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Course Overview

This course introduces the student to basic diesel engine theory and
service procedures. Caterpillar engine systems and applications will
be studied. Several Caterpillar Engines will be presented with
emphasis on the 3406 due to its high field population.
The following course curriculum has been developed using the
reference materials and tooling listed on the following pages.
Substitute materials and tooling may be used at the discretion of the
instructor.
Course Exercises and lab assignments may require modification if
substitute materials and tooling are used.

Engine Fundamentals

Caterpillar Engine
Fundamentals

UNIT 1: Introduction to Caterpillar Diesel Engines
Lesson 1: Caterpillar Engine Product Line, Applications
Lesson 2: Diesel Engine Components and Operation
Lesson 3: Engine Performance Terminology
UNIT 2: Air Intake and Exhaust Systems
Lesson 1: Intake and Exhaust System Components, Operation,
and Maintenance
Lesson 2: Remove, Inspect, and Install Air and Exhaust System
Components
UNIT 3 Lubrication Systems and Oil
Lesson 1: Lube System Components and Operation
Lesson 2: Remove, Inspect, and Install Lube System
Components
UNIT 4: Cooling Systems
Lesson 1: Cooling System Components and Operation
Lesson 2: Remove, Inspect, and Install Cooling System
Components
UNIT 5: Diesel Fuel and Mechanically Controlled Fuel Systems
Lesson 1: Diesel Fuel
Lesson 2: Caterpillar 3406 New Scroll Fuel System
Lesson 3: Remove, Inspect, and Install Fuel System
Components
Lesson 4: Caterpillar Sleeve Metering Fuel Systems
Lesson 5: 3116/26 Mechanical Unit Injector Fuel Systems
UNIT 6: Engine Disassembly, Inspection, and Assembly
Lesson 1: 3406 Disassembly and Inspection
Lesson 2: Caterpillar 3406 Engine maintenance
UNIT 7: Electronically Controlled Fuel Systems
Lesson 1: Caterpillar Electronic Fuel Systems

Table of Contents

Table Of Contents

Objectives

This course prepares Caterpillar dealer entry-level service technicians
for more advanced training on specific engines and systems. After
successfully completing this course, a student will be able to:
-

-

-

Identify the wide range of engines in the Caterpillar Product Line.
Identify various diesel engine applications.
Explain basic diesel engine theory.
Define engine performance terms.
Identify basic diesel engine components and their function.
Describe the following engine systems:
Air intake and exhaust systems
Lubrication system
Cooling system
Fuel system and governor
Demonstrate the ability to disassemble and inspect Caterpillar
3406 diesel engine with a mechanical governor.
Demonstrate the ability to reassemble and perform necessary
adjustments on a Caterpillar 3406 diesel engine with a mechanical
governor.
Explain the operation of the Caterpillar Sleeve Metering Fuel
System.
Explain the operation of the Caterpillar 3116/26 Mechanical Unit
Injector Fuel System.
Explain the operation of and identify components used in
Caterpillar electronically controlled engines using EUI and HEUI
fuel systems.

Objectives

Caterpillar Engine
Fundamentals

Objective:
At the completion of this lesson the student will be able to identify a
wide range of Caterpillar engines and their applications.
References:
Industrial Engine Selection Guide
Harness the Power (Cat Truck Engines for 1998)
Caterpillar Marine Engine Selection Guide

LECH9163
LEXT8138
LECM8477

Introduction:
Caterpillar engines are known around the world for their durability,
performance, and efficiency. Whether they are used in earthmoving
equipment, on-road or off-road vehicles, industrial power situations,
marine installations, or electric power generation, Caterpillar engines
have set new standards for decades. To give customers a competitive
advantage, Caterpillar is constantly working to push performance to
higher levels.
Today's line of Caterpillar engines offers some of the most advanced
engineering features available. These include electronic controls,
hydraulically actuated electronically controlled unit injectors (HEUI),
and other exclusive technologies that dramatically reduce engine
emissions.

Lesson 1: Engine Product Line and Applications

Lesson 1: Caterpillar Engine Product Line and
Applications

Objective:
The student will be able to identify diesel engine components and
explain the principles of diesel engine operation.
References:
The Engine Book
Introduction to Diesel Engines
3400 Engine Major Component Performance Guide
3406 Engine Components and Systems

LEBQ9801
TECB6005
SEBD0794
CD-ROM

Introduction:
Caterpillar develops and builds four-stroke-cycle diesel engines to
satisfy the requirements of Caterpillar-built equipment as well as a
wide variety of equipment built by other manufacturers.
To effectively perform diagnosis, repair, and service, it is necessary
to have a complete understanding of the operating principles and
construction of diesel engines.

Lesson 2: Diesel Engine Components

Lesson 2: Identify Caterpillar Diesel Engine
Components and Explain Principles
of Diesel Engine Operation

This CD-ROM presentation will review the major engine components
and systems of the Caterpillar 3406B diesel engine.

Fig. 1.2.1 Caterpillar 3406B Engine

Caterpillar 3406B Engine
Years of diesel experience have provided Caterpillar with the
technology necessary to design and build high quality engines that
offer maximum performance at a low overall cost. The specific
design considerations for the 3406B include:







Reliability
Serviceability
Long Life before Overhaul is Needed
Low Overhaul costs
Application Flexibility
Fuel Economy
Oil Control
Performance

Caterpillar has always emphasized strength and quality, and continues
to do so with the 3406B. The 3406B is a heavy-duty, in line, 6cylinder, diesel engine. The engine has a 5.4 inch bore, 6.5 inch
stroke and a displacement of 893 cu. in.

The major engine components will now be discussed in detail.

Fig. 1.2.2 Cylinder Block

Cylinder Block
One of the major components in a diesel engine that must exhibit
maximum strength is the cylinder block. To provide maximum
strength, the block is precision cast using a combination of alloys.

Fig. 1.2.3 Cylinder Head

Cylinder Head
The cylinder head is designed to have excellent structural strength
and ridgidity. The cylinder head has passed rigorous, deep thermal
cycle shock testing for assured durability. This results in a cylinder
head with significant resistance to cracking.
The steel or aluminum spacer plate that is used between the cylinder
head and the block eliminates the need for deep counterbores in the
cylinder block. Deep counterbores decrease the structural integrity of
the block and are prone to cracking.

Fig. 1.2.4 3406B Crankshaft

3406B Crankshaft
The crankshaft is a carbon steel forging that is total hardened. Many
other diesel engine manufacturers induction harden their crankshafts
only at the journals and fillets. This process can leave a stress riser at
the boundary between the hardened and unhardened areas. The
patented Caterpillar total-hardening process hardens the entire surface
of the crankshaft, creating a longer wearing and stronger crankshaft.
With the entire surface of the crankshaft hardened, the possibility of
cracking is reduced.

Fig. 1.2.5 3406C Crankshaft

3406C Crankshaft
With the introduction of the 3406C, the size of the rod bearing has
been significantly increased (projected area by 19%). The wider
bearing spreads the load over a greater surface area, dramatically
decreasing the bearing load while increasing the bearing life. This
photo shows a former rod bearing on the new crankshaft to
demonstrate the increase in bearing area. Additionally, this change
increases the oil film thickness by 50% and gives the 3406C the
largest rod bearing capacity in its class, eliminating mid-life bearing
roll-ins.

Fig. 1.2.6 Connecting Rods

Connecting Rods
The forged boron steel connecting rod is hardened and shot peened
for stress relief. The tapered-end design provides additional pin to
bore contact area during the power stroke. This results in extra
strength and durability of the piston and rod assembly.
New with the 3406C is a larger, stronger connecting rod with a much
larger rod bearing. In fact, the wider 3406C rod bearing has the
greatest load carrying capacity of any heavy duty engine in its class.
By spreading the firing loads over a larger surface area, load carrying
capacity, bearing reliability, and service life are all dramatically
increased for all ratings.

Fig. 1.2.7 Pistons

Pistons
Pistons are critical to the design, life, and overall performance of an
engine. The Caterpillar 3406B Engine's three-ring piston is an
aluminum alloy casting with a cast-in nickel iron band for the
compression rings. The nickel iron band provides improved groove
strength and resists wear.
The three-ring piston design provides excellent compression and oil
control while reducing friction and heat buildup. This results in
extended piston, ring and liner life and reduces maintenance cost at
overhaul time.
The piston rings are nodular iron for strength and durability. The oil
and intermediate rings are chrome coated, while the top ring is
plasma coated. Both coatings provide excellent wear and scuffresistant properties.

Fig. 1.2.8 Cylinder Liners

Cylinder Liners
Cylinder liners are made of a cast molybdenum alloy iron for an extra
margin of hardness. The internal surface of each liner is induction
hardened, then ground in a cross-hatched pattern to aid in oil control.
O-rings are used to seal the liner to block coolant cavity. A liner band
is used to seal the top of the liner. Because the engine is rigid, these
seals remain seated and provide excellent liner sealing.

Fig. 1.2.9 Valves

Valves
Exhaust and intake valves in the 3406B Engine are extremely wear
resistant for long life. Three materials are used in the exhaust valves.
The stems are made of a hardened stainless steel. A special alloy is
used for the heads to provide high temperature strength. The seating
faces of the valve are made of Stellite for high temperature wear
resistance. Intake valve heads and stems are made from stainless
steel and are hardened for resistance to wear.

Fig. 1.2.10 Valve Seat Inserts

Valve Seat Inserts
When the valve seats become worn or damaged, valve seat inserts are
replaceable. Intake inserts are a stainless steel alloy and the exhaust
inserts are a nickel base alloy.
Each valve has a rotator which moves the valve face 3° relative to the
valve seat during one complete cycle of the engine. This assures
uniform wear for longer valve life and helps prevent burned valves.

Fig. 1.2.11 Camshaft

Camshaft
The camshaft is made of a special alloy steel that is drop forged and
hardened for reliability and durability. The camshaft gear is heated
and pressed on during installation.

Fig. 1.2.12 BrakeSaver

BrakeSaver
The 3406B has an optional BrakeSaver hydraulic retarder that
provides smooth, quiet and efficient vehicle braking. The BrakeSaver
develops a retarding capability of 360 hp and maintains normal
engine temperatures on long downhill grades. The hydraulic
operation of the BrakeSaver provides smooth, gradual engagement,
reducing the possibility of skids or jackknives.
By relieving the service brakes of the severe wear caused by downhill
braking, the BrakeSaver extends brake lining, drum, and tire life.
This reduces user maintenance costs.

Fig. 1.2.13 Fuel System

Fuel System
The 3406B utilizes a direct injection, scroll type, high pressure fuel
system. The system is very efficient, allowing short injection
duration and excellent fuel atomization. This results in lower
emissions and improved fuel economy.

Fig. 1.2.14 Fuel Injection Nozzle

Fuel Injection Nozzle
Injection nozzles can be replaced in the field. The six hole tip
atomizes the high pressure fuel flow in the combustion chamber for
complete, efficient combustion.

Fig. 1.2.15 Fuel Injection Pump

Fuel Injection Pump
Individual scroll-type fuel pumps for each cylinder require no
balancing and maintain fuel efficiency without periodic adjustment.

Fig. 1.2.16 Spring/Hydraulic Timing Advance

Spring Hydraulic Timing Advance
The speed sensitive timing advance mechanism optimizes
performance and makes starting easy. Earlier 3406B Engines used a
spring/hydraulic system. As engine speed increases, timing is
advanced hydraulically using engine oil. As engine speed decreases,
a large spring pushes the timing mechanism toward the retarded
position. The spring/hydraulic system has a timing advance
capability of 9 degrees.

Fig. 1.2.17 Hydraulic Timing Advance

Hydraulic Timing Advance
A double hydraulic automatic timing advance was introduced on the
3406B Engines, serial number 4MG3600 and up. In this system, the
timing mechanism advances and retards hydraulically using engine
oil. A spool valve actuated by flyweights controls the flow of oil in
the timing mechanism. This fully hydraulic system has a timing
advance capability of 12 degrees.

Fig. 1.2.18 Governor

Governor
The Caterpillar 3406B features a full range governor. The
hydraulically assisted governor maintains nearly constant speed over
rolling terrain similar in effect to automatic speed control in
automobiles. This reduces gear shifts and accelerator changes,
resulting in improved trip times and less driver fatigue.

Fig. 1.2.19 Turbocharger

Turbocharger
3406B turbochargers are performance matched for each horsepower
rating. Their low inertia design reacts rapidly to load demands while
delivering full-rated power to the altitude limit appropriate for the
application of the engine. This results in improved combustion
efficiency and more work per gallon of fuel.

Component Locations

Fig. 1.2.20 Engine Component Locations

Engine Component Locations
Located on the front of the engine are:
• Air compressor drive cover
• Timing advance cover
• Vibration damper
• Coolant pump

Fig. 1.2.21 Engine Component Locations

Engine Component Locations
On the right side of the engine are the:
• Turbocharger
• Exhaust manifold
• Oil filter
• Oil cooler
• Breather and tube assembly

Fig. 1.2.22 Engine Component Locations

Engine Component Locations
Located on the left side are the:
• Air compressor mounting location
• Injection lines
• Hand priming pump
• Starter location
• Fuel filter
• Fuel transfer pump
• Fuel injection pump
Depending on the application, the engine may also be equipped with
a different arrangement on the fuel filter and priming pump locations.
Some engines will also have an aftercooler.

Fig. 1.2.23 Transmission Oil Cooler

Transmission Oil Cooler
If used, the transmission oil cooler is installed on the right side of the
engine.

Objective:
The student will be able to define essential engine performance
terminology and calculate engine displacement, compression ratio,
and horsepower.
References:
Glossary of Terms

LEXQ8150

Introduction:
To understand diesel engine design and performance, it is necessary
to know the terminology and math calculations that apply to diesel
engines.

Lesson 3: Engine Performance Terminology

Lesson 3: Engine Performance Terminology

Fig. 1.3.1

There are many factors that determine the performance of an engine.
The operating conditions that an engine is exposed to and the specific
application an engine is placed in can affect the performance of the
engine. Many of the determining factors for performance, however,
are determined by the manufacturer of the engine.
Some of the basic specifications that a manufacturer makes on an
engine that affect performance of the engine are:
Bore
Stroke
Displacement
Compression Ratio
The performance of an engine is typically rated by comparing power
output and/or efficiency of the engine. These evaluations can be
measured in several different ways. The basis for these
measurements and the manufacturer’s specifications must be known
in order to better understand the effects that all of these factors and
measurements have on engine performance.

BORE

TDC
STROKE

BDC
CRANKSHAFT
AT TDC

CRANKSHAFT
AT BDC

Fig. 1.3.2

Top Dead Center (tdc)
Top dead center (tdc) is a term used to describe the position of the
piston when the piston is at its highest point in the cylinder. This
occurs when the crankshaft and the connecting rod are fully extended
and straight with one another. Many events in the operation of the
engine are identified by crankshaft position, measured in degrees
either before or after tdc.
Bottom Dead Center (bdc)
Bottom dead center (bdc) is a term used to describe the position of
the piston when the piston is at its lowest point in the cylinder. This
occurs when the crankshaft and the connecting rod are fully retracted
and straight with one another.
Bore (B)
Bore is a term used to describe the diameter of a single cylinder in an
engine. Bore is typically measured in millimeters or inches.
Stroke (L)
Stroke is a term used to describe the distance that a piston travels in
the cylinder of the engine. The stroke is measured as the difference
between the position of the piston at BDC to TDC. The amount of
stroke is determined by the design of the crankshaft. The stroke is
equal to exactly twice the throw of the crankshaft. Stroke is typically
measured in millimeters or inches.

Engine Displacement
The bore, the stroke, and the number of cylinders all determine the
displacement of an engine. The displacement of an engine is simply
the amount of volume displaced by all cylinders in an engine during
one complete rotation. The displacement of an engine can be
calculated using the following formula:
Displacement = π x r2 x L x n
Where...
π
r2
radius
L
n

=
=
=
=
=

22/7
radius x radius
1/2 bore
stroke
number of cylinders in the engine
DIESEL ENGINE
17 TO 1

Fig. 1.3.3

Compression Ratio
The compression ratio of an engine is determined by the cylinder
displacement and the combustion chamber volume. In order to
calculate the compression ratio use the following formula:
CR = Total Cylinder Volume / Combustion Chamber Volume
Typical compression ratios of diesel engines range from 11:1 to
22:1. This is significantly higher than the compression ratio of a
typical gasoline engine. Diesel engines utilize higher compression
ratios to increase the pressure within the combustion chamber.
Higher pressures will cause an increase in the temperature of the air
and fuel in the combustion chamber. This high temperature
(approximately 1000°F) will cause the diesel fuel to ignite without
the use of a spark plug.

Atmospheric Conditions
In order to produce the desired levels of power, diesel engines require
a large volume of air. Therefore the atmospheric pressure, the
ambient air temperature, and the relative humidity of the air play a
large role in the performance characteristics of the engine.
It is the atmospheric air pressure that is present that forces the air into
the engine. Atmospheric pressure is the pressure that is exerted on
the earth’s surface due to the weight of the atmosphere (the air
surrounding the earth). Atmospheric pressure is greatest at sea level
because there is more air above the air at sea level than there is above
the air at the top of a mountain. Refer to figure...

3657 M.
64.12 kPa

WEIGHT OF
AIR ON
EARTH'S
SURFACE

12,000 FT.
9.3 PSI

2438 M.

8,000 FT.

75.15 kPa

10.9 PSI

1219 M.

4,000 FT.

87.50 kPa

12.7 PSI

101.35 kPa SEA LEVEL

SEA LEVEL 14.7 PSI

EARTH'S SURFACE

Fig. 1.3.4

As an example, due to increased pressure at sea level the air is more
dense than the air on top of a mountain. The dense air allows for
more air molecules to flow into the cylinder. This allows for the fuel
to be more completely burned in a diesel engine, which produces
more power. This is why engines perform better in lower altitudes,
the air is more dense.
Ambient air temperature also plays a role in how much air can flow
into an engine. The lower the temperature of the air, the more dense
the charge of air is that enters the cylinders. The greater the density
of the air, the more power that can be produced efficiently in the
engine.
Humidity is also an important factor in diesel engine combustion.
Humidity is a relative measure of the amount of moisture that is
suspended in the air. The suspended moisture has a cooling effect on
the air as it enters the engine. Therefore, the greater the humidity of
the air, the colder the air, the denser the air, the more power that can
be produced efficiently in the engine.

Air Intake and Exhaust Systems

Unit Objectives:
The student will be able to:
1. Identify air intake and exhaust system components in an
engine installation.
2. Remove, inspect, and install air and exhaust system
components on a Caterpillar 3406B or 3406C engine.

Unit2: Air Intake and Exhaust

Unit 2

Lesson 1: Air Intake and Exhaust

Lesson 1: Identify Air Intake and
Exhaust Systems

Objectives:
The student will be able to explain the operation of the air intake and
exhaust system and identify related components.
References:
Air Intake and Exhaust Presentation
3406E Operation and Maintenance Manual
Turbochargers
Air System Specifications Handout

CD-ROM
SEBU6758
SEBV0550
Copy

Introduction:
Efficient diesel engine operation requires that the proper amount of
air can enter the combustion chamber and the exhaust gases can exit
with minimal restriction. Both inlet air and exhaust gas temperatures
are also critical for maximum engine performance and life.

Air Inlet
and
Exhaust System
Fig. 2.1.1 Introduction

Introduction
This first system we will discuss is the Air Inlet and Exhaust system.

Fig. 2.1.2 Air System Components.

Air System Components
The Air Inlet and Exhaust System contains the following components:




Air cleaner
Turbocharger
Aftercooler
Cylinder head, valves, and pistons
Exhaust manifold

Fig. 2.1.3 Air Cleaner

Air Cleaner
Air is drawn into the engine through the air cleaner. The air cleaner
houses a filter element which removes foreign material from the air
before it enters the engine. There are several different types of air
cleaners currently available on Caterpillar engines. Always refer to
the operation and maintenance manual of the engine for the most
accurate maintenance procedures.

Fig. 2.1.4 Typical Service Indicator

Engine air cleaners should be serviced on a regular basis. Many air
cleaners are equipped with a service indicator. The indicator
monitors the amount of restriction through the air cleaners. The
service indicator is the most accurate method to use to determine
when the air cleaners are in need of service. Engine air cleaner
elements should be serviced, cleaned or replaced, when either the
yellow diaphragm enters the red zone or the red piston locks into the
visible position.

Fig. 2.1.5 Dry Element Air Cleaner

Dry element air cleaners are by far the most common type of air
cleaners used on Caterpillar engines. Dry element air cleaners are
typically composed of a pleated paper filter media that is used to
remove the dirt from the incoming air.
This type of air filter requires replacement or cleaning when the
service indicator is tripped.

Fig. 2.1.6 Dry Element Cleaning

Dry element air cleaners can usually be cleaned with filtered, dry air
with a maximum pressure of 207 kPa (30 psi). The element should
be cleaned from the clean side out, holding the tip of the air nozzle
parallel to the pleats of the air cleaner.

Fig. 2.1.7 AIRSEP Filters

Another type of air cleaner that is found on Caterpillar engines, most
commonly in high performance marine applications, is the AIRSEP.
The AIRSEP elements are a pleated fiber filter media that is
impregnated with a special petroleum based fluid. This allows the
AIRSEP elements to flow a high volume of air with little restriction,
but still clean the air before it enters the engine. These elements are
reusable, but the elements require a special maintenance procedure.
The AIRSEP filters must be cleaned using the 102-9720 Cleaning Kit.
Follow the guidelines in the operation and maintenance manual.

Fig. 2.1.8 Simple Cap Precleaner

Precleaner
Many engines are also equipped with a precleaner. The precleaner is
located before the inlet to the main air cleaner. The purpose of the
precleaner is to collect much of the dirt before the air cleaner. This
increases the service life of the air cleaner.
The simplest type of precleaner is a simple mesh cap at the top of the
air filter housing inlet.

Fig. 2.1.9 Dust collection bowl

Another type of precleaner that is used on Caterpillar equipment is a
spirally vaned drum. The vanes cause the incoming air to spin.
Because the dirt that is drawn in is heavier than the air, the dirt is
forced to the outside due to the spinning action. The dirt then falls
into a collection bowl.
Precleaners should be inspected and emptied on a daily basis.

Fig. 2.1.10 Turbocharger

Turbocharger
Many diesel engines are equipped with a turbocharger in order to
improve the performance and the efficiency of the engine. The
turbocharger receives clean air flow from the air cleaner. The
rotation of the turbocharger compressor wheel draws air in,
compresses it and delivers it under pressure to the cylinders.

Advantages of Turbochargers
• Power
• Efficiency

Fig. 2.1.11 Advantages of Turbochargers

Advantages of Turbochargers
Turbocharging has several important advantages:
1. Power - Compressed air has more oxygen per volume. With more
oxygen in the cylinder, more fuel can be injected for a higher
energy output.
2. Efficiency - Turbocharging allows a more efficient combustion for
improved emissions and fuel consumption.

Fig. 2.1.12 Turbocharger Operation

Turbocharger Operation
When the turbocharger compresses the intake air, the temperature of
the air is increased. Hot air has less density, thus less oxygen. If the
hot compressed air is delivered to the engine, some of the efficiency
gained by compression will be lost. This is where the aftercooler
comes into play. The aftercooler lowers the temperature of the air
before its enters the cylinders.

Aftercooler
• Air to Air Aftercooler
• Jacket Water Aftercooler

Fig. 2.1.13 Aftercooler

Aftercoolers
Aftercoolers are used in conjunction with turbochargers in order to
lower the temperature of the air coming from the turbocharger before
the air enters the cylinders. This causes the air to be more dense,
therefore contain more oxygen in a given volume. This increase in
oxygen in the cylinders translates into greater power and efficiency
from the engine.
There are different types of aftercoolers that are used on Caterpillar
engines: All aftercoolers serve the same purpose however, remove
heat from inlet air providing cooler and more dense air to the
cylinder.

Fig. 2.1.14 Air to Air Aftercooler (ATAAC)

Air to Air Aftercooler (ATAAC)
With the air to air aftercooled system, a separate cooler core is
installed in front of the vehicle engine radiator. Ambient temperature
air is moved across the aftercooler core by the engine fan.
Pressurized air from the turbocharger is cooled by the air to air
aftercooler before entering the intake manifold. This is an extremely
effective method for cooling the turbocharged air when a large
volume of fresh cool air can be pushed through the aftercooler. For
this reason this is the configuration found most often in on-highway
truck applications.

Fig. 2.1.15 Jacket Water Aftercooler (JWAC)

Jacket Water Aftercooler (JWAC)
The jacket water aftercooler system has a coolant charged core
assembly. It uses the engine coolant in order to cool the air charge
entering the cylinders. Coolant from the water pump flows through
the aftercooler core. Pressurized air from the turbocharger is cooled
by the aftercooler before entering the intake manifold.

SEPERATE CIRCUIT AFTERCOOLER
TURBOCHARGER
AFTERCOOLER
AUXILIARY
WATER PUMP

AFTERCOOLER WATER
COOLING CIRCUIT

JACKET WATER
COOLING CIRCUIT

JACKET
WATER
PUMP

Fig. 2.1.16 Separate Circuit Aftercooler

Separate Circuit Aftercooler (SCAC)
A separate circuit aftercooler system is similar to the jacket water
aftercooler system with minor differences. A separate cooling circuit
from the jacket water of the engine is used to cool the engine. The
jacket water acts as normal, cooling the engine head, block,
transmission oil, etc. The separate circuit aftercooler system has a
dedicated water pump, lines, and heat exchanger for the aftercooler.
This system is typically used in applications where maximum
aftercooling is required. Many marine applications utilize separate
circuit aftercoolers in conjunction with a heat exchanger that is
designed to use the keel water for cooling the circuit. Many of
Caterpillar’s large mining trucks also use this type of aftercooler.

From the air cleaner (turbocharger/aftercooler, if equipped) the
incoming air enters the inlet manifold. The inlet manifold directs the
air into the cylinder head.

Fig. 2.1.17 Intake Stroke

Intake Stroke
Air fills the inlet ports in the cylinder head. On the INTAKE stroke
as the piston travels down in the cylinder the intake valves open, and
air fills the volume of the cylinder.

Fig. 2.1.18 Compression Stroke

Compression Stroke
On the COMPRESSION stroke, as the piston begins to travel up, the
intake valves close. The air that is trapped in the cylinder is
compressed. Compressing the air raises the air temperature to a point
where it will cause fuel to ignite when it is injected into the cylinder.

Fig. 2.1.19 Power Stroke

Power Stroke
When the piston nears the top of its travel, fuel is injected into the
cylinder. The fuel mixes with the hot air and combustion begins.
The energy released by the combustion forces the piston down
producing the POWER stroke.

Fig. 2.1.20 Exhaust Stroke

Exhaust Stroke
Near the end of the POWER stroke the exhaust valves open. Any
residual pressure from combustion will rush into the exhaust
manifold. On the upward or EXHAUST stroke the gases are pushed
out of the cylinder by the piston. At the top of the stroke the exhaust
valves close and the cycle starts over.

Fig. 2.1.21 Exhaust Flow

Exhaust Flow
Exhaust gases leaving the cylinder enter the exhaust manifold and are
then routed to the turbocharger, if equipped.
The hot exhaust gases flowing out of the cylinders contain substantial
unused heat energy. The turbocharger exhaust turbine captures some
of this heat energy.

Fig. 2.1.22 Turbocharger Operation

Turbocharger Operation
The exhaust gases flow past the blades of the turbine wheel and cause
the turbine wheel to rotate. The turbine wheel is connected by a shaft
to the compressor wheel. The exhaust gases push the turbine and
subsequently the compressor wheel to a high RPM, about 80,000 130,000 RPM. This causes the intake air to be compressed.
When the load on the engine increases, more fuel is injected into the
cylinders. The increased combustion generates more exhaust gases
causing the turbine and compressor wheel to turn faster. As the
compressor wheel turns faster, more air is forced into the engine.The
maximum rpm of the turbocharger is controlled by the fuel setting,
the high idle speed setting and the height above sea level.

Fig. 2.1.23 Exhaust Flow

Exhaust Flow
From the turbocharger (if equipped), the exhaust gases pass through
the exhaust pipe, the muffler, and the exhaust stack.

CATERPILLAR ENGINE AIR SYSTEMS SPECIFICATIONS
Maximum inlet air temperature - 120°F ambient
Maximum air cleaner restriction New filter - 15" H2O
Used filter - use air filter service indicator
On-highway diesel engines - 25" H2O
Other diesel engines - 30" H2O
Natural gas engines - 15" H2O
Maximum aftercooler restriction Jacket Water Aftercooler - 3" Hg
Air-to-Air Aftercooler - 4" Hg
Maximum exhaust temperature Turbocharged - 1200°F (a small number of engines may be higher)
Naturally aspirated - 1300°F
Maximum exhaust restriction Turbocharged - 27" H2O
Naturally aspirated - 34" H2O
On-highway diesel engines - 40" H2O
Maximum inlet manifold temperatures Turbocharged - 325°F
Turbocharged, Jacket Water Aftercooled - 245°F
Turbocharged, Separate Circuit Aftercooled (85°F water) - 125°F
Turbocharged, Air-to-Air Aftercooled - 150°F

Conversion data .5 psi = 1" Hg = 1' H2O = 3.5 kpa
1 psi = 2" Hg = 2' H2O = 7 kpa
15 psi = 30" Hg = 30' H2O = 103 kpa

Lubrication Systems and Oil

Unit 3
Lubrication Systems and Oil

Unit Objectives:
The student will be able to:
1. Explain the function of the engine lubrication system and its
components.
2. Identify proper oil classifications for diesel engines.
3. Explain a normal oil maintenance schedule for a Caterpillar
3406E engine.
4. Remove, inspect, and install lubrication system components
on a Caterpillar 3406B or 3406C engine.
Unit References:
3406 Lube System Presentation
Oil Development at Caterpillar
CG-4, The Preferred Oil
Oil and Your Engine
Oil in Your Engine
3406E Operation and Maintenance Manual
3406B Service Manual
3406C Service Manual
Unit 3 Quiz

Tooling:
8T0461 Serviceman’s Tool Set or Equivalent
1U5750 Diesel Engine Repair Stand
1U5749 Engine Adapter Plate

CD-ROM
Copy
LEDQ7315
SEBD0640
LEVP9001
SEBU6758
SEBR0544
SEBR0550
Copy

Objectives:
The student will be able to explain the operation of the lubrication
system and identify related components.
References:
3406 Lube System Presentation
Oil Development at Caterpillar
CG-4, The Preferred Oil
Oil and Your Engine
Oil in Your Engine
3406E Operation and Maintenance Manual

CD-ROM
Copy
LEDQ7315
SEBD0640
LEVN9001
SEBU6758

Introduction:
The lubrication system in a diesel engine is more important than ever
due to the demands of the high performance, low-emission engines
of today. Not only is the lube system required to provide clean oil to
the proper places in the engine but the oil itself must withstand
higher temperatures and extended drain intervals while maintaining a
low rate of consumption.

Lubrication System Components

Lesson 1: Identify Lubrication System
Components and Their Operation.

This presentation will review components and operation of a
Caterpillar 3406 lube system. This system is typical of a Caterpillar
engine, but some engines will differ. Engines that use the HEUI fuel
system will differ significantly.

Fig. 3.1.1 Caterpillar 3406 Engine

Introduction
This presentation covers the lubrication system of a Caterpillar 3406B
or 3406C engine for illustrative purposes. Refer to the systems
operation manual for a particular engine of interest.

Fig. 3.1.2 Lubrication System Components

Lubrication System Components
The lubrication system contains the following components:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Oil pick-up tube and suction bell
Oil pump
Oil pressure relief valve
Oil cooler bypass valve
Oil cooler
Oil filter bypass valve
Oil filter
Oil supply to turbocharger
Oil supply to engine

Fig. 3.1.3 Oil Passages

Oil Passages
The lubrication system inside the engine includes the following
components:
1. Oil manifold (gallery) in block
2. Piston cooling jet
3. Oil passage to main and cam bearings
4. Camshaft and main bearing oil passage
5. Front oil supply for lifters
6. Rear oil supply for lifters
7. Front oil supply to rocker shaft
8. Rear oil supply to rocker shaft
9. Oil supply to fuel pump

Fig. 3.1.4 Front Gear Train Lubrication

Front Gear Train Lubrication
The lubrication for the front gear train includes the:
1. Oil supply to idler gear shaft
2. Oil supply to accessory drive
Let’s trace the flow of oil through each component.

Fig. 3.1.5 Oil Pump Oil Flow

Oil Pump Oil Flow
Lubricating system flow begins as the pump draws oil from the oil
pan sump. The oil pump pick up tube has a suction bell at the open
end which is located low in the pan sump. The suction bell contains
a screen to prevent foreign material from entering the oil pump.
Many Caterpillar engines are designed to work in applications that
may require the engine be at a steep angle. A track type tractor for
example, typically is used in applications that require the machine
and engine be at a relatively steep angle from the horizontal. In order
to ensure that all of the engine oil does not collect in one end of the
oil pan, away from the suction bell, many engines also have a
scavenge oil pump. A scavenge oil pump is nothing more than an oil
pump that ensures that there is always oil in the main sump. This
keeps the lubrication system from being starved of oil at steep slopes.

Fig. 3.1.6 Oil Pump Description

Oil Pump Description
The oil pump is a positive displacement gear type pump, driven by
the crankshaft gear.

HOUSING
DRIVE GEAR
INLET OIL

OUTLET OIL
FORCE

MESHING GEAR TEETH
IDLER GEAR

Fig. 3.1.7 Gear Pump

The basic gear pump is the type most commonly found on Caterpillar
engines. This pump has two gears in mesh. One gear is driven by
the engine and the other is an idler gear. The two gears rotate in
opposite directions capturing the engine oil, and drawing it around
the inside of the housing. When the teeth come together in mesh the
oil is forced out of the teeth and flows through the pump outlet to the
rest of the lubrication system.

INNER
GEAR
OUTLET
PORT

OUTER
GEAR

INLET
PORT

Fig. 3.1.8 Rotor Pump

Some Perkins engines use a rotor type pump. This pump has an inner
gear and a outer gear that are in mesh with one another. The inner
gear is driven by the engine. The centerline of the outer gear is offset
from the inner gear and is free to turn. As the inner gear is turned it
causes the outer gear to rotate. Engine oil is drawn into the pump
through the inlet and carried in the space between the two rotating
parts to the outlet. On the outlet side the inner gear and the outer
gear come into mesh with one another and force the oil to be pushed
out the outlet port of the pump.

Fig. 3.1.9 Oil Pump Relief Valve

Oil Pump Relief Valve
The oil pump has an integral pressure relief valve which controls the
maximum system operating pressure. Limiting the pressure helps to
reduce leaks and prolong seal life.

Fig. 3.1.10 Oil Pump Relief Valve

Oil Pump Relief Valve
The valve will remain on its seat (closed) until the oil pressure at the
pump rises above the pressure that is exerted by the spring in the
valve.
As pressure in the system nears the maximum, it will force the valve
off its seat and allow some oil to bypass to the low pressure side of
the pump. If the pressure in the system continues to rise, the valve
plunger will move farther down allowing more flow to bypass.
When the engine oil is cold it will be thick or have a high viscosity,
and will resist flowing. During cold engine start ups the oil will
resist flowing through the engine. Pressure will build quickly,
causing the valve to open.

Fig. 3.1.11 Oil Cooler

Oil Cooler
Many engines are equipped with an oil cooler assembly. The cooler
utilizes an engine oil to coolant heat exchanger. Hot engine oil
passing through the cooler element transfers heat to the engine
coolant. This cooling of the oil helps to maintain the lubricating
properties of the oil under heavy engine load.

Fig. 3.1.12 Oil Cooler Bypass Valve

Oil Cooler Bypass Valve
During cold start ups, the cold oil will also resist flowing through the
oil cooler. To prevent this resistance from causing oil starvation, an
oil cooler bypass valve is incorporated into the cooler assembly. This
bypass valve senses oil pressure between the inlet and outlet of the
cooler. It is designed to open and bypass oil flow around the cooler
when the oil is cold and thick.

Fig. 3.1.13 Oil Filter

Oil Filter
The oil filter base mounts at least one filter element. Most Caterpillar
engines use spin-on style full flow filters in order to remove
damaging foreign materials from the engine oil.

Fig. 3.1.14 Oil Filter Bypass Valve

Oil Filter Bypass Valve
The engine oil flows in the outside of the filter, through the filter
media, and out the hole in the center of the filter under normal
operating conditions. However, the filter element resists cold oil
flow. It also resists oil flow when it becomes dirty. To prevent
damage to the element and possible oil starvation to the system, the
filter base is equipped with a filter bypass valve. The bypass valve
senses the pressure differential across the element and will open,
bypassing oil flow around the element if the pressure becomes
excessive. This is one reason why proper maintenance procedures are
so important. Dirty filters can lead to serious problems.

Fig. 3.1.15 Turbocharger Lubrication

Turbocharger Lubrication
The turbocharger oil supply line is connected to the outlet of the filter
base. An adequate supply of cooled, clean oil is essential to
turbocharger life. Thus, the turbocharger receives oil flow before
other engine components. Oil cools, and lubricates the bearings of
the turbocharger. Oil flow from the turbocharger is returned to the oil
pan. This is also why hot shutdowns or high rpm shutdowns of the
engine are bad. Insufficient oil flow under these conditions could
lead to premature failure of the turbocharger. The turbocharger needs
the oil to cool and to lubricate its bearings.

Fig. 3.1.16 Piston Cooling Jets

Piston Cooling Jets
Clean, cooled oil is directed from the filter base to the oil manifold in
the engine block. The piston cooling jets are connected to the oil
manifold and direct a small stream of oil to the underneath side of the
pistons for cooling. This helps to cool the pistons to a uniform
temperature and provide a longer service life of the pistons.

Fig. 3.1.17 Oil Supply to Bearings

Oil Supply to Bearings
Each pair of main and camshaft bearings is connected by an oil
passage that is drilled in the block. The drilled passage receives oil
through an intersecting drilled passage that is connected to the oil
manifold.

Fig. 3.1.18 Oil Supply to Crankshaft Bearings

Oil Supply to Crankshaft Bearings
A groove around the inside of the upper main bearing shells supplies
oil flow to internal drilled passages in the crankshaft. The internal
crankshaft passages supply oil to the connecting rod bearings.

Fig. 3.1.19 Valve Lifter Lubrication

Valve Lifter Lubrication
A groove around the outside of the front and rear camshaft bearings
supply oil flow to the front and the rear valve lifter passages. Each
lifter body, roller and lower push rod socket receive lubrication from
these passages.

Fig. 3.1.20 Rocker Shaft Lubrication

Rocker Shaft Lubrication
The rear rocker shaft receives oil flow from the rear valve lifter oil
passage. The front rocker shaft receives oil flow from a drilled
passage connected to the front camshaft supply passage.
Drilled passages in the rocker shafts supply the upper valve train with
oil flow. This is also used to supply oil to the compression release
brake (Jake Brake), if equipped.

Fig. 3.1.21 Front Gear Train Lubrication

Front Gear Train Lubrication
The front gear train idler gear and the accessory drive receive oil flow
from an internal drilled passage that is connected to the front
camshaft oil passage.

Fig. 3.1.22 Air Compressor Lubrication

Air Compressor Lubrication
The air compressor receives oil from the oil passage to the accessory
drive, through passages in the timing gear housing and the accessory
drive gear.

Fig. 3.1.23 Fuel System Lubrication

Fuel System Lubrication
In a typical Caterpillar pump and line fuel system the fuel pump,
governor and hydraulic timing advance unit receive oil flow from a
port on the side of the block. This port is connected to the number
three main and camshaft passage.

Fig. 3.1.24 Caterpillar BrakeSaver

BrakeSaver Option
Since the BrakeSaver retarder option becomes an integral part of the
lubrication system, we will review the operation of the BrakeSaver
along with the changes to the lubrication system the option requires.
As we learned earlier, the BrakeSaver retarder is a hydraulic retarder
that provides smooth, efficient vehicle breaking on long downhill
grades.

Fig. 3.1.25 BrakeSaver Oil Pump

Brake Saver Oil Pump
Engines equipped with a BrakeSaver retarder have a two section oil
pump. The front section of the pump supplies oil for the lubrication
of the engine. The path of the oil from the front section is the same
as the standard oil pump, except the oil does not go to the oil cooler.
The oil from the front section of the pump flows directly to the oil
filter.
The rear section of the oil pump supplies oil for BrakeSaver operation
and oil cooling.

Fig. 3.1.26 Oil Pump Bypass Valve

Oil Pump Bypass Valve
When the oil is cold, the high viscosity causes the bypass valve to
open and drain the oil from the rear section of the pump back into the
oil pan.

BrakeSaver Control

Fig. 3.1.27 BrakeSaver Control

BrakeSaver Control
When the BrakeSaver retarder is in operation, the braking force
available is in direct relation to the amount of oil in the compartment.
The BrakeSaver control valve determines the amount of oil delivered
to the unit.

Fig. 3.1.28 BrakeSaver Operation

BrakeSaver Operation
When the oil is warm, the oil is sent to the BrakeSaver control valve.
If the BrakeSaver control lever is in the OFF position, spring force
holds the valve spool against the cover at the air inlet end of the
control valve. With the valve spool in this position, the valve directs
the warm oil to the oil cooler. From the oil cooler the oil goes back
through the BrakeSaver control valve and returns to the oil pan.

Fig. 3.1.29 BrakeSaver Operation

BrakeSaver Operation
If the BrakeSaver control lever is in the ON position, air pressure
moves the valve spool to the right against the spring force. Engine
oil from the oil pump is sent through the control valve to the
BrakeSaver. After the oil goes through the BrakeSaver, it returns to
the BrakeSaver control valve. The valve then directs the oil to the oil
cooler. From the cooler, the oil again returns to the control valve and
is sent back to the oil pan.

Fig. 3.1.30 BrakeSaver Lubrication

BrakeSaver Lubrication
Lubrication for the BrakeSaver retarder is provided by an outside oil
line from the engine lubrication system. This oil lubricates the piston
ring seals and the lip-type seals under all conditions of BrakeSaver
retarder operation. The drain line returns the oil to the oil pan.

Fig. 3.1.31 BrakeSaver Components

BrakeSaver Components
The BrakeSaver housing is fastened directly to the rear face of the
flywheel housing. The BrakeSaver retarder consists of the housing,
stator and rotor. The rotor is attached to the crankshaft and rotates in
a space between the stator and the housing.

Fig. 3.1.32 BrakeSaver Rotor

BrakeSaver Rotor
The rotor has pockets on the outer circumference of both sides and
four holes to permit equal oil flow to both sides.

Fig. 3.1.33 BrakeSaver Housing

BrakeSaver Housing
The BrakeSaver housing and the stator are fastened to the flywheel
housing and cannot turn. Both the housing and the stator have
pockets on their inside surfaces in alignment with the pockets in the
rotor.

Fig. 3.1.34 BrakeSaver Operation

BrakeSaver Operation
When the BrakeSaver retarder is in operation, engine oil comes into
this compartment from a passage in the bottom of the housing. The
rotor, turning with the crankshaft, throws this oil outward into the
stator and the housing compartment. The pockets or vanes on the
turning rotor, force the oil to flow in the BrakeSaver compartment.

Fig. 3.1.35 BrakeSaver Operation

BrakeSaver Operation
If the area in the stator and housing were smooth, the rotor and oil
would turn inside the compartment with little opposition. However,
both the stator and housing have vanes which are opposite the rotor.
These vanes oppose the flow of the oil in the compartment induced
by the rotor. It is this resistance of the oil flow that creates the
retarding action of the BrakeSaver retarder.
This resistance to the oil flow creates heat in the oil which is removed
by the oil cooler.

ENGINE OIL FUNCTIONS
In the modern diesel engine, engine oil must perform four basic tasks
without having a negative impact on engine performance and
longevity of the engine. These functions of the oil are discussed
here.
Lubrication
The engine oil provides a film of protection between the moving
parts of the engine. This oil film reduces friction, wear, and heat in
the engine. In order to maintain the proper thickness of this oil film
the engine must run at the correct temperature, the engine oil pump
must produce the correct pressure, and the oil must have the correct
viscosity.
Cooling
The combustion that takes place in the engine produces a tremendous
amount of heat, especially on the pistons. The engine oil is the
primary cooling agent for the pistons. Much of the heat is removed
by the oil that is between the cylinder wall and the piston and by
"splash" oil thrown off moving parts. Additionally, many engines
have piston cooling jets that spray oil at the underside of the pistons,
providing a tremendous cooling effect to the pistons. This is a
primary reason that engine oil is required to withstand high
temperatures without losing its properties.
Cleaning
As the engine operates there will be some amount of blowby. There
will also be some amount of foreign debris in the engine from one
source or another. It is the responsibility of the engine oil to carry
the contaminants out of the moving engine components, so that the
contaminants will be cleansed from the system by the engine oil
filter. This is especially important in the engines equipped with the
HEUI fuel system. The HEUI fuel system uses engine oil to operate.
The engine oil helps to keep contaminants from collecting in the
engine.
Sealing
The engine oil creates a film between the piston rings and the
cylinder walls. This film not only lubricates, but also helps to seal
the combustion chamber of the engine off from the crankcase. This
helps to prevent blowby.

OIL DEVELOPMENT AT CATERPILLAR
Lubricating oil used in the first Caterpillar Diesel, introduced in 1931, was straight mineral crankcase
oil. When the engines began experiencing ring sticking and cylinder liner scratching, it became
apparent that a more effective oil was needed. In 1935, the first additive crankcase oil was developed
in a cooperative effort of several U.S. oil companies and Caterpillar.
The performance standards for this and subsequent oil were established by tests performed on a single
cylinder test engine designed and built by Caterpillar specifically for oil testing. This initial crankcase
oil was named "Superior Lubricants for Caterpillar Engines" and was sold only through Caterpillar
Dealers.
The test, run by engine manufacturers, required that the single cylinder test engine be disassembled
after it had run for a designated period of time at a pre-determined load and speed. Pistons were
inspected, and the color change caused by lacquering was observed and recorded. Other critical factors
such as ring wear and deposits were measured. In 1958, Caterpillar established the Series 3
classification.
It wasn’t until 1970, that the API (American Petroleum Institute) recognized the need to revise its
classification system. The API, SAE, and ASTM collaborated in this effort. Their new system was
based on the same type of performance specifications which Caterpillar and others had been using.
Caterpillar was able to drop its classification system in 1972. The new API/SAE system established
CD, CC and other SAE letter designations for oil classifications. These referred to performance levels
in engine tests. A list of all brand name API-rated oils is included in the Engine Manufacturers
Association Lubricating Oils-Data Book, available from your Caterpillar Dealer, Caterpillar form
number SEBU5939.
Caterpillar recommends that you use (SOS) Fluid Sampling, a service offered by most Caterpillar
Dealers. An analysis of your engine oil can show the presence of metal wear particles which can
indicate acid attack or other abnormal wear. Before taking an oil sample, operate the engine until it is
at the normal operating temperature. A sampling valve and adapter is available to take an oil sample
while the engine is running. Fill the new sample bottle approximately 75% full. If a sample is taken
from the oil drain stream do not get the sample from the first part or the last part of the oil drain. Use
caution to prevent burns or injuries caused by the hot oil. Fill out the sample and shipment labels.
Make sure engine serial number, miles on oil, and unit number are indicated.

Lab Exercises:
Using a lab engine, explain lubrication system and components
including oil cooler, oil filter, sump, and location of oil pump.
Install the engine onto a 1U5750 repair stand with 1U5749 adapter.
Using the appropriate 3406 Service Manual as a guide, remove the
oil filter base from the 3406 lab engine and disassemble. Take note
of the oil filter bypass valve.
Remove oil cooler taking note of core and circulation path of oil and
path of coolant.
Remove oil pan and oil pump. Disassemble oil pump taking note of
gears and relief valve. Inspect oil pump using specifications from the
Service Manual.
Install lubrication system components removed in previous
procedures using the Service Manual as a guide.

Unit 4: Cooling Systems

UNIT 4
Cooling Systems

Unit Objectives:
The student will be able to:
1. Identify the components of engine cooling systems and explain
their function.
2. Explain cooling system maintenance and characteristics of diesel
engine coolant.
3. Remove, inspect, and install cooling system components on a
Caterpillar 3406B or 3406C engine.
Unit References:
Cooling System Design Fundamentals
Coolant and Your Engine
A Close Look at Cat Extended Life Coolant
3406B Service Manual
3406C Service Manual
Unit 4 Quiz
Tooling:
8T0461 Serviceman's Tool Set or equivalent
9S8140 Pressurizing Group
5P0957 Battery/Coolant Tester
8T5296 Coolant Test Kit

LEKQ7353
SEBD0970
LEDQ7330
SEBR0544
SEBR0550
Copy

Objectives:
The student will be able to explain the operation of the engine
cooling system and identify related components.
References:
Cooling System Design Fundamentals
Coolant and Your Engine
A Close Look at Cat Extended Life Coolant

LEKQ7353
SEBD0970
LEDQ7330

Introduction:
A diesel engine is dependent on the cooling system to achieve
maximum performance and engine life. Cooling system problems
may include small annoying leaks, fuel economy complaints,
accelerated engine wear, or sudden catastrophic engine failure. If the
flow of coolant in the engine stops for even a short amount of time,
there is a high risk of significant damage to the engine.

Lesson 1: Cooling System Components

Lesson 1: Identify Cooling System Components
and Function

Fig. 4.1.1 Cooling System and Energy Distribution

The cooling of an engine depends on the principles of conduction,
convection, and radiation of heat energy in order to keep the engine
running at the proper operating temperature. The coolant receives the
heat that is conducted to it from the metal components of the engine;
the engine block, the cylinder head, etc. The coolant is then forced
by the water pump from the engine to the radiator. At the radiator the
heat energy is transferred by convection to the air moving across the
fins of the radiator. In addition the engine also radiates a certain
amount of energy to the atmosphere directly in the form of heat that
is given off from the engine to the surrounding air.
The components of a cooling system for an engine are extremely
simplistic. The basic components of every cooling system include:
The water jacket
The water temperature regulator(s) (thermostat(s))
The radiator (or heat exchanger)
The pressure cap
The water pump
Hoses
The engine may also have some type of coolant cooled aftercooler,
oil cooler, hydraulic cooler, or transmission cooler.
Some marine or stationary systems may have a heat exchanger in
place of the radiator.
The pump is what causes the coolant to flow in the cooling system.
Inside the engine are coolant passages that the water flows in. These
passages include what is sometimes called a "water jacket." The
water jacket is the large cavity in the block and the head that
surrounds the cylinders of the engine. This cavity is normally full of
coolant and is what keeps the engine at a uniform temperature.

Fig. 4.1.2 Water Temperature Regulator

The water temperature regulator(s) (thermostat(s)) regulate the flow
of coolant to the radiator. When the engine is cold, the water
temperature regulator is closed and the water coming from the engine
is closed off from the radiator. The water is then recirculated through
the water pump, back into the engine. This helps the engine acheive
operating temperature more quickly. When the engine is warm, the
water temperature regulator allows the coolant to flow to the radiator
to be cooled before reentering the engine. The water temperature
regulator is not strictly fully open or fully closed. The water
temperature regulator modulates between open and closed in order to
keep a constant temperature in the engine. Proper engine temperature
is very important. An engine that runs too cold will not operate at a
high enough temperature to have efficient combustion and will lead
to sludge buildup in the lubrication system of the engine. An engine
that runs too hot will overheat and may lead to serious damage of the
engine.

Fig. 4.1.3 Radiator

The radiator is the component of the cooling system that rejects the
heat from the coolant to the air. A radiator has tubes that the coolant
flows through most generally from the top of the radiator to the
bottom. At the bottom of the radiator there is a hose leading to the
pump to start the circulation over again. The tubes have fins attached
to them that help to reject the heat to the air moving across the
radiator.

Fig. 4.1.4 Pressure Cap

Perhaps the most overlooked component of the cooling system is the
pressure cap. The pressure cap has a relief valve that will not allow
the pressure of the cooling system to exceed a predetermined level.
The pressure cap maintains a certain amount of pressure in the
cooling system. This is very important because, by increasing the
pressure of the cooling system by 1 psi, the boiling point of the
coolant is raised 3.25 degrees F. This allows coolant to run hotter
wihout boiling. A typical cooling system will have anywhere from a
7 psi to a 12 psi pressure cap, so this can have a significant effect on
the cooling of an engine.

Objectives:
Using the appropriate Caterpillar 3404 Service Manual, the student
will demonstrate the ability to correctly remove, inspect, and install
cooling system components.
References:
3406B Service Manual
3406C Service Manual

SEBR0544
SEBR0550

Introduction:
To effectively perform diagnosis, repair, and service on a diesel
engine cooling system, it is necessary to be able to remove, inspect,
and install the related components.

Lesson 2: Remove and Install Cooling System Components

Lesson 2: Remove and Install Cooling System
Components

Unit 4
Lesson 2

4-2-2

Engine Fundamentals

Lab Exercises
Using a lab engine or engine installed in a vehicle, show students
cooling system components and explain their function including
coolant pump, regulator, and radiator. Test radiator cap using 9S8140
Pressurizing Group. Test coolant using 8T5296 Coolant Test Kit.
Using a lab tear-down engine, remove water pump and discuss failure
mode (bad seal, loose, eroded, or cracked impeller).
Remove temperature regulator (thermostat). Point out importance of
the seal around the thermostat and trace flow of the bypass circuit.

Unit 5: Diesel Fuel

UNIT 5
Diesel Fuel Characteristics
Mechanically Controlled Fuel Systems

Unit Objectives:
1. The student will be able to explain the characteristics of diesel
fuel and proper fuel system maintenance procedures for
Caterpillar engines.
2. The student will be able to identify and explain the operation of
the following Caterpillar fuel systems:
new scroll,
sleeve metering, and
mechanical unit injector.
3. The student will be able to remove and install 3406 New Scroll
Fuel System, plunger and barrel group, nozzles, timing advance,
and injection pump and governor group. The student will
demonstrate the ability to test a fuel nozzle.

Unit References:
Diesel Fuels and Your Engine
3406E Operation and Maintenance Manual
Fuel Contamination Control
Caterpillar New Scroll Fuel System Introduction
Using 5P4150 Nozzle Tester Group
Testing 7000 Series Nozzles
3406B Service Manual
3406C Service Manual

SEBD0717
SEBU6758
PEHP7046
CD-ROM
SEHS7292
SEHS9083
SEBR0544
SEBR0550

Unit References: (Continued)
Fuel Nozzle Testing
The Sleeve Metering Fuel System
The Sleeve Metering Fuel System CD-ROM
3116/26 Mechanical Unit Injector Presentation
Unit 5 Quiz
Tooling:
8T0461 Serviceman's Tool Set or equivalent
6V4186 Pin
9S9082 Turning Tool
1P7408 Thermo-hydrometer
5P5195 Fuel Line Wrench
5P0144 Fuel Line Socket
8S2244 Extractor
8T5287 Wrench
5P4150 Nozzle Test Group
6V2170 Tube Assembly
6V2171 Tube Assembly
5P7448 Adapter
8T3139 Spanner Wrench
8T3198 Nozzle Tube
8T3199 Nozzle Screw
6V6983 Adapter
1B4206 Nut
8S2270 Collector Assembly
6V4089 Nozzle Reamer
6V7025 Nozzle Seal Guide
1U9725 Nozzle Adapter Wrench

LEVP9167
LEBQ9802
LERV9802
CD-ROM

Lesson 1: Diesel Fuel

Lesson 1: Diesel Fuel

Objectives:
The student will be able to explain diesel fuel characteristics and
related maintenance.
References:
Diesel Fuels and Your Engine
3406E Operation and Maintenance Manual
Fuel Contamination Control

SEBD0717
SEBU6758
PEHP7046

Introduction:
Diesel fuel is by far the largest expense related to owning and
operating a diesel engine. The characteristics, quality, and handling
of the fuel affect the performance and life of the engine.

Heating Value of Diesel Fuel

HEAT VALUE PER GALLON
IN BTU
1D Diesel

137,000

2D Diesel

141,800

Gasoline
Butane
Propane

125,000
103,000
93,000

Fig. 5.1.1 Heating values of various fuels

The heating value of a fuel is defined as the amount of heat produced
by burning a specific weight of fuel. This is an indicator of how
much available energy is available in a specific amount of fuel. The
chart above shows the heating values for various common fuels. 1D
diesel is winter blended diesel, and 2D diesel is summer blended
diesel. Notice that both blends of diesel fuel have a significantly
higher heating value than any of the other fuels listed. What this
means is that in a given amount of diesel fuel there is more energy
available to be turned into useful work. This is one of the significant
advantages to using diesel power as a source of energy.

Objectives:
The student will be able to explain the operation of the Caterpillar
New Scroll Fuel System.
References:
Caterpillar New Scroll Fuel System Introduction

CD-ROM

Introduction:
The Caterpillar New Scroll Fuel System has been in production since
1980 on the 3300 series engines. When the 3406B was released in
1983, the New Scroll Fuel System was added to help improve
emissions, performance, and fuel economy. Another benefit of the
New Scroll Fuel System is that the individual injection pumps do not
need adjustment or calibration.

Lesson 2: Caterpillar 3406 New Scroll Fuel System

Lesson 2: Caterpillar 3406 New Scroll Fuel
System

This presentation covers the Caterpillar New Scroll Fuel System.

Fig. 5.2.1 Caterpillar 3406B Engine

Caterpillar 3406B Engine
The Caterpillar 3406A was introduced in 1973. Since then, a number
of changes have been made to meet the demand for an even more
reliable and economical product, while meeting governmental
regulations. The 3406B, released in 1983, is an example of these
changes. The major change to this engine was the fuel system. The
New Scroll Fuel System had been in production since 1980 on the
3300 engines. This fuel system is a key factor in the emissions,
performance and fuel economy improvements in the 3406B. In 1991,
the fuel system was changed to incorporate a more aggressive fuel
camshaft to improve emissions. In 1992 the 3406C was introduced.
There were no changes to the mechanical fuel system.

Fig. 5.2.2

Caterpillar 3406 Fuel Injection Pump Groups
In the top view we can see how the 3406A Engine Fuel Injection
Pump had a long drive because there wasn’t room for the pump
housing under the air compressor. In the lower view we see the
3406B/C Fuel Injection Pump. It is shorter, but more massive. The
shorter length of the 3406B/C pump leaves more room for servicing.

Fig. 5.2.3 Injection Pump Camshafts

Injection Pump Camshafts
Many of the changes and improvements were internal, and can’t be
seen. Here we see the fuel injection pump camshafts. The 3406A is
at the top. The 3406B camshaft below it is larger and heavier, and is
driven by a gear on the left end. The 3406B cams have a different
configuration--they have a faster lift and shorter duration, increasing
fuel injection pressures and reducing the time of injection, for greater
fuel efficiency. An eccentric on the camshaft operates the piston-type
fuel transfer pump. With the changes for emissions in 1988, the nose
of the camshaft changed. The 10 degrees helix on the front was
changed to a 15 degrees helix and the hole in the front was enlarged
to accommodate a different timing advance unit. The emission
changes for 1991 was a bearing diameter and lobe shape change only.

Fig. 5.2.4 3406 Fuel Flow

This is a schematic of the 3406B/C engine fuel system. We’ll use the
schematic to follow the flow of fuel from the supply tank to the
injector in the cylinder. The transfer pump (5) pulls fuel from the
fuel tank (1) through the supply shutoff valve (3) through the primary
fuel filter (4) to the fuel transfer pump itself. The transfer pump then
pressurizes the fuel and pushes it though the hand priming pump (7),
into the secondary fuel filter (6) and into the fuel manifold (8) under
moderate pressure. A bypass valve inside the fuel transfer pump
maintains moderate fuel pressure. With moderate fuel pressure inside
the fuel manifold and the void (vacuum) inside the high pressure
pumps, the fuel is loaded into the cavity of the high pressure pump.
The high pressure pumps now meter a small amount of fuel and sends
it though the high pressure fuel lines (9) and through the head adapter
(10) to the injection nozzle (11) at a very high pressure. When the
fuel pressure in the high pressure fuel lines gets above the nozzle
opening pressure the fuel is injected into the combustion chamber.
With both very high pressure and very small holes in the tip of the
nozzle, the fuel is atomized and gives complete combustion in the
cylinder. Any air and some fuel is sent out of the fuel manifold
through the return line (15) back to the supply tank. The tank drain
(2) is used to remove water, sediment and foreign material and to
drain the supply tank. The fuel tank cap (16) must be vented to
atmosphere to keep vacuum from forming inside the fuel tank.

Fig. 5.2.5 3306 Fuel Flow

3306 Fuel Flow
This is a schematic of the 3306B/C engine fuel system. We’ll use the
schematic to follow the flow of fuel from the supply tank to injection
in the cylinder. The transfer pump (6) pulls fuel from the fuel tank
(9) through the supply shut off valve (3) through the primary fuel
filter (4) through the hand priming pump (5) into the transfer pump
itself. The transfer pump then pressurizes the fuel and pushes it
through the secondary fuel filter (7) and to the fuel manifold in the
injection pump housing (8). A bypass valve inside the fuel transfer
pump maintains moderate fuel pressure. With moderate fuel pressure
inside the fuel manifold and the void (vacuum) inside the high
pressure pumps, the fuel is loaded into the cavity of the high pressure
pump. The high pressure pumps now meter a small amount of fuel
and sends it though the external high pressure fuel lines (9) at a very
high pressure to the fuel injection nozzle (10). When the fuel
pressure in the high pressure fuel lines gets above the nozzle opening
pressure the fuel is injected into the combustion chamber. With both
very high pressure and very small holes in the tip of the nozzle, the
fuel is atomized and gives complete combustion in the cylinder. A
constant bleed valve (11) lets a constant flow of fuel go through the
fuel return line (12) back to the fuel tank (1). This helps keep the
fuel cool and free of air. There is also a manual bleed valve that can
be used when the fuel priming pump is used to remove air from the
system. The supply tank drain (2) is used to remove water, sediment,
foreign material and to drain the supply tank. The fuel cap must be
vented to atmosphere to keep a vacuum from forming inside the fuel
tank.

Fig. 5.2.6 Fuel System Components

Fuel System Components
In this view we can see some of the components of the 3406B fuel
injection system on the engine. Visible are the fuel injection pump
housing, the governor housing, the fuel transfer pump and the
external fuel injection lines.

Fig. 5.2.7 3306 Fuel System Components

3306 Fuel System Components
In this view we can see some of the components of the 3306B/C fuel
injection system on the engine. Visible are the fuel injection pump
housing, the governor housing, the fuel transfer pump, fuel injection
lines, the fuel filter and base and the fuel priming pump.

Fig. 5.2.8 Fuel Transfer Pump

Fuel Transfer Pump
The fuel transfer pump is located on the bottom of the 3406B/C pump
housing and on the side of the 3304B or 3306B/C pump housing. It
is activated by the eccentric on the fuel pump camshaft inside the
housing and can deliver up to 51 gallons of fuel per hour at 25 psi.
This is a spring pumping piston type pump where actual fuel pressure
on the engine may vary from 20-45 psi depending on engine
operating conditions. The pump only supplies what the engine
requires, plus the amount returned to tank. (About 9 gallons per
hour). It is a single piston, single action pump with three one-way
check valves. The check valves are: inlet, pumping and outlet. This
drawing shows that pumping and fill occur on the same pump stroke.
Here, the tappet is almost completely extended and the return spring
has forced the piston to the top of the pump. This upward motion of
the piston opens the inlet check valve and fuel enters the inlet cavity
(green). The pumping check valve at the top of the piston is closed
and the piston pushes fuel into the outlet cavity (red). This
pressurized fuel opens the outlet check valve at the outlet port. There
is no pressure relief valve in this pump because fuel outlet pressure is
controlled by the force of the piston spring.

Fig. 5.2.9 3406 Injection Pump

3406 Injection Pump
The area shown in red is the fuel gallery of the 3406B/C fuel pump.
This area is pressurized by the fuel transfer pump. The cutaway
shows the placement of the pump groups within the pump housing.
Fuel enters and leaves the pump group by way of the hardened
hollow dowel. This dowel is in the housing to protect it from erosion
caused by the high pressure spill pulses.

Fig. 5.2.10 3306 Injection Pump

3306 Injection Pump
This is a cutaway of a similar area of the 3306B/C fuel pump. Notice
the similarity of the two different pumps.

Fig. 5.2.11 3406 Fuel Rack

3406 Fuel Rack
The area shown in the slide is a cutaway of the engine side of the
3406B/C fuel pump housing. This cutaway shows a complete pump
in the center and a cutaway pump on the right. We can see the
relationship of the pump groups and the rack as the gear segment
engages the rack. Also note the lifters and return springs.

Fig. 5.2.12 Fuel Metering

Fuel Metering
We’ll use a cutaway pump to see how fuel is metered and delivered
to the fuel injection nozzles. This is a scroll type fuel system with a
left-hand cut scroll on the pump plunger. The gear on the bottom of
the plunger is engaged into the rack. Rack movement rotates the
plunger in the pump barrel and changes the relationship of the scroll
to the spill port (arrow). The camshaft/follower/lifter mechanism
moves the plunger up and down in the barrel. In this position, the
plunger is at the bottom of its stroke. Fuel is coming into the barrel
through the spill port in the back side of the barrel and through the
fill port.

Fig. 5.2.13 Fuel Delivery

Fuel Delivery
Now, the cam has lifted the plunger so the fill port and spill port are
just closed. This is the start of the effective stroke of the plunger and
the beginning of injection. As the fuel in the barrel is pressurized, the
reverse flow check valve is lifted off its seat in the pump bonnet.
This sends pressurized fuel through the fuel lines to the injection
nozzle. Injection continues until the end of the effective stroke, when
the scroll in the plunger lines up with the spill port in the barrel.

Fig. 5.2.14 End of Fuel Delivery

End of Fuel Delivery
At the end of the effective stroke, the spill port is opened by the
scroll, fuel pressure is released and the reverse flow check valve
closes. During the entire pumping cycle the groove on the plunger is
positioned over the bleed back passage.

Fig. 5.2.15 Bleed Passage

Bleed Passage
When the groove in the plunger is in this position, it is aligned with
the pressure bleed back passage in the barrel. This bleeds of fuel
that goes between the barrel and the plunger and prevents fuel
dilution in the engine oil.

Fig. 5.2.16 Reverse Flow Check Valve

Reverse Flow Check Valve
The reverse flow check valve keeps the fuel injection line full of fuel
between injection strokes. Pressurized fuel (approximately 1000 psi)
is kept in the injection line, ready for the next pump stroke. When
the engine and injection pump are stopped, the groove (arrow) bleeds
the pressure in the injection line to equalize with the residual pressure
in the pump.

Fig. 5.2.17 Reverse Flow Check Valve Operation

Reverse Flow Check Valve Operation
When fuel pressure in the barrel above the plunger reaches 100 psi,
the valve is lifted off its seat and fuel flows out the cavity through the
bonnet to the injection line. The check valve spring keeps the valve
seated when fuel is at transfer pump pressure. This means that fuel
can enter the injections lines only during the injection stroke, helping
to eliminate cylinder wash down if an injection nozzle is stuck open.

Fig. 5.2.18 Reverse Flow Check Valve

Reverse Flow Check Valve
Pressurization continues until the scroll opens the spill port and the
pressure in the pump barrel is released. This seats the check valve,
but the pressurized fuel in the injection line opens the return flow
check valve. Fuel will return to the pump barrel and flow out the
spill port until pressure in the injection line drops to 1000 psi. At that
point, the return flow check valve spring will seat the valve. When
the engine is shut off, a small groove in the face of the check valve
allows the 1000 psi pressure to bleed off.

Fig. 5.2.19 3406 Fuel Manifold Cover

3406 Fuel Manifold Cover
The high pressure fuel that exits through the spill ports goes through
the hollow dowel into the fuel manifold and hits the cover plate.
These highly pressurized fuel pressure pulses cause polish spots that
are lined up with the spill ports on the manifold cover plate of the
3406B/C fuel system.

Fig. 5.2.20 3306 Fuel Manifold Cover

3306 Fuel Manifold Cover
On the 3300 series engines, a spring steel pulse deflector is provided
in the fuel manifold. This protects the aluminum manifold cover
from the force of the released fuel pressure pulses.

Fig. 5.2.21 Governor Operation

Governor Operation
At the point the rack screw (green) first comes in full contact with the
torque spring, the rack is at full load point (rated). As demand
horsepower increased, with the rack at rated position, the engine
speed decreases as the engine goes into lug (full throttle with rpm less
than rated rpm). Depending upon the rigidity of the torque spring, at
some point, the governor spring causes the rack screw to begin to
depress the torque spring. As this occurs, the rack position increases
allowing more fuel to be injected per stroke. This increase in rack
position continues until the torque screw (violet) contacts the stop lar.
This is the full torque position of the rack.

Fig. 5.2.22 Governor Operation

Governor Operation
The flyweights swing out as rpm increases. This moves the riser to
compress the governor spring and the pivoting lever moves the sleeve
and spool toward the "fuel off" direction.

Fig. 5.2.23 Valve Spool - "Fuel Off"

Valve Spool - "Fuel Off"
As the valve spool moves in the direction shown, a passage in the
piston opens and allows pressurized oil to enter the chamber behind
the piston. At the same time, the spool closes the passage behind this
chamber. The pressurized oil forces the piston and rack toward the
"fuel off" position. With no load on the engine, the rack will move
until the low idle setting is reached. This setting is determined by the
amount of force put on the governor spring by the throttle resting
against the low idle stop screw.

Fig. 5.2.24 Governor Operation

Governor Operation
If the engine were to slow down, the flyweights would swing in
which would move the riser away from the governor spring and the
pivoting lever moves the sleeve and spool toward the "fuel on"
direction.

Fig. 5.2.25 Valve Spool - "Fuel On"

Valve Spool - "Fuel On"This spool movement blocks the passage in
the piston and opens the drain passage behind the chamber. Now
pressurized oil forces the piston and the rack in the direction shown
(fuel on) so fuel delivery is increased until the desired rpm is
obtained. The back and forth movement of the rack in the "fuel off"
direction and in the "fuel on" direction will continue until there is a
balance between the governor spring force and the flyweight force.

Fig. 5.2.26 Valve Spool - Stabilized Fuel Position

Valve Spool - Stabilized Fuel Position
This drawing shows the balance point of the servo spool and piston.
When flyweight force equals governor spring force, the valve spool
blocks the oil in the chamber behind the piston. Rack position does
not change and engine rpm is constant.

Fig. 5.2.27 Fuel Ratio Control Function

Fuel Ratio Control Function
The fuel ratio control mounts on the rear of the governor housing. Its
purpose is to limit smoke and improve fuel economy during rapid
acceleration. It does this by controlling rack movement in the fuel
ON direction until there is enough (boost pressure) to allow complete
combustion in the cylinders. With the fuel ratio control properly
adjusted, it also minimizes the amount of soot in the engine.

Fig. 5.2.28 Fuel Ratio Control Operation

Fuel Ratio Control Operation
A stem extends out of the fuel ratio control. This stem fits in a notch
in a lever which contacts the end of the rack in the servo valve. Air
inlet pressure (boost) is sensed by a diaphragm in the control. This
diaphragm pushes against a spring and spool. The spool movement
controls the oil flow which moves a piston connected to the stem.
The stem is out of the way during startup, so full rack is available on
all mechanical 3406s. The same is true of 3300s, but beginning with
the 1994 3306C truck engine, the stem is partially retracted during
startup, but does not go to full retraction until the engine develops oil
pressure.

Fig. 5.2.29 Fuel Ratio Control Operation

Fuel Ratio Control Operation
When boost is low, the stem is in the set (cocked) position and the
lever limits rack movement in the fuel ON direction. As boost
pressure increases, The stem extends and moves away from the lever
and the rack can move to the left allowing more fuel to be supplied
by the injection pumps. When manifold pressures of approximately
one-half rated boost or above is reached, full fuel rack travel is
available. Thus. anytime there is sufficient boost, the stem of the fuel
ratio control is extended and does not control or affect the movement
of the rack. This permits smooth, rapid acceleration but at a rate that
allows complete combustion and low emissions.

Fig. 5.2.30 Fuel Shutoff Solenoid

Fuel Shutoff Solenoid
A fuel shutoff solenoid is located on the rear of the governor. There
are two types. One is energized to run, the other is energized to shut
down. The one shown is an energized to run solenoid. When the
engine’s electrical system is energized (key on), the solenoid is
activated and it releases linkage to allow rack movement in any
direction (fuel on - fuel off). When the electrical system is shut off
(key off), the solenoid is deactivated and movement of the rack is
prevented in the fuel ON direction, causing the engine to shut down.
A diode is connected between the two terminals of the solenoid. The
diode eliminates electric spikes (high voltage generated by the coil of
the solenoid when it is de-energized) that might damage other
electronic circuitry in the vehicle electrical system.

Objectives:
The student will demonstrate the ability to correctly remove and
install 3406 fuel system components and test a nozzle.
References:
3406B Service Manual
SEBR0544
3406C Service Manual
SEBR0550
Test Sequence for Caterpillar 7000 Series Fuel Nozzles SEHS9083
Fuel Nozzle Testing
LEVN9167
Introduction:
The Caterpillar 3406 fuel system normally requires very little
adjustment during the life of the engine. Normal maintenance may
require replacement of components such as filters, nozzles, and
transfer pump. Fuel system repairs may involve removal of plunger
and barrel groups from the fuel injection pump, repair of the timing
advance, or removal of the complete fuel system from the engine.

Lesson 3: Remove, Inspect and Install Fuel System Components

Lesson 3: Remove, Inspect and Install Fuel
System Components

Lesson 4: Sleeve Metering Fuel System

Lesson 4: Sleeve Metering Fuel System

Objectives:
The student will be able to explain how the Sleeve Metering Fuel
System operates.
References:
The Sleeve Metering Fuel System
3208 Sleeve Metering Fuel System CD-ROM
Diesel Fundamentals and Service - Thiessen, Dales

LEBQ9802
LERV9802
Textbook

Introduction:
The Caterpillar Sleeve Metering Fuel System was most recently used
on the 3208 engine. The 3208 was a popular mid-range on-highway
truck engine until 1991 and saw continued use in marine and
industrial applications for many more years.

Objectives:
The student will be able to explain how the Mechanical Unit Injector
Fuel System works.
Lesson 5 References:
3116/26 Mechanical Unit Injector Presentation

CD-ROM

Introduction:
The Mechanical Unit Injector fuel system provides improvements in
performance and emissions when compared to some pump and line
fuel systems. Caterpillar has used the Mechanical Unit Injector in
small engines such as the 3116/3126 and large engines such as the
3500 and 3600 series.
Tooling: None

Lesson 5: 3116/26 Mechanical Unit Injector Fuel System

Lesson 5: 3116/26 Mechanical Unit Injector
Fuel System

Introduction:
This presentation covers the Mechanical Unit Injector Fuel System
used in the Caterpillar 3116/26 engine.

Fig. 5.5.1 1.1/1/2 Liter Engine Fuel Flow

1.1/1.2 Liter Engine Fuel Flow
The 1.1 liter engine fuel system utilizes a mechanical unit injector
combining both the nozzle assembly and the high pressure fuel
injection pump. The fuel transfer pump) pulls fuel from the fuel tank
through an in-line primary filter and sends fuel to a spin-on type
secondary fuel filter. From the fuel filter, fuel enters a drilled passage
at the rear of the cylinder head. The drilled passage carries fuel to a
gallery around each unit injector and provides a continuous flow of
fuel to all of the unit injectors. Unused fuel exits the cylinder head,
passes through a 1.3 mm (.050 in.) pressure regulating orifice and a
check valve and returns to the fuel tank. This system is very compact
and eliminates external high pressure fuel lines. Additionally, this
system allows very high injection pressures and short injection times
to aid exhaust emission control.

Fig. 5.5.2 Unit Injector

Unit Injector
The fuel injection system for this engine is a mechanical unit injector
type. The fuel injection pump and nozzle are combined in one
injector assembly for each cylinder. All high pressure lines are
eliminated. Fuel lines consist of supply lines to and from the cylinder
head, fuel filter and fuel transfer pump. Fuel is supplied to each
injector by an internal passage running the full length of the head.
Each unit injector has its own fuel rack, controlled by the governor
with a control shaft which actuates all of the unit injectors
simultaneously.

Fig. 5.5.3 Unit Injector Cut-away

Unit Injector Cut-away
The large extension on the side of the injector is the hold-down
clamp. Shown at the bottom of the injector cut-away is the rack. Its
movement controls the rotation of the helix on the scroll of the
plunger, thus determining the volume of fuel to be injected into the
cylinder. The unit injector consists of a scroll-type high pressure
plunger and injector nozzle. Effective stroke of the plunger, during
which high pressure fuel is injected, is controlled by the scroll
position which is actuated by the governor and rack.

This system is basically like other Caterpillar scroll type fuel systems
except the high pressure pumps are separated and individually
positioned above each combustion chamber thereby eliminating the
need for high pressure fuel lines. Total plunger stroke is always the
same and determined by the cam lobe lift and rocker arm motion.
The effective stroke, however, is determined by the scroll position.
The plunger rotates about its vertical axis to move the scroll, hence
lengthening or reducing the effective stroke. During the time both
ports are covered, fuel is injected. Fuel pressure forces the check
valve off its seat for injection, and once pressure drops, a spring
closes the check valve. Fuel surrounds the injector from the top oring to the raised sealing ring at the base of the nozzle cone.

Fig. 5.5.4 Injector Linkage

Injector Linkage
The injector racks are actuated by a control shaft that is bolted to the
top of the cylinder head. The governor actuates the control shaft
which simultaneously moves all the injector racks to regulate fuel
delivery. The power setting screw is also located on the control shaft.
Note the synchronizing screws on the control shaft linkages at each
injector location except No. 1.

Fig. 5.5.5 Governor

Governor
The governor is mounted high on the left side on the front housing of
the engine. It is driven by the cam gear in the front gear train. The
governor regulates fuel delivery through a linkage to the control shaft
which moves all of the injector racks simultaneously.
The governor is a full range, flyweight type, with a floating fulcrum
linkage. Additionally, a speed sensitive torque cam provides torque
curve shaping.
The fuel transfer pump is located in the forward portion of the
governor housing.
Power is set at the rack control shaft linkage under the valve cover
using a dial position indicator. Governor adjustments are set on a
dynamic bench test machine. The governor is also sealed after bench
setting and is not to be adjusted except on the governor bench.

Fig. 5.5.6 Injector Sychronization

Injector Sychronization
The injectors can be synchronized with the rocker arm assemblies in
place such as when the valve setting and fuel injector timing is
adjusted during preventive maintenance.

Fig. 5.5.7 Injector Sychronization

Injector Sychronization
Injector synchronization is much easier with the rocker arms
removed. Injector synchronization must be performed whenever the
control linkage has been loosened or an injector is removed. Only
the injector that was removed must be synchronized unless the
injector removed was the No. 1 injector. In that case, all injectors
must be synchronized since the No. 1 injector is used as a reference
during the setting procedure. The valve clearance and fuel timing
should be checked after installing the rocker arm assemblies.

Unit 7: Electronically Controlled Fuel Systems

UNIT 7
Electronically Controlled Fuel Systems

Unit Objectives:
The student will be able to identify the following Caterpillar
electronically controlled fuel systems:
Programmable Electronic Engine Control (PEEC)
Electronic Unit Injector (EUI)
Hydraulic Electronic Unit Injector (HEUI)
The student will remove and install the following components on a
3406E engine using the proper tooling and reference literature:
camshaft
injector
injector sleeve
Unit References:
Caterpillar EUI Fuel System CD-ROM
Cat 3406E Operation and Maintenance Video
Caterpillar 3126B Engine CD-ROM
3406E Service Manual
3406E Service Manual
Unit 7 Quiz
Tooling:
8T0461 Serviceman's Tool Set or equivalent
9U7530 Service Tools for 3406E

RENR1391
LEVP3828
RENR1390
RENR1275
SENR5580
Copy

Objectives:
The student will be able to explain the operation of the
Programmable Electronic Engine Control (PEEC), Electronic Unit
Injector (EUI), and Hydraulic Electronic Unit Injector (HEUI) fuel
systems.
References:
Caterpillar EUI Fuel System CD-ROM
Cat 3406E Operation and Maintenance Video
Caterpillar 3126B Engine CD-ROM

RENR1391
LEVN3828
RENR1390

Introduction:
In 1987, Caterpillar introduced the Programmable Electronic Engine
Control (PEEC) fuel system on the 3406 on-highway truck engine to
allow these engines to meet exhaust emission regulations. The
PEEC fuel system retained the mechanical fuel injection portion of
the fuel system but added electronic components for governor and
timing control.
In an on-going effort to provide optimum performance and fuel
economy while meeting emission regulations, Caterpillar has applied
the Electronic Unit Injector fuel system to the following engines:
3176 (Introduced in 1988)
3406E and 3176B (Introduced in 1993)
C-10 (3176C) (Introduced in 1995)
C-12 (3196) (Introduced in 1995)
3500B (Introduced in 1995)

Lesson 1: Review Caterpillar Elecctronic Systems

Lesson 1: Review Caterpillar Electronic
Systems

The Hydraulic Electronic Unit Injector (HEUI) fuel system was
introduced in the 3126 Caterpillar engine in 1995, and later into the
3408, and 3412 Caterpillar engines to provide even more flexibility
in controlling fuel delivery.