HIGH K METAL SOLUTION

PRAVEESH.A S7 AE&I ROLL NO

Why is this important?
• These steps are necessary if transistors are to continue shrinking and delivering better performance, while containing power consumption • These steps will enable the continuation of Moore’s Law, ultimately leading to vast, lower cost computing power and enabling applications that cannot even be imagined

MOSFET OVERVIEW
NMOS ( Arsenic , Phosphorous) PMOS (Boron)

Fundamental component of all logic chips

N MOS - working

What is High k?
• “k”, - dielectric constant of a material – the ability to concentrate electric fields. • SiO2 replacement • This material should be thicker (to reduce
leakage) but should have a high “k” value

the material had to be physically thick but electrically thin

Objective in transistor design
• • • • Make them smaller, faster, cheaper and Less power--hungry

MOORE’S LAW
(Intel co-founder Gordon Moore)
THE NUMBER OF TRANSISTORS ON A CHIP DOUBLE EVERY 2 YEARS
4004 (1971) – over 2000 transistors Intel Quad Core – 800 million transistors

SCALING
• Reduction in size (increase in density)

•W=width of the channel •L=channel length •µ=channel carrier mobility •Cox=capacitance density associated with gate dielectric when the underlying channel is in the inverted state •Vg=gate voltage •Vd=drain voltage •Vt=threshold voltage

Why Scaling
1977 Minimum Feature Size (µm) Gate length(µm) Channel Length (µm) Gate Oxide(Å) Junction Depth (µm) Vcc (V) NMOS Idsat @Vg=5 V(mA/µm) PMOSmIdsat @Vg=5 V(mA/µm) Gate Delay@FO =1ps 800 3 3 2 500 0.6 5 0.1 1979 2 2 1.5 400 0.4 5 0.14 1982 1.5 1.5 1.2 250 0.3 5 0.23 1985 1 1.1 0.9 250 0.25 5 0.27 1988 0.7 0.9 0.7 200 0.2 5 0.36 1991 0.5 0.6 0.4 135 0.15 5 0.64

0.06

0.11

0.14

0.19

0.31

350

250

200

160

90

SCALING LIMITS AND NEED FOR ALTERNATE GATE DIELECTRICS
Increased leakage current Ultra thin SiO2 films Penetration of Boron Reliability issues

ROLE OF HIGH-k
• the capacitance at the MOS junction

ADVANTAGES OF HIGH-k
• Allows greater physical thickness of oxide layer. • Improves gate capacitance • Reduces leakage, along with present drive current level • Overcomes the problems of reliability, boron diffusion etc

MATERIAL CONSIDERATIONS
Some of the key guidelines are briefed here. They include • Permittivity and barrier height • Thermodynamic Stability • Interface Quality • Film Morphology • Process compatibility • Reliability

HIGH-K DIELECTRIC CANDIDATES
MATERIAL DIELECTRIC CONSTANT(K)

SiO2 Si3N4 Al2O3 Y2O3 La2O3 Ta2O5 HfO2 TiO2 ZrO2

3.9 7 9 15 30 26 25 80 25

NEW CHALLENGES ASSOCIATED WITH HIGH K SOLUTION
• Method of deposition • Availability of precursors • Phonon Scattering & low charge-carrier mobility

NEW CHALLENGES ASSOCIATED WITH HIGH K SOLUTION
(a)Method of deposition Chemical Vapour Phase deposition Or Atomic Layer Deposition

NEW CHALLENGES ASSOCIATED WITH HIGH K SOLUTION
(b) Availability of precursors Precursor must be • Volatile • High Vapour pressure • Thermal Stability • High Absorption • Highly reactive

NEW CHALLENGES ASSOCIATED WITH HIGH K SOLUTION
(C) Phonon Scattering & low charge-carrier mobility

• the interaction between the polysilicon gate electrode and the new high-k dielectrics.
Solution :- Use Metal gate instead of Polysilicon

NEW CHALLENGES ASSOCIATED WITH HIGH K METAL SOLUTION
• Finding a metal that could be used for the gate electrode that would combine well with the new high-k dielectric work function similar to polysilicon‘s • Adopting new fabrication method

new fabrication method
• The normal fabrication method is known as “gate first.” - Dopants for the source and drain are implanted into the silicon on either side of the gate. - the silicon is annealed to repair the damage from the implantation process • transistor process sequence, dubbed “gate last” was adopted finally

PROBLEM SOLVED

Result
• 20 percent improvement in transistor switching speed, and • Reduction in transistor gate leakage by over

10 fold. • Intel processors based on High K Metal solution are about to hit the market.

High K Metal in Microprocessor

THANK YOU

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