17.0
18.5
19.5
20.5
21.0

4.0
6.0
7.5
9.0
10.0
11.0
12.0
13.0
13.5
14.0
16.0
17.5
18.0
20.0
21.5
22.5
23.0

3.5
5.5
7.0
8.5
9.5
11.0
11.5
12.0
12.5
13.5
15.0
16.5
17.5
19.0
20.5
21.0
22.0

4.0
6.0
8.0
9.0
10.5
12.0
12.5
13.0
13.5
14.5
16.5
18.0
19.5
21.0
22.5
23.5
24.0

4.0
6.5
8.5
10.0
11.0
13.0
13.0
14.0
14.5
15.5
17.5
19.0
20.5
22.5
24.0
25.5
26.5

3
6
9
12
15
18
21
24
27
30
40
50
60
80
100
120
NoLimit

1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
2.5
2.5

3.0
3.0
3.5
3.5
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0

1.5
2.5
3.5
4.0

4.5
5.0
5.5
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.0
7.5
7.5
7.5
7.5
8.0

2.0
3.5
4.5
5.0
6.0
6.5

7.0
7.5
8.0
8.0
9.0
9.5
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0

Enclosingrectangle18mhigh
2.5
2.5
3.0
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.0
6.0
6.5
6.0
7.0
7.5
7.0
8.0
8.5
8.5
9.5
7.5
9.5
10.5
8.0
8.5
11.0
10.0
11.5
9.0
10.5
12.0
9.5
11.0
11.0
13.5
12.0
11.5
15.0
13.0
12.0
14.0
16.0
17.0
13.0
15.0
18.0
13.5
16.0
16.5
19.0
14.0
17.0
19.5
14.0

51

Table3.2.8A(contd.)

Widthof
rectanglein
metres

3
6
9
12
15
18
21
24
27
30
40
50
60
80
100
120
NoLimit

Distanceinmetresfromrelevantboundaryforpercentagenotexceeding
20

30

40

0.5
1.5

1.5
2.5
3.5
4.0
5.0
5.5

7.5

2.0
3.5
4.5
5.5
6.5
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5
9.0
10.0

8.0
8.5
8.5
9.0
9.0
9.0

11.0
11.5
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0

2.0
2.5
2.5
3.0
3.0
3.5

3.5
4.0
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5

6.0
6.0
6.5
7.0

50

60

70

EnclosingRectangle21mHigh
2.5
3.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
5.5
5.5
6.5
7.5
6.5
7.5
8.5
7.5
8.5
9.5
8.0
9.5
10.5
9.0
10.0
11.0
9.5
10.5
12.0
10.0
11.5
13.0
10.5
12.0
13.0
12.0
13.5
15.0
13.0
14.5
16.5
13.5
15.5
17.5
14.5
17.0
19.0

15.5
16.0
16.0

18.0
18.5
19.0

80

90

100

3.5
6.0
7.5
9.0
10.5
11.5
12.5
13.0
14.0
14.5
16.5
18.0
19.0
21.0

4.0
6.5
8.5
10.0
11.5
12.5
13.5
14.0
15.0
16.0
18.0

20.5
21.5

22.5
23.5

25.0
26.5

22.0

25.0

26.5

4.5
7.0
9.0
10.5
12.0
13.0
14.0
15.0
16.0
16.5
19.0
21.0
22.5
25.0
27.0
28.5
29.5

3.5
6.0
8.0
9.5
11.0
12.0
13.0
14.0
15.0
15.5
18.0
19.5
21.0
23.5
25.0
26.5
27.5

4.0
7.0
9.0
10.5
12.0
13.0
14.0
15.0
16.0
17.0
19.0
21.0
23.0
25.5
27.5
29.0
30.0

4.5
7.0
9.5
11.5
13.0
14.0
15.0
16.0
17.0
18.0
20.5
22.5
24.5
27.5
29.5
31.0
32.5

20.0
21.0
23.5

Enclosingrectangle24mhigh

3
6
9
12
15
18
21
24
27
30
40
50
60
80
100
120
NoLimit

0.5
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.5
3.0

3.5
3.5
4.0
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.5
5.5

1.5
2.5
3.5
4.5

5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
8.5
9.0
9.5
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0

2.0
3.5
5.0
6.0
6.5
7.5

8.0
8.5
9.0
9.5
11.0
12.0
12.5
13.5
13.5
13.5
13.5

2.5
4.5
5.5
7.0
8.0

8.5
9.5
10.0

11.0
11.5
13.0
14.0
15.0

16.5
17.0
17.5
18.0

52

3.0
5.0
6.5
8.0
9.0
10.0
10.5
11.5
12.5
13.0
14.5

16.0
17.0

18.5
20.0
20.5
21.0

3.5
5.5
7.5
8.5
10.0
11.0
12.0
12.0
13.5
14.0
16.0
17.5
19.0
21.0
22.5
23.5
24.0

Table3.2.8A(contd.)

Widthof
rectanglein
metres

20

30

40

1.0

1.5

2.0

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

5.0

2.0

3.5

5.0

6.0

12

2.5

4.5

6.0

15

3.0

5.5

18

3.5

21

Distanceinmetresfromrelevantboundaryforpercentagenotexceeding
50

70

80

90

100

EnclosingRectangle27mHigh
2.5
3.0
3.5

4.0

4.0

4.5

6.0

6.5

7.0

7.5

7.0

7.5

8.5

9.5

10.0

7.0

8.0

9.0

10.5

11.0

12.0

7.0

8.5

9.5

10.5

11.5

12.5

13.5

6.0

8.0

9.0

10.5

11.5

12.5

13.5

14.5

3.5

6.5

8.5

10.0

11.5

13.0

14.0

15.0

16.0

24

3.5

7.0

9.0

11.0

12.5

13.5

15.0

16.0

17.0

27

4.0

7.5

10.0

11.5

13.0

14.0

16.0

17.0

18.0

30

4.0

8.0

10.0

12.0

13.5

15.0

17.0

18.0

19.0

40

5.0

9.0

11.5

14.0

15.5

17.5

19.0

20.5

22.0

50

5.5

9.5

12.5

15.0

17.0

19.0

21.0

22.5

24.0

60

5.5

10.5

13.5

16.0

18.5

20.5

22.5

24.5

26.5

80

6.0

11.0

14.5

17.5

20.5

22.5

25.0

27.5

29.5

100

6.0

11.0

125.5

19.0

21.5

24.5

27.0

30.0

32.0

120

6.0

11.5

15.5

19.5

22.5

26.0

28.5

32.0

34.0

NoLimit

6.0

11.5

15,.5

20.0

23.5

27.0

29.5

33.0

35.0

53

60

Table3.2.8BBuildingsorcompartmentofpurposeGroups
M(Shop),F(Factory)andS,H(StorageandGeneralHazard)

Widthof
rectanglein
metres

3
6
9
12
15
18
21
24
27
30
40
50
60
80
NoLimit

Distanceinmetresfromrelevantboundaryforunprotectedpercentagenotexceeding
20

30

40

1.0
1.5

1.5
2.0
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5

2.0
2.5
3.0
3.0
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0

1.5
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0

3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0

50

60

70

80

90

100

EnclosingRectangle3mHigh
2.0
2.5
2.5
3.0
3.0
3.5
3.5
4.0
4.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
4.0
5.0
5.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
4.5
5.0
5.5
4.5
5.5
6.0
5.5
4.5
6.0
5.5
5.0
6.5
5.0
6.0
6.5
5.0
6.0
7.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
5.0
6.0
7.0

2.5
3.5
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.5
6.5
7.0
7.5
7.5
8.0
8.0

3.0
4.0
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
6.5
7.0
7.0
7.5
8.0

9.0
9.0

3.0
4.0
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
7.5
8.0
8.5
9.0
9.5
9.5
10.0

4.0
5.5
7.0
8.0
9.0
9.5
10.0
10.5
11.0
12.0
13.0
14.0
15.0
16.0
16.5
17.0
18.0

4.0
6.0
7.0
8.5
9.0
10.0
10.5
11.0
12.0
12.5
14.0
15.0
16.0
17.5
18.0
19.0
19.0

8.0
8.5

Enclosingrectangle6mhigh
3
6
9
12
15
18
21
24
27
30
40
50
60
80
100
120
NoLimit

1.5
2.0

2.5
3.0
3.0
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5

2.0

3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
4.5

5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.5
5.5
5.5
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0

2.5
3.5
4.5
5.0
5.5
5.5
6.0
6.0
6.5
6.5
7.0
7.5
7.5
7.5
8.0
8.0
8.0

3.0
4.0
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5
9.0
9.5
9.5
10.0
10.0
10.0

54

3.0
4.5
5.5
6.5
7.0
7.0

8.0
8.5
8.5

9.0
10.0
10.5
11.0

11.5
12.0
12.0
12.0

3.5
5.0
6.0
7.0
7.5
8.0
9.0
9.5
9.5
10.0
11.0
11.5
12.0
13.0
13.5
14.0
14.0

3.5
5.5
6.5
7.5
8.0
9.0
9.5
10.5
10.5
11.0
12.0
13.0
13.5
14.5
15.0
15.5
16.0

Table3.2.8B(contd.)

Widthof
rectanglein
metres

3
6
9
12
15
18
21
24
27
30
40
50
60
80
100
120
NoLimit

Distanceinmetresfromrelevantboundaryforunprotectedpercentagenotexceeding
20

30

40

1.5
2.5

2.5
3.5
4.5

3.0
4.5
5.5
6.0
6.5

3.5
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5

5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
6.5
7.0
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.0
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.5

7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5
9.0
9.5
10.0
11.0
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.5

50

60

70

EnclosingRectangle9mHigh
3.5
4.0
4.0
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.0
6.5
7.5
7.0
7.5
8.5
8.5
9.5
7.5
9.5
10.0
8.5
11.0
9.0
10.0
12.0
9.5
11.0
10.0
11.5
12.5
10.5
13.0
12.0
11.5
14.5
13.0
14.0
15.5
12.5
15.0
16.5
13.0

13.5

16.0

17.5

14.5
14.5
15.0

16.5
17.0

18.5
19.5

17.5

20.0

80

90

100

4.5
6.5
8.0
9.0
10.0
11.0
12.0
13.0
13.5
14.0
15.5
17.0
18.0
19.5
21.0
21.5
22.5

5.0
7.0
8.5
9.5
11.0
12.0
13.0
13.5
14.5
15.0
17.0

21.5
22.5
23.5
24.5

5.0
7.0
9.0
10.5
11.5
12.5
13.5
14.5
15.0
16.0
17.5
19.5
21.0
23.0
24.5
26.0
27.0

5.5
8.0
9.5
11.5
13.0
14.0
15.0
16.0
17.0
17.5
20.0
23.0
23.5
26.0
28.0
29.5
30.5

5.5
8.5
10.5
12.0
13.5
14.5
16.0
16.5
17.5
18.5
21.0
23.0
25.0
27.5
30.0
31.5
34.0

18.5
19.5

Enclosingrectangle12mhigh
3
6
9
12
15
18
21
24
27
30
40
50
60
80
100
120
NoLimit

2.0
3.0

3.5
4.5
5.0
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.0
6.5
6.5
7.0
7.0
7.0
7.5
7.5
7.5

2.5
4.0
5.0

6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.0
8.5
9.5
10.0
10.5
11.0
11.5
11.5
12.0

3.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0

8.5
9.0
9.5
10.5
10.5
12.0
13.0
13.5
14.5
15.0
15.0
15.5

3.5
5.5
7.0
8.0

4.0
6.5
7.5
9.0
10.0
11.0

17.0
18.0

4.5
7.0
8.5
9.5
11.0
12.0
13.0
14.0
14.5
15.0
17.5
19.0
20.0

19.5

21.5

21.0
22.0

23.0
24.0

22.5

25.0

9.0
10.0
10.5
11.5

12.0
12.5

12.0
12.5
14.0

14.0
15.5

15.0
16.0
17.0
18.0
18.5
19.0

55

13.5

5.0
7.5
9.0
11.0
12.0
13.0
14.0
15.0
16.0
16.5
18.5
20.5
21.5
23.5
25.5
27.0
28.0

Table3.2.8B(contd.)

Widthof
rectanglein
metres

3
6
9
12
15
18
21
24
27
30
40
50
60
80
100
120
NoLimit

Distanceinmetresfromrelevantboundaryforunprotectedpercentagenotexceeding
20

30

40

2.0
3.0

2.5
4.5
5.5

3.5
5.5
6.5
8.0
9.0

4.0
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
6.5
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5
8.5
9.0
9.0
9.0
9.0

6.5
7.0
8.0
8.5
9.0
9.5
10.0
11.0
12.0
12.5
13.5
14.0
14.0
14.5

9.5
10.5
11.0
11.5
12.0
13.5
15.0
15.5
17.0
18.0
18.5
19.0

50

60

70

EnclosingRectangle15mHigh
4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0
7.0
7.5
7.5
8.5
9.5
9.0
10.0
11.0
11.5
12.5
10.0
12.5
13.5
11.0
14.5
12.0
13.5
15.5
13.0
14.5
13.5
15.0
16.5
14.0
17.0
16.0
16.0
19.5
18.0
19.5
21.5
17.5
21.0
23.5
180

20.0

23.0

25.5

21.5
22.5

24.5
25.5

27.5
28.5

23.5

27.0

30.0

80

90

100

5.5
8.0
10.0
12.0
13.5
14.5
16.0
17.0
18.0
18.5
21.0
23.0
25.0
28.0
30.0
31.5
34.0

6.0
9.0
11.0
13.0
14.5
15.5
16.5
18.0
19.0
20.0
22.5

30.0
32.5
34.5
36.0

6.0
9.0
11.5
13.5
15.0
16.5
17.5
19.0
20.0
21.0
23.5
26.0
28.0
31.5
34.5
37.0
39.0

6.5
9.5
12.0
14.0
15.5
17.0
18.0
.19.5
20.5
21.5
25.0
27.5
29.5
33.5
36.0
39.0
41.0

6.5
10.0
12.5
14.5
16.5
18.0
19.5
20.5
21.5
22.5
26.0
29.0
31.0
35.0
38.5
41.5
43.5

25.0
27.0

3
6
9
12
15
18
21
24
27
30
40
50
60
80
100
120
NoLimit

Enclosingrectangle18mhigh
2.0
3.5

4.5
5.0
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.0
9.0
9.5
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0

2.5
4.5
6.0

7.0
8.0
8.5
9.5
10.0
10.5
11.0
12.0
13.0
14.0
15.0
16.0
16.5
17.0

3.5
5.5
7.0
8.5
9.5

11.0
11.5
12.0
12.5
13.5
15.0
16.5
17.5
19.0
20.5
21.0
22.0

4.0
6.5
8.5
10.0

5.0
7.5
9.5
11.0
12.5
13.5

21.5
23.0

5.0
8.0
10.0
12.0
13.5
14.5
16.0
16.5
17.5
18.5
21.5
23.5
26.0

26.0

28.5

28.0
29.5

31.0
32.5

30.5

34.0

11.0
12.0
13.0
14.0

14.5
15.5

14.5
15.5
17.5

17.0
19.5

19.0
20.5
22.5
24.0
25.5
26.5

56

16.5

6.0
9.0
11.0
13.0
14.5
16.0
17.0
18.5
19.5
20.5
23.5
26.0
27.5
31.0
33.5
35.5
37.0

Table3.2.8B(contd.)

Widthof
rectanglein
metres

3
6
9
12
15
18
21
24
27
30
40
50
60
80
100
120
NoLimit

Distanceinmetresfromrelevantboundaryforunprotectedpercentagenotexceeding
20

30

40

2.0
3.5

3.0
5.0
6.5

3.5
6.0
7.5
9.0
10.5

4.5
5.5
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5
9.0
10.0
11.0
11.5
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0

7.5
8.5
9.5
10.0
10.5
11.5
12.0
13.5
14.5
15.5
17.0
18.0
18.5
19.0

11.5
12.5
13.0
14.0
14.5
16.5
18.0
19.5
21.0
22.5
23.5
25.0

50

60

70

EnclosingRectangle21mHigh
4.5
5.0
5.5
7.0
8.0
9.0
9.0
10.0
11.0
10.0
12.0
13.0
13.5
14.5
12.0
14.5
16.0
13.0
17.0
14.0
15.5
18.0
15.0
16.5
16.0
18.0
19.0
16.5
20.5
18.5
19.0
23.0
21.5
23.5
25.5
21.0
25.5
28.0
22.5

25.0

28.5

31.5

27.0
28.5

31.0
32.5

34.5
36.5

29.0

34.5

38.0

80

90

100

6.0
9.5
12.0
14.0
16.0
17.0
18.5
20.0
21.0
22.0
25.5
28.0
30.5
34.0
37.0
39.5
41.5

6.5
10.0
13.0
15.0
16.5
18.0
20.0
21.0
22.5
23.5
27.0

36.5
40.0
43.0
45.5

7.0
10.5
13.5
16.0
17.5
19.5
21.0
22.0
23.5
25.0
28.5
31.5
33.5
38.5
42.0
45.5
48.0

7.0
10.5
13.5
16.0
18.0
19.5
21.0
22.5
24.0
25.0
29.0
32.0
35.0
39.5
43.0
46.5
49.5

7.5
11.0
14.5
16.5
19.0
20.5
22.0
24.0
25.5
26.5
30.5
33.5
36.5
41.5
45.5
49.0
52.0

30.0
32.5

Enclosingrectangle24mhigh
3
6
9
12
15
18
21
24
27
30
40
50
60
80
100
120
NoLimit

2.0
3.5

5.0
6.0
6.5
7.5
8.0
8.5
9.0
9.5
11.5
12.0
12.5
13.5
13.5
13.5
13.5

3.0
5.0
6.5

8.0
9.0
10.0
10.5
11.5
12.5
13.0
14.5
16.0
17.0
18.5
20.0
20.5
21.0

3.5
6.0
8.0
9.5
11.0

12.0
13.0
14.0
15.0
15.5
18.0
19.5
21.0
23.5
25.0
26.5
27.5

4.5
7.0
9.5
11.5

5.0
8.5
11.0
12.5
14.5
15.5

25.5
27.5

5.5
9.5
12.0
14.0
15.5
16.5
18.0
19.5
20.5
21.5
25.0
27.5
30.0

31.0

34.5

33.5
36.0

37.0
39.5

37.5

42.0

13.0
14.0
15.0
16.0

16.5
18.0

17.0
18.0
20.5

20.0
23.0

22.5
24.5
27.5
29.5
31.0
32.5

57

19.0

6.0
10.0
13.0
15.0
17.0
18.5
20.0
21.0
22.5
23.5
27.5
30.0
32.5
37.0
40.0
43.0
45.5

Table3.2.8B(contd.)

Widthof
rectanglein
metres

20

30

40

2.0

3.0

4.0

3.5

5.0

6.5

7.5

8.5

5.0

7.0

8.5

10.0

12

6.0

8.0

10.5

15

7.0

9.5

18

8.0

21

Distanceinmetresfromrelevantboundaryforpercentagenotexceeding
50

60

70

80

90

100

EnclosingRectangle27mHigh
4.5
5.5
6.0

6.5

7.0

7.5

9.5

10.5

11.0

12.0

11.5

12.5

13.5

14.5

15.0

12.0

13.5

14.5

16.0

17.0

17.5

11.5

13.5

15.0

16.5

18.0

19.0

20.0

10.5

12.5

14.5

16.5

17.5

19.5

20.5

21.5

8.5

11.5

14.0

16.0

18.0

19.0

21.0

22.5

23.5

24

9.0

12.5

15.0

17.0

19.0

20.5

22.5

24.0

25.5

27

10.0

13.0

16.0

18.0

20.0

22.0

24.0

25.5

27.0

30

10.0

13.5

17.0

19.0

21.0

23.0

25.0

26.5

28.0

40

11.5

15.5

19.0

22.0

24.5

26.5

29.0

30.5

32.5

50

12.5

17.0

21.0

24.0

27.0

29.5

32.0

34.5

36.0

60

13.5

18.5

22.5

26.5

29.5

32.0

35.0

37.0

39.0

80

14.5

20.5

25.0

29.5

33.0

36.5

39.5

42.0

44.0

100

15.5

21.5

27.0

32.0

36.5

40.5

43.0

46.5

48.5

120

15.5

22.5

28.5

34.0

39.0

43.0

46.5

50.5

53.0

NoLimit

15.5

23.5

29.5

35.0

40.5

44.5

48.5

52.0

55.5

3.2.9

SeparatingWalls

3.2.9

(1)

Exceptasprovidedin(2)anyseparatingwallshallbeimperforatedandshallforma
completeverticalseparationbetweenanybuildingsseparated(includinganyroofspace
therein).

(2) Nothingin(1)shallprohibit.

(a) The passage through a separating wall of a pipe, if the pipe complies with
subsection3.2.13orFIG.3.2.9A

(b) anopeninginaseparatingwallwhichisnecessaryasmeansofegressfromfire,if
theopeningisfittedwithadoorwhich

58

(i)complieswiththerequirementsofsubsection3.2.12;and
(ii)hasfireresistancewhichisnotlessthantheperiodrequiredbysubsection3.2.4for
theseparatingwall.

59

(3) Exceptasprovidedin(4),anyseparatingwallwhichformsajunctionwitharoofshallbe
carriedabovetheuppersurfaceofthecoveringofthatrooftoadistanceofnotlessthan
375mm(measuredatrightanglestosuchuppersurface). FIG.3.2.9B

(4) Aseparatingwallshallnotberequiredtocomplywiththeprovisionsof(3)

(a) ifthebuildingsseparatedbytheseparatingwallaresoconstructedthat:

(i)

anypartoftheroofwhichiswithin1.5moftheseparatingwallisdesignatedAA,
ABandAC;and

(ii)

thedeckofsuchpartoftheroofisofsolidorhollowslabconstructionofnon
combustiblematerial;and

(iii)

thejunctionbetweentheseparatingwallandsuchroofisfirestoppedor

(b) if

(i)

eachofthebuildingsseparatedbytheseparatingwallisofoccupancygroupR,
BorA,and

(ii)

neitherbuildingexceeds12.5minheight;and

(iii)

anypartoftheroofwhichiswithin1.5moftheseparatingwalliscoveredwith
noncombustiblematerial;and

(v)

thejunctionbetweentheseparatingwallandtheroofcoveringisfirestopped.
FIG.3.2.9C

(5) Ifanyexternalwalliscarriedacrosstheendofaseparatingwall,suchexternalwalland
separating wall shall be bonded together or the junction of such walls shall be fire
stopped.

(6) Anycombustiblematerialwhichisbuiltintoorcarriedthrough,acrosstheendoforcover
thetopofaseparatingwallshallnotbeofsuchatypeorusedinsuchawayaswallrender
ineffectivetheresistanceofthattotheeffectsorspreadoffire.FIG.3.2.9D

(7) Except as provided in (8) any separating wall shall be constructed wholly of non
combustiblematerialsapartfromanysurfacefinishwhichcomplieswithsubsection3.2.16
andtherequiredfireresistanceshallbeattainedindependentlyofanysuchcombustible
surfacefinish.

(8) Therequirementsof(7)shallnotapplyto:

(a) Awallseparating buildingswhichare notdividedintocompartmentsandarewithin


thelimitsofsizeindicatedbytheletterXinPart1ofTable3.2.4A;or

60

(b) Awallseparatingsinglestoreybuildingswhicharenotdividedintocompartmentsand
are within the limits of size indicated by the letter X in Part 2 of Table 3.2.4A of
subsection3.2.4.

(9) Any beam or column forming part of, and any structure carrying a separating wall is
required to be constructed of, noncombustible materials shall itself comply with the
requirementsof(7)astononcombustibility.

3.2.10CompartmentWallandCompartmentFloors

3.2.10(1)Anycompartmentwallorcompartmentfloorshallbeimperforatedwiththeexception

ofanyoneormoreofthefollowing:

(a) (i) inthecaseofacompartmentwallseparatingaflatormaisonettefromanyspacein


common use giving access to that flat or maisonette, an opening fitted with a door
whichcomplieswithsubsection3.2.11andhasafireresistanceofnotlessthanhalfan
hour;

(ii) inanyothercase,anopeningfittedwithadoorwhichcomplieswiththerequirements
of subsection 3.2.11 and has fire resistance of not less than the minimum period
requiredbysubsection3.2.4forthewallorfloor.FIG.3.2.10A

(b) anopeningforaprotectedshaft

(c) anopeningforaventilationductifanyspacesurroundingtheductisfirestoppedandthe
ductisfittedwithanautomaticfireshutterwhereitpassesthroughthewallorfloor.
FIG.3.2.10B

(d) Anopeningforapipeinconformancewithsubsection3.2.11.3.FIG.3.2.10C
(e) Anopeningforachimney,applianceventilationduct

(f) Anopeningforarefusechute

(2) Whereacompartmentwallorfloorjoinsanycompartmentwall,externalwallorseparatingwall
or any structure enclosing a protected shaft, such structures shall be bonded together at the
junctionorthejunctionshallbefirestooped.FIG.3.2.10D

(3) Whereanycompartmentwallformsajunctionwitharoof,suchwallshallbecarriedabovethe
upper surface of the roof covering for a distance of not less than 375mm, measured at right
anglestothesurfaceoftheroof.

(4) Any combustible material which is built into or carried through or across the ends of any
compartment wall or compartment shall not be of such a type or used in such a way as will
renderineffectivetheresistanceofthatwallorfloortotheeffectorspreadoffire.

(5) Anychimney,applianceventilationductorductencasingoneormorefluepipeswhichpasses
throughacompartmentfloororcompartmentwallshallbeseparatedfromthatcompartment
61

floororwallbynoncombustibleconstructionhavingafireresistanceofnotlessthanhalfthe
minimumfireresistancerequiredbysubsection3.2.4.

(6)

(7)

Any chimney, appliance ventilation duct or duct encasing one or more flue pipes which forms
part of a compartment wall shall be separated from any compartment adjoining that wall by
noncombustible construction having, at any level, fire resistance of not less than half the
minimum fire resistance required by subsection 3.2.4 for the compartment wall at that level
FIG.3.2.10E
Anycompartmentwallorfloorwhichisrequiredbysubsection3.2.4tohavefireresistanceof
onehourormoreshallbeconstructedwhollyofnoncombustiblematerialsapartfrom:

(i)

anyfloorfinish;or

(ii)

any surface finish to a wall or ceiling which complies with the requirements of
subsection3.2.13;

(iii)

any ceiling which complies with the description specified in the Table 3.2.5A to
subsection3.2.5and,apartfromanysuchceiling,therequiredfireresistanceofthewall
orfloorshallbeobtainedwithoutassistancefromanycombustiblematerialpermitted
inthissubsection.

(8)

Any beam or column forming part of, and any structure carrying any compartment wall or
compartmentfloorwhichisrequiredtobeconstructedofnoncombustiblematerials,shallitself
complywiththeprovisionsofsubsection3.2.10(7)astononcombustibility.

3.2.11Protectionofopeninginseparatingwalls,compartmentwallsandcompartment

floors
3.2.11.1Protectedshafts

3.2.11.1(1)Inthissubsection,protectingstructuremeansanywallorfloororotherstructurewhich

enclosesaprotectedshaftotherthan:

(a) a wall which forms part of an external wall, separating wall or compartment
wall;or
(b) afloorwhichisalsoacompartmentorafloorlaiddirectlyontheground;or
(c) aroof. FIG.3.2.11A

(2) No protected shaft shall be constructed for use for any purpose additional to those
specifiedin3.1.2.1otherthanthepassageofpipeorductorassanitaryaccommodation
orwashroomsorboth.

(3)

Subject to the provisions of this subsection, any protected shaft shall be completely
enclosed.

62


63

(4)

Exceptasprovidedin(5)anyprotectingstructurewhichisrequiredbysubsection3.2.4
to have fire resistance of one hour or more shall be constructed wholly of non
combustible materials apart from any surface finish which complies with the
requirementsof3.2.13.

(5)

Therequirementsof(4)shallnotapplytoprotectingstructurewhichissituatedwithin
groundstoreyoranupperstoreyofabuildingorpartofoccupancyGroupRconsisting
offlatsormaisonettesifthatbuildinghasthreestoreys.

(6)

Any beam or column forming part of, and any structure carrying protecting structure
which is required to be constructed of noncombustible materials shall itself comply
withtheprovisionsof3.2.11.1(4).

(7)

Anywall,floororotherstructureenclosingaprotectedshaftbutnotbeingprotecting
structuremaycontainopeningsinconformancewithotherprovisionsofthispartofthe
Code.

(8)

Thereshallbenoopeninginanyprotectingstructureotherthananyoneormoreofthe
following:

(i)

(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

(9)

anopeningforapipewhichcomplieswiththeprovisionsof3.2.11.3
an opening fitted with a door which has fire resistance complying with the
provisionsof3.2.11.1(9)and3.2.11.2;
(if the protected shaft contains a lift), an opening which complies with the
provisionsof3.2.11.1(10);and
(if the protected shaft serves as or contains a ventilation duct), an inlet to or
outletfromthatductoranopeningforthatduct.

Anydoorfittedinanopeninginaprotectingstructureshallhavefireresistanceforthe
followingminimumperiod:

(a) If the protected shaft is in a building of purpose group R, I or F and is wholly or


partlyabovetheleveloftheadjoiningground,notlessthanhalfanhour;or

(b) Inanyothercaseeithernotlessthanhalftheperiodrequiredbyotherprovisionsof
thispartofthecodefortheprotectingstructuresurroundingtheopeningornotless
thanhalfanhour(whicheveristhegreater).

(10)Anyprotectedshaftcontainingaliftorlifts:
(a)

(b)

shall be ventilated to the external air by means of one or more permanent


openingssituatedatthetopoftheshaftandhavingatotalunobstructedareaof
notlessthan0.1m2foreachliftintheshaft;and
shallnotcontainanypipeconveyinggasoroiloranyventilatingduct;and
64

(c)

may have an opening in its protecting structure for the passage of the cables
operating the lift into the room containing the lift motor; provided that if the
openingisatthebottomoftheshafttheopeningshallbeassmallaspracticable.

(11) (a) Ifaprotectedshaftservesasorcontainsaventilatingduct:

(i) theductshallbefittedinternallywithautomaticfireshutterssoconstructed
atsuchintervalsandinsuchpositionsasmaybenecessarytoreducesofaras
practicable the risk of fire spreading from a compartment to any other
compartment;

(ii) the duct shall not be constructed of, or lined with, any material which
substantiallyincreasessuchrisk.

(b) In addition, in the case of a protected shaft containing a ventilating duct, the shaft
shallbeconstructedwithadditionalbarrierstofirebetweentheductandtheshaftas
may be necessary to reduce, so far as practicable, the risk of fire spreading from a
compartmenttoanyothercompartment.

(12) Ifaprotectedshaftconsistsofastairway,itshallnotcontainanypipeconveyinggasoroil
oranyventilatingduct.FIG.3.2.11B

3.2.11.2

FireResistantDoors

(1) General:

This subsection applies to any door which is required by the provisions of this part of the
codetohaveafireresistance.

(2) Inthissubsection:

automaticselfclosingdevicedoesnotincluderisingbutthingesexceptasprovidedin(6):
and electricmagnetic or electromechanical device susceptible to smoke refers only to
anysuchdevicewhichwillallowthedoorheldopenbyittocloseautomaticallyuponthe
occurrenceofeachoranyoneofthefollowing:

(i)detectionofsmokebyautomaticapparatussuitableinnature,qualityandlocation;

(ii)naturaloperationofaswitchfittedinasuitableposition

(iii)failureofaelectricitysupplytothedeviceapparatusorswitch;

(iv)ifafirealarmsystemisinstalledinthebuilding,operationofthatsystem.

65

(3) (a) except as permitted in (8) any fire resisting door shall be fitted with an automatic self
closingdevice

(b)nomeansofholdinganysuchdooropenshallbeprovidedotherthanafusiblelinkor,if
the door is so constructed and installed that it can readily be opened manually, an
electromagneticorelectromechanicaldevicesusceptibletosmoke.

(c) nopartofahingeonwhichanysuchdoorishungshallbemadeeitherofcombustible
materialorofnoncombustiblematerialhavingameltingpointlessthan8000C.

(4) Exceptasprovidedin(5)anydoorfittedinanopeningwhichisprovidedasameansofescape
intheeventoffireshallbesoconstructedandinstalledthatitcanreadilybeopenedmanually
and shall not be held open by any means other than an electricmagnetic or electro
mechanicaldevicesusceptibletosmoke.

(5) Adoorwhichisprovidedasameansofescapeintheventoffirebutwhichcannotreadilybe
openedmanuallymaybeinstalledif:

(i) suchadoorisfittedwithanautomaticselfclosingdeviceandisheldopenbyafusible
link;

66

(ii) themanuallyopenabledoorhasfireresistanceofnotlessthanhalfanhour;and,

(iii)therequiredfireresistanceisachievedbythetwodoorstogether.
(6) Anydoortowhichreferenceismadein3.2.10(1)aor3.2.11.4(3)bshallbeeithersingleleafdoor
swinginginonedirectiononlyoradoubleleafdooreachleafofwhichswingsintheopposite
directionfromtheotherleaf.FIG.3.2.11.2A

(7) Anydoorwhichisfittedinprotectingstructureandisnotrequiredbytheprovisionsof
3.2.11.1(9)tohavearesistanceofmorethanhalfanhourmayconsistofanysingleordouble
leaf door, other than a double leaf door, both leaves of which swing in one and the same
directionandhaverebatedmeetingstilesif:

(a) thedooropensintoahall,lobbyorcorridorenclosedbywallsorpartitionshavingfire
resistanceofnotlessthanhalfanhour;and

(b) theclearancebetweentheleaforleavesofanysuchdoorsanditsframeandbetween
theleavesisassmallasisreasonablypracticable.FIG.3.2.11.2B

(8) Adoorwhichisnotfittedwithselfclosingdevicemaybeinstalledinanopeningonthe
structurewhichenclosesaprotectedshaftcontainingexclusivelyaliftorliftsifeither:

(a) the door has fireresistance for a period of not less than half an hour and there is also
installed,soastoclosethesameopening,anotherdoorwhichisfittedwithanautomatic
selfclosing device, is held open by a fusible link and has fire resistance for a period not
lessthanprescribed bytherelevantprovisionsofthispartofthecodeforthestructure
surroundingtheopening;orFIG.3.2.11.2C

(b) (unlessthe openingisincompartmentwallandis oneoftwoopeningsprovidedat the


sameleveltoallowaccesstoaliftfromdifferentsides),thedoorhasfireresistancefor
periodnotlessthanthatprescribedbyrelevantprovisionsofthispartofthecodeforthe
structuresurroundingtheopening.FIG.3.2.11.2D

3.2.11.3PenetratingofelementsofstructurebyPipes

(1) InthissubsectionPipe

(a) excludes flue pipes, ventilation pipes, ventilation ducts and any pipes which contains or
conveyheatorsmoke.

(b) includesventpipetodrainagesystem,ventpipetosoilsystem,ventpipetowastesystem
andpipefittingsandaccessories.
(2) Subjecttotheprovisionsof(3)and(5)thenominalinternaldiameterofthepartofapipe
whichpassesthrough:
(i) anopeninginaseparatingwall;or
67

(ii) anopeninginacompartmentwallorcompartmentfloorotherthananysuchopening
whichiswhollyenclosedwithinaprotectedshaft;
(iii)anopeninginprotectingstructureshallnotexceedtherelevantdimensionsprescribed
inTable3.2.11.3A.FIG.3.2.11.3A

(3) Ifoneithersideofthestructurepenetratedandwithinadistanceof1m(measuredalong
the pipe) from the point of penetration, the pipe which penetrates the structure is of
specification (a) and is connected to a pipe of specification (b) or (c),or the pipe is of
specification (b) and is connected to a pipe of specification (c), the maximum internal
diameterofthepipeshallbedeterminedasthoughitwereofthesamespecificationasthe
pipetowhichitisconnected.

(4) Anyopeningshallbeassmallasisreasonablypracticableandshallbefirestoppedaround
thepipe.

(5) A pipe which forms part of an above ground drainage system comprising pipes which
comply with specification (b) in Table 3.2.11.3A and have a nominal internal diameter not
exceeding150mminthe caseofastackpipeor100mminthe caseofabranch pipemay
pass through an opening in a separating wall between houses or an opening in a
compartmentwallorcompartmentfloorbetweenflatsormaisonettesif

(a) thepipe,beingastackpipe,iscontainedineachstoreywithinanenclosureor,beinga
branchpipe,dischargeintoastackpipecontainedwithinanenclosure,formedinpartby
thewallpenetratedbythebranchpipe;

(b)anysuchenclosure:

(i) extends, in each storey, from the floor to the ceiling of that storey or, if the ceiling is
suspendedbeneathafloor,tothatfloor;
(ii) has each side formed by a separating wall, compartment wall or external wall or by
casing;
(iii) has an internal surface, excluding any supporting members, which complies with the
requirementsforclass0specifiedinsubsection3.2.11.6;

(iv) hasnoaccesspanelsituatedinabedroomorcirculationspace;and
(v) isnotusedforanyotherpurposeexcepttoaccommodatepipesconveyingwater;

(c)anysuchcasing

(i) isimperforateexceptforanyopeningmadeforthepassageofapipeorfittedwithan
accesspanel;
(ii) consistsofanymaterialotherthansheetmetal;and
(iii) (includinganyaccesspanel)hasafireresistanceofnotlessthanhalfanhour,and

(d)anyopeningmadeforthepassageofabranchpipethroughaflooratthebaseortopofan
enclosure(includinginthecaseofamaisonette,anyfloorwithinthedwelling)isassmallas
reasonablypracticableandisfirestoppedaroundthepipe.Figs.3.2.11.3B,3.2.11.3C

68

69

70

Table3.2.11.3A
MaximumNominalInternalDiameterofPipes

SpecificationofPipe

Pipemadeofanynoncombustiblematerialwhich
ifexposedtoatemperatureof8000Cwillnot
fracturetosuchanextentastopermitflamesor
hotgasestopassthroughthewallofthepipe
Pipemadeofleadoraluminumoralloythereof;
asbestoscementpipe;ornonplasticized
polyvinylchloridepipecomplyingwithBS4514:
2000/BSEN1329Part1:2000

Pipemadeofanyothermaterial

Maximumnominalinternaldiameterofpipe
(inmm)

150
100ifitpenetratesstructure(otherthana
separatingwall)enclosingaprotectedshaftnot
regularlyusedforthepassageofpeople.
38inallothercases
38

3.2.11.4 Stairways

(1) Everystairway(includinganylandingthereof)whichformspartofabuildingshall,whether
thestairwayisinternalorexternal,beconstructedofnoncombustiblematerialexcept

(a) aninternalstairwaywhichissituated

(i)withinamaisonette;or

(ii)withinanystoreywhichcompriseselementsofstructureforwhichthefire

resistancerequiredbythispartofthecodeislessthanonehour;or

(iii)withinthegroundstoreyoranupperstoreyofabuildingorpartofoccupancygroup
Awhichconsistsofflatsormaisonettesifthatbuildinghasnotmorethanthree
storeysorthatpartisseparatedasdescribedin3.2.4(1)bandhasnotmorethan
threestoreys;or

(iv)withinabuildingorcompartmentofoccupancygroupbutnotwithinaprotected
shaft;or
(b) anexternalstairwaywhichissituatedbetweenthegroundandafloororflatroofthe
level of which at the head of the stairway, is not more than 6m above the finished
surfaceofthegroundadjoiningthefootofthestairway.

(2) Theprovisionsof3.2.11.4(1)shallnotprohibittheadditionofanycombustiblematerialtothe
uppersurfaceofanystairwayoflanding.FIG.3.2.11.4A

71

(3) In any building of occupancy group A which has three or more storeys, any internal stairway
(includinganyhallorlandingassociatedtherewithandanypartofafloorwhichaffordspassage
between flights of the stairway) shall be separated from all other parts of the building by
structurecomplyingwiththefollowingrequirements

(a) thestructureshallhavefireresistancefornotlessthantheminimumperiodrequiredby
subsection 3.2.4 for elements of structure forming part of the storey in which it is
situated;and

(b) anyopeninginthestructurewhichgivesaccesstoahabitableroomorkitchenshallbefitted
withadoorwhichhasafireresistanceofnotlessthanhourandcomplieswithsubsection
3.2.11.2.FIG.3.2.11.4B

(4)Forstairwaysforphysicallychallengedpersons,referenceistobemadetoAppendixEofPart4of
thisCode.

3.2.12FireStopping

(1) Thissubsectionappliestoalltypesofconstructionunlessotherwisespecified.

(2) AnyfirestoppingrequiredbytheprovisionsofthispartoftheCodeshallbesoformedand
positionedastopreventorretardthepassageofflame.

(3) Fire stops shall be provided at floor, ceiling and roof levels to cut off completely all
concealed horizontal and vertical draft openings occurring between storeys and between
topstoreysandroofspacesincluding

(a) Everystudwallandpartitionatceilingandfloorlevels

(b) Everystudwallandpartitionofcombustibleconstructionsothatthemaximumvertical
dimensionofanyconcealedspaceisnotgreaterthan3m
72


(c) Everyfurredwallandpartitionsothatconcealedspacesbetweenfurringstripsarefire
stoppedatthefloorandceilinglevels.
(d) Atthebottomofthecoveineverycovedceilingofcombustibleconstruction

(e) Thetopandbottomofeachrunofstairsatceilingandfloorlevels,and

(f) Thetopandbottomofeveryexpansionjointbetweenfloorsandwallsinheavytimber
construction.

(4) Wherecombustiblefloorsarelaidonwoodsleepersontopofslabsinbuildingsrequiredto
be of noncombustible construction, the space between the underside of the flooring and
floordeckshallbefilledwithnoncombustiblematerialorfirestoppingshallbeprovidedin
suchamannerthatthereisnoopenspaceinexcessof9m2inarea.

(5) Where combustible ceiling finishes are attached to wood furring strips fastened to a non
combustible backing in buildings required to be of noncombustible construction fire
stoppingshallbeprovidedinsuchamannerthatthereisnoopenspaceinexcessof2m2in
betweentheceilingfinishandthebacking.

(6) Aconcealed spaceerectedbyasuspended ceiling roofspaceorunoccupied atticspacein


buildings of combustible construction shall unless sprinkle red, be separated by fire stops
intodrafttightcompartmentsnotexceeding

(a) 560m2inareaor60minanydimensionwherematerialshavingaflamespreadratingof
class0asdefinedin3.2.13areexposedinthespace;

(b) 280m2 in the area or 18m in any dimension where materials having a flame spread
ratinggreaterthanclass0areexposedinthespace.

(7) The concealed spaces in exterior cornices including the mansard type, balconies and
canopies of combustible construction shall be fire stopped from the point where such
concealedspacesextendacrosstheendofrequiredfireseparation.

(8) Everyfirestopshall:

(a) beconstructedof:

(i)
cementpulpasbestosboard,gypsumboardorothernoncombustiblematerial
havingameltingpointabove7600Csuchassheetsteel

(ii)
solidlumbernotlessthan50mminnominalthicknessor

(iii)
12mm thick plywood with joints back with like material or 50mm thickness of
lumber not less than 25mm nominal in thickness with joints staggered, where
the width or height of the opening or space to be stopped is such that more
than1pieceof50mmthicklumberisnecessary,and

73

(b) Conformtotheappropriaterequirementsofthesubsection.

(9) Accessopeningsthroughfirestopsshallbeprotectedwithselfclosingdrafttightclosuresof
constructionequivalenttothefirestop.

(10)Wherefirestopsarepiercedbypipes,ductsorotherelementsorassemblies,theintegrity
ofthefirestopshallbemaintained.

3.2.13Restrictionofspreadofflameoversurfacesofwallsandceilings

(1) ForthepurposesofthissubsectionandTable3.2.13A

(a) ceiling includes any soffit and any roof light, skylight, or other part of a building which
enclosesandisexposedoverheadwithinaroom,circulationspaceorprotectedshaft;

circulationspacemeansanyplacewhichissolely,orpredominantlyusedasameansof
accessbetweenaroomandaprotectedshaftorbetweeneitheraroomoraprotectedshaft
andanexitfromthebuildingorcompartment.

small room means a room which is totally enclosed and has a floor area not exceeding
that specified in column (2) of Table 3.2.13A according to the occupancy group of the
buildingorcompartment.

trimmeansanyarchitrave,covermould,picturerail,skirtingorsimilarnarrowmember,

(b) any reference to the surface of a wall shall be construed as a reference to that surface
excluding the surface of any other door, door frame window, frame, mantelshelf, fitted
furnitureortrim;

(c) any reference to the surface of a ceiling shall be construed as a reference to that surface
excludingthesurfaceoftheframeofanyrooflightorskylight;

(d) anypartofaceilingwhichslopesatanangleof700ormoretothehorizontalandisnotpartof
arooflightorskylightshallbedeemedtobeawall.

(e) except as provided in (f) any reference to a surface being of class 0 shall be construed as a
requirementthat

(i)

(ii)

the material of which the wall or ceiling is constructed shall be noncombustible


throughout;or
thesurfacematerial(orifitisbonded,throughouttoasubstrate,thesurfacematerial
inconjunctionwiththesubstrate)shalliftestedinaccordancewithBS476:Part6:A1:
2009 have an index of performance (i) not exceeding 12 and subindex (ii) not
exceeding6;

74

(f) thefaceofplasticsmaterialhavingasofteningpointlessthan1200iftestedbymethod102C
ofBS2782Part1:1978shallnotberegardedasasurfaceofclass0unless

(i)

thematerialisbondedthroughouttoasubstradewhichisnotaplasticsmaterialand
thematerialinconjunctionwiththesubstratesatisfiesthetestcriteriaprescribedin
subsectione(ii)above;or

(ii) thematerialsatisfiesthetestcriteriaprescribedin(ii)aboveandisusedasthelining
ofawallsoconstructedthatanysurfacewhichwouldbeexposediftheliningwere
notpresentsatisfiesthesaidtestcriteriaandisthefaceofamaterialotherthan

0
plasticshavingasofteningpointlessthan120 C;

(g) any reference to a surface being of a class other than class 0 shall be construed as a
requirementthatthewallorceilingshallbesoconstructedthataspecimenconstructedtothe
samespecification,ifexposedtotestbyfireinaccordancewithBS475:Part7:1971,would
complywiththetestcriteriaastosurfacespreadofflamespecifiedinrelationtothatclass.

(h) theauthorityhavingjurisdictionmayaccepttheresultsoftestsbased,onteststandardsother
thanasdescribedin(g)providedheissatisfiedthatsuchalternateteststandardswillprovide
aflamespreadratingorsmokedevelopedclassificationcomparabletothatobtainedin(g).

(i) in relation to a requirement that surface shall be of a class not lower than a specified class,
class0shallberegardedasthehighestclassfollowedindescendingorderbyclass1,class2,
class3andclass4.


Class1asurfaceofverylowflamespread

Class2 asurfaceoflowflamespread

Class3 asurfaceofmediumflamespread

Class4 asurfaceofrapidflamespread


Class0 anadditionalclasswhichmustcomplywithoneofthe
alternativessetoutin(1)(e).

(2) Exceptasprovidedin(3)and(4)thesurfaceofawallorceilinginaroom,circulationspaceor
protectedshaftshallbeofaclassnotlowerthanthatspecifiedinTable3.2.13A.

(3) AnypartofthesurfaceofawallinaroommaybeofanyclassnotlowerthanClass3ifthearea
ofthatpart(or,iftherearemoresuchparts,thetotalareaofthoseparts)doesnotexceedthe
lesserofthefollowing

(a) Halfthefloorareaoftheroom;or Fig.3.2.13A

(b) 20m2inoccupancygroupsR,EandI;

(c) 60m2inoccupancygroupsBandtoSandH.Fig.3.2.13B
75


(4) AnypartofthesurfaceofaceilingmaybeofanyclassnotlowerthanClass3ifthatpartof
the surface is the face of a layer of material the other face of which is exposed to the
externalairand
(a) (i)
theceilingisthatofaroominabuildingorcompartmentofoccupancygroups
R,E,I,B,MorAorthatofacirculationspaceinabuildingorcompartmentofany
occupancygroupand

(ii)

theareaofthatpartdoesnotexceed2.5m2and

(iii)

thedistancebetweenthatpartandanyothersuchpartisnotlessthan2.5m;or

(b) (i)
theceilingisthatofaroominabuildingorcompartmentofoccupancygroupF,
SorH;and
(ii)
theareaofthatpartdoesnotexceed5m2;and

(iii)
thedistancebetweenthatpartandanyothersuchpartisnotlessthan1.8m;

and

(iv)

thatpartandallothersuchpartsareevenlydistributedoverthewholeareaof
theceilingandtogetherhaveanareawhichdoesnotexceed15%ofthefloor
areaoftheroom;or

(c) the ceiling is that of a balcony, verandah, open carport, covered way or leading bay
whichhasatleastoneofitslongersideswhollyandpermanentlyopen;or

(d)theceilingisthatofagarage,conservatoryoroutbuildingwhichhasafloorareanot

exceeding40m2.Fig.3.2.13C

Table3.2.13A

Occupancygroupof
buildingor
compartment

(1)
R

SpreadofFlameoversurfaceofWallsandCeilings
(SurfacesofWallsandCeilings)

Classofsurfaceforbothwallsandceilings(exceptwhere
Maximumfloorarea
separatelyspecified)
ofsmallrooms(in
m2)
Smallroom
Roomsotherthan
Circulationspaces

(SeeCol.2)
smallrooms
andprotectedshafts

(5)
(2)
(3)
(4)

4
3
1
0

E,I

1
3

(Wall)0
(Ceiling)
1

30

30

30

30

S,H

30

76

3.2.14 Roofcovering

IntroductoryNote
(In this subsection two letters will be used in the designation of each roof. The first letter
relatestoresistancetothepenetrationoffireasfollows:

Aroofswhichcanwithstandpenetrationforonehour
Broofswhichcanbepenetratedbetweenhalfanhourandonehour
Croofswhichcanbepenetratedinlessthanhalfanhour
Droofswhicharepenetratedinthepreliminarytest.

Thesecondletterrelatestothespreadofflame.
Aroofswherethereisnospreadofflame
Broofswherethereisnotmorethan533.4mmspreadofflame
77

Croofswherethereismorethan533.4mmspreadofflame
Droofswhichcontinuetoburnfor5minutesafterwithdrawaloftheflame,orspreadmore
than381mmacrosstheregionofburningduringthepreliminarytest).

3.2.14(1)Nopartoftheroofofabuildingwhich:
(a) Hasacubiccapacityexceeding1500m3;or
(b) IswhollyorpartlyofoccupancygroupI,SorH;or
(c) Isahouseinacontinuousterraceofmorethantwohousesshallbesoconstructed
as to be designated BD, CA, CB, CD, DA, DB, C, DC or DD or to be covered with
thatchorwoodshingles.

(2) AnypartofaroofwhichissodesignatedBA,BB,orBC,shallnotbelessthan6mfromany
pointonaboundary.

(3) Anypartofaroofwhichissodesignated,AD,BD,CA,CB,CCorCDoriscoveredwiththatch
orwoodshingles,shallbenotlessthan12mfromanypointonaboundaryunlesssuchpart
is:
(a) ofanareanotexceeding3m2,and

(b) separatedfromanyotherpartofthesameroofwhichissodesignatedorcovered
with thatch or wood shingles by an area of roof which is at least 1.5m wide and
whichiscoveredbynoncombustiblematerialinwhichcasesuchdesignatedpartor
partcoveredwiththatchorwoodshinglesshallbenotlessthan6mfromanysuch
point.Fig.3.2.14

(4) AnypartofaroofwhichissodesignatedDA,DB,DCorDDshallbe:

(a) notlessthan22mfromanypointonaboundary;and

(b) ofanareanotexceeding3m2;and

(c) separatedfromanyotherpartofthesameroofwhichissodesignatedbyanareaof
roofwhichisatleast1.5mwideandcoveredwithnoncombustiblematerial.

78

79

Table3.2.14APermittedRoofCovering

TypeofBuilding

Exceeding1500m3

Terraceofmorethan2houses

Allotherbuildings

DistancefromBoundary

DesignationofCovering

AAABAC

AAABACBABB
Morethan6mbutlessthan12m BC(ADwithrestriction)

AAABAC
Morethan12m
ADBABBBC

Within6m
AAABAC

AAABAC
Morethan6mbutlessthan12m BABBBC
(ADwithrestrictions)
AAABAC
Morethan12m
ADBABB
BC

Within6m
AAABAC

AAABAC
BABBBC
Morethan6mbutlessthan12m Withrestrictionsastoarea
AOBDCACBCCCD
Thatchorshingles
AAABACAD
Morethan12mbutlessthan
BABBBCBD
22m
CACBCCCD
Thatchorshingles
AAABACAD
BABBBCBD
CACBCCCD
Morethan22m
Thatchorshingles
Withrestrictionsastoarea
DADBDCDD
Within6m

*Note:Table3.2.14Blistsvariouspitchedandflatroofcoveringsineverydayuse

80

Table3.2.14BNotionalDesignationofRoofCovering

PartI: PitchedRoofscoveredwithSlatesortiles

Coveringmaterial
1.Naturalslates

2.Cementpulpasbestosslates

3.Claytiles

4.Concretetiles

Supportingstructure

Designation

1.Timberrafterswithorwithout
underfelt,sarking,boarding,
woodwoolslabs,compressed
strawslabs,plywood,woodor
fibreinsulatingboard

AA

PartII:PitchedRoofscoveredwithPreformedSelfsupportingSheets

Material
Corrugatedsheetsof:

(i)galvanizedsteel

(ii)aluminium

(iii)compositesteeland

(iv)cementpulpasbestos

(v)PVCcoatedsteel

Construction

Supportingstructure

Designation

1.Singleskinwithoutunderlay

orwithunderlayof:

(i)cementpulpinsulatingboard Structure of timber,


AA

steelorconcrete
(ii)plasterboard

(iii)fibreinsulatingboard

(iv)woodwoolslab

2.Doubleskinwithoutunderlay

orwithunderlayof:

AA
Structure of timber,
i)resinbondedglassfibre
steelorconcrete

(ii)bitumenbondedglassfibre

(iii)mineralwoolslabor
blanket

(iv)polysterene;or

(v)polyurethane

81

PartIII:PitchedorFlatRoofscoveredwithFullySupportedMaterial

Coveringmaterial

1.Aluminiumsheet
2.Coppersheet
3.Zincsheet
4.Leadsheet
5.Masticasphalt
6.Vitreousenameledsteelsheet

Supportingstructure
1.Timberjoistsand:

(i)Tonguedandgroovedboardingor

(ii)Plainedgedboarding
2.Steelortimberjoistswithdeckof:

(i)woodwoolslab
(ii)compressedstrawslab

Designation

AA

AA

(iii)woodorflaxchipboard
(iv)fibreinsulatingboard
(v)9.5mplywood
3. Concrete or claypot slab (cast in
situ or precast); or noncombustible
deck of steel, aluminium or cement
pulp asbestos (with or without
insulation)

AA

3.2.15 SmallGaragesandSmallOpencarports

(1) Exceptasprovidedin(7)thefollowingprovisionsshallapplytoanygaragewhichhasafloor
areanotexceeding40m2.

(2) Ifsuchgarageisaseparatebuildingand:

(a) isnotlessthan2mfromanyboundaryoranyhousewithintheboundary;or
Fig.3.2.15A

(b) (beinglessthan2mfromanyboundary)complieswiththerequirementin(3);or

(a) (being less than 2m from any house within the boundary) complies with the
requirementof(4).

Itshallnotberequiredtocomplywithanyregulationinthissubsectionexceptsubsection


3.2.14andanyotherprovisionsexpresslyreferredtointhissubsection.

(3) Any such garage which is less than 2m from any boundary shall be so associated that any
part of an external wall which is less than 2m from the boundary is externally non

82

combustible and the walls of the garage have an internal surface which fulfils the
requirementsforClass0.Fig.3.2.15B

(4) Any garage which is less than 2m from any house within the same boundary shall be so
constructed that any part of an external wall which is less than 2m from such house is
externallynoncombustibleandthewallsofthegaragehaveaninternalsurfacewhichfulfils
the requirements for Class 0 but these requirements shall not apply if every part of any
externalwallofsuchhousewhichislessthan2mfromthegarage

(a) isexternallynoncombustible
(b) hasresistancetoexternalfireofnotlessthanhalfanhour;and
(c) hasnounprotectedareawhichexceeds0.1m2orislessthan1.5mfromanyother
unprotectedareainthatpart.Fig.3.2.15C

(5) In the application of (3) and (4) any exposed surface of a frame member forming the
structureofawallshallnotbedeemedtobepartoftheinternalsurfaceofthatwall.

(6) If a garage to which (1) applies is attached to or forms part of a house, it shall be so
constructedthat:

(a) anyfloorimmediatelyoversuchgaragehasfireresistanceofnotlessthanhalfanhour;
and

(b) anywallbetweensuchgarageandsuchhousehasfireresistanceofnotlessthanhalfan
hour;and

(c) anyopeninginsuchwallis:
(i)
at its lowest point, not less than 100mm above the level of the garage floor;
and
(ii)
fitted with a door, shutter or cover which has fire resistance of not less than
halfanhourandwhichcomplieswiththeprovisionsofsubsection3.2.11.2.

Fig.3.2.15D

83

84

3.2.16 OccupantLoad

3.2.16 (1)

Theoccupantloadofeveryfloorarea,orpartthereof,shallbe:
(a) Thenumberofpersonsforwhichthefloorarea,orpartthereofisdesigned,but

(b) Unless otherwise approved, not less than the number of persons that can be
accommodatedonthefloorareaorpartthereofasdeterminedfromTable3.2.16A.

(2) Forthepurposeofthissubsection,mezzanines,tiersandbalconiesshallberegardedas
partofthefloorarea.

(3) Wherearoomorgroupofroomsisintendedfor2ormoreoccupanciesatdifferenttimes,
thevaluetobeusedfromTable3.2.16Ashallbethevaluewhichgivesthegreatest

numberofpersonsfortheoccupanciesconcerned.

Table3.2.16AFormingpartof3.2.16(1)

ItemNo.

1
2

1
2
3

1
2

TypeofUseofFloorAreaorPartthereof
RResidentialuses:

Houses
Dormitories

IInstitutionaluses:

Surgicalandobstetricalsuites
Wardscontainingmorethan2beds
Detentionquarters

BBusinessandPersonalServicesuses:

Personalserviceshops
Offices

MMercantileuses:

Retailsalesfloorsatground,basementorcellar

Otherfloors

85

AreaperPersonm2

(2)

SeePart7
4.65

11.61
4.65
11.61

4.65
11.61

2.79

5.57

Table3.2.16A(contd.)

ItemNo.

TypeofUseofFloorAreaorPartthereof

AreaperPersonm2

FFactory(Industrial)uses:

Manufacturingorprocessrooms

4.65

Storagegarages

46.45

Storagespaces(warehouse)

27.87

Aircrafthangers

46.45

AAssemblyuses:

(1)

Spacewithfixedseats

(1)

Spacewithnonfixedseats

0.74

Stagesfortheatricalperformance

0.74

Spacewithnonfixedseatsandtables

0.93

Standingspace

0.37

Stadiaandgrandstands

0.56

Billiardrooms

9.29

Classrooms

1.86

Schoolshopsandvocationalrooms

9.29

10

Readingorwritingroomsorlounges

1.86

11

Dining,beverageandcafeteriaspace

1.11

12

Laboratoriesinschools

4.65

U,SOtheruses:

Cleaningandrepairofgoods

4.65

Kitchens

9.29

Storage

46.45

Col.1

NotestoTable3.2.16A
(1) Theoccupantloadshallbebasedonthenumberofseatsprovided
(2) Theoccupantloadfordwellingunitsshallbebasedon2personsperbedroomsorareaprovidedforsleeping

86

3.3

SAFETYREQUIREMENTSWITHINFLOORAREA

Interpretation
(Section3.3regulatessafetywithinfloorareasincludingroomsorotherspaceswithinabuilding
withtheexceptionofserviceroomsandservicespacesthatareregulatedinSection3.5.The
regulations are grouped according to the occupancy of the floor area; room or space. The
occupancy of these floor areas and other spaces is not necessarily the major occupancy for
whichthebuildingisclassified.Forexample,abuildingmaybeclassifiedbymajoroccupancyas
an office building, and as such, the provisions for structural fire protection for office buildings
prescribed in Section 3.2 apply. Within that building, a room or floor area may be used for
mercantile,institutional,business,residential,industrialorotheroccupancy.

Lifesafetyfortheoccupantsofanyfloorareaisdependentinthefirstinstanceontheuseor
occupancy of that floor area. The risks to these occupants occur in the early stages of a fire.
These risks are not the same for different occupancies and must be regulated differently.
Section3.3regulatesthesespecialliferiskswithinfloorareasandtheseapplyregardlessofthe
majoroccupancy,ofthebuildingthatcontainsthem.

For example, an assembly room must comply with the requirements for assembly occupancy
whether it is contained in an office building, hospital, hotel, theatre, industrial or other major
occupancy).

3.3.1 Requirementsapplyingtoallfloorareas

3.3.1.1General
(1) Wherehazardoussubstancesareusedinconnectionwiththeactivitiesofanyoccupancyother
thanasprovidedinsubsection3.3.7forGroupsSandH,thestorage,handlinganduseofsuch
substancesshallbeinaccordancewiththeappropriateregulationinthefirepreventionBylaw.

(2) Every room or vault where hazardous substances are stored shall be separated from all other
occupanciesbya3hourcompartmentwall.

3.3.1.2 MeansofEgress(Exits)
(1) Ameansofegressshallbeprovidedfromeveryroofwhichisintended

foroccupancy,andfromeverypodium,terrace,platformorcontainedopenspace.

(2) Means of egress to exists within floor areas shall conform to subsection 3.3.2 to 3.2.7 in
additiontorequirementsofthissubsection.

3.3.1.3(1)Exceptaspermittedin3.3.2.2(1)eachindividuallyrentedroomorsuiteofroomsinafloor
areaoccupiedbymorethan1tenancyandeachdwellingunitshallhaveexteriordoorwayat
orneargroundlevel,oradoorwayleadingtoanexteriorpassagewayopentotheoutdoors,
ortoaninteriorcorridor.Fromthepointwheresuchdoorwayenterstheexterior
passagewayorinteriorcorridoritshallbepossibletogoinoppositedirectionstoeachof2
separateexists,except,aspermittedinthissection.
87

(2) Except as otherwise permitted in this part, public corridors shall be separated from the
remainderofthebuildingbyacompartmentwallhavingafireresistanceatleastequaltoone
hourexceptthat:

(a) the fireresistance need not exceed hour when the fireresistance rating of the floor
assemblyisnotrequired,toexceedhour;
(b) nofireresistanceratingisrequiredwhenthefloorareaissprinkleredandthecorridordoes
notserveGroupsR,EandIoccupancy.

3.3.1.3 Doorwaysrequired

(1) Anyroomorsuiteofroomsoccupiedbyasingletenancyshallhave2egressdoorwaysplacedin
such a manner that one doorway could provide egress from the room or suite of rooms as
required in 3.3.1.3 if the other doorway becomes inaccessible to the occupants due to a fire
whichmightoriginateintheroomorsuiteofrooms:
(a) wheretheoccupancyisclassifiedasGroupsSandH
(b) whichisintendedforanoccupantloadofmorethan60persons;or
(c) except for dwelling units where area of a room or suite of rooms or the distance
measured from any point within a room or suite of rooms to the nearest door opening
onto a public corridor, a corridor used by the public or a corridor serving classrooms or
patients bedrooms or opening directly to an exit exceeds the values shown in Table
3.3.1A.

Table3.3.1A
Formingpartofsentence3.3.1.3(1)

OccupancyofRooms,Suiteor
FloorArea

MaximumareaofRoom,
Suiteorfloor
(m2)

Maximumdistanceto
EgressDoor
(m)

GroupR

93(1)

15(1)

GroupE,I

70

11

GroupB

186

23

GroupM

139

11

GroupF

186

15

GroupA

139

15

GroupS,H

139

11

Column1

*NotetoTable3.3.1A

(1)Seesentence3.3.4.2(6)fordwellingunit.

88

(2)

Wherearoofisusedorintendedforanoccupantloadofmorethan60personsatleast
2 separate means of egress shall be provided from the roof to stairs, designed in
conformancewiththerequirementsforexitstairs,locatedsothatthedistancebetween
suchstairsconformtotherequirementsin3.4.2.2forexists.

(3)

Where a podium, terrace, platform or contained open space is provided egress


requirements shall conform to the appropriate requirements for rooms and suite of
roomsinsentence(1).

3.3.1.5 Thetotalminimumnumberofdoorwaysfromanyroomcontainingahighoccupantloadshall
bethesameasthenumberofexitsrequiredforafloorareahavingthesameoccupantloadas
determinedbyArticle3.4.2.4andsuchdoorwaysshallbeprovidedwithexitsignsasprescribed
inArticle3.4.6.1.

3.3.1.6 (1)Corridors:Theminimumwidthofeverypubliccorridorshallbe1.10m.


(2)
Except as provided in sentence 3.3.1.7 (1) the minimum unobstructed width of every
corridor used by public and every corridor serving classrooms or patients bedrooms
shallbe1.10m.


(3)
Where a public corridor, corridor used by the public or corridor serving classrooms or
patients bedrooms contains an occupancy, such occupancy shall not reduce the
unobstructedwidthofthecorridortolessthanitsrequiredwidth.


(4)
Theminimumheadroomclearanceofeverypubliccorridorandeverydoorwayinsuch
publiccorridorshallconformtoArticle3.4.3.5.


(5)
Every exit, public corridor, corridor providing access to exit for the public or serving
patients bedrooms or classrooms shall be equipped to provide illumination to an
average level of at least 53.8 lux at floor level and at all points such as angles and
intersectionsatchangesoflevelwheretherearestairsorramps.

3.3.1.7 (1)
Doors: Except as provided in sentence (4) every door that opens onto a corridor or
otherfacilitythatprovidesaccesstoexitfromaroomorsuiteofroomsshallswingona
verticalaxis,andwheresuchroomorsuiteofroomsisusedorintendedforanoccupant
load of more than 60persons or for a group of S or H occupancy, shall swing in the
directionofexittravel.


(2)
Everydoorthatdividesacorridorwheresuchcorridorisrequiredtobeseparatedfrom
theremainderofthefloorareabyseparatingwallshallswing onavertical axisin the
directionofexittravel.


(3)
Where sliding doors are provided in locations described in sentence (1), they shall be
designedandinstalledtoswingontheverticalaxisinthedirectionofexittravelwhen
pressureisapplied.Suchdoorsshallbeidentifiedasaswingingdoorbymeansofasign
ordecalaffixedtothedoor.

89

(4)

InGroupEoccupancy,aslidingdoormaybeusedasanaccesstoexitfromaroomor
suiteofroomswherepersonsareunderlegalrestraint,providedlocksareconnectedto
releasingdevicesoperatedfromaconstantlysupervisedcontrolstation.

3.3.1.8(1)

Everydoorthatopensonto,orislocatedwithinapubliccorridororotherfacilitythat
providesaccesstoexitfromaroomorsuiteofroomsoccupiedasasingletenancy,shall

(a) beatleast810mminwidthwherethereisonly1doorleaf;

(b) havenosingleleafinanymultipleleafdoorlessthan600mmormorethan1200mm
inwidth;

(c) notopenontoastep;and

(d) be readily openable without the use of keys in the direction of travel to an exit,
exceptthatthisrequirementdoesnotapplytodoorsofroomswherepersonsare
underlegalrestraint.

3.3.1.9 (1)

Exceptasprovidedin3.3.1.9(2),ramps,stairways,escalatorsandpassagewaysusedby
thepublicasaccesstoexitshallconformwiththerequirementsinsubsection3.4.8.

(2)

Curvedorspiralstairs

In a stairway not required as an exit, a curved or spiral stairway having treads with a
minimum average run of 200mm and having risers in conformance with 3.4.8.6 (1) is
permitted.

3.3.1.10(1)

TheCapacityofaccesstoexits
Thecapacityofanypublicaccesstoexitshallbebasedontheoccupantloadofthefloor
area served and be computed on the basis of the following maximum number of
persons per unit width as determined by the method for computing exit width in
3.4.3.2.

(a) Exceptasprovidedin(c),doorways,corridorsandpassagewaysshallbeassumedto
accommodatenotmorethan90personsperunitofexitwidth(550mm).

(b) Except as provided in (c), stairways, ramps and escalators shall be assumed to
accommodatenotmorethan60personsperunitofexitwidth(550mm)and

(c) Accesstoexitfromafloorareaintendedforthetreatmentorcareofinfirmpersons
shallbeassumedtoaccommodatenotmorethan30personsperunitofexitwidth
(550mm).

90

3.3.1.11 Flamespreadratingincorridors

(1) Thesurfaceofawallorceilingofanypubliccorridororcorridorservingclassrooms,or

patientsbedrooms,shallhaveaflamespreadratingofaclassnotlowerthanClass0

(seesubsection3.2.11).


(2) Whereapubliccorridor,acorridorusedbythepublicoracorridorservingclassrooms
orpatientsbedroomcontainsanoccupancy,theinteriorfinishmaterialsusedonwalls
or ceilings of such occupancy shall have a flamespread rating in conformance with
3.3.1.11(1).

3.3.1.12 Guards

(1)Aguardatleast1050mminheightshallbeprovided:

(a) Aroundeachrooftowhichaccessisprovidedforotherthanmaintenance;
(b) At each raised floor, mezzanines, balcony, gallery and other locations where the
differenceinfloorelevationsisgreaterthan600mm.

(2)Heightofguards:Theheightofguardsonstairsusedbythepublicbutnotformingpartof
arequiredexitshallbenotlessthan900mmmeasuredverticallytothetopoftheguard
fromalinedrawnthroughtheoutsideedgesofthestairnosingsand1050mmaround

landings.


(3) Except as provided in 3.3.1.12(2), the size of any opening through a required guard
servingaroom,stairwayorspacetowhichthepublicisadmittedorservinganexterior
balconyshallbesuchastopreventthepassageofasphericalobjecthavingadiameter
of100mminresidentialoccupanciesand200mminotheroccupanciesunlessitcanbe
showntothesatisfactionoftheauthorityhavingjurisdictionthatthelocationandsize
ofopeningsthatexceedtheselimitsdonotpresentahazardouscondition.

3.3.1.13
TransparentdoorwaysandPanels

(1) Except as provided in 3.3.1.13 (3), every glass or transparent door accessible to the
publicshallbedesignedandconstructedsothattheexistenceandpositionofsuchdoor
is readily apparent by attaching thereto nontransparent hardware, bare or other
permanentfixtures,andwhenconstructedofglassshallbeconstructedofwiredglassor
safetyglassconformingtoPart7ofthecode.


(2) Except as provided in 3.3.1.13 (3) transparent panels used in an access to exit which
becauseoftheirphysicalconfigurationordesigncouldbemistakenasameansofegress
shallbemadeinaccessibletooccupantsbybarriersorrailings.


(3) Sliding glass partitions which separate a public corridor or wall from an adjacent
occupancy and which are open during normal working hours need not conform to
3.3.1.13(1)and(2)exceptthatsuchpartitionsshallbesuitablymarkedtoindicatetheir
existenceandposition.

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(4)

Glassindoorsandsidelightsthatcouldbemistakenfordoorswithinorattheentrance
todwellingunitsandinpublicareasshallconformtotherequirementsofPart7ofthis
Code.

3.3.1.14 ExhaustVentilationRequired

(1) Everybuildingorpartofabuildinginwhichtheremaybeormaydevelop,byreasonofuse
ofoccupancy,dust,fumes,gases,vapourorothervariousimpuritiesorcontaminantsthat
may create a fire or an explosion hazard shall be provided with an exhaust ventilation
systemofapproveddesign.


(2) Whensubstancesorconditionsthatmaycreateanexplosionhazardarepresentasthe
resultoftheprincipaluseofbuildingspace,suchspaceshallbeprovidedwithapproved
explosion relief devices and vents or other protective measures shall be taken which
conformstogoodengineeringpractice.


(3) Allexplosionreliefdevicesshallbeofanapprovedtype.

3.3.1.15 (1) Exceptasprovidedin3.3.1.15(2)andasotherwiserequiredinthispartofthecode,the


portions of a floor area or mezzanine that do not terminate at an exterior wall, a
compartmentwalloraverticalshaft,shallterminateataverticalfireseparationhaving
a fireresistance rating at least equal to that required for the floor assembly that
terminatesattheseparation.


(2) Amezzanineneednotterminateataverticalfireseparationwherethemezzanine:

(a) ServesaGroupFmajoroccupancy

(b) Isnotconsideredasastoreyincalculatingbuildingheightprovidedthemezzanine
doesnotexceed460m2inareaanddoesnotcontainaGroupEoccupancy.

3.3.2 ResidentialOccupancy

3.3.2.1 Scope:Thissubsectionappliestofloorareasorpartsthereofusedorintendedforuseas

residentialoccupancies.

3.3.2.1 (1) Sleepingroomsoccupiedseparatelyandnotassuites,andsuitesordwellingunitsin


hotelsandotherresidentialbuildings,shallbeseparatedfromadjacentrooms,suitesand
public corridors by a fire separation having a fireresistance rating of at least 1hour
except that a hour fire resistance rating is permitted if the floor assembly is not
requiredtoexceedhourfireresistancerating(SeeTable3.2.4A).


(2) Exceptforhotelsandmotels,adooropeningontoapubliccorridorwhichprovidesaccess
toexitfromindividuallyrentedrooms,suiteofroomsordwellingunitsshallbedesigned
nottolookautomatically.

92

(3) Trunk rooms and storage rooms for the use of tenants of residential occupancies not
formingpartofanindividualdwellingunitorsleepingroomoccupiedseparatelyandnot
as a suite shall be separated from the remainder of the building by 1hour separation,
exceptthatahourfireseparationispermittedwherethefireresistanceratingofthe
floorassemblyisnotrequiredtoexceedhour.
(4) Exceptasprovidedin(5)everydwellingunitcontainingmorethan1storeyshallhavean
exit or public access to exit from the uppermost storey and the lowest storey of the
dwellingunit.
(5) Asingleexitispermittedformadwellingunitwheretheuppermostfloorlevelisnotmore
than4.5mabovethefloorleveladjacenttotheexitprovidedsuchexitisanexteriordoor
leadingdirectlyfromastoreyofthedwellingunitatorneargroundlevel.

3.3.2.2(1)

(2)

3.3.2.3

In buildings of residential occupancy and not more than 3 storeys in building height, a
doorway from a habitable room is permitted to open directly into an exit stairway
providedtheprovisionsof3.2.11.4(3)arecompliedwith.

Adoorwayfromadwellingunitmayopenontoaninteriorcorridorservedbyasingleexit,
oranexteriorbalconyservedbyasingleexitstairway,providedeachdwellingunithasa
secondandseparatemeansofegress.
FlameSpreadRating:Interiorfinishmaterialusedonthewallorceilingofeveryroomor
space used or intended to be used for residential occupancy shall have a flamespread
ratingcomplyingwiththeprovisionsof3.2.13.

3.3.2.4 DeadendCorridors:Exceptforcorridorsservedbyasingleexitasdescribedin3.3.2.2(2)a
deadend public corridor is permitted only if it does not exceed 6m in length measured
fromtheendofthecorridortothenearestexit.Suchdeadendcorridorsshallcontainno
door openings except entrance doors to individually rented rooms, suite of rooms or
dwellingunitslocatedsothatitisnotnecessarytopassmorethan2doorsintravellingto
thenearestexit.

3.3.2.5 Partitionswithindwellingunits

(1) Ineverybuildingrequiredtobeofnoncombustibleconstruction,partitionsof
combustibleconstructionasdescribedin3.3.2.5(2)maybeusedwithindwellingunits.

(2) Partitionsofcombustibleconstructionreferredtoin3.3.2.5(1)shallbelimitedtowood
studscoveredonbothsidesbynoncombustiblecladdingorgypsumwallboardexcept
thatsuchcladdingorwallboardmaybecoveredwithpaint.

(3) Storagelockersinstorageroomssharedbymorethan1tenantmaybeconstructedof
woodinbuildingrequiredtobeofnoncombustibleconstruction.

93

3.3.2.6

3.3.2.7

SecondControl:Wallsandfloorsseparatingdwellingunitsshallbedesignedand
constructedtorestrictsoundtransmissioninconformancewithPart7ofthisCode.

Guards:Guardsaroundbalconiesinbuildingofresidentialoccupancyshallbedesignedso
thatnomember,attachmentoropeninglocatedbetween100mmand900mmabovethe
balconywillfacilitateclimbing.

3.3.3 InstitutionalOccupancy

3.3.3.1 Scope:Thissubsectionappliestofloorareasorpartsthereofusedorintendedforuseas

institutionaloccupancies.

3.3.3.2 (1) Exceptforsleepingroomsandpatientsbedroomswithinasuite,sleepingroomsand


patientsbedroomsshallbeseparatedfromadjacentroomsorsuitesbyafireseparating
havingafireresistanceratingofatleast1hour.


(2) Except for corridors within suites, corridors used by the public or serving patients
bedroomsorsleepingroomsshall:

(a) Be separated from the adjacent rooms or suites by a fire separation having a fire
ratingasrequiredin3.3.3.2(1).

(b) HavingsurfacefinisheswithaflamespreadratingconformingtoTable3.2.13A.

(2) Accesstoexitfromaroomorsuitemaybebyadeadendcorridorprovidedtheroomor
suitehasasecondandseparatemeansofegress.

3.3.3.3Thefireseparationrequiredbetweeninstitutionaloccupancy(GroupC)andarepairgarage
shallhavenoopenings.

3.3.3.4 Flamespreadrating:Theinteriorfinishofwallsandceilingsshallhaveaflamespreadrating
conformingtotheprovisionsofsubsection3.2.13.

3.3.3.5 SeparatedZonesinFloorAreas

(1) Everyfloorareausedorintendedtobeusedforpatientsinbedorinformpersonsshallbe
dividedinto2ormorezonesseparatedbyafireseparationinsuchamannerthatthe
occupantsineveryzonehaveaccessto2exitseitherdirectlyorthroughadjacentzones.


(2) Fireseparationsbetweenzonesshallhaveafireresistanceratingofatleast1hour.


(3) Doors acting as closures in fire separations between zones shall be designed and
installedtoretardthepassageofsmoke.

94

(4) Everyzoneshallaccommodate,inadditiontoitsownoccupants,theoccupantsofthe
largestadjacentzoneinafloorareadeterminedbytherequirementsforhorizontalexits
insubsection3.4.
(5) The travel distance from any point within each zone to an adjacent zone shall not
exceed30m.

3.3.3.6 Corridors

(1) Everycorridorinwhichitisnecessarytomovepatientsinbedsshallbeatleast2.4mwide.


(2) Paireddoorsincorridorsshall:

(a) swinginoppositedirections,therighthanddoorswinginginthedirectionoftravel;
and
(b) beatleast1.1mwideand2.1mhightopermitmovementofbeds.

3.3.4 BusinessandPersonalServicesOccupancy

3.3.4.1 Scope:Thissubsectionappliestofloorareasorpartsthereofusedorintendedforuseas


businessandpersonalservicesoccupancies.

3.3.4.1 (1)Partitions:Ineverybuildingrequiredtobeofnoncombustibleconstruction,partitionsof

combustibleconstructionasdescribedin(2)maybeusedwithinfloorareasusedorintendedto

beusedforabusinessorpersonalservicesoccupancywherethepartitionsarenotrequired

toactasfireseparations.

(a) wherethefloorareaissprinklered;or

(b) within spaces having an area not more than 1000m2 where such spaces are
separatedfromtheremainderofthefloorareabyatleast1hourfireseparationof
noncombustibleconstruction.


(2)Partitionsofcombustibleconstructionreferredtoin(1)shallbelimitedto:
(a) wood studs covered on both sides by noncombustible cladding or gypsum wall
board,exceptthatsuchcladdingorwallboardmaybecoveredwithpaint;
(b) glassinwoodsash;or
(c) solidlumbernotlessthan50mmthickness.

3.3.4.3 FrameSpreadRating:Interiorfinishmaterialusedonthewallofeveryroomorspaceusedor

intendedtobeusedforbusinessandpersonalservicesoccupancyshallbeofClass0.

3.3.4.4 DeadendpubliccorridorsarepermittedinGroupBoccupanciesprovidedtheareas

servedbythecorridorhaveasecondandseparatemeansofegressorprovided:

95

(a) theoccupantloadservedbythedeadendcorridordoesnotexceed30persons;

(b) door openings other than entrance doors to individually rental rooms or suites are
not,locatedinthedeadendportionthatservesasaccesstoexit;

(c) the travel distance from the most remote point of the deadend portion to the
nearestexitdoesnotexceed9minlength;

(d) the doors in the deadend portions are located so that it is not necessary to pass
morethan2doorsintravellingtothenearestexitand;

(e) thedoorsinthedeadendportionsarewithselfclosingdevicesanddesignednotto
lockautomatically.

3.3.5 MercantileOccupancy

3.3.5.1 Scope:Thissubsectionappliestofloorareasorpartsthereofusedorintendedforuseas

mercantileoccupancies.

3.3.5.2 Partitions
(1) In every building required to be of noncombustible construction, partitions of
combustible construction asdescribed in(2) maybeusedwithinfloorareasintendedfor
mercantileoccupancywherethepartitionsarenotrequiredtoactasfireseparations:

(a) wherethefloorareaissprinklered;or
(b) where a floor area comprising a single tenancy does not exceed 1000m2 and is
enclosedbya1hourfireseparationofnoncombustibleconstruction.


(2) Partitionsofcombustibleconstructionreferredtoin(1)shallbelimitedto:

(a) woodstudscoveredonbothsidesbynoncombustiblecladdingorgypsumwallboard
exceptthatsuchcladdingorwallboardmaybecoveredwithpaint;
(b) glassinwoodsash;or
(c) solidlumbernotlessthan50mmnominalthickness.

3.3.5.3 FlameSpreadRating:Interiorfinishusedonthewallorceilingofeveryroomorspaceusedor

intendedtobeusedformercantileoccupancyshallhaveaflamespreadratingofClass0.

3.3.5.4 PostsorTurnstiles:Inanymercantileoccupancynoobstructionssuchaspostsorturnstiles

shallbeplacedsoastorestrictthewidthofanormalmeansofegressfromafloorareaorpart

ofafloorareatolessthan750mmunlessanalternativemeansofegressisprovidedadjacent

toandisplainlyvisiblefromtherestrictedegress.

3.3.5.5 Deadendpubliccorridorsarepermittedinmercantileoccupanciesprovidedtheareasserved
bysuchcorridorshaveasecondandseparatemeansofegress.

96

3.3.6 Factory(Industrial)Occupancy

3.3.6.1 Scope:Thissubsectionappliestofloorareasorpartsthereofusedorintendedforuseas

industrialoccupancies.

3.3.6.2 FireSeparation:Everyprocessroomwherehazardoussubstancesareusedorintendedtobe

usedshallbeseparatedfromtheremainderofthebuildingbya2hourfireseparation.The

authorityhavingjurisdictionmaywaivetherequirementforsuchseparationwhereapproved

fireextinguishingequipmentisinstalled.

3.3.6.3Spacesbelowgrade:
(1)Basementsorcellarsshallnotbeusedforthestorage,manufactureorhandlingofvolatile

solids,liquidsorgasesthatgenerateexplosiveairvapourmixturesorforprocessesthat

involveexplosivedusts.


(2) Entrances and exists to basements cellars and rooms containing building services in
buildings involving the storage, manufacture or handling of volatile materials that
generateexplosiveairvapourmixturesorprocessesthatproduceexplosivedustsshallbe
separatedformtheotherpartsofthebuilding.Suchbasements,cellarsandroomsshall
beseparatedfromotherpartsofthebuildingwithavapourtightseparation.

3.3.6.4ExteriorWallOpenings: WhereanystoreyofabuildingclassifiedasGroupSorHmajor
occupancyisrequiredtobeseparatedfromthestoreyaboveorbelowafireseparation,every
openinginanexteriorwalllocatedverticallyaboveanotheropeningshallbeseparatedbyapron
orspandrelwallsatleast90mminheightorbyacanopyatleast90mmwideateachfloorlevel
andsuchapron,spandrelorcanopyshallhaveafireresistanceratingequivalenttothe
constructionrequiredforthefloorassemblyandneednotbegreaterthan1hour.

3.3.6.5 FlameSpreadRating:Interiorfinishmaterialusedonthewallorceilingofeveryroomorspace
usedorintendedtobeusedforindustrialoccupancyshallhaveaflamespreadratingofClass0.

3.3.6.6 Garages

(1) Whereaccessisprovidedfromastoragegaragetoastairtowerorelevatorlobbyserving
occupanciesabovethelevelofastoragegarage,suchaccessshallbethroughavestibule
conformingto3.3.6.6(13).


(2) Mechanical storage garages of not more than 4 storeys in building height where no
persons other than parking attendants are permitted above street floor level, need not
haveafireseparationbetweenexitsandtheremainderofthebuilding.


(3) Everygarageshallbeprovidedwithnaturalormechanicalventilationinconformancewith
subsection3.5.3topreventexcessiveaccumulationofcarbonmonoxide,exhaustfumesor
flammableandtoxicvapours.


(4) Theclearheightofeverystoreyinastoragegarageshallbeatleast1.95m.

97

(5)

Acontinuouscurbatleast150mminheightandaguardatleast1050mminheightshall
be provided at every floor opening and around the perimeter of every floor where the
exteriorwallsareomitted.

(6) The floor finish of every garage shall be of noncombustible material, asphalt or other
approvedmaterial.
(7) Only 3 exists located remote from each other need be provided in storage garages
providedpersonsotherthanattendantsarenotpermittedabovethestreetfloorlevel.
(8) Exceptforabasementinwhichthefloorlevelisnotmorethan900mmbelowgrade,orin
whichatleast25percentofthetotalareaoftheperimeterwallsoneachstoreyisopen
to the outdoors and distributed to provide cross ventilation, every storey of a storage
garageorrepairgaragelocatedbelowgradeshallbe.

(9)Repairgarages:Arepairgarageshallbeseparatedfromotheroccupanciesbyatleast2
hourfireseparation.

(10)Storagegarages:Astoragegarageshallbeseparatedfromotheroccupanciesbyatleasta1

hourfireseparation.

(11)VestibuleRequired:Whereaccessisprovidedthroughafireseparationbetweenastorage

garageandaGroupEorgroupAoccupancy,suchaccessshallbethroughavestibule

conformingto3.3.6.6(13).

(12)Inbuildingsexceeding3storeysinbuildingheightwhereaccessisprovidedthroughafire
separationbetweenastoragegarageandaGroupRoraGroupAoccupancysuchaccess
shallbethoroughavestibuleconformingto3.3.6.6.(13).

(13)VestibuleRequirements:Whereaccessisprovidedthroughavestibuleasrequiredin
sentences(1),(11),and(12),thevestibuleshall:

(a) beatleast1.8minlength;
(b) naturallyventilatedtooutsideairinanapprovedmanner,ormechanicallyventilated
attheraterequiredbyarticle3.5.3.3.;
(c) have the openings between the vestibule and or adjoining occupancy provided with
selfclosingdoorshavingnoholdopendevices.

3.3.6.7 DispensingofPetrol

(1) Facilitiesforthedispensingofpetrolshallnotbeinstalledaboveanyspaceintendedfor
occupancy.


(2) Facilitiesforthedispensingofpetrolshallnotbeinstalledinanybuildingexceptthatthis
requirement does not apply to a canopy which is open on at least 75 percent of its
perimeter,or,whenapproved,toabuildingofGroupAoccupancy.

98

3.3.6.8

Rooms or spaces involving the use of explosive substances shall be ventilated in


conformancewith3.3.1.14.

3.3.6.9 (1)

Accesstoexitfromaroomorsuiteofroomscontaininganindustrialoccupancywithan
occupancyloadofmorethan30personsorahighhazardindustrialoccupancyshallnotbe
throughadeadendcorridorunlessthereisasecondandseparatemeansofegress.

3.3.7 AssemblyOccupancy

3.3.7.1

Scope:Thissubsectionappliestofloorareasorpartsthereofusedorintendedforuseas
assemblyoccupancies.

3.3.7.2 Fireseparationrequired


(1) Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, different occupancies of the same
occupancyclassification,anyoneofwhichhasanoccupantloadexceeding200persons,
shallbeseparatedfromeachotherbyafireseparationhavingafireresistanceofatleast
1hourexceptthatafireseparationhavingafireresistanceratingofhourmaybeused
wherethefloorassemblyisnotrequiredtohaveafireresistanceratinggreaterthan
hour.


(2) Where usable space exists under tiers of seats in arenatype buildings, a hour fire
separation shall be provided between such space and the seats or the space shall be
sprinklered.


(3) Anassemblyoccupancyshallbeseparatedfromagaragebyafireseparationconforming
to3.3.6.6.

3.3.7.3 FlameSpreadRating:Interiorfinishmaterialsusedonthewallorceilingofaroomorspace
intendedforassemblypurposesshallhaveaflamespreadratingofClass0.

3.3.7.4 FixedSeats

(1) Except for benchtype seats as provided in 3.3.7.9; 3.3.7.11 and 3.3.7.12, in places of
assemblywithfixedseats,suchseatsshallbe:

(a) attachedorsecuredtothefloor,platformorplatformriser;
(b) providedwitharmsandback;and
(c) arranged in rows having an unobstructed passage of at least 400mm measured
horizontally between plumb lines from the backs of the seats in one row and the
edges of the furthest forward projection of the seats in the next row in the
unoccupiedposition.

(2) Aislesonthemainfloorandinthebalconiesandgalleriesshallbelocatedsothatthereare
notmorethan7seatsbetweenanyseatandthenearestaisle,exceptwhere:
99

(a) a door or doorway leading directly to an access exit is provided for every 3 row of
seatsinwhichcasesuchdoorsordoorwaysneednotbeprovidedwithexitsigns;and

(b)thenumberofseatsinarowdoesnotexceed100.

(3) Seating arrangements that do not conform to the requirements of 3.3.7.4 (2) may be
approvedprovidedthestandardofsafetyisnotreducedandthetimerequiredforegress
isnotincreased.

3.3.7.5 Aisles


(1) Exceptasrequiredin3.3.7.9,3.3.7.11and3.3.7.12aislesleadingtoexitsshallbeprovided
inplacesofassemblywhichcontainfixedseatsinconformancewith3.3.7.5(2)and3.3.7.5
(9).


(2) The minimum clear width of aisle shall not be less than 1100mm except that the width
maybereducedtonotlessthan:

(a) 750mmwhenserving60seatsorfewer,and
(b) 900mmwhenservingseatson1sideonly.

(3) Except in the case of bleacher seats, the minimum clear width of aisles referred to in
3.3.7.5(2) shall be measured at the point farthest from an exit, cross aisle or foyer and
shallbeincreasedinwidth38mmforeach1.5minlengthtowardtheexit,crossaisleor
foyer.
(4) Aislesshallterminateinacrossaisle,foyerorexit,andthewidthofsuchcrossaisle,foyer
orexitshallbeatleasttherequiredwidthofthewidestaisleplus50percentofthetotal
requiredwidthoftheremainingaislethatitserves.
(5) Deadendaislesshallbenotmorethan6minlength.
(6) Thelengthoftraveltoanexitdoorbyanaisleshallnotbelongerthan45m.
(7)

Sideaislesshallbeatleast1100mmwidewhenseatingisprovidedinconformancewith
3.3.7.4(2)(a)and(b)

(8) Thefloorofeveryaisleshallhaveagradientofnotmorethan1to8.

(9) Stepsshallnotbeplacedinanyaisleunlessthegradientwouldexceed1to8;suchsteps
shallconformtothefollowingrequirements:

(a) the passageway between rows of seats shall be level at right angles to the line of
travel;
(b) theriserheightshallbe115mm;

100

(c) theriserheightshallnotexceed200mmwherenotmorethan1riserisusedbetween
adjacent seating platforms and shall not exceed 200mm where more than 1 riser is
used;
(d) wherevariationsinriserheightoccur;

(i) theheightsofadjacentrisersshallnotvarymorethan6mm;and

(ii) treadsoranypartofaplatformshallextendatleast425mm.

(e) thewidthofstairtreadsbetweenplatformshallconformtoArticle3.4.8.7;

(f) aisle platform where they extend at least 425mm in the direction of exit travel may
slope6mmin300mm;

(g) an unobstructed platform at least 800mm square shall be provided adjacent to an


aislewhereastepisusedattheentrytorowofseats;and

(h) the location of every riser is made apparent from both directions of travel by
strategicallyplacedlight,contrastingmarkingstripesorotherapprovedmethods.

3.3.7.6 (1)

Corridorsusedbythepublicinassemblyoccupanciesorservingclassroomsasaccessto
existsshall:
(a) be separated from the remainder of the building by a fireseparation having a fire
resistanceratingofnotlessthan1hourexceptthat;

(i) thefireresistanceneed notbegreaterthan hourwhere thefloorassemblyis


permittedtohaveahourfireresistancerating;

(b) have surface finishes with flame spread rating conforming to the requirements in
3.3.1.11(1)forpubliccorridors.

(2)

3.3.7.7 (1)

(2)

3.3.7.8

Accesstoexitusedbythepublicorwhichserveclassroomsinassemblyoccupanciesmay
be by a deadend corridor provided the areas served by the deadend corridor have a
secondandseparatemeansofegress.
Everydoorinaprincipalaccesstoexitfromaroom,suiteofroomsorfloorareaofGroup
A occupancy containing an occupant load of more than 100 persons shall be equipped
withanapprovedhardwarethatwillreleaseandallowthedoortoswingwideopenwhen
aforceof90Nisappliedtothedeviceinthedirectionofthetraveltotheexit.
A door between a corridor and adjacent classrooms providing access to exit from the
classroomsneednotbeequippedwithaselfclosingdevicewherethebuildingdoesnot
exceed3storeysinbuildingheight.
Accesstoexitfromaroomorsuiteofroomsofassemblyoccupancyshallnotbethrougha
deadendcorridorunlessthereisasecondandseparatemeansofegressfromtheroom
orsuiteofrooms.
101

3.3.7.9

(1)

Fixedbenchtypeseatswithoutarms
Wherefixedbenchtypeseatswithoutarmsareprovidedtheseatswidthperpersonshall
beassumedtobe450mm.

(2) The centretocentre spacing between rows of benchtype seats shall be at least 75mm
wherebackrestsareprovidedandatleast550mmwherebackrestsarenotprovided.
(3)

Thereshallbeaspaceofatleast300mmbetweenthebackofeachseatandthefrontof
theseatimmediatelybehindit.

(4) Exceptasprovidedin3.3.7.4(2)aislesshallbelocatedsothattherearenotmorethan7
seatswithbacksor20seatswithoutbacksbetweeneveryseatandthenearestaisle.
(5) Thewidthofeveryaisleservingbenchtypeseatshallconformto3.3.7.5.
(6) Stepsshallnotbeplacedinanyaisleunlessthegradientwouldexceed1to8;suchsteps
needtohavehandrailswhentheadjacentseatingisonthesamelevel.
(7) Seating arrangements that do not conform to the requirements in this Article may be
approvedprovidedthestandardofsafetyisnotreducedandthetimerequiredforegress
isnotincreased.

3.3.7.10

(1)

HeightofGuards
Except as required in 3.3.7.10 (2) to (4) for bleacher seats, guards shall be installed in
outdoorplacesofassemblywithfixedseatssothat:

(a) atthefasciaofeverybox,balconyorgallerywheretheseatsextendtotheedge,the
height of guards is at least 250mm in front of the seats and at least 900mm when
locatedattheendoftheaislesoratthefootofsteps;

(b) theheightorguardsalongeverycrossaisleotherthanthoseadjacenttothefasciaof
everybox,balconyorgalleryisatleast650mmexceptthatsuchguardsneednotbe
provided where the backs of the seats along the front side of the aisle are at least
600mmabovetheflooroftheaisle;and

(c) where the seating is arranged in successive tiers and the height of rise between
platforms exceeds 450mm, the height of guards is at least 650mm along the entire
rowofseatsattheedgeoftheplatform.

(2)

Thebacksandendsofbleacherseatsmorethan1.2mabovethegroundorfloorthatare
notadjacenttoawallshallbeprotectedwithaguard:

(a) atleast1.05minheightaboveanadjacentaislesurfaceoffootrest;and

(b) atleast0.9minheightabovethecentreofanadjacentseatboard.

102

(3)


(4)

3.3.7.11

(1)

If the front of a bleacher is more than 600mm above the ground or floor, it shall be
protectedwithaguardatleast830mminheightabovethefrontfootrest.
Thesizeofanyopeninginaguardrequiredin(2)and(3)shallbesuchastopreventthe
passageofasphericalobjectmorethan300mminsize.
OutdoorPlacesofAssembly
Any outdoor places of assembly and each tier or balcony thereof that has a capacity of
morethan:

(a) 1000personsshallhaveatleast3separateexits,or
(b) 4000personsshallhaveatleast4separateexits.

(2)

In every outdoor place of assembly, every seat shall be located so that the travel
distancedoesnotexceed45mmeasuredalongthepathoftravelfromtheseatto:

(a) theground,
(b) anexit,
(c) anopeningtoapassagewayleadingfromtheseatingarea,or
(d) anopeningthroughtheseatingdeckstructuresuchasaportalorvomitory.

(3)Exitsfromoutdoorstadiaorgrandstandsshallbelocatednotmorethan22.5mapart.

(4)Thecapacityofmeansofegressforoutdoorplacesofassemblyshallbebasedon:
(a) 1unitofexitwidthforeach300personsfor:
(i)aisles,

(ii)stairsotherthanexitstairs,and

(iii)rampsandlevelpassagewaysinvomitoriesandinexits,and

(b)1unitofexitwidthforeach225personsforexitstairs.

(5)Aisleinoutdoorplacesofassembly:
(a)shallbelocatedsothattherearenotmorethan20seatsbetweenanyseatandthe
nearestaisle.

(b)shallbeatleast1.2minwidthexceptthatanaisleservingfewerthan60personsmay
be0.75minwidth,and

(c)shallnothavestepsunlessthegradientoftheaislewouldexceed1in8.

103

(6)Exceptasprovidedin3.3.7.12(1)and(2)wherestepsareprovidedinaisles,suchsteps
shall:
(a) extendthefullwidthoftheaisles,
(b) haverisersnotexceeding230mminheight,and
(c) havetreadswitharunofatleast250mm.

3.3.7.12 Bleachers

(1) Wherestepsareprovidedinaislesofbleachersofthetelescopictypesuchstepsshall:

(a) haverisersnotexceeding250mm,and
(b) haveriserswitharunofatleast275mm.

(2) When the vertical distance between seating platforms in bleachers exceeds 275mm, an
intermediate step shall be provided the full width of the aisle, and proportioned to
provide2equalrisersbetweenplatformsandwhentheverticaldistancebetweenseating
platforms exceeds 450mm, 2 intermediate steps shall be provided the full width of the
aislesothatthereare3equalrisersbetweenplatforms.
(3) Where the passageway between rows of seats is not a closed deck, footboards shall be
providedsothat:

(a) the total width of the footboards shall be not less than of the centretocentre
spacingbetweenrowsofseats,and

(b) thespacingbetweenfootboardmembersshallnotexceed25mm.

3.3.7.13 Libraries

(1) Whereabookstorageroominalibraryexceeds232.3m2inarea,orwherethebookstacks
exceeds9minheightorpenetratemorethan1storey:

(a) thebookstorageroomshallbeseparatedfromtheremainderofthebuildingbya2
hourfireseparation,or
(b) thebuildingshallbesprinklered.

(2) Openbookshelvesarepermittedaboveandbelowamezzaninefloor,inalibrarybuilding
providedtheheightofsuchbookshelvesisnotmorethan2.10mor75percentofthefloor
toceilingheightofthespaceaboveorbelowthemezzaninefloorassembly.

3.3.7.14 StagesfortheatricalPerformance

(1) Structuralmemberssupportingthefloorofanystagefortheatricalperformancesshallbe
of noncombustible construction unless the building is permitted to be of combustible
construction.

104

(2)A 1hour fire separation shall be provided between every stage for theatrical
performancesandancillaryspaces,suchasworkshops,dressingroomsandstorageareas.
(3) Every stage for theatrical performance and ancillary spaces, such as work storage and
dressingrooms,shallbeseparatedfromtheaudiencespacebya1hourfireseparation,
exceptforaprosceniumopeningwhichshallbeprotectedwithanapproved:

(a) unframedasbestosfirecurtainwhentheopeningdoesnotexceed18.29minwidth,or
(b) semirigidasbestosfirecurtainwhentheopeningismorethan18.29minwidth.

(4) Every cement pulp asbestos curtain as required by (3) shall be operated manually by
remotecontroldevices,oneonthestagecontrolpanelandoneoneachsideofthestage.
(5) Atleast2ventsforthepurposeofventingfireandsmoketotheoutsideofabuildingshall
be provided above every stage designed for theatrical performances and shall have an
aggregateareaofatleast1/8oftheareaofthestagebehindtheprosceniumopening;

(a) where any requirement of (1) to (5) is incompatible with the function of the stage,
other fire safety measures may be substituted provided the authority having
jurisdictionissatisfiedthatthestandardofsafetyisnotreduced.

3.3.7.15 MotionPictureProjectionRooms

(1) Thispartofthecodedoesnotapplytoportablemotionpictureprojectors.

(2) Except as provided in (1), every motion picture projector, together with all associated
electrical devices, shall be operated within a projection room separated from the
remainderofthebuildingbyafireseparationhavingafireresistanceratingofatleast1
hour.

(3)Aclearspaceofatleast750mmshallbeprovidedbehindprojectionequipmentinevery
projectionroom.

(4)Everyprojectionroomshallhaveatleast2doorwayswithdimensionsatleast750mmin
width and 2.03m in height. Such doorways shall be separated by at least 1/3 of the
perimeteroftheroomandshallleadtoanaccesstoexit.

(5) Doors installed in projection rooms shall be equipped with selfclosing devices and shall
openoutward.

(6)Everyprojectionroomshallbeequippedwithexhaustventilationofsufficientcapacityto
provide6airchargesperhourandshallbedesignedinconformancewithgoodpractice.

(7) Every shelf, fixture and major item of fixed equipment in a projection room shall be
constructedofnoncombustiblematerials.

105

3.4

REQUIREMENTSFOREXITS

3.4.1
GeneralRequirements

3.4.1.1(1) Scope:Exitfacilitiescomplyingwiththissectionshallbeprovidedtoapublicthoroughfare
or toanapprovedopenspacewithaccesstoapublicthoroughfarefromeveryfloorarea
whichisintendedforoccupancy.

(2) Wheremorethan1exitisrequiredfromafloorarea,eachexitshallbeseparatedfrom
everyotherexitleadingfromthatfloorarea.

(3)AccesstoexitsshallconformtoSection3.3.

3.4.1.2 (1) Unlessotherwiseindicated,therequirementsofthissectionshallapplytonew

construction.

(2)Wherealterationsaremadeorchangesofoccupancyoccurinanexistingbuilding:

(a) exists shall conform to this Part, except that the authority having jurisdiction may
permit other arrangements when in his opinion safety to life is not unduly
endangered;and
(b) theauthorityhavingjurisdictionmayrequireanydeficiencyinexitstobecorrected,
and may permit fire escapes as described in 3.4.8.14 for this purpose provided such
fireescapesservefloorareas.

(i)notmorethan2storeysabovegroundlevelinGroupBoccupancies,and

(ii)notmorethan5storeysabovegroundlevelforoccupanciesotherthanGroupB.

3.4.1.3 TypesofExits:Subjecttotherequirementsofthissection,anexitfromanyfloorareashallbe

oneofthefollowing,usedsinglyorincombination:

escalatorthatiscapableofmovingonlyinthedirectionofexittravel
exteriordoorway
exteriorpassageway
exteriorramp
exteriorstairway
fireescape
interiorpassageway
interiorramp
interiorstairway
movingwalkwaythatiscapableofmovingonlyinthedirectionofexittravel

106

3.4.1.4

RestrictedUseofExits

(1)Ahorizontalexitshallnotbepermittedasarequiredexitfromaroomorfloorareahaving

ahighoccupantload.

(2) Horizontalexitsshallnotcomprisemorethanoftherequirednumberofexitsfromany
floorarea.

(3)Afireescape(emergencyescaperoute)shallnotbeerectedonanynewbuilding.

(4)Afireescape(emergencyescaperoute)shallnotbeerectedonanexistingbuildingunless
it can be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the authority having jurisdiction that it is
impracticabletoprovideoneormoreoftheexitfacilitiesin3.2.14.

(5) Glass and transparent door assemblies accessible to the public, transparent panels, side
lightsandwindowsinexits,glassinexitdoorsandsidelightsfordoors,withinandat the
entrancetodwellingunitsshallconformtotherequirementsin3.3.1.13forsuchassemblies
inaccessexits.

3.4.2

NumberandLocationofExitsfromFloorAreas

3.4.2.1

(1) MinimumNumberRequired:Exceptasprovidedin(2)andin3.3.2.1(5),everyfloorarea
asregulatedin3.4.1.1shallbeservedbynotfewerthan2exits.

(2)Exceptfordwellingunitsfloorareasdesignedforanoccupantloadofnotmorethan60
persons in buildings not exceeding 2 storeys in building height may be served by 1 exit
providedthefloorarearequirementsconformtoTable3.4.2A.
(3)Forthepurposeofthissubsection,traveldistancemeansthedistancefromanypointin
thefloorareatoanexitmeasuredalongthepathofexittravel,exceptthatwhenafloor
area issubdivided into suites of rooms or rooms within suites and served by a corridor
requiredtoprovideafireseparationfromsuchadjacentroomsorsuitesofroomsorbyan
exteriorpassageway,thetraveldistanceshallbemeasuredfromthedoorofsuchrooms
orsuitestothenearestexit.
(4)Exceptformezzanines,thatarenotenclosedandareofasizepermittedinTable3.3.1Ato
haveasingleegress,mezzaninesshallbeprovidewithexitsonthesamebasisasrequired
forfloorareasinthissection.

107

Table3.4.2A
Formingpartofsentence3.4.2.1(2)

OccupancyofFloorArea

MaximumFloorArea(m )

95(1)(2)

MaximumTravelDistance

15

E,I

70(1)

10

185

25

140

15

140

10

140

15

S,H

185

25

NotestoTable3.4.2A
(1)

Singleexitpermittedwhensuchexitisanexteriordoororneargroundlevel

(2)

Seesentence3.3.2.4fordwellingunits.

3.4.2.2 DistancebetweenExits
(1)Exceptwhereafloorareaisdividedbyafireseparationsothatit isnecessarytopass

throughittotravelfromoneexittoanotherexit,theleastdistancebetween2

requiredexitsfromafloorareashallbe:

(a)onehalfofthemaximumdiagonaldimensionofthefloorareabutneednotbemore

than9.1mforafloorareahavingapubliccorridorservingmorethan1tenant,or

(b)onehalfthemaximumdimensionofthefloorarea,butnotlessthan9.1mforallother

floorareas.

(2) The minimum distance between exits referred to in 3.4.2.2 (1) shall be the shortest
distance that smoke would have to travel between the required exits assuming that
smokewillnotpenetrateaninterveningfireseparation.

3.4.2.3 LocationofExits

(1) Wheremorethan1exitisrequiredfromafloorarea,suchexitsshallbelocatedsothat
thetraveldistancetoatleast1exitasdescribedin3.4.2.1(3)shallbenotmorethan:

(a) 22.9minanyGroupSorHoccupancy

108

(b) 45.8minanysprinkleredfloorareathatcontainsanoccupancyotherthanGroupSor
H
(c) 38.1minanyGroupBoccupancy,and
(d) 30.5minanyotheroccupancy

(2) ExceptforGroupSorHoccupancy,3.4.2.3(1)neednotapplyifexitsareplacedalongthe
perimeter of the floor area and are not more than 61.0m apart, measured along the
perimeterprovidedeachmainaisleinthefloorarealeadsdirectlytoanexit.
(3)Where more than 1 exit is required, every exit shall be considered as contributing not
morethantherequiredunitsofexitwidth.
(4)Exits shall be located and arranged so that they are clearly visible or their locations are
clearlyindicatedandtheyareaccessibleatalltimes.
(5)Whereanassemblyhallortheatrehasmorethan1balconyorgallery,everyexitstairor
rampleadingfromabalconyorgalleryabovethefirstbalconyshallbeseparatedfromany
otherstairwayandinaseparateenclosure.

3.4.2.4

Exceptasprovidedin3.3.7.11foroutdoorplacesofassembly,thenumberofexistsfrom
eachfloorareainwhichthereisahighoccupantloadshallconformtoTable3.4.2B.

Table3.4.2B
FormingpartofArticle3.4.2.4

TotalNumberofPersons
61600

MinimumNumberofExitsRequired

6911000

Over1000

109

3.4.2.4

Exitforcoveredmalls

(1) Everycoveredmallshall:
(a) be served by at least 2 exits located remote from each other, so that the travel
distancefromanypointwithinthecoveredmalltoamallexitdoesnotexceed61m,
and

(b) have an unobstructed pedestrian travel space at least 3.7m wide, parallel and
adjacenttoeachconnectedbuilding,andextendingtoeachmallexit.

(2) Exits from floor areas of portions of buildings considered as separate buildings which
adjoinacoveredmallshallnotcomprisemorethanoftherequiredunitsofexitwidth
fromthatfloorarea.
(3) Every required exit from a storey above a floor area adjoining a covered mall shall lead
directlytotheoutdoors.
(4)Requiredexitsfromacoveredmallshallnotemptyintoanothersuchcoveredmall.

3.4.3

WidthandHeightofExits

3.4.3.1

ExitWidth

(1) Theaggregatewidthofrequiredexitsshallbeatleastthevaluecomputedinaccordance
with3.4.3.2and3.4.3.3.
(2) Exceptasprovidedin3.4.3.1(3)to3.4.3.1(8)andin3.4.8.14(6),theclearwidthofevery
exitshallbeatleast910m.
(3)Theclearwidthofanycorridorusedasanexitshallbeatleast1.12m.
(4)Theclearwidthofanyexitservingpatientsinbedshallbeatleast1.12m.
(5) The width of an exit stair shall be at least 1.12m where the stair serves 1 or more floor
areashavingacombinedoccupantloadgreaterthan100persons.
(6)Everydoorleafinanexitdoorwayshallbe:
(a) notmorethan1.22minwidth,
(b) notlessthan610mmwidthwherethereismorethan1leafprovidedinthewidthofa
doorway,and
(c) notlessthan810mminwidthifthereisonly1leafprovidedinthedoorway.

110

(7)Theaggregatewidthofdoorwaystoexitstairways,exitrampsanddoorwaysproviding
directaccesstotheoutsidefromafloorareashallbesufficienttoprovidethenumberof
unitsofexitwidthrequiredtoservethefloorareafromwhichtheylead.

(8)Everydoorway,leadingfromexitstairwaysandexitrampsinthedirectionofexittravel
shallprovideatleastthenumberofunitsofexitwidthrequiredforexitpurpose,butshall
notbelessthanofthewidthofthestairwayorrampitserves.

3.4.3.2Widthbasedonoccupantload

(1) For the purpose of determining aggregate width of required exits, the occupant load of
every room or floor area of the building to be considered shall be determined in
conformancewithsubsection3.2.16.

(2) The aggregate width of exits from a room or floor area expressed as units of exit width
(550mm)shallbedeterminedbydividingtheoccupantloadoftheroomorfloorareaby
theallowablenumberofpersonsperunitofexitwidthspecifiedin3.4.3.3.

(3) Indeterminingthewidthinunitsofanindividualexit,thewidthofanexitinmmshallbe
divided by 550. When the remainder is less than 300mm, it shall not be considered as
contributingtothenumberofunits.Wheretheremainderis300mmormore,itshallbe
considered as contributing unit of exit width in the case of stairs, and unit of exit
widthinthecaseofotherexitfacilities.

(4) Except as provided in (5) and (6), the required units of exit width shall be cumulative
where2ormoreexitsconverge.

(5) Exceptasprovidedin(6)whereexitstairserves2ormorefloorways,oneabovetheother,
therequiredunitsofexitwidtharenotcumulative.

(6) Therequiredunitsofexitwidthforexitstairsthatserve1ormorefloorareascontaininga
highoccupantloadshallbeincreasedbyanamountrequiredforthehighoccupantload,
except that such increase need not extend to more than 5 storeys beneath the storeys
withthehighoccupantloadsinhighrisebuildings.

3.4.3.3 Capacityperunitexitwidth

(1) The aggregate width of required exits shall be computed on the basis of the maximum
numberofpersonsperunitofexitwidthasspecifiedin3.4.3.3(5).

(2) Thenumberofpersonsperunitofexitwidthshallbeassumedtobe30indeterminingthe
exitrequirementsfromfloorareascontainingGroupRorGroupEoccupancies.

(3) Exceptaspermittedinsentences(2)and(4),thenumberofpersonsperunitofexitwidth
shallbe90forexteriorexitdoors.

111

(4) Thenumberofpersonsperunitofexitwidthforoutdoorplacesofassemblyshallconform
toArticle3.3.7.11.
(5) Except as provided in sentences (2) to (4) the number of persons per unit of exit width
shallbe60.

3.4.3.4 ReductionofExitWidth

(1) No fixture, turnstile, or construction shall project into or be fixed within the required
widthofanyexit,exceptaspermittedinsentences(2)to(5).

(2) Exitdoorsshallbesohungandarrangedthatwhenopenedtheyshallneitherdiminishnor
obstructtherequiredwidthofexitbymorethan50mmforeachfullunitofexitwidth.

(3)Swingingdoorsintheirswingshallnotreducetheeffectivewidthofexitstairsorlandings
tolessthan760mmorreducetheeffectivewidthofanexitpassagewaytolessthanthe
minimumrequiredwidth.

(4) Nohandrailorstairstringershallprojectmorethan90mmintotherequiredwidthofan
exit.

(5)Inplaceshavingahighoccupantloadwherepersonsareadmittedtothebuildingand
allowedtowaituntilseatsbecomeavailable,specialwaitingareasshallbeprovidedwhich
shall:

(a) notencroachontherequiredexitwidth,
(b) beseparatedfromtherequiredmeansofegressbypartitionsorguardsnotlessthan
1070mminheight,and
(c) be provided with an aggregate width of exit determined on the basis of subsection
3.2.16andArticle3.4.3.3.

3.4.3.5 HeadroomClearance

(1) Except as provided in sentence (2) to (4) every means of egress shall have a headroom
clearanceofatleast2.15m.

(2) The headroom clearance for stairways measured vertically above any landing or the
nosingofanystairtreadshallbeatleast2.10m.

(3) Theheadroomclearancedoorwaysshallbeatleast2.05m.

(4)Nodevicesuchasadoorclosershallbeinstalledsoastoreducetheheadroomclearance
ofadoorwaytolessthan2.0m.

112

3.4.4 FlameSpreadRatingforExits

3.4.4.1 (1)

Exceptaspermittedinsentence(2)theflamespreadratingofawallorceilinginanexit
shallbeofdesignationClass0.

(2) Theflamespreadratingofanypartofthesurfaceofthewallfinishofalobbyusedasan
exitaspermittedin3.4.5.1(6)maybeofanyclassnotlowerthanclass3iftheareaofthat
part(or,iftherearemoresuchparts,thetotalareaofthoseparts),doesnotexceed25
percentofthewallarea.

3.4.5 RequiredFireSeparationforExits

3.4.5.1 GradeofSeparations

(1) Exceptasprovidedinsentences(3)and(4)andinsentence3.3.6.6(2),everyexitshallbe
separatedfromtheremainderofthebuildingitservesbyafire separationhavingafire
resistanceratingconformingtoTable3.4.5Aforthegradeoffireseparationrequiredfor
the floor assemblies of the storeys through which it penetrates or which it serves. This
requirement shall not be deemed to prohibit unprotected openings in walls of an exit
enclosurethatarenotfireseparations.

(2) Except as provided in sentence (3), not more than 1 required exit from any floor area
above or below the first storey shall not lead through a lobby, including the foyer or
sentencehallofanotherflooratgroundlevel.

Table3.4.5A
FormingPartofSentence3.4.5.1(1)

Gradeoffireseparationrequiredforfloor
assemblies
(hr)
Lessthan

Minimumfireresistanceratingforfire
separationofexit
(hr)

113

3.4.5.1(3)

Exitleadingthroughalobby:Notmorethan1requiredexitfromanyfloorareamaylead
throughalobbywhere,

(a) thelobbyfloorismorethan4.57mabovegrade,
(b) thepathoftravelthroughthelobbydoesnotexceed15.24m,
(c) thelobbyconformsinallaspectswiththerequirementsforexits,exceptthat,
(i)roomsotherthangarbagerooms,incineratorroomsandjanitorsstoragerooms
mayopenontothelobby,

(ii)thefireseparationbetweenthelobbyandaroomusedforthesolepurposeof
controlandsupervisionofthebuildingneednothaveafireresistancerating,and

(iii)thefireseparationbetweenthelobbyandadjacentoccupanciesthatare
permittedtoopenontothelobbyneednothaveafireresistanceratingwhenthe

lobbyandtheadjacentoccupanciesaresprinklered.

(4)Therequirementsinsentence(1)donotapplytoanexteriorpassagewaythatisdesigned

asanexitfacilityprovidedthepassagewayisopentotheoutdoorsandisservedbyanexit

stairateachendofthepassageway.

3.4.5.2 IntegrityofExits

(1) There shall be no openings in any fire separation, separating exits except exit doorways
andopeningsforstandpipes.

(2) Exit stairways that are continuous such as scissors stairs shall be separated from each
otherbyasmoketightfireseparationhavingafireresistanceratingatleastequaltothat
requiredforthefloorassemblythroughwhichtheypass.

(3) Fire separations separating continuous stairs in sentence (2) shall not be pierced by
doorways,ductworkoranyotheropeningsthataffectthecontinuityoftheseparation.

(4) Anexitshallnotbeusedasaplenumforventilatingairconditioningsystem

(5) An exit shall be designed for no purpose other than for exiting, except that an exit may
alsoserveasanaccesstoafloorarea.

(6) Serviceroomssuchasfurnaceandincineratorroomsandancillaryroomssuchasstorage
rooms, washrooms, toilet rooms, garbage rooms and laundry rooms should not open
directlyintoanexit.

114

3.4.6 Exit(MeansofEgress)Signs

3.4.6.1 (1)

Everyexitdoorotherthanthemainentrancetoaroomorbuildingshallhaveanexitsign
placedoveritwhentheexitserves:
(a) abuildingexceeding2storeysinbuildingheight;
(b) abuildinghavinganoccupantloadgreaterthan150;
(c) aroomwithahighoccupantloadofmorethan60exceptasprovidedin3.3.7.4(2)(a);

(d) aroomorfloorareathathasafireescapeaspartoftherequiredmeansofegress;or
(e) a corridor exceeding 22.9m in length and serving patients or inmates bedrooms in
GroupsEandIoccupancies.

(2)

Everyexitsignrequiredinsentence(1)shall:

(a) bevisiblefromtheexitapproach;
(b) havethewordEXITdisplacedinplainlegibleletters;
(c) bedesignedtobeilluminatedcontinuouslywhilethebuildingisoccupied;
(d) beconnectedtoanelectricalcircuitseparatefromotherelectricalcircuits;and
(e) bedesignedtobeilluminatedbyanemergencypowersupplyasdescribedinsentence
3.4.7.1(1)and(2).

(3) Lettersonexitsignsshallbe:

(a) white letters on contrasting background of green at least 114mm high with 19mm
strokespellingEXIT,whenthesignisinternallyilluminated,

(b) white letters on green background at least 150mm in height with 19mm stroke
spellingEXIT,whenthesignisexternallyilluminated.

(4)TheminimumsizeofexitsignlettersforviewingdistancesshallbeasgiveninTable3.4.6

Table3.4.6:Sizeofexitsignletters

Viewingdistance
Letterheight
Lessthan20m
50mm
2030m
75mm
3040m
100mm
Morethan40m
125mm

(5)Wherenecessary,signsshallbeprovidedtoindicatethedirectionofegressinpublic

corridorsandpassagewaysandshallhavethewordEXITwithasuitablearroworpointer
indicatingthedirectionofegressandthesizeofletteringshallconformtosentence(3).

115

(6)Nomirrorsshallbeplacedinoradjacenttoanyexitinsuchamannerastoconfusethe
directionofexit.

3.4.7 LightingforExits

3.4.7.1 (1)

Everyexit,publiccorridor,corridorprovidingaccesstoexitforthepublicorserving
patientsbedroomsorclassroomsshallbeequippedtoprovideilluminationtoanaverage
levelandatleast54luxatfloorlevelandatallpointssuchasanglesandintersectionsat
changesoflevelwheretherearestairsorramps.

(2) Emergencylightingshallbeprovidedtoaveragelevelsofatleast11luxatfloorortread
levelin:

(a) exitsandcorridorsusedbythepublicandprincipalroutesprovidingaccesstoexitin
anopenfloorareawheresuchexits,andcorridorsandroutesthatarebelowgradeor
arewindowless,
(b) undergroundwalkways,and
(c) coveredmalls.

3.4.8 TypesofExitFacility

3.4.8.1 Scope: Except when stated otherwise the requirements apply to both interior and exterior

exits.
3.4.8.2Stairsandramps
(1)Thefinishfortreadsandlandingsofinteriorandexteriorstairsandramps

accessibletothepublicshallhavenonskidfinishorbeprovidedwithnonskidstrips.

(2)Everyflightofinteriorstairsshallhaveatleast3risers.

(3)(i) Noflightofstairsshallhaveaverticalriseofmorethan3.7mbetweenfloorsor

landings, except the flights of stairs serving as exits from rooms intended for infirm
persons,orhavingahighoccupantloadshallhaveaverticalriseofnotmorethan2.4m
betweenfloorsorlandings.

(ii) The length and width of landings shall be at least the width of stairways in which they
occur,exceptthatinastraightrunthelengthofalandingneednotexceed1.12m.

3.4.8.3Handrails
(1)Everyexitramporstairwayshallhaveahandrailonatleast1side,andwhere1.12mormorein

widthshallhavehandrailsonbothsides.
(2)Wheretherequiredwidthofaramporflightofstairsexceeds2.22m,1ormoreintermediate
handrailsbetweenlandingsshallbeprovidedandthenumberandpositionofthese
intermediatehandrailsshallbesuchthattherewillbenotmorethan1.68mbetween
handrails.
(3)Handrailsshallbeconstructedsothattherewillbenoobstructiononorabovethemwhichwill

breakahandhold.
116

(4)Handrailsonstairsandrampsshallbenotlessthan810mmandnotmorethan910mmin
height,measuredverticallyfromalinedrawnthroughtheoutsideedgesofstairnosing,except
thathandrailsnotmeetingtheserequirementsarepermittedprovidedtheyareinstalledin
additiontotherequiredhandrails.
(5)Aclearanceofatleast38mmshallbeprovidedbetweeneveryhandrailandanywalltowhichit
isfastened.
(6)Windowsinexitstairwaysthatextendtolessthan1.07mabovethelandingshallbeprotected
byabarrierorrailinglocatedapproximately1.07mabovesuchlanding.

3.4.8.4Guards
(1)Everyexitsuchasarampstairwayorpassagewayshallhaveawallorawallsecured
guardoneachside.

(2) Exceptasprovidedinsentence(3),theheightofguardsonexitstairsshallnotbelessthan
915mminheightmeasuredverticallytothetopoftheguardfromalinedrawnthrough
theoutsideedgesofthestairnosingsand1.07maroundlandings.

(3) The height of guards on exterior stairs and landings, more than 10.7m above adjacent
groundlevelshallnotbelessthan1.52mmeasuredverticallytothetopoftheguardfrom
alinedrawnthroughtheoutsideedgesofthestairnosings.

(4) Thesizeofanyopeningsthroughguardsforexitsshallbesuchastopreventthepassage
of a spherical object having a diameter of 100mm in buildings of residential occupancy
and200mminbuildingsofotheroccupancy,unlessitcanbeshowntothesatisfactionof
theauthorityhavingjurisdictionthatthelocationandsizeoftheopeningsthatexceedthis
limitdonotpresentahazardouscondition.

3.4.8.5 SignforBasementStair:Inbuildingsover2storeysinbuildingheight,anypartofanexit,ramp
orstairthatcontinuespasttheexitdooratgroundleveltoabasementorcellarshallbeclearly
markedbyasignindicatingitdoesnotleadtoanexit.

3.4.8.6RampGradientandLandings

(1)Themaximumgradientoframpsshallbe:
(a) 1in10inanyGroupA,BorCoccupancy,
(b) 1in6inroomsorfloorareasclassifiedasGroupMorGroupSorHoccupancy,
(c) 1in8fromanyotherfloorareaand,
(d) 1in10foreveryexteriorramp.

(2)Whereadoorwayorstairwayemptiesontoarampthroughasidewall,thereshallbealevel
areaextendingacrossthefullwidthoftherampway,andforadistanceof300mmoneither
sideofthewallopening,exceptingonesidewhenitabutsonanendwall.

(3) Whereadoororstairwayemptiesthroughanendwallontoaramp,thereshallbealevel
areaacrossthefullwidthofarampandalongitslengthforatleast915mm.

117

3.4.8.7StairTreadsandRisers

(1)Treadsandrisersineveryexitstair,exceptafireescapestairshallbeproportionedsothat

theproductoftheriseandruninmmshallnotbelessthan1750andnotmorethan1900;

risersshallhaveamaximumriseof200mmandaminimumriseof130mm,treadsshall

haveaminimumrunoff230mmexclusiveofnosing.

(2) Treadsandrisersineveryexitstair,exceptafireescapestair,shallhaveuniformrunand
riseinanyoneflightandshallnotaltersignificantlyinrunandriseinsuccessiveflightsin
anystairsystem.

(3) Wheretherunofanytreadinanexitstairislessthan250mm;anosingofatleast25mm
shallbeprovidedbeyondthefaceoftheriseroranequivalentbackslopeontherisershall
beprovided.

(4) Thefrontedgeofstairtreadsinexitsandpublicaccesstoexitsshallbeatrightanglesto
thedirectionofexittravel.

3.4.8.8 CurvedStairsProhibited:Nowindersorcurvedstairsshallbeusedinarequiredexit.

3.4.8.9EscalatorsandMovingWalks

(1)Anyescalatorofthehorizontaltreadtypeenclosedinaccordancewiththerequirementsof

thispart,andanymovingwalksenclosedinaccordancewiththispartanddesignedin

accordancewiththeprovisionsforrampsinthispartmaybeconsideredasanexitprovided

itconformstothisarticle.

(2) An escalator or moving walkway that pierces a required fire separation and serves as
requiredexitshallbeenclosedinthesamemannerasexitstairs.

(3) Where any escalator serves as a required exit, the width of the tread shall be at least
900mm, the rise shall not exceed 220mm and the run shall be at least 4000mm; there
shall be a clear width of at least 1.12m at the handrails, and the escalator may be
consideredtohave2unitsofexitwidth.

(4) Noescalatororinclinedmovingwalkwayshallhaveaverticaltravelofmorethan1storey.

(5) Every escalator or inclined moving walkway shall have top and bottom landings as
requiredhereinforstairs.

3.4.8.10HorizontalExits
(1)Thefloorareaoreachsideofahorizontalexitshallbesufficienttoaccommodatethe

occupantsofbothfloorareas,allowingnotlessthan0.5m2ofclearfloorspaceperperson,

exceptthat1.50m2shallbeprovidedforpersonsinwheelchairsand2.25m2forbedridden

patients.

(2) Where vestibules, enclosed balconies or bridges are used as part of any horizontal exit,
theirclearwidthshallbeatleastthatoftheexitdoorwaysopeningintothem,exceptthat
handrailsmaynotprojectintothisclearwidthmorethan90mm.

118

(3) Inanyhorizontalexitwherethereisadifferenceinlevelbetweenconnectedfloorareas,
gradientsnotexceedingthosespecifiedin3.4.8.6maybeused.
(4) Nostairorstepsshallbeusedinhorizontalexit.
(5) Every opening used as a horizontal exit shall be protected by a closure consisting of an
approvedselfclosingdoorordoorsthatswinginaverticalaxis.

(6) Where2doorsareprovidedinahorizontalexittheyshall:
(a) bemountedadjacenttoeachother,

(b) be mounted in separate opening or mounted in 1 opening and meet on a mullion


unlessotherwiseapproved,

(c) swinginoppositedirectionsandhavesignsoneachsideofthewalltoindicateasthe
exitthedoorthatswingsinthedirectionoftravelfromthatside.

(7)BridgesandBalconiesasHorizontalExits
(a)Wherebuildingsareconnectedbyawalkway,eachbuildingshallbeseparatedfrom

walkwaybyatleasthourfireseparation.

(b)Awalkwayshallbeofnoncombustibleconstructionwhenconnectedtoabuilding

requiredtobeofnoncombustibleconstruction,exceptthatwhereatleast50percent
oftheareaoftheenclosingperimeterwallsofwalkwaysatorneargroundlevelare
opentotheoutdoors,suchwalkwaysmaybe,madeofheavytimberconstruction.

(8) Guardsshallbeatleast1.20minheightandtheleastdimensionofanyopeningthrough
theguardshallnotexceed100mm.

3.4.8.11Passageways:Passagewaysandstairwaysshallbedesignedsoastokeepthelengthoftravel

toaminimum.
3.4.8.12(1)Accesstoexteriorpassagewaysfromafloorareashallbethroughexitdoorsatthefloor

level.

(2) Everyexteriorpassagewaywhichhasadropofmorethan500mmonanysideshallhave
guardsontheopensidesatleast1.07mhigh.

3.4.8.13Doors
(1)Noexitdoorsshallopenimmediatelyontoaflightofstairs,butshallopenontoalanding

atleast300mmwiderandlongerthanthewidthofsuchdoor.

(2) Noriserofanyflightofstairsshallbelocatedwithin300mmofanexitdoor.

119

(3) Exit doors shall be clearly identifiable and no hangings or draperies shall be placed over
exitdoorstoconcealorobscureanyexit.

(4) Nomirrorsshallbeplacedinoradjacenttoanyexitinsuchamannerastoconfusethe
directionofexit.

(5) Noexitdoorshallopendirectlyontoastep.

(6) Every door shall open in the direction of exit travel except for doors serving a single
dwellingunitandshallswingonitsverticalaxis.
(7) (a) Every exit door that is normally required to be kept closed shall be provided with a
reliableselfclosingmechanism,andshallnotatanytimebesecuredinanopenposition
exceptasspecifiedin(b);

(b)Wherethesafetyoftheoccupantsisnotendangeredthereby,andwiththeapproval
of the authority having jurisdiction, approved holdopen devices may be installed on
closuresthatarerequiredtobeselfclosingotherthanclosuresonvestibulesrequiredin
Article3.3.6.6andonexitshafts.

(8) Slidingdoors:Exitdoorsleadingdirectlytooutdoorsatgroundlevelmaybeslidingdoors,

providedtheyconformtosentence3.3.1.7(3).
(9)

Revolvingdoors:Whererevolvingdoorsareusedtheyshall:

(a) beapprovedcollapsiblerevolvingdoors,
(b) havehingeddoorsprovidingequivalentunitsofexitswidthlocatedadjacenttothem,
(c) notbeusedatthefootofanystairway,and
(d) notbeusedasanexitforfloorareascontainingahighoccupantloadorGroupEor
GroupSorHoccupancies.

(10) Arevolvingdoormaybeconsideredtoprovidenotmorethanunitofexitwidth.

(11) Approvedhardwarethatwillreleaseandallowthedoortoswingwideopenwhenaforce
of90Nisappliedtothehardwareinthedirectionofexittravelshallbeinstalledon:

(a) everyexitdoorfromafloorareacontainingaGroupFoccupancyhavinganoccupant
loadofmorethan100persons,

(b) every door leading to an exit lobby from an exit stair shaft, and every exterior door
leadingfromanexitstairshaftinbuildingshavinganoccupantloadofmorethan100
persons,and

(c) everyexitdoorfromafloorareacontainingaGroupSorHoccupancy.

120

(12) Everyexitdoorshallbedesignedandinstalledsothatwhenthelatchisreleasedthedoor
willopeninthedirectionofexittravelunderaforceofnotmorethan90Nappliedatthe
knoborotherlatchreleasingdevice.
(13) Fasteningsonanyrequiredexitdoorshallbesuchthatthedoormaybereadilyopened
fromtheinsidewithouttheuseofkeysexceptthatthisrequirementshallnotapplytothe
doorsofroomswherepersonsareunderlegalrestraint.

3.4.8.14Emergency(Fire)Escapesroutes
(1)Emergency(fire)escapesshallbeinstalledinconformancewithsentence3.4.1.2(2)and
sentence 3.4.1.4 (3) and (4) and shall be of metal or concrete, of the stair type,
extending to ground level, constructed throughout in a strong substantial manner and
securelyfixedtothebuildings,exceptthatwoodenfireescapesmaybeusedonbuildings
ofcombustibleconstructionifallpostsandbracketsareatleast100mmintheirleast

nominal dimension and all other woodwork is at least 50mm in its least nominal
dimension.

(2) Accesstoemergencyescapesshallbefromcorridorsthroughdoorsatfloorlevel,except
that access from a dwelling unit may be through a casement window having an
unobstructedopeningofnotlessthan1.07mhighby560mmwidewithasillheightofnot
morethan900mmabovetheinsidefloor.

(3) Stairsshallbeinclinedat anangleofnotmorethan45degrees with the horizontaland


shallhaverisersofnotmorethan210mminheightandtreadsofnotlessthan220mmin
widthexclusiveofnosing.

(4) Stairway headroom shall not be less than 1.95m plus height of one riser measured
verticallyabovethenosingofanytreadorplatform.

(5) Wheredoorsopenontofireescapebalconies,suchbalconiesshallhaveaclearareaofnot
lessthan8.60m2.

(6) Thewidthofanemergencyescapeshallconformtosentence3.4.3.1(1)exceptthatthe
widthofanemergencyescapeshallbeatleast550mmwhenserving:

(a) notmorethan3storeys,and
(b) notmorethan15persons.

(7) The open sides of every platform, balcony and stairway shall be protected by guards at
least900mminheightmeasuredverticallyabovethenosingofanytreadorplatform.
(8) Two equally spaced rails not more than 450mm apart, parallel to stair stringers and to
platformedgesshallbetheminimumprotectionprovided,andthetoprailmayserveasa
handrailiffreefromobstructionswhichcouldbreakahandhold.
(9) Awallhandrailshallbeinstalledwherethefireescapeismorethan550mminwidth.

121

(10) Unlessotherwiseapproved,theflightofstairsleadingtothegroundatthefootofafire
escapeshallbefixedinposition.Wheresuchflightofstairsisnotfixedinposition,itshall
be held in the up position without a latch or locking device, and shall be fitted with an
approval counter balancing device that will permit it to be easily and quickly brought into
positionforuse.

3.5

HEALTHREQUIREMENTS

3.5.1 HeightandAreaofRooms

3.5.1.1(1)Theheightofeveryroomandspaceshallbesuchthatadequatelightandair

maybeprovidedfortheintendedoccupancy,andthatnoobstructiontomovementor

activitiesbelowiscausedbytheceilingorceilingfixtures.

(2)TheunobstructedheightindwellingunitsshallconformtoPart7ofthecode.

(3)Theclearheightaboveandbelowamezzaninefloorassemblyshallbeatleast2.15munless

otherwiseapproved.

3.5.2 Windows

3.5.2.1 Unlessotherwiseapprovedeveryroomusedforsleepinginanybuilding,andeveryprincipal

roomsuchaslivingroom,diningroomorcombinationthereofindwellingunits,shallbe

providedwithwindowsinconformancewithPart7ofthisCode.

3.5.3 Ventilation

3.5.3.1 AirContaminants:Aircontaminantsreleasedwithinbuildingsshallberemovedinsofaras

possibleattheirpointsoforigin,andshallnotbepermittedtoaccumulateinunsafe

concentrations.

3.5.3.2 RoomVentilation
(1)Allroomsandspacesshallbeventilatedinconformancewithsentences(2)and(3).

(2)TheventilationofroomsorspacesbynaturalmethodsinGroupAoccupanciesshallconform
toPart7ofthisCode.

(3)Theventilationofroomsandspacesinoccupanciesotherthanresidentialoccupanciesby

naturalmethodsshallbepermittedinlieuofmechanicalventilationwhentheauthorityhaving

jurisdictionissatisfiedthatsuchventilationwillprovidesufficientairchangetoprovide

healthfulconditionsinthatoccupancy.

3.5.3.3Ventilationforexplosivesubstances
(1)Exceptasprovidedinsentences(4)and(5),anenclosedstorage,garageandrepairareasina

garageshallhaveaventilationsystemdesignedtolimittheaverageconcentrationofcarbon

monoxidetonotmorethan100partspermillionpartsofairforperiodslongerthan1hour

122

withamaximumconcentrationatanytimeofnotmorethan400partsofcarbonmonoxideper
millionpartsofairwhenmeasuredbetween900mmand1.2mfromthefloor.

(2)Therequirementinsentence(1)isconsideredtobemetbyasystemdesignedtoprovidea

3
2

continuoussupplyoffreshairatarateequaltoatleast0.23m ofairperminuteforeachm of

floorarea.

(3) Mechanical ventilation systems provided in accordance with sentence (1) shall include

automaticventilatingfan controlby meansofapprovedcarbon monoxide monitoringdevices,

orbyotherapprovedmeanslocatedsoastoprovidefullprotectionfortheoccupancy.

(4) In garages subject to the requirements of sentences (1), (2) and (3) where motor vehicles are

parkedbymechanicalmeanstheventilationrequirementsmaybereducedbyonehalf.

(5) Storagegarageswithatotalcapacityoflessthan20motorvehiclesneednothavemechanical

ventilating system if the downward slope of the floor to the outside door is 1 in 120 and the

garagefloorisaboveoutsidegroundlevel.

(6) Therequirementsofsentences(1)to(5)shallnotapplytoanystoragegarageprovided:

(a)atleast25percentofthetotalareaoftheperimeterwallsoneachstoreyisopentothe

outdoorsanddistributedtoprovidecrossventilation,
(b)noportionofanyfloorofthegarageismorethan900mmbelowtheadjacentground

level,and
(c)notarpaulins,glassorothermaterialsareusedtoclosetherequiredexterioropeningsatany

time.

3.5.4 PlumbingFacilities
3.5.4.1 SystemsRequired
(1)Eachbuildingsituatedonpropertythatabutsonastreetinwhichapublicor

municipalwatermainislocatedshallbeprovidedwithorhaveaccessibletoitsoccupantsa

plumbingsystemincludingaportablewatersupply,asanitarydrainagesystemandtoilet

fixtures.
(2)Whentheinstallationofasanitarydrainagesystemisnotpossiblebecauseoftheabsenceofa

watersupply,sanitaryprivies,chemicalclosetorotherapprovedmeansforthedisposalof

humanwasteshallbeprovided.
(3)PlumbingsystemsshallbedesignedandinstalledinaccordancewithPart9.6ofthisCode.

3.5.4.2 MinimumNumberofFixtures
(1)Waterclosetsshallbeprovidedforeachsexinaccordancewiththeanticipated

proportionofeachsexintheoccupancywhenthiscanbedeterminedwithreasonable

accuracy,exceptthatwheneachdeterminationcannotbemadewithreasonableaccuracy,it

maybeassumedthattheoccupancy,isequallydividedbetweenthesexes.

(2)Wheremorethan2waterclosetsarerequiredinthissubsection,urinalsmaybesubstitutedfor

2/3oftherequirednumberofwaterclosetsandmaybecountedaswaterclosets.

(3)Exceptasprovidedinsentence(4),atleast1lavatoryshallbeprovidedinaroomcontaining1
123


or2waterclosetsorurinals,andatleast1additionallavatoryshallbeprovidedforeach

additional2suchfixtures.

(4)Washfountainsincircularformmaybeprovidedinlieuoflavatoriesrequiredinsentence(2)

providedeach500mm,ofitscircumferenceisconsideredtobeequivalentof1lavatory.

(5)ThenumberofwaterclosetsrequiredforGroupAoccupanciesandforauditoria,gymnasia,

lecturehalls,secondaryschools,nonresidentialcollegesandsimilaroccupanciesshallconform

toTable3.5.4A.

(6) ThenumberofwaterclosetsrequiredforGroupBoccupanciesandforrestaurants,

nonresidentialclubs,communityhalls,lodgerooms,passengerstationsanddepots,art

galleries,exhibitionhalls,libraries,museums,courtroomsandsimilaroccupanciesshall

conformtoTable3.5.4B.

(7) Thenumberofwaterclosetsrequiredforprimaryschoolsanddaycarecentresshallbeatleast

1fixtureforeach30malesand1fixtureforeach25females.

Table3.5.4A
FormingPartofSentence3.5.4.2(5)

NumberofPersons
150

MinimumNumberofWaterClosets

Male
Female
1
2

51100

101200

201400

Over400

6plus1foreachadditional200

8plus1foreachadditional150

malesover400

femalesover400

3.5.4.2(8)Thenumberofwaterclosetsrequiredforplacesofworshipandundertakingpremisesshall
beatleast1fixtureforeach150personsofeachsex.


(9) The number of water closets required for institutional occupancies shall conform to good
practiceandshallbesubjecttotheapprovaloftheauthorityhavingjurisdiction.

124

Table3.5.4B
FormingPartofSentence3.5.4.2(6)

MinimumNumberofWaterClosetsforeachSex

NumberofPersons

125

2650

2plus1foreachadditional50personsofeachsex
over50

Over50

3.5.4.2(10)Thenumberofwaterclosetsrequiredforresidentialoccupanciesshallbeatleast1
fixtureforeach10personsofeachsex,exceptthatdwellingunitsshallconformto
requirementsinPart7ofthisCode.
(11)Thenumberofwaterclosetsrequiredformercantileoccupanciesshallbeatleast1fixture
foreach300malesand1fixtureforeach150females.

(12)Thenumberofwaterclosetsrequiredforindustrialoccupanciesshallconformto
Table3.5.4C.

Table3.5.4CForming
PartofSentence3.5.4.2(12)

NumberofPersonsofeachsex

110

MinimumNumberofWaterClosetsforeachsex

1125

2650

5175

76100

Over100

5plus1foreachadditional30personsofeachsex
over100

3.5.4.3 Glass,otherthansafetyglass,shallnotbeusedforashowerorbathtubenclosure.

125

APPENDIX1
ReferredStandards

STANDARD
TITLE
BSEN
Thermalinsulationproductsforbuildings.Factory
13168:2001 madewoodwool(WW)products.Specification

ASTM
ASTMC39008e1Standard
PracticeforSamplingand
AcceptanceofThermal
InsulationLots
ASTME11912StandardTest
MethodsforFireTestsof
BuildingConstructionand
Materials

BS476
PART
20:1987

Firetestsonbuildingmaterialsandstructures.
Methodfordeterminationofthefireresistanceof
elementsofconstruction(generalprinciples),

BS476
PART
21:1987

Firetestsonbuildingmaterialsandstructures.
Methodsfordeterminationofthefireresistance
ofloadbearingelementsofconstruction

ASTME11912StandardTest
MethodsforFireTestsof
BuildingConstructionand
Materials

BS476
PART
22:1987

Firetestsonbuildingmaterialsandstructures.
Methodsfordeterminationofthefireresistance
ofnonloadbearingelementsofconstruction

BS476
PART
23:1987

Firetestsonbuildingmaterialsandstructures.
Methodsfordeterminationofthecontributionof
componentstothefireresistanceofastructure

ASTME11912StandardTest
MethodsforFireTestsof
BuildingConstructionand
Materials
ASTME8412StandardTest
MethodforSurfaceBurning
CharacteristicsofBuilding
Materials

BS5950
PART
5:1987

Structuraluseofsteelworkinbuilding.Codeof
practicefordesignofcoldformedthingauge
section

126

ASTMA992/A992M11
StandardSpecificationfor
StructuralSteelShapes

SABS
SANS13814Materials
forthermalinsulationof
buildings
SANS101772
Firetestingofmaterials,
componentsand
elementsusedin
buildingsPart2:Fire
resistancetestfor
buildingelements
SANS101771
Firetestingofmaterials,
componentsand
elementsusedin
buildingsPart1:General
introductiontothe
methodsoftest
SANS101601
Basisofstructural
designandactionsfor
buildingsandindustrial
structuresPart1:Basis
ofstructuraldesign

SANS101778
Firetestingofmaterials,
componentsand
elementsusedin
buildingsPart8:Surface
burningcharacteristics
ofbuildingmaterials

BS2782
PART1

Methodsoftestingplastics.Thermalproperties.
Plasticyield

ASTMD610809StandardTest
MethodforCompressive
PropertiesofPlasticLumberand
Shapes
ASTMF72503(2008)e1
StandardPracticeforDrafting
ImpactTestRequirementsIn
ThermoplasticPipeAndFittings
Standards

ASTME11912StandardTest
MethodsforFireTestsof
BuildingConstructionand
Materials

SANS4898Rigid
cellularplastics
Thermalinsulation
productsforbuildings
Specifications

SANS1017710Fire
testingofmaterials,
componentsand
elementsusedin
buildingsPart10:
Surfaceburning
characteristicsof
buildingmaterialsusing
theinvertedchannel
tunneltest

SANS9852
ASTMD285295(2008)
BSEN1329
Plasticspipingsystemsforsoilandwaste
Unplasticizedpoly(vinyl
StandardSpecificationfor
PART1:200 discharge(lowandhightemperature)withinthe
chloride)(PVCU)pipes
StyreneRubber(SR)Plastic
buildingstructure.Unplasticizedpoly(vinyl
Dichloromethane
DrainPipeandFittings
chloride)(PVCU).Specificationsforpipes,fittings
resistanceatspecified
ASTMF2648/F2648M11
andthesystem
temperature(DCMT)
StandardSpecificationfor2to
Testmethod
60inch[50to1500mm]Annular
SANS967Unplasticized
CorrugatedProfileWall
poly(vinylchloride)
Polyethylene(PE)Pipeand
(PVCU)soil,wasteand
FittingsforLandDrainage
Applications
ventpipesandpipe
fitting
BS476
Firetestsonbuildingmaterialsandstructures.
ASTME10811StandardTest

PART3
Classificationandmethodoftestforexternalfire
MethodsforFireTestsofRoof
:2004
exposuretoroofs
Coverings
BS476
PART6+
A1:2009

Firetestsonbuildingmaterialsandstructures.
Methodoftestforfirepropagationforproducts

127