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Math 55 chapter 5

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Institute of Mathematics

University of the Philippines

Diliman

Math 55

Parametric Surfaces

1/ 15

Recall

A curve in R3 is given by a vector function

R(t) = f (t) + g(t)

+ h(t)k

x = f (t),

y = g(t),

Math 55

z = h(t).

Parametric Surfaces

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Parametric Surfaces

A surface in R3 can be described by a vector function of two

parameters R(u, v). Suppose that

R(u, v) = x(u, v) + y(u, v)

+ z(u, v)k

is a vector function defined on a parameter domain D (in the

uv-plane). Any particular choice of (u, v) D gives a point

(x, y, z) such that

x = x(u, v)

y = y(u, v)

z = z(u, v).

parametric surface.

The parametric surface is

traced out by the tip of the

moving vector R(u, v) as (u, v)

varies over D.

Math 55

Parametric Surfaces

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Parametric Surfaces

Example

Identify the surface given by R(u, v) = hu, cos v, sin vi.

Solution. The corresponding set of parametric equations are

x = u,

y = cos v,

z = sin v.

y 2 + z 2 = cos2 v + sin2 v = 1

This means that for constant x, the cross sections parallel to

the x-axis are circles of radius 1.

Hence, the surface is a right

circular cylinder

Math 55

Parametric Surfaces

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Grid Curves

Consider a surface S given by a vector function R(u, v).

If we hold u = u0 , constant, then

R(u0 , v) becomes a vector

function of a single parameter v

which traces a curve C1 on S.

R(u, v0 ) becomes a vector

function of a single parameter u

which traces a curve C2 on S.

Math 55

Parametric Surfaces

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Grid Curves

The grid curves of R(u, v) = hu, cos v sin vi:

Math 55

Parametric Surfaces

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Parametric Surfaces

Example

Describe the parametric surface given by the parametric

equations x = u cos v, y = u sin v, z = 4 u2 . Identify grid

curves with constant u and grid curve with v = 0.

Solution. To eliminate the parameters u and v note that

x2 + y 2 = u2 cos2 v + u2 sin2 v = u2 ,

but z = 4 u2 u2 = 4 z. Hence,

x2 + y 2

u2 = 4 z

4 x2 y 2 , a paraboloid.

x2 + y 2 = u20 . Thus, we have circles parallel to the

xy-plane.

If v = 0, the parametric equation becomes

x = u, y = 0, z = 4 u2

which gives the parabola z = 4 x2 on the xz-plane.

Math 55

Parametric Surfaces

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Surfaces of Revolution

Let f (x) 0 for a x b and S be the surface obtained when

the curve y = f (x) is revolved about the x-axis. Let be the

angle of rotation as shown below:

x = x,

y = f (x) cos ,

z = f (x) sin

Math 55

Parametric Surfaces

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Surfaces of Revolution

If S is a surface obtained by revolving y = f (x) or z = f (x)

about the x-axis, then S has parametric equations

x = x,

y = f (x) cos ,

z = f (x) sin .

about the y-axis, then S has parametric equations

x = f (y) cos ,

y = y,

z = f (y) sin .

about the z-axis, then S has parametric equations

x = f (z) cos ,

y = f (z) sin ,

Math 55

z = z.

Parametric Surfaces

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Surfaces of Revolution

Example

Give a set of parametric equations for the surface obtained by

revolving y = ex about the

1 x-axis.

2 y-axis.

Solution.

1

y = f (x) = ex .

Hence, the surface of

revolution is given by

x = x

y = ex cos

z = ex sin

Math 55

Note: y = ex x = ln y, so

the generating curve is

x = f (y) = ln y. Hence, the

surface of revolution is given

by

x = ln y cos

y= y

z = ln y sin

Parametric Surfaces

10/ 15

Consider a surface S given by R(u, v) = hx(u, v), y(u, v), z(u, v)i

and a point P0 in S with position vector R(u0 , v0 ).

If C1 is the grid curve obtained by setting u = u0 , then the

tangent vector to C1 at P0 is

Rv (u0 , v0 ) = hxv (u0 , v0 ), yv (u0 , v0 ), zv (u0 , v0 )i .

Similarly, if C2 is the grid curve obtained by setting v = v0 ,

then the tangent vector to C2 at P0 is

Ru (u0 , v0 ) = hxu (u0 , v0 ), yu (u0 , v0 ), zu (u0 , v0 )i .

Math 55

Parametric Surfaces

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For a smooth surface S, the tangent plane is the plane

containing the vectors Ru and Rv . Clearly, Ru Rv is normal

to the tangent plane.

Math 55

Parametric Surfaces

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Example

Find the equation of the tangent plane to the surface given by

x = sin v,

y = v 1,

z = eu

Solution. First, note that P0 is generated when u = v = 0. Next,

we solve the partial derivatives:

Ru (u, v) = h0, 0, eu i

Ru (0, 0) = h0, 0, 1i

Rv (u, v) = hcos v, 1, 0i

Rv (0, 0) = h1, 1, 0i

h0, 0, 1i h1, 1, 0i = det 0 0

1 1

(0, 1, 1) is

k

1 = h1, 1, 0i

0

x + y + 1 = 0

Math 55

Parametric Surfaces

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Exercises

1

R(u, v) = hu + v, 3 v, 1 + 4u + 5vi.

revolving the circle x2 + y 2 = a2 about the y-axis.

surface at the specified point.

a. x = u + v, y = 3u2 , z = u v; (2, 3, 0)

u = 1, v = 0

b. R(u, v) = u2 + 2u sin v

+ u cos v k;

x = a sin u cos v,

y = b sin u sin v,

z = c cos u,

5

torus, obtained by rotating the circle on the

xz-plane centered at (b, 0, 0) about the z-axis.

(Hint: Take the parameters and ,

as shown.)

Math 55

Parametric Surfaces

14/ 15

References

Brooks/Cole, 2008

http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/

Math 55

Parametric Surfaces

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