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1.

0)

Objectives

To check the uniformity of concrete


To determine the properties of the surface of the concrete
To estimate strength of concrete in structures

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Equipment and materials

Equipment
Rebound hammer type N

Figure 1.0 Rebound hammer type N

Material
Close textured concrete (Beam, slab and column)

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Procedure
a. Method of testing

i.

A rebound hammer is selected appropriately to the type of concrete tested. It is


checked before used to make sure it is working correctly and its reading on the steel

ii.

reference anvil.
A suitable test locations (horizontal, upwards and downwards direction) is chose.

iii.
iv.

Only smooth surfaces should be tested.


The readings of a test to an area not exceeding 300 mm x 300 mm is confined.
A regular grid of lines is drawn 30 mm apart to take the intersections of the lines as

v.

test points.
Twelve readings are obtained at a location.

b. Procedure of using rebound hammer


i.

The hammer is pressed against concrete. Plunger retracts against spring and the

ii.

hammer is ready to be used.


The hammer is pressed to the test location until the mass hammer impact against the

iii.
iv.

surface through the plunger.


Hammer should be operated perpendicular to the surface horizontally.
The button is pressed at the side of hammer and the amount of rebound of the mass, R

v.

is read from the indicator.


The compressive strength is referred to the calibration curve on the standard steel

vi.

anvil.
The compressive strength is estimated.

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Discussion

Rebound hammer test is done to find out the compressive strength of concrete by using a
rebound hammer. The underlying principle of the rebound hammer test is the rebound of an
elastic mass depends on the hardness of the surface against which its mass strikes. When the
plunger of the rebound hammer is pressed against the surface of the concrete, the pringcontrolled mass rebounds and the extent of such a rebound depends upon the surface hardness
of the concrete. The surface hardness and therefore the rebound are taken to be related to the
compressive strength of the concrete. The rebound value is read from a graduated scale and is
designated as the rebound number or rebound index. The compressive strength can be read
directly from the graph provided on the body of the hammer.
During the experiment, the systematic error occurred because of the rebound hammer. This is
due to the rebound hammer was not functioning well while we were using it against the wall.
Reading of the results was taken directly from the rebound hammer and graphs were obtained
from it as well. From the table, the result shows 12 times of hits by the rebound hammer
towards the concrete and the values are vary every knock at each location. The all 12 value
will be calculated to get the mean and as well as to get the estimation compressive strength of
concrete in structure. This test shows that every location has different compressive strength.
In comparison to the theoretical values, the experimental are slightly different. For the first
location with mean of 38 and angle of -90, our compressive strength is 42.0 MPa whereas
theoretically the value is 37MPa. Next location with mean of 32 and angle 0, the compressive
strength is 26.5MPa whereas in theory the value is 26.9 MPa. Moving on to our third location
which is flat surfaced concrete with mean of 32 and angle of 90, compressive strength is
19.8MPa whereas in theory the value is 26.9MPa. Forth location with mean of 38 and angle
of -45, the compressive strength is 40 MPa whereas theory is 37MPa. Last but not least, with
mean of 31 and angle of 45, the compressive strength is 21MPa whereas in theory the value is
25.2 MPa. These values are different due to the angle that we took in this experiment.
Another factor would be error on the rebound hammer as it needs to be calibrated frequently.

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Data analysis

Test
Ref.

Test location

Concrete

36.0
39.5
35.0
39.5

Recorded value
31.5
40.5
36.0
42.5

Mean, R
=

36.0+ 31.5+ 34.5+39.5+40.5+39.5+ 35.0+36.0+43.5+39.5+ 42.5+34.5


12

= 38

Compressive strength is obtained from the graph on the rebound hammer.

34.5
39.5
43.5
34.5

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Conclusion

We were able to carry out surface hardness testing by rebound hammer. Rebound hammer is
used to measure the elastic properties or strength of concrete or rock, mainly surface hardness
and penetration resistance. Based on the table above, every concrete has different surfaces so,
from this test, we can conclude that uniformity of concrete is none. According to the
compressive graph, compressive strength for each location is obtained by on the mean, R and
angle.