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Dip Direction.

The Dip Direction is simply the low side of the sine wave. As the tool also records
tool slant angle and bearing, the analysis software automatically corrects for hole
deviation. In the fracture below, the dip direction would be to the West, Northwest
(299.2 degrees).

DIP AND DIRECTION FROM TELEVIEWER DATA

DATA COST

Acquisition costs vary based on location and duration of the logging program.
Standard call-out prices for 1 day of televiewer service with 1000 feet of logging
would be approximately $2.00 per foot, plus mobilization and operator subsistence.
Rates on long term contracts are considerably less.

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Mr. Peterson has 17 years experience with Century Geophysical logging


services. His duties include technical support, quality assurance and evaluation
of contracted geophysical services for hydrological investigations and mineral
logging programs. His past duties with Century have included Logging
Technician, Area Manager, Open Hole Technician, Field Supervisor, and
US/North American Service Manager. He has published several papers,
conducted training seminars on geophysical logging techniques and presented
papers and workshops at the Outdoor Action Conference.

Century Geophysical Corporation, 7517 E. Pine Street, Tulsa, OK 74115. (918) 838-9811, FAX (918) 838-1532.
Record Televiewer Analysis Data

DIP ANGLE

Calculation is done via the computer system using the offset of the sine wave and
borehole size for the Dip Calculation. If the calculated hole size is not within +/- 10%
of the header hole size, an alert flag is raised indicating the change to the header
hole size. The user may also edit this hole size.

H = Height of Offset from Televiewer Data.


D = Diameter of Borehole.

Dip = Arc Tan (H/D)

In the example above, the height of the televiewer sine wave = 0.62 feet.
The borehole diameter = 3.91 inches (0.325 feet), therefore the calculated dip angle
would be: 62 degrees.
CALCULATION OF TELEVIEWER DIP AND DIRECTION

Post processing of the televiewer images is done via the Century Log Display
program. A sine wave is placed over the televiewer image, best depicting the fracture
or bedding feature.

The user clicks on the televiewer-processing menu in the Display program.


A cross sign (+) is displayed and moved on the screen to indicate the top and bottom
of the televiewer sine wave. Once the sine wave is drawn, it can be moved with the
televiewer dia-log boxes at the top of screen to make better fit. Coarse and fine
adjustment features are available and can be changed based on operator preference.

DIPPING BEDDING PLANES OF SEDIMENTARY STRATA

After clicking the OK button, the Record Televiewer Data box is displayed. Fracture
Number, Borehole Diameter, Dip, Azimuth, To Depth, From Depth, Aperture,
Category, and fracture Color Selection are computed and displayed. If the user does
not like the televiewer feature, by clicking the right mouse button on the sine wave,
you may delete, modify, or edit the feature.
TELEVIEWER LOGS OF FRACTURED AND FOLDED FORMATIONS

Many applications exist for televiewer logs for finding fractures, joints, bedding
planes, and rubblized zones in both mining and environmental logging projects. For
mining projects, identification and orientation of fractures, and other features is
important for the mining plan prior to development. In the environmental business,
groundwater flow is often along fractures zones, for which the televiewer is used to
identify these zones.

The example below indicates many fractures and jointing planes through a
granitic sequence. Note the nearly vertical fracture from approximately 1213.5 feet to
1219 feet. Also indicated on the televiewer is the change of fracture orientation from
North trending (1208 to 1213) to South trending (1213 to 1220) which may indicate
jointing.

DIPPING FRACTURES, JOINTING, AND BEDDING PLANES


MIRROR LAKE TEST LOGGING

The U.S. Geological Survey maintains a test facility at Mirror Lake, New
Hampshire for testing geophysical methods for detecting groundwater flow. Much
data and has been gathered and methodologies developed from this property,
and then applied to other locations around the world. Boreholes penetrate a
metamorphic sequence of schists, and granitic pegamatites. Many dipping
fractures are present, which makes for excellent televiewer logging.

Century was given an opportunity to test the 9800 in two of the boreholes
in the fall of 1995. Results, were favorable with very similar fractures and features
to other televiewer logs ran in the same boreholes. Indicated below are large
open fractures, which are probably water producing zones.

OPEN FRACTURES FROM MIRROR LAKE TEST LOGS


LOGGING DATA IN CGC TEST HOLE

Century maintains an uncased test hole for geophysical tools at the


corporate office in Tulsa, OK. General lithology includes shale and limestone
sequences to a depth of 350 feet. At approximately 180 feet, a limestone is
encountered with some small, slightly dipping fractures. Of the many geophysical
tools that Century has developed, logging this test hole has resulted in much
useful data for comparison.

Analysis and comparison of the televiewer data to conventional electric


logs indicates good log response from fractured to non-fractured intervals. The
caliper log plotted at an increased resolution shows numerous "washouts" or
fractures. The non-fractured zones are indicated with little changes in the hole
size measurement. The resistivity log also indicates the fractures with decreased
resistivity response, while the more competent zones show higher resistivity.
Also, readily indicated on this log plot is the logging tool groove on the low gravity
side of the borehole (South), due to repeated logging of the hole and borehole
deviation.

Century also uses a high resolution 4 - arm dipmeter tool, (9410). Pad
currents show an increased voltage through the fractured zones which are readily
correlated for a dipmeter analysis (dip and dip direction). A very good
comparison is made to the dipmeter and televiewer data. Offsets of the pad
currents, are correlated and measured to make the dip calculation. Similarly, the
televiewer data is analyzed for offset and direction to produce like results.

COMPARISON OF DIPMETER AND TELEVIEWER, CGC TEST HOLE


USING THE ACOUSTIC BOREHOLE TELEVIEWER TOOL

FOR SOLVING PROBLEMS IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL

AND MINING INDUSTRIES

Brian R. Peterson
Century Geophysical Corporation
Tulsa, Oklahoma

INTRODUCTION

The 9800 acoustic borehole televiewer tool has been recently introduced
into Century Geophysical's product line and service division. The tool utilizes
high resolution sound waves to image the borehole wall for location of fractures,
bedding planes, scours in the borehole wall, and cased hole features such as
screen zones and holes in the pipe.

The main component of the tool is the revolving acoustic transducer which
rotates at 12 revolutions per second, with 256 measurements per revolution. At
high recording intervals (.02 feet and .005 meters), very accurate and resolute
images of the borehole are possible. Objects or fractures of less than 0.25 inches
are easily discernable. Tool diameter is 2.0 inches (5.1 cm) which allows for
operation in boreholes as small as 2.9 inches (7.4 cm) in diameter. The time span
in which the 9800 searches for a return signal limits the borehole size range from
2.9 inches to 9.5 inches (7.4 to 24.1 cm). Data is gathered at approximately 5 feet
per minute (1.5 meters per minute) using the Century LOG program. Orientation
of the images is measured by a precise deviation package to produce a
conventional real-time televiewer oriented display of the travel time and signal
amplitude using Century's Visual Compu-Log.

Analysis software includes interpretation of the sinusoidal images of the


televiewer data for both dip and direction using the Century Display program.
Borehole deviation is applied to give an accurate dip calculation. A report file is
generated showing the dip analysis. Additional features include color adjustment
of the televiewer image and graphical output to any Windows 95 supported
printer.

DATA PRESENTED

The purpose of this report is to present representative data and


comparison data of known features. Various field tests and actual logging data
are included to indicate the applications of the tool.