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Jennifer Wilson, V1.

1, May 2011

Thermowell Calculation Guide


In accordance with ASME PTC 19.3
TW-2010
ABB Group
July 26, 2013 | Slide 1

Contents
This document will cover the following topics:
1.

Introduction

2.

Using the front page

3.

Frequency ratio

4.

Stress on a thermowell

5.

Completing data entry

6.

Thermowell types

7.

Dimension details

8.

Material reference

9.

Calculation report

10.

Reviewing the results

11.

Troubleshooting

ABB Group
July 26, 2013 | Slide 2

Introduction
ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010 was written to replace ASME PTC 19.3-1974
following some catastrophic failures in non-steam service, these thermowells
passed the criteria laid out in 1974.

The 2010 standard includes significant advances in the knowledge of thermowell


behaviour. ASME PTC TW-2010 evaluates thermowell suitability new and
improved calculations including:

Various thermowell designs including stepped thermowells

Thermowell material properties

Detailed process information

Review of the acceptable limit for frequency ratio

Steady-state, dynamic and pressure stress

ABB Group
July 26, 2013 | Slide 3

Frequency Ratio
As the flow passes the thermowell,
alternating vortices are created
downstream known as shedding vortices.
These shedding vortices cause the
thermowell to vibrate, if this vortex
shedding rate (fs) approaches the natural
frequency (fnc) of the thermowell the
dynamic bending stress is greatly
increased.

Flow direction
Y

In-line forces

Fluid vortices
downstream
Transverse forces

Frequency ratio = (vortex shedding rate, fs) / (installed natural frequency, fnc)
The ratio limit will be either 0.4 or 0.8 as defined in ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010
Forces created by the fluid in the Y plane (in-line with flow) are called drag and
forces created in the X plane (transverse to flow) are called lift. The vortex
shedding rate for the drag and lift must be calculated.
The in-line forces (parallel to flow) are approximately 2x the transverse forces. In
the 1974 standard in-line forces were not considered
ABB Group
July 26, 2013 | Slide 4

Stress on a Thermowell
Steady Stress: The Von Mises criteria which uses radial, axial and tangential
stresses due to external pressure, it is found on the report as Steady Stress
LHSVM. This value must be less than 1.5x the maximum allowable working stress
for the thermowell material.
(Smax Sr)2 + (Smax St)2 + (St Sr)2 1.5S
2
Dynamic stress: The dynamic predicted stress (including drag and lift forces)
must not exceed the fatigue stress limit for the thermowell. The fatigue stress
limit is based on the material class (A or B)

Pressure stress: The external pressure must not exceed the pressure rating for
the tip and shank of the thermowell. This check does not include checks on the
connection rating

ABB Group
July 26, 2013 | Slide 5

Using the Front Page


Use the Front Page to enter
the reference information
that will appear on the
calculation report
The results can be shown in
Metric (Pa, MPa) or Imperial
units (psi) depending on
your customers
requirements
When the data entry is
complete, return to the Front
Page to initiate printing all
items
Use the reset button to clear
all the information entered
Data Entry
ABB Group
July 26, 2013 | Slide 6

Completing Data Entry

Fill in the case data including:

Operating conditions units can be selected to suit the calculation using the
drop downs

Thermowell type see Thermowell Types for sketches

Thermowell dimensions see Dimension Details for where the information


can be found. For stepped items bs and Ls should also be filled in, the
program will remind you

Thermowell design select the material of the thermowell, if the material you
require is not in the list choose User Defined. The mass density of the sensor
can be entered here, see Troubleshooting for help

ABB Group
July 26, 2013 | Slide 7

Thermowell Types
STR/THREAD

STR/SW

STR/FLG

STR/VAN

STR/WELD

TAP/THREAD

TAP/SW

TAP/FLG

TAP/VAN

TAP/WELD

STEP/THREAD

STEP/SW

STEP/FLG

STEP/VAN

STEP/WELD

KEY: STR = STRAIGHT; TAP = TAPERED; STEP = STEPPED


THREAD = THREADED; SW = SOCKET WELD; FLG = FLANGED;
ABB Group
July 26, 2013 | Slide 8

VAN = VAN STONE; WELD = WELD-IN

Dimension Details

Note:
Ls and bs are only applicable for step-shank thermowells
ABB Group
July 26, 2013 | Slide 9

Material Reference
The material information comes from ASME B31.1-2007

You will need to enter material information if:

A material is selected that was not fully covered in ASME B31.1

A temperature was selected that was not fully covered in ASME B31.1

User Defined material is selected

ABB Group
July 26, 2013 | Slide 10

Calculation Report
Project and client details from the
Front Page are shown here
Input data from the Data Entry
sheet is pulled through here
including the thermowell type
and material details
The calculated results are shown
in either Metric or Imperial units
as selected on the Front Page
Thermowell Suitability is the key
information
The reason for suitability failure
can be found in the comments
section
ABB Group
July 26, 2013 | Slide 11

Reviewing the Results


The information shown
on the Calculation
Report can be found at
the far right of the data
entry page.

Understanding Comments on the Calculation Report


Comment

Meaning

Frequency limit failed

The calculated frequency ratio, r is higher than the


acceptable limit, rmax

Steady state failed

The stress on the thermowell due to the external


pressure is more than 1.5x the acceptable working
stress for the material

Dynamic state failed

The predicted dynamic stress exceeds the fatigue


limit set by the material type

Pressure limit failed

The operating pressure is too high for the pressure


rating of the thermowell tip or shank

ABB Group
July 26, 2013 | Slide 12

Troubleshooting
The calculation may need to be run again following
any changes to existing cases.
To do this, please press the CALC button.

Default Information
It is important to try to gather the correct information to be sure of the accuracy of the
calculation. If the information isnt available, please use the following (taken from
ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010):

Mass sensor density = 2700 kg/m3

Viscosity = 0.001 cP for gases, = 1 cP for liquids

Fillet radius, b = 2 mm

If the material information you have is different from the software information, please
select User Defined material and enter the information
Material Class A = carbon, low alloy, series 4XX, high-alloy steels not in Class B
Material Class B = series 3XX, nickel-chromium-iron alloy, nickel-iron-chromium
alloy, nickel-copper alloys
ABB Group
July 26, 2013 | Slide 13

ABB Group
July 26, 2013 | Slide 14