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ExperimentalinvestigationofReynoldsNumberEffectsofWindTurbine

ProfilesintheCryogenicWindTunnelCologneDNWKKK
RdigerRebstock1,JunnaiZhai2
GermanDutchWindTunnels,DNWKKK,LinderHhe,51147Kln
ruediger.rebstock@dnwgermany.aero,junnai.zhai@dnwgermany.aero

Windturbinesizehasincreasedcontinuouslyinthepasttoextractmoreenergyfromthewind.Correspondingly,
theReynoldsnumbershaveincreased.TheReynoldsnumbereffectcanthereforenolongerbeignoredindesign
andoptimizationofwindturbines.Reliableprofiletestdatashouldbeavailable.
AsuitablefacilityfortestingwindturbineprofilesathighReynoldsnumbersistheCryogenicWindTunnel
CologneDNWKKK.Bymeansofinjectionliquidnitrogenthetunnelcanbecooleddownto100Kandthe
Reynoldsnumbercanberaised.ThemaximumReynoldsnumberforthe2Dprofiletestcanreach27x10 6.The
liftisdeterminedfrompressuretapsonthemodel.Thedragismeasuredusingawakerake.Theboundarylayer
intheintersectionareasbetweenthemodelandthetunnelwallscanbecontrolledbyblowinghighpressuregas
orusingvortexgenerators.Thelaminartoturbulenttransitionlinecanbedetectedusinginfraredimagingor
temperaturesensitivepaint(TSP).
InthispaperthetestuncertaintyandtheflowqualityofDNWKKKwereanalyzed.Thensometestresultson
theReynoldsnumbereffectofthewindturbineprofileswerepresented.TheReynoldsnumbereffectisdifferent
frommodeltomodel.EspeciallyforthickprofilesandflowcontroldevicestheReynoldsnumbereffectisnot
alwayslikethedescriptioninliterature.
Anotherworkinthisareaistheaeroacoustictest.Apretest withacryogenicmicrophonearrayisalready
finished.Thedataprocessingisstillongoing.
Keywords:aerodynamicsofwindturbineprofiles;Reynoldsnumbereffect;cryogenicwindtunneltest

Nomenclature
alpha
Cd
Cl
Cm
CN
Cp
CT
cl/cd
Ma
Re
p

x
y

=
Angleofattack[]
=
dragcoefficient[]
=
liftcoefficient[]
=
pitchingmomentcoefficientreferredtothequarterofchard[]
=
normalcoefficient[]
=
pressurecoefficient[]
=
tangentialcoefficient[]
=
liftdragratio,aerodynamicefficiency[]
=
machnumber[]
=
Reynoldsnumber[]
=
pressure[Pa]
=
tunnelstaticpressure[Pa]
=
totalpressure[Pa]
=
dynamicpressure[Pa]
=
Temperature[K]
=xcoordinateofpressuretap
=ycoordinateofpressuretap

=Angleofattack[]
=standardderivation

st

pg
q
T

HeadofCryogenicWindtunnel,DNW,LinderHoehe,51147Cologne,Germany.

Projectmanager,CryogenicWindtunnel,DNW,LinderHoehe,51147Cologne,Germany.

1.Introduction
Theratedpowerofawindturbineisproportionaltothediametersquared,solargerandlargerwindturbinesare
builttoextractmoreenergyfromthewind.Theprofilesusedinthebladearespeciallydesignedtoimproveits
efficiency11.Withtheincreasingsize,theReynoldsnumberincreasesalso.A5MWwindturbinecanreacha
Reynoldsnumberof11x106and20MWcanreacheven25x106.TheeffectofReynoldsnumbershouldbetaken
intoaccountindesigntheprofiles.
There are many CFD programs available that can be used to predict the profile properties 5, 6. With these
programstheprofilecanbeoptimizedquickly.Theproblemisthatsomeproperties,suchaspoststallbehavior,
themaximumlift(Clmax)andtheminimumdrag(Cdmin)couldnotbedeterminedaccuratelyusingthestateof
artCFDprogram.ThesepropertiesdonotalwaysgetbetterwithhigherReynoldsnumbers.Forthinprofiles
Clmax increases, Cdmin decreasesandaerodynamicefficiencyincreasesathigherReynoldsnumber 8.Butfor
thickprofilesorprofileswiththicktrailingedgethetrendwillbeinversed 4,9,10,12.Thesepropertiescanonlybe
determinedaccuratelyinawindtunnelattherealReynoldsnumber.Onefacilitythatcandothesetestsisthe
CryogenicWindTunnelDNWKKK.Inthispaperthetestcapabilityofthistunnelisanalyzedandthensome
representativeresultsaresummarized.

2.TestFacility
2.1TheCryogenicWindTunnelCologneDNWKKK
TheCryogenicWindTunnelCologne(KKK)isaclosedcircuitlowspeedtunnel(Fig.1).Toachievehigh
Reynoldsnumbers,thegastemperatureinthetunnelcircuitcanbelowereddownto100Kbyinjectingliquid
nitrogen.TheReynoldsnumbercanbethusincreasedbyafactorof5.5whilethedrivepowerandMachnumber
remainconstant.Duetothepossibilityofindependentvariationofthegastemperatureandflowvelocity,the
influenceoftheMachnumberandReynoldsnumberontheaerodynamiccharacteristicscanbeinvestigated
separately13.

Fig.1TunnelcircuitofDNWKKK
Thetestsectionareaconsistsofthetestsectionitself,themodelaccesslockandthemodelconditioningroom.
Thetestsectionis2.4mx2.4m.Bothsidewallsofthetestsectionareequippedwitheightwindowsintworows.
Eachwindowenablesapplicationofflowvisualizationandopticalmeasurementtechniques.Theaccesslockand
themodelconditioningroomarelocatedunderneaththetestsection.Theyallowmodelchangesatambient
temperature while the tunnel is maintained at cryogenic temperature. In this way highproductivity can be
achieved.

Fig.2Setupfor2Dprofiletest

Fig.3Awindturbineprofilemodelofthefamily

DUWintheDNWKKK

Thewindtunnel'sdegreeofturbulence(Tu'=(u'2/U2))wasdeterminedusingheatedwirearrays.Dependent
onMachandReynoldsnumbers,itliesbetween0.04%und0.1%for0.1<Ma<0.3and100k<T<300K.
Forthe2DprofiletestthesetupasshowninFig.2canbeused 14.Themodelisspannedfromtunnelfloortothe
ceiling.Bothturntablesintheupperandlowertunnelwallsaresynchronizedtominimizethedeformationofthe
model,sothattheflowaroundthemodelistwodimensional.Inaddition,tangentialblowingthroughslotsonthe
turntablesinfrontoftheairfoilfurtherimprovesthetwodimensionalityoftheflow.
Fig.3showsawindturbineprofilemodeltestedinDNWKKK.Themodelismanufacturedfromaluminum
alloy.Itschordis0.5m,instrumentedwith62pressuretaps. Themodel ispaintedwithTSP todetect the
transition7.

2.2Estimationoftestuncertainty
Theliftandmomentaredeterminedfromthepressuredistributiononthemodel.Theliftcoefficientis
calculatedusingEq.1:

Cl CNcosCTsin

(1)

Thenormalandtangentialcoefficientsareintegralofpressurecoefficientsoverthemodelsurface:
N

CN 2 (Cpi Cpi1)dxi
i1
N

(p

2i

pi1)dxi

(2)

12 (pi pi1)dyi
q

(3)

i1

1
CT 12(Cpi Cpi1)dyi
i1

i1

Thepressurecoefficientsaredefinedas:
P P

pi

i stat

(4)

IfweassumethatthestandarddeviationsoftheNmodelpressuresareequal,thestandarddeviationofCNcanbe
estimatedas:
N

2
CN

C2

p2

dxi2

q2 i1 2
q
(C N q)

(5)

Similarly,thestandarddeviationofCT
N

CT

p2dyi2

i1
q
C2 q2
(Cq)2
T

CN

Sothestandardderivationofliftcoefficientcanbeestimatedas:

(6)

cos C sin sin Ccos


2

Cl

CN

(7)

CT

Similarly,thestandardderivationofmomentcoefficientcanbeestimatedusing
N

Cm

1 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2(p pst q (Cp ,iCp ,i1)/2)(dxi dyi )

i1

(8)

0.0010
0.0009
0.0008
0.0007
0.0006
0.0005
0.0004
0.0003
0.0002
0.0001
0.0000

0.000310
0.000305
Sigma Cm

Sigma Cl

DNWKKKusesapressuremeasuringsystemthathasanaccuracyof10.3Pa.Toimprovetheaccuracy,128
valuesareaveraged.Sofortheevaluationthestandardderivationofmodelpressurereaches0.9Pa.Thedynamic
pressureiscalculatedfromthedifferencebetweenthetunneltotalpressureandthestaticpressureatthetest
section.Thestandardderivationofthedynamicpressureis1.8Pa.Theerrorofangleofattackisverysmall,
about 0.01.Tohaveafeelingoftheliftcoeffici entaccuracy,thestandardderivationofliftandmoment
coefficientofatypicalwindturbineprofiletestwasestimatedusingEq.7.TheresultsareillustratedinFig.The
maximalderivationofliftcoefficientisabout0.0009,i.e.0.09liftcount.Themaximalderivationofmoment
coefficientis0.0003.

0.000300
0.000295
0.000290
0.000285
0.000280

-5

10

15

20

-5

Alpha []

10

15

20

Alpha []

Fig.4EstimatedstandardderivationofliftandmomentcoefficientatMa=0.20
Thedragoftheprofileismeasuredusingawakerake.Toestimatethederivationofthedragcoefficient,we
usethesimplifieddragcalculationequation

Cd2 ( C Cg)dy(
g

g,i

Cg,i

C
g,i1

g,i1

)dy

Thestandardderivationofdragcoefficientcanbeestimatedas

cd2(

Cg2 ,i
4C

Cg2

,i

g,i

Cg2 ,i1
4C

Cg2 ,i1)dyi

(9)
(10)

g,i1

Becausethetubesinthewakerakeareusuallyequallyspaced,eq.9canbesimplifiedas:
2
cd2( Cg ,i 2Cg2 ,i)y2

2C

(11)

g,i

Thestandardderivationofpressurecoefficientcanbeestimatedusing:

Cg,i

1 (2 2 C22)
q2 p
pst
g,iq

(12)

Fortheattachedflow,14tubesoftherakearetypicallylocatedinthewakedepressionarea.Thestandard
derivationofdragcoefficientisusuallyunder0.00005,i.e.,0.5dragcount.Toimprovetheaccuracyfurther,the
wakedepressioncanberecordedtwice.Inthesecondmeasurementtherakeisdisplacedabouty/2inthe
directionperpendiculartothemodelcord.Thestandardderivationcanthusbereducedto0.35dragcount.

2.3Testqualityfor2Dprofile
Thewakerakeismountedonatraversemechanism;itisthereforepossibletoassesstheoveralltestqualityby
meansofscanningthewakeinthespandirection.Fig.5showsthemeasureddragasafunctionofrakeposition
in span direction. The zero position is defined at the middle of the model. The data were taken at three
temperatures:290K,250Kand230K.TheMachnumberandtheangleofattackwerethesameforthe3cases.It
iscleartoseethatthe3curveshavetheidenticalcharacteristic:inthemidsection(Rz=0)wherethepressuretaps

arelocatedthefluctuationindragislarge;intheregion350mmupthemiddlelinethesecondfluctuationoccurs;

andthethirdfluctuationappearsintheregion700mmupthemiddleline.Thelattertwoarecausedbysome
imperfectionsinthemodel.Themodeliscomposedof4parts,andtheyareassembledtogetherusingscrews.In
thesetworegionsthescrewtopsarenotfittedperfectlywiththecontour.Vortexwasgeneratedinthewake.
Outsidethesedisturbedregionsthedragvalueisverystable.Thefluctuationofdraginthis900mmspansection
issmallerthan0.5dragcount.Thisproofsthattheflowaroundthemodelistwodimensional.Fortheproductive
testtherakeisplacedinthestableregion.
0.0105
0.0100
0.0095
0.0090

Cd

0.0085
0.0080
0.0075
T=290K Ma=0.2 Re=1.40E6 Alpha=3

0.0070

T=250K Ma=0.2 Re=1.69E6 Alpha=3

0.0065

T=230K Ma=0.2 Re=1.88E6 Alpha=3

0.0060
-200

200

400

600

800

Rz [mm]

Fig.5Traverseofthewakeinthespandirection
2.3Setupfortransitiondetection
Thedetectionoftransitionisimportantbothforthetunneloperatorandprofiledesigner.Itallowsthetunnel
operatorstomakesurethatthetunnelisfreeofdustsandhastheprescribeddegreeofturbulence.Themodel
surfacehastherequiredquality.FortheprofiledesignerthepositionoftransitionisrequiredformanyCFD
programs.Thetransitionlocationdeterminestoagreatextenttheprofiledrag.Asaruleofthumbthedragis
reducedby10%whenthetransitionpointmoves10%tothetrailingedge 2.Becauseturbulentboundarylayeris
lesssusceptibletodusts,ice,insectsetc,itisalsoveryimporttoknowthetransitionpositionforthedesignofa
robustprofile.
ThetransitiondetectionmethodsusedinDNWKKKarebasedontheReynoldsanalogy,inwhichthereexistsa
linearrelationshipbetweentheheatconvectivecoefficientandsurfaceshearstresscoefficient.Thesurfaceshear
stressinaturbulentboundarylayerisofanorderofmagnitudegreaterthanthatinthelaminarboundarylayer.If
thereisatemperaturedifferencebetweentheflowandthemodel,theturbulentboundarylayerreachestheflow
temperaturemorequicklythanthelaminarboundarylayer.Atasuitabletimethetemperaturedifferenceinthe
twoboundarylayerscanbeobserved.Internalheatconductioninthemodeltendstoreducethistemperaturestep.
Aninsulationcoatof80misthusneededforthemodelmadeofaluminiumalloy.
Weusethreemethodstointroduceatemperaturedifferencebetweentheflowandthemodelactively:
Heatingthemodel.Heatingfoilsorstabscanbeintegratedintothemodel.Themodelshouldbemade
ofheatconductivematerial.Itshouldbeconsideredduringthemodeldesignphase.Lateradaptionis
difficult.Anotherwayofheatingmodelistouseinfraredheatlamp.
Coolingthetunnel.AfterupgradeoftheliquidnitrogensystemofDNWKKKitisnowpossibletocool
downthetunnelquicklytogetrequiredtemperaturestep.
Heatingupthetunnel.ItworkswellforMa>0.25.Duetothegoodinsulationofthetunnelwalls,the
tunneltemperaturerisesathighMachnumberiftheliquidnitrogensystemisturnedoff.
ThetemperatureonthemodelsurfacecanbescannedusinginfraredthermographorTSP.
Infraredthermographcanbeusedintherangefromambienttemperaturetoabout230K.Atlowertemperature
theradiationistooweaktobedetected.TheinfraredcamerausedinDNWKKKiscooledwithliquidnitrogen.
Ithas256x207pixels.ThethermalsensitivityNETDis50mK.Thecameraisplacedinfrontofagermanium
glasswindow,whichistransparentintheinfraredspectrum.Thincopperleafsareadheredonthemodelsurface

asmarkerstoidentifythelocationofthetransition.Morethan8imagesareaveragedtogetonehighquality
image.
Todetecttransitionatcryogenicconditionstemperaturesensitivepaint(TSP)developedbyDLR 3canbeused.
TSPisathinpaintlayercontainingluminescentmaterial(luminophore)withinabinder.Whentheluminophore
isexcitedbyalightsource,itemitslightatlongerwavelengths.Theradiationintensityistemperaturedependent
andthisphenomenonisknownastemperaturequenching.InthecaseofcryogenicTSP,aRutheniumcomplexis
usedasluminophore.Itexhibitshightemperaturesensitivityintherangeof100Kto230K.Theluminescent
intensitydecreaseswithanincreaseintemperature.Thewavelengthrangesofexcitationandemissionofthe
luminophoreare425<exc<525nmand580<em<680nm,respectively.
InDNWKKKablueLEDlampisusedasexcitationlightsource.AcooledblackwhiteOMT1024YCCD
camerawith1280x1024pixelsand12bitdynamicrangeisusedtoacquireimages.Aninterferencefilteris
mounteddirectinfrontoftheCCDchips,selectingthewavelengthof580<<680nm.
Foreachtestpoint10imagesaretakenunderstablecondition.Theaverageofthemisdefinedasreference
image.Thenatemperaturestepisstarted.Aseriesofimagesistakentocapturethetemperaturedifferenceon
themodelsurface.Theaverageoftheimagesisrationedtothereferenceimage.Theinformationconcerningthe
absolutetemperaturedistributionisnotcalculated,sincetheprimaryinterestisthelocationofthetransition.
AtwocomponentTSPwasdevelopedbyDLRinrecentyears 3.Itallowsthetransitiontobedetectedoverthe
whole temperature range, from 100k to ambient temperature. In the warm range, from 240k to ambient
temperature,UVlightisusedasexcitation.Inthecryogenicrange,from100Kto240K,thebluelightisusedas
excitation.

3.RepresentativeResults
3.1Reynoldsnumbereffectofcleanprofile
For the clean thin profile the Reynolds number effect is typical, just like the description in the classical
literature8.AsshowninFig.6and7,withincreasedReynoldsnumber,Clmaxincreases,liftcurveismorelinear,
itsslopegoesupslightly,Cdmindecreasesandthelaminarbucketbecomessmaller.
Sometimesdesignerswanttoknowthebehaviorofprofilesunderbackwind.A360polarwastakenas
showninFig.8.Becausetheprofileisnotsymmetrical,itproducesliftevenwhenitstandsperpendiculartothe
wind.From90to180itproducesdownwardsforce.From180to270itproducesupwardsforce.

Cl

Cl

POL291 0.270 3.11E6 298 CLN


POL291 0.270 3.11E6 298 CLN

POL332 0.270 13.66E6 101 CLN

POL332 0.270 13.66E6 101 CLN

Cd
Alpha

Fig.6Reynoldsnumbereffectonliftforcleanprofile

Fig.7Reynoldsnumbereffectondragforcleanprofile

Cl

T=133K Ma=0.10 Re=2.0E6


T=110K Ma=0.11 Re=3.0E6

-50

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

Alpha []

Fig.8Performanceof2Dprofileattheangleofattachrangefrom10to350
3.2Reynoldsnumbereffectofcontaminatedprofile
Tosimulatethecontaminatedprofilesurfacethroughice,impactedinsects,dustsanderosion,carborundum60
(solidgrainsof0.25mmdiameter)isstickedonthebothsidesaroundtheleadingedge.Thiscausesthetransition
oftheboundarylayeroccursattheleadingedge,andisalmostindependentofReynoldsnumber.Asexpected
thedragincreasesdramaticallycomparedtothecleanprofile.ThestallarisesalsoearlierandClmaxissmaller.
Fig.9showstheReynoldsnumbereffectontheliftcoefficient.WithincreasedReynoldsnumberstheboundary
layerbecomesthinner,butmorepowerful.Theimpactofcarborundumthusdecreases.Thestalloccursathigher
angleofattack,soClmaxincreases.Intheregionofattachedflowtheliftincreasesalsonoticeably.Thiseffect
canbeseeninFig.10.Itillustratestwopressuredistributionsatthesameangleofattack,butunderdifferent
Reynoldsnumbers.

POL407 Ma=0.27 Re=3.17E6 T=287K

Cp

Cl

POL383 Ma=0.27 Re=13.77E6 T=100K

POL407 Ma=0.270 Re=3.17E6 T=287K

POL403 Ma=0.270 Re=3.82E6 T=250K

POL399 Ma=0.270 Re=4.51E6 T=220K

POL394 Ma=0.270 Re=5.31E6 T=195K

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8 X/L

1.0

POL389 Ma=0.270 Re=6.66E6 T=165K


POL378 Ma=0.270 Re=9.97E6 T=124K

POL383 Ma=0.271 Re=13.77E6 T=100K

Fig.10Theeffectofcarborundum60onthepressure
distributionattwoReynoldsnumbers

Alpha []

Fig.9Theeffectofcarborundum60ontheliftcurve
atvariousReynoldsnumbers
3.3Reynoldsnumbereffectofflowcontroldevices
TheGurneyflapisanLshapedmetalstripattachedtothelowersurfaceofthetrailingedge.Itincreasesthe
maximum lift coefficient (Clmax), decreases the angle of attack for zero lift, and increases the nosedown
pitchingmoment(Cm).Italsotypicallyincreasesthedragcoefficient(Cd).Anetbenefitinoveralllifttodrag
ratioispossibleiftheflapissizedappropriatelybasedontheboundarylayerthickness.
Fig.11and12showtheeffectofaGurneyflapattwoReynoldsnumbers.ItisclearthattheselectedGurney
flapsuitableforthelowReynoldsnumberisnotoptimalforthehighReynoldsnumber.

25

0.60

Ma=0.270 Re=3.02E6 T=300K


Ma=0.270 Re=13.89E6 T=100K

20

0.40

10

0.30

0.20

0
-5

0.10

-10

0.00
-0.10

Ma=0.270 Re=3.02E6 T=300K


Ma=0.270 Re=13.89E6 T=100K

15

d(Cl/Cd)

dCl

0.50

-15
-5

10

-20
-0.5

15

0.0

0.5

Cl

Alfa

Fig.11TheeffectofGurneyflaponthechangeoflift
referredtothecleanprofileattwoReynoldsnumbers

1.0

1.5

2.0

Fig.12TheeffectofGurneyflaponthechangeoflift
dragratioreferredtothecleanprofileattwoReynolds
numbers

Avortexgeneratorisacomplementarypairofsmalllowaspectratioairfoils.Generallymountedatopposite
angles of attack to each other and perpendicular to the aerodynamic surface they serve. Vortex generators
developliftandproduceverystrongtipvortices.Thevortexdrawsenergeticairfromoutsideintoboundarylayer
andthusdelaysflowseparationandstall.
Fig.13and14showtheeffectofvortexgeneratorsattwoReynoldsnumbers.Thevortexgeneratorswere
optimizedatambienttemperature.TheyimproveClmaxandliftdragratio.ButatthehighReynoldsnumberthe
liftdragratiodecreasesandtheincreaseinClmaxissmaller.
0.40

30

Ma=0.270 Re=3.01E6 T=302K

0.30

15
d(Cl/Cd)

dCl

Ma=0.270 Re=13.96E6 T=100K

20

0.20
0.10

10
5

0.00

0
-5

-0.10
-0.20

Ma=0.270 Re=3.01E6 T=302K

25

Ma=0.270 Re=13.96E6 T=100K

-10
-5

5
Alpha []

10

15

-15
-0.5

0.0

0.5

Cl

1.0

1.5

2.0

Fig.13Theeffectofvortexonthechangeoflift
referredtothecleanprofileattwoReynoldsnumbers

Fig.14Theeffectofvortexonthechangeofliftdrag
ratioreferredtothecleanprofileattwoReynolds
numbers
Thetwoexamplesaboveindicatethattheflowcontrol devicesshouldbeoptimizedat thesameReynolds
numberatwhichtheyaretobeused.
3.4Reeffectofthickprofile
Fortheinnerpartofthebladetheprofilehasalargevalueofthicknesstoguaranteetheneededstructural
strengthandstiffness.Oftenithasathicktrailingedge.TheReynoldseffectofsuchprofileiscontrarytothatof
thinprofiles(Fig.16and17).TheClmaxdecreaseswithReynoldsnumberandthedragincreases.
1.5

1.5
1.0

Re=2.04E6 T=180K
Re=2.04E6 T=180K
Re=4.95E6 T=111K

1.0
0.5
Cl

Cl

0.5

Re=4.95E6 T=111K

0.0

0.0

-0.5

-0.5

-1.0
-30

-20

-10

0
Alpha []

10

20

30

Fig.15Reynoldsnumbereffectonliftforthickprofile

-1.0
0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20
Cd

0.30

0.35

Fig.16Reynoldsnumbereffectondragforthick

profile

0.25

0.40

3.5ReEffectonthetransitionposition
Fig. 17 shows the transition line detected using infrared thermograph. The laminar boundary layer length
changesfrom53%to9%whentheangleofattacksweptfrom8to16.

Fig.17TransitiondetectioninfraredthermographbyT=230K,Ma=0.30
Fig.18showsthetransitionlinedetectedusingTSP.Thelaminarboundarylayerlengthchangesfrom37%to
23%whentheangleofattacksweptfrom0to12.

0,37%4,32%8,28%10,26%12,23%Fig.18TransitiondetectionusingTSPby
T=245K,Ma=0.25

4.SummaryandOutlook
Toguaranteetheperformanceofalargewindturbine,theprofilesusedinthebladeshouldetestedatthereal
Reynoldsnumbers.ThecryogenicwindtunnelDNWKKKisasuitablefacilitytodosuchtests.Ithasthe
requiredmeasuringaccuracyandflowquality.
Noisebecomesanimportantfactorindesignawindturbine.Itcanbereducedthroughoptimizedprofileshape
andtrailingedgeserrations.BecausethisnoiseisReynoldsnumberdependent,amicrophonearray 1 thatcan
workfromambienttocryogenicconditionswasdevelopedforDNWKKK.ApretestasshowninFig.19has
alreadyfinished.Thedataprocessingisinongoing.Themicrophonearrayismountedonthesidewall.Ithas
144microphones.

Fig.19Aeroacoustictestofawindturbineprofile

5.References
[1] Ahlefeldt, T.and Koop, L.,MicrophoneArray Measu rements in aCryogenic WindTunnel, AIAA
Journal,Vol.48,No.7;July2010

[2]Bk,P.andFuglsangP.,ExperimentalDetectionofTransitiononWindTurbineAirfoils,EWEC2009
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TechniquesforHighReynoldsNumberTestinginCryogenicWindTunnels,AIAA20101301
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[8] Schlichting,H,AerodynildesFlugzeuges,SpringerVerlag
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[13] Viehweger,G.,Rebstock,R.,Stahl,B.,Wichmann,B,Becker,W.andKronen,R,DerKryoKanal
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