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Media Issues (III)
Media Planning : 1. Introduction : Large companies have a Marketing Plan. Under this they have a Marketing Communication Plan. Again under that they have a Media Plan. Media Planning is a process for determining the most cost effective mix of media for achieving a set of media objectives. a. Characteristics : i. The critical point is to balance message impact and cost- maximising impact while minimising cost. The largest part of the MC budget is generally the media cost. Although media planning is numbers driven, it has a significant creative dimension. Media planners must be creative in analysing the quantitative aspects while under-standing the qualitative dimensions and how people use media.
iii. Unless the media budget is very small, most companies use more than one medium (some call it multi-media approach) for several reasons : 1. Different media have different message delivery features, 2. Media strategies often call for a variety of media, 3. A single communication vehicle can seldom reach everyone in a target audience. b. The Role of Media Research : Media planners begin their job by doing media research- analysing both target audiences and media options. The info that must be reviewed includes size and characteristics of the various media’s audiences as well as effectiveness data on how well these media deliver the audiences they promise. Most of the information comes from research companies that compile media statistics and profiles. c. The Role of Media Buying : Media Buying is the execution of a media plan. Media buyers negotiate with publishers, broadcasters, and other media representatives to arrange cost effective contracts that will satisfy the media objectives. In media buying, it is not the lowest price that is most important, but the return on the media investment in terms of effect on the target audience. Media buyers usually do post-buy analysis to make sure the messages were delivered when and to whom as promised.
d. The Four-Step Planning Process : Media buying is primarily an execution of, and therefore is driven by the media plan. Because nearly an unlimited no. of options exist for producing company- created touch points, media planners must sort thro’ a lot of info when developing a good media plan. The task has four steps(1) identifying media targets, (2) setting media objectives, (3) determining media strategies, and (4) scheduling media placements. e. Table : The following table shows the four steps in short cut : Planning Step Questions to Ask Tools/Sources for Answers
1. Media targeting
Who is the target audience? Where is the target audience? How big is the target audience? How much does the household consume? average target
Customer data base CDI (category index) BDI (brand index) development development
How is the brand doing in one market in comparison with other market? 2. Media Objectives How much reach and targeted reach? How much frequency? frequency and effective
Internal sales data
Research companies, and other media data sources. Agency computer programmes for determining ratings and frequency. Past history of campaigns and agency’s experience.
What frequency distribution is acceptable? How much media weight (GRPS and TGRPS)? Should media markets? 3. Media Strategies weight be equal in all
Which media and how much of each in the media mix? What is the best balance of one- and twoway media? What is process? the target customer's buying
Media kits from each media vehicle being considered includes (rate card). SRDS (Standard Data Services). Rate and
When is the best time (aperture) to reach customers and prospects. How concentrated should the media mix be? How should media be scheduled? Which media are compatible with creative? What media environment is most compatible with the brand’s image? What are the best CPM and CPPS? 4. Media Schedules Should media be continuous, flighted, or pulsed? How seasonal is product buying?
Personal contact with media sale representatives for latest cost and availabilities. Review past campaigns to see what media weight created what result (must keep in mind other variables)
Budget. Analysis of sales by month, day of week. Closing dates (when vehicles need to receive ads) from media kits or sales reps.
2. Media targeting : The marketing plan decides the band’s target audience. The planners’ job is to select the communication vehicles, and markets whose profiles must closely match those of the target audiences. The greater the match, the better. The extent of the match is determined by looking at how the target audiences differ from the average population. The size of a target audience also effects media decisions. In general, the smaller the targeted audience is, the more personalised and interactive a message can be. Similarly, commonality among members of a 2
target group affects media choices. In general, the higher the degree of commonality, the more likely it is that niche media can be found that will reach a high percentage of that target. Although TV is a mass medium, what matters to marketers is the programme. Ex. TV talk show gives marketers an opportunity to reach an educated upscale audience who may not spend much time with other forms of mass media. When there are few commonalities within a target audience mass media often more cost effective. But as a study in 2003 found, even mass media like TV have programmes that reach the demographic niche audiences. a. Media Profile : Many media vehicles profile their audiences in terms of demographics, psych-graphics (lifestyle), and product usage. That info allows them to analyse their audience in terms of appropriate products to be advertised. However, such detailed info is not always available for many media vehicles, especially, those with small audiences. When media vehicles do have audienceprofile info, it is generally demographic. Vehicles dealing with particular area of interest, such as sports, hobbies, or finance, are the ones most likely to have lifestyles and product usage data in addition to demographic profiles. Although some media do their own research to profile their audiences, companies often buy these profiles from independent research companies. Such info helps media planners under-stand the audience of a particular vehicle and how it compares to the profile of their brand targeted audiences. Trade publications and trade shows make it somewhat easier to select media for B2B targets. Each industry has its own publications and trade shows that attract well-defined product-category audiences. Because most B2B brands have smaller customer and prospect universes (compared to consumer brands), better database profiles of these targets, and significantly higher average sales transactions (compared to B2C transactions), they can afford to use more expensive addressable and interactive media. b. Determining CDIs : CDI is category development index. This is a part of the budgeting process. A major decision of media planning is the media spending in all the markets where the brand is sold. Ideally the spending in each of the markets are the same, but often the companies use more media spending (heavy-up), where the household consumption of the brand is above average. To find out where the above average consumption is the CDI method is used. CDI is a numerical indicator of the relative consumption rate in a particular market for a particular product category. This number is expressed as a percentage but called the index and 100 is taken as average. So any value more than 100 is above average and below 100 is below average. i. How to determine CDI : First step is to determine the average consumption of the marketing universe, say total of India.
AVERAGE IN INDIA = (TOTAL QUANTITY SOLD) / (TOTAL NO. OF HOUSEHOLDS IN INDIA) = 200 Cr KG SOLD / 20 Cr HOUSEHOLDS IN INDIA = 10 KG PER HH ii. Second step is to determine the average consumption of the particular market place, say total of Bhubaneswar.
AVERAGE IN BHUBANESWAR = TOTAL QUANTITY / TOTAL HOUSEHOLDS = 30 LAKH KG SOLD / 2.5 LAKH HOUSEHOLDS IN BHUBANESWAR = 12 KG PER HH iii. Third step is to calculate the ratio CDI = PARTICULAR MARKET AVERAGE / TOTAL MARKETING UNIVERSE AVERAGE X 100 = BHUBANESWAR AVERAGE / INDIA AVERAGE X 100 3
= 12 KG PER HH / 10 KG PER HH X 100 = 120. iv. This indicates that Bhubaneswar has 20 average. Or in other words the media Bhubaneswar. CDIs tell marketers where return on their media spending. The CDI product category by geographic market. c. % more consumption that national plans have more media weight in they are most likely to get the best indicates relative development of a
Determining BDIs : BDI is brand development index. This is a numerical indicator of the development of a particular brand within a market relative to all other markets in which the brand is sold. This number is expressed as a percentage but called the index and 100 is taken as average. So any value more than 100 is above average and below 100 is below average. i. How to determine BDI : First step is to determine the average consumption of the marketing universe, say total of India.
AVERAGE IN INDIA = (TOTAL QUANTITY OF THIS BRAND SOLD) / (TOTAL NO. OF HOUSEHOLDS IN INDIA) = 80 Cr KG SOLD / 20 Cr HOUSEHOLDS IN INDIA = 4 KG PER HH ii. Second step is to determine the average consumption of the particular market place, say total of Bhubaneswar.
AVERAGE IN BHUBANESWAR = TOTAL QUANTITY OF THIS BRAND / TOTAL HOUSEHOLDS IN BHUBANESWAR = 15 LAKH KG SOLD / 2.5 LAKH HOUSEHOLDS IN BHUBANESWAR = 6 KG PER HH iii. Third step is to calculate the ratio BDI = PARTICULAR MARKET AVERAGE / TOTAL MARKETING UNIVERSE AVERAGE X 100 = BHUBANESWAR AVERAGE / INDIA AVERAGE X 100 = 6 KG PER HH / 4 KG PER HH X 100 = 150. iv. Marketing managers and media planners pay close attention to these numbers to track brand performance. There may be several reasons like a weak sales force, or very heavy competition. The first case is normally easier to improve, but the second case calls for more media weight and promotion in that market, which is also opted by other companies giving rise to a promotional battleground. “All want to fish where the fish are” is the motto here. 3. Setting Media Objectives : What does the company want to accomplish? This is reflected in the media objectives of a company. MC objectives are what a company wants the customers to think, feel and do about its brand. Media objectives are how a company will expose customers to brand message in such a way that the messages have the opportunity to impact customers’ thinking, feeling and doing. a. If the creative strategy decisions are made before media objectives are determined, then the company misses out opportunities for connecting with the customers. Thus integrating the media and creative planning produces better media plans, for following reasons : i. There are now more media alternatives than ever before, and some are much better than others in reaching certain audiences.
Media planners may be able to suggest new ways to reach target audiences that are just as effective as, less expensive than, the media a company has always used. Media are a major portion of most MC budgets and therefore shouldn’t be an after-thought.
iii. Some media and programming environments are so specialised or have such strong personalities that brand messages can have more impact when specially designed to be compatible with them. Reaching a target audience in a media environment with the same “tone” as the brand message enhances communication. b. Media objectives explain what needs to be accomplished in order for customers and prospects to be exposed to the MC message. The two media variables that determine this are “reach” and “frequency”. These variable measure the breadth and depth of message delivery. When reach and frequency are multiplied together, the resulting no. is “gross rating points” (GRPS) which indicates the weight of the media plan. c. Reach : MC messages need to reach customers and prospects. In the context of media, the term reach refers to percentage of an audience that has an opportunity to be exposed to a media vehicle within a specified period. Although reach is a widely used media planning measure, it is important that it is an estimate of communication almost always an over estimate. Why, because reach is an indication of the opportunity for exposure to a brand message; it is not an indicator of how many customers and prospects actually are exposed to a brand message. Ex. When you buy a magazine, you may read only a portion of it and not even see half the ads. But still you had an opportunity to see the ads, so you are counted as having been “reached”. i. Measuring reach : Reach is expressed as a percentage, although advertisers don’t use the % sign. Ex. R=60 means that 60% of an audience in a defined universe had the opportunity to be exposed one or more times to a brand message in a media vehicle. A defined universe can be whatever you want it to be- all households in India, or all males over 21, or all single adults with a job, etc.
d. Targeted Reach : Most marketers, regardless of what they market, are not interested in reaching all of the households or businesses in a particular communication vehicle’s audience, because some audience members are neither customers nor prospects. This is why it is best to base media planning on targeted reach. This is the portion of a communication vehicle’s audience that is a brand’s target market. The following are the features : i. Targeted reach can be determined for any communication vehicle as long as the brand’s target audience can be identified within a vehicle’s audience. Targeted reach is important to calculate because it shows what a company is actually getting for the money it spends on any given media vehicle. Media waste, which is reaching people who are neither customers nor prospects, is a major concern in media planning and buying. Media vehicles with 100% targeted reach rarely exist, although some companies strive to achieve that goal.
iii. It must be pointed out however, that something more important than media waste is cost per response. A communication vehicle that has a high percentage of media waste may still have a lower cost per response than other vehicles. 5
e. How Much Reach Is Enough : In most cases it is cost-prohibitive for a brand to have 100 % reach of a target market. So then, how much is enough? The percentage that is the most cost effective to achieve is the “enough” level. Media planners calculate that point at which the cost to reach the additional members of a target is not worth the revenue they may generate. Conversely, research has found that those who consume the most media are the easiest to reach. Another factor that helps the best level to reach, especially for consumer brands, is where the brand is distributed. Media placement should reflect where the brand is distributed. f. Frequency : In media planning, the term “frequency” means the average number of times those who are reached have an opportunity to be exposed to a brand message within a specified time period. It is also known as message duplication. To help ensure that a message gets exposed, most media plans call for a frequency greater than one. i. Multiple exposure : Research has found what we intuitively know- exposure to any particular brand message is less than the exposure to the vehicle carrying that message. This means message exposure should be given more attention than vehicle exposure. A second reason for multiple exposures is to increase the chance that a message will be understood. The more complex the message is, the more exposures will be needed so that the target can fully understand what is being communicated to it. And as we know that repetition is a major key to memory, so perhaps the most obvious fact is that frequency increases the chance that a message will be remembered.
g. Effective Frequency : Like reach, there’s another question- What frequency is enough? This gives rise to the concept of “effective frequency”. This is the number of times a message must be seen to make an impression or achieve a specific level of awareness. By research it is found that it varies from 3 to 10 times depending on the complexity of the message. i. Estimating effective frequency : The right level of frequency that most cost effectively affects the attitudes or the buying behaviour of the customers. By far the best way to determine this level is to track customer response, testing various levels of frequency. Effective frequency not same for all brands : The reason for the effective frequency to vary from brand to brand is that so many variables influence the impact of brand messages. These are : 1. The offer’s value and complexity : Some offers are easy to understand and estimate its value. Ex. Maruti car free insurance and Maruti Auto card. 2. The attention value of media : By nature, the attention required for media vehicles are different in nature and degree of concentration. 3. The attention-getting power of the message : The creativity of the message content is responsible for this, and this varies in attentiongetting power. 4. The target audience’s level of need or desire to learn about a brand : Some product categories are more interesting than others, and some people have more interest in some products than in others. When audience interest is high, less frequency may be enough.
5. MC objectives : Brand awareness and influence behaviour need different levels of frequency, like the first one needs less and second one needs more frequency. 6. Personal Influences : Word of mouth (WoM) or personal influence affects the impact of the messages. Positive WoM needs less and negative WoM needs more frequency. 7. The amount of competitive brand messages : In the world of competition, generally the more frequency competitive messages have, the more frequency is needed for the company’s brand. The concept of “Share-ofvoice” is a brand’s portion of total media spending in that brand’s product category. Most marketers and media planners agree that a brand must maintain a competitive share of voice. h. Reach X Frequency = Gross Rating Points : Reach and frequency are interrelated concepts that when combined produce a measure called “gross rating points” (GRP). Reach is like width or breadth, Frequency is like depth, and GRP is the weight. (Width X depth = weight). GRPs are a combined measure of the media weight, which is an indication of the relative impact of the media plan. i. Calculation of GRPs : GRP = REACH X FREQUENCY. For example if Godrej Interio (home and office furniture) has 5 insertions in Good Housekeeping magazine which has a reach of 40 % of the office and household markets, then the GRP is = 40 X 5 = 200. Comparison : But ideally this figure of GRP should be meaningfully compared with the same mix of media vehicles and product category. For Example we can’t compare the impact of a 30-sec TVC with a half page ad in a national newspaper or a one minute radio commercial meaningfully. Also different product category has different impact by different media vehicles.
iii. Calculation of targeted GRPs : When targeted reach is applied to a media plan, we call it a targeted GRP, which is the number of gross rating points delivered against just the targeted audience. In fact this figure gives a more accurate figure which represents what the brand receives for media spending. Theoretically the difference between the GRP and the TGRP is the media waste. This figure can be made as close as possible to the reality by choosing a media vehicle that most accurately reach the target audience. iv. Typical cases of media objectives and strategies : 1. Reach : For the company trying to rid its inventories at year end, it needs special promotion in 4th quarter – Should have min reach of 65 in 1st three Qr.s, and of 80 in the last Qr. 2. Frequency : For a brand in highly complex and competitive category, say vitamins, and needs to increase brand knowledge – Should have a min frequency of 5 each qr. where share is over 20%, and 10 in all other markets. 3. Target Allocation : For a company that knows that its brand royalty in its category is very thin, so it wants to keep current customers and to create new ones – Should allocate half the media budget for reaching current customers and half for reaching prospects. 4. Timing : For a company whose data shows that the higher its brand awareness is during a promotion, the greater is the response to its 7
promotions – Should have 300 GRPs of advertising support within the month preceding each promotion. 5. Interactivity : For a company that knows that a quick response is an added value to customers because it makes them feel special and important – Should respond to 95% of customer / prospect initiated mail within 24 hrs. 6. Integration : In general brand publicity has a much better chance of being used when the story is news. For companies going to start new product ads – Should reach 80% of targeted media editors or news directors with press releases at least 30 days prior to the start of new product advertising. 4. Determining Media Strategies : This is the creative aspect where ideas are generated about how media objectives will be achieved thro’ various combinations of media. For every media objective there should be one or more strategies. These strategies define the media mix- which media to be used in which market and to what extent. Cost is always a critical deciding factor, and like every other MC operation, media also must operate within the budget limits. Today we have a large number of media choices, and the decision to choose one among them is determined by the cost factor. a. Features : i. A good media strategy states how media can help create a brand experience and engage customers and prospects- i.e., how a media will create a connection. This requires a good understanding of brand’s customers and prospects, because people’s ideas, interests and what it needs to reach them don’t remain the same. Another combination of creative and media strategy is to use a teaser campaign – a series of messages that carry no brand identification but are designed to create curiosity – to build interest in later brand messages. It also helps the target audience, which resents being sold to, an opportunity to “discover” the brand with a more open mind-set.
iii. Good media strategies require creative selection and use of media. A strategy can be one that uses media that reach the target audience at unexpected times in communication vehicles whose image said non-traditional, off-thewall, and wacky. b. Media Strategy factors : An important consideration in determining media strategies is the type of product being promoted. Therefore, when advertising low involvement products (detergents) planners should consider the more intrusive media. Another strategy however is selecting media whose editorial content creates a more receptive environment. In contrast, high involvement products (luxury goods) can make use of print media, where readers select the stories and ads they want to see. i. Customers’ buying decision process : Media strategies should also be driven by customers buying decision processes. For high involvement products, for ex, the buying decision process follows the AIDA model- Attention, Interest, Desire and Action. Each step in the decision making process requires a different media strategy. For mass consumed products (PCs and Cars) a strategy using selected mass media could be useful to create attention and maintain brand awareness and the interest of a broad target audience. However, one a customer enters the desire and action stages for these 8
products, the best media strategy would be to sue selected interactive mediaemail, mail, and phone. ii. Aperture : Aperture is another media strategy where people are more receptive. Aperture is an opening, more the opening more the flow. In the context of media an aperture is a situation in which the target audience is highly receptive to a brand message. The more open a person is to receiving a message, the more impact the messages can have. Ex., a sports stadium is an aperture.
iii. Response Media : With increasing use of interactive media companies are beginning to develop media “response” strategies for interacting with customers. In the past, customer service was primarily reactive. With the spread of IMC, however, it is being realised that this important customer touch-point can be proactive. To make it so requires a media strategy that ensures that customers have easy access to a company and receive quick and satisfying replies. c. Determining Media Mix : In the world of media planning and buying, the media selected for a brand constitute a media mix. Determining the media mix is a major strategic challenge that involves two basic decisions; (1) which media to use, and (2) how much of each to use. Most media plans call for both one-ways and interactive media but are heavy on one-way media. There is no single best mix. Every brand situation is different, and a mix should be driven by the media and marketing objectives. When the objective is to maximise reach, for example, more media vehicles used the faster reach will be increased. i. Media weighting : There are several situations where a product is brought by one segment, but the decision influenced by another segment. For ex., pizzaparents buy and children eat. A weighting strategy could be 65% of media placed to reach parents, and 35% placed to reach children. Companies figure media weights for competing brands in order to compare with their figure. This can be figured in media spending or in terms of reach and frequency. Media concentration : Media mix strategy is influenced by the degree of concentration needed in a plan, which is basically a qualitative decision. A concentrated media mix uses fewer media and communication vehicles and delivers greater frequency (often at the cost of reach). Also, media vehicles themselves differ in concentration of their audiences, for ex., newspapers have more concentration than broadcast programmes. Production cost is a deciding factor here- fewer media means fewer messages need to be produced. Also each media vehicle will have bigger share so that the company can get promotional support from them. Some MC experts believe that getting the message from three different sources is more effective than getting the message three times from the same source.
d. Calculating Media Cost or Media Budget : Another strategic decision relates to how the media budget will be allocated. No brand has an unlimited amount of money to spend on media. Cost is always a consideration in any kind of media decision. Although the costs of time and space are important to know, what is even more important to keep in mind is the cost for creating a lead or a purchase. i. Cost per Thousand : Because the number of audience members - customers, house-holds, businesses – is different for every communication vehicle, comparing the cost of a unit of time or space is often misleading. To determine which are the best values among all the many vehicle alternatives 9
that reach target audience, media planners use a calculation called “cost per thousand” (CPM). CPM is what a communication vehicle charges to deliver a message to one thousand members of its audience. CPM = COST OF AD UNIT / CIRCULATION OR NO. OF AUDIENCE X 1000 Suppose Radio Station A charges Rs. 1 Lakh and Station B, Rs. 2 Lakh, for a one-minute commercial. But their reaches are 4 Lakh and 12.5 Lakh respectively, then we have CPM for Station A = Rs. 1 Lakh / 4 Lakh X 1000 = Rs. 250. CPM for Station B = Rs. 2 Lakh / 12.5 Lakh X 1000 = Rs. 160. So, though Station A is cheaper on whole, the CPM is more, so it’s expensive. ii. The best way to compare similar communication vehicles is to compare their targeted reach which is net of media waste. The CPM formula has “targeted reach” instead of “reach”.
Suppose magazine A charges Rs. 20 K for a full page ad and magazine B, Rs. 30 K. And the gross circulations are 8 and 15 Lakh respectively. But the targeted reach are 2 and 2.5 Lakh respectively. Then we have : CPM for Magazine A = Rs. 20 K / 8 Lakh X 1000 = Rs. 25. CPM for Magazine B = Rs. 30 K / 15 Lakh X 1000 = Rs. 20. TCPM for Magazine A = Rs. 20 K / 2 Lakh X 1000 = Rs. 100. TCPM for Magazine B = Rs. 30 K / 2.5 Lakh X 1000 = Rs. 120. iii. Cost Per Response (CPR) : The ultimate objective of any marketing communication programme is to motivate target audience to respond in some way. So the best way, wherever possible, to compare the cost effectiveness of different vehicles, regardless of their media type is on the basis of cost per response generated by each media vehicle. This is the best method because the input and the output are directly compared. Cost Per Response (CPR) is the media cost divided by the number of responses generated. This type of comparison assumes that the message, creative costs and offer are held constant in all the media used. The desired response needs to be defined in any behavioural way, such as “bought the product”, “made a store visit”, “requested more info about the brand or offer”, etc. CPR can be determined for media vehicles that have direct and measurable contact with prospects and customers, such as email, mail and telephone. When media are used that don’t have a built-in tracking mechanism such as TV, Radio, outdoors- the only way CPR can be determined is by comparing the total cost of the media campaign to all the responses received within a reasonable time period. 5. Determining Media Schedule : Three commonly used scheduling strategies are (1) Flighting, (2) Continuous scheduling and (3) Pulsing. a. Flighting : Flighting is a scheduling strategy in which planned messages run in intermittent periods. Clearly, flighting makes good sense for products whose sales fluctuate seasonally. But it is also used when budgets are limited. Because media running in flights are presumed to provide sufficient message impact to maintain a brand’s presence. With the huge amount of commercial message clutter, that exists today, most media planners believe there must be a certain level of frequency; otherwise, messages will have little or no impact on the target audience. Flighting can help them achieve frequency without draining the budget. 10
b. Continuous Scheduling : The opposite of flighting is continuous scheduling, which is placing media throughout the year with equal weight in each month. Continuous scheduling is often used by brands with large budgets and fairly constant sales throughout the year. Brands that desire to maintain a certain level of awareness also use this strategy. Another rationale for continuous scheduling is when a product is frequently purchased or, in the case of B2B products, when the brand decision making process is relatively long and prospects need constant brand reminders. c. Pulsing : Pulsing is a scheduling strategy that provides a “floor” of media support through-out the year and periodic increases over it (it basically combines flighting and continuous scheduling). Fast food and beverages companies with large media budgets often use a pulsing schedule. Once a media schedule is worked out it is details in a flow chart.
d. Other strategies : i. If a product has seasonal fluctuations, media planners schedule their buys with similar fluctuations. However, most MC messages, with the expectation of sales promotion and direct response, generally have a lag effect, so the media should precede the season. In B2B media planning support of events such as major trade shows requires media support both prior to, and during the shows in the markets, where the shows are held. B2B media planning is also heavily influenced by introductions of new and improved products. Some companies also schedule media according to when competitors begin their brand messages. This is generally true of small brands that feel they must keep up with leaders.
iii. One way brands attempt to retain customers is to continually make improvements and expand product offers. Each major new or improved product needs media support. A new product, for example may call for an initial media blitz with a heavy concentration of media weight preceding or coinciding with the date of product’s launch. iv. A product’s purchase cycle (how often customers buy the product) may also influence media scheduling. The rationale is that the more frequently products in a particular category, such as soft drinks are purchased, the frequency is needed for brand messages- and vice versa for infrequently purchased products, such as refrigerators and cars. However, there’s no major seasonal variation for durable products, such as refrigerators and cars they are constantly being bought. For this reason, there are ads for major purchase items year-round because companies can’t know when each prospect will want to buy. The only solution to the problem is to track customers who make major purchases and then, on a customer-by-customer basis, send out brand messages as each nears the end of a purchase cycle.
© Himansu S M / Written Oct-2006, Published Feb-2010
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