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KNES 313


Ch. 6 Respiratory System:

- Functions- exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide; humidifies air (prevents
damage to membranes due to drying out_, warms air (helps maintain body
temp), filters air (mucus traps airborne particles and cilia move mucus toward
oral cavity to be expelled
- Alveoli- saclike structures surrounded by capillaries in lungs; >300 million in
o Site of exchange of O2 and CO2- provide tremendous surface area
where diffusion can take place

mechanics of ventilation
o (dont worry too much about pleural sac)
Visceral pleura (outer), pleural fluid, parietal pleura (inner surface of thoracic
cavity and diaphragm)
o air flow = (P1-P2)/Resistance
o air is moved into and out of lungs due to pressure changes within the
pressure changes during inspiration & expiration

increase in volume of intrathoracic cavity; increases lung

volume, decreasaes intrapulmonic pressure; which causes air to
rush into lungs (inspiration

decrease volume of intrathoracic cavity: decreases lung volume,

increases intrapulmonic pressure, causes air to rush out of lungs

Diaphragm- most important inspiratory muscle; flattens as it

contracts; contraction moves abdominal contents forward and
Resistance-increase diameter of airways is biggest factor
affecting airflow at rest (decreases resistance)
In exercise: bronchodilation decreases resistance to airflow and
you begin to breath out mouth because it is a larger pathway
Inspiration- inspiratory muscles increase intrathoracic cavity volume;
diaphragm; during exercise- when > volume of air is needed, muscles of ribs
and clavicle elevate ribs and increase intrathoracic volume (deep breath)
Expiration- no muscular effort needed at rest; passive recoil of diaphragm
and other muscles decreases intrathoracic cavity volume
o During exercise or voluntary forced expiration, rib and abdominal
muscles pull ribs downward

KNES 313


Pulmonary Ventilation (VE ) - amount of air moved in and out of lungs

in given time period
= Vt x f
o VT - tidal volume- amount of air you breath in or out per breath
o residual volume- air left in lungs after max inhalation; prevents lungs
from collapsing and allows for gas exchange
o lung capacity- 4-6L
o during exercise- Ve, Vt and F increase as intensity increases
diffusion of gases
o factors
large surface area of alveoli
thinness of respiration membrane
Daltons law- total pressure of gas mixture= sum of partial pressures of each
Henrys Law- amount of gas dissolved in any fluid depends on temperature,
partial pressure of gas, and solubility of gas
o understand entirely the changes in pressure that drive diffusion of O 2 &
transport of gases
differences in partial pressures in individual gases that drive their diffusion
differences between PO2 in alveoli and blood (65mmhg) and between blood
and tissue (60mmhg )drives diffusion of oxygen
CO2 diffusion- partial pressure of CO2 must be greater in blood than in alveoli
and greater in tissue than in blood (6mmHg).
o Differences between PCO2 in alveoli and blood (6mmHg) and btw blood
and tissue (6mmHg) provide driving force for diffusion of CO2
Slightly higher pressure in tissues (6mmHg) causes CO2 to leave tissues and
enter the blood
o how gases transported
98% of oxygen transported with hemoglobin
o Called oxyhemoglobin
CO2 transport- 70% as bicarbonate (at tissue where pressure is high)
o 20% Hb and 7-10% dissolves in plasma
20% bound to hemoglobin (the globin part)
o oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve
o as PO2 increases, so does percent oxyhemoglobin saturation
o 4 Oxygens per hemoglobin
o 25% dissociates at rest; 40mmHg

temperature/pH effects
as temperature increases, shifts curve to the right (decreases affinity
of Hb for oxygen)
allows you to deliver more O2 to the working muscles
pH- as pH increases, shifts curve to the right (decreases affinity of Hb
for oxygen)
nearly doubles delivery of oxygen diffusion into the muscles

KNES 313


control of ventilation- combination of neural, chemical, and pressure feedback

help regulate respiration
ventilation and metabolism association
ventilation increases linearly with O2 uptake at low and moderate exercise
as exercise intensity increases to high levels, ventilation rate increases
o ventilatory threshold- exercise intensity where Ve increases
disproportionately to VO2