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1.

INTRODUCTION
Water turbines are widely used throughout the world to generate power. In the type of

water turbine referred to as a Pelton wheel, one or more water jets are directed tangentially on
to vanes or buckets that are fastened to the rim of the turbine disc. The impact of the water on
the vanes generates a torque on the wheel, causing it to rotate and to develop power. Although
the concept is essentially simple, such turbines can generate considerable output at high
efficiency. Powers in excess of 100 MW, and hydraulic efficiencies greater than 95%, are not
uncommon. It may be noted that the Pelton wheel is best suited to conditions where the
available head of water is great, and the flow rate is comparatively small. For example, with a
head of 100 m and a flow rate of 1 m3 /s, a Pelton wheel running at some 250 rev/min could
be used to develop about 900 kW. The same water power would be available if the head were
only 10 m and the flow were 10m3 /s, but a different type of turbine would then be needed.
To predict the output of a Pelton wheel, and to determine its optimum rotational
speed, we need to understand how the deflection of the jet generates a force on the buckets,
and how the force is related to the rate of momentum flow in the jet. In this experiment, we
measure the force generated by a jet of water striking a flat plate or a hemispherical cup, and
compare the results with the computed momentum flow rate in the jet.

2.0

OBJECTIVES
1.

To determine the reaction force produced by the impact of jet of water

2.

on to variety type of target vanes.


To experimentally determine the force required to keep a tar get at a

3.

datum level while it is subjected to the impact of water jet.


The experimentally measured force is compare with the theoreti cal
calculated force.

3.0

THEORY

The momentum equation based on Newtons 2nd law of motion states that the algebraic sum
of external forces applied to control volume of fluid in any direction equal to the rate of
change of momentum in that direction.
The external forces include the component of the weight of the fluid and of the forces exerted
externally upon the boundary surface of control volume.
If a vertical water jet moving with velocity V made to strike a target (Vane) which is free, to
move in vertical direction, force will be exerted on the target by the impact of jet.

Applying momentum equation in z- direction, force exerted by the jet on the vane, Fz is given
by
F = Q (Vz out - Vz in)
For flat plate, Vz out = 0
Fz = Q (0-v)
FZ = Qv
For hemispherical curved plate, Vz out= -v, Vz in= v
Fz = Q [v+ (-v)]
FZ = 2 Qv
Where Q= Discharge from the nozzle (Calculated by volumetric method)
V= Velocity of jet = (Q/A)

Experimental setup:

The set up primarily consists of a nozzle through which jet emerges vertically in such a way
that it may be conveniently observed through the transparent cylinder. It strikes the target
plate or disc positioned above it. An arrangement is made for the movement of the plate
under the action of the jet and also because of the weight placed on the loading pan. A scale is
provided to carry the plate to its original position i.e. as before the jet strikes the plate. A
collecting tank is utilised to find the actual discharge and velocity through nozzle.

Fig No. 1 Impact of Jet

4.0

EQUIPMENT

1) Hydraulic bench
2) Jet impact apparatus
3) Stopwatch
4) Vernier calliper

Given:

Diameter of nozzle

= 10 mm

Gravity acceleration, g = 9.81 ms 2

From analysis, slope of the graph as in theory is given by:

Flat plate = gA
3
120 curved plate = 2gA

2
Hemispherical cup = gA

Figure 4.1 : Equipments used

Figure 4.2 : Jet impact

apparatus

The experimental apparatus consists of a hydraulic bench, jet impact apparatus,


stopwatch and vernier calliper. Hydraulic bench provides water supply and how to measure
the flow rate. In water operations in the hydraulic bench producing vertical of the nozzle and
target ram effect. The pump draws water from the collection tank and provides sufficient head
for the water flow through the nozzle and the flow meter. The jet of water from the nozzle
impinges on the impact surface. The balance beam attached to impact surface allows
measurement of the force necessary to deflect the water jet.

5.0

PROCEDURE
1. First of all, the upper
transparent

plate

and

removable

cylinder.

Then, the nozzle diameter

is measured. Put the flat

plate to the lever carrying

the jockey weight.


2. The top plate and a cylinder attached to the apparatus. Connect the supply pipe from
the bench for hydraulic inlet pipe apparatus.

Figure 5.1 : Arrangement of apparatus


3. The first apparatus equalised and lever set to a balanced position (as shown by the
tally supported thereof) with jockey weight is placed on the zero position, and then
adjusted knurled nut above the spring.

Figure 5.2 : Jockey weight restrained by a light spring


4. Any force that has been generated by the ram jet effect are measured by moving the
weight along the lever up jockey tally showing that it has been restored to its original
position is balanced.

5. Nominal weight was place on the lever first (it is suggested that the initial weight and
weight gain = 20g). Water will then be inserted through the bench supply valve.

6. The force on the ram which would replace lever, then returned to the balanced
position by the sliding weight along the lever jockey. There, at the base bench
hydraulic opening closed.

Figure 5.3: Move the jockey weight along the lever


7. The volume of water and time should be recorded to determine the flow rate. Weight
on the lever, also recorded.

Figure 5.4: Determining flow rate


8. This procedure will then be repeated with step 1 to 7 for 120o curved plate and
hemispherical cup.

6.0

RESULT AND CALCULATIONS

1. Record the readings in the table below.


a) Flat plate
Mass of jockey weight
m (g)

Volume of water
V (l)

Time t (s)

Flow rate Q
(l/s)

Q2

20

42.30

0.12

0.014

40

23.70

0.21

0.044

60

20.10

0.25

0.063

80

16.60

0.30

0.090

Mass of jockey weight


m (g)

Volume of water
V (l)

Time t (s)

Flow rate Q
(l/s)

Q2

20

50.18

0.10

0.010

40

30.42

0.16

0.026

60

23.48

0.21

0.044

80

19.85

0.25

0.062

Mass of jockey weight


m (g)

Volume of water
V (l)

Time t (s)

Flow rate Q
(l/s)

Q2

20

54.90

0.091

0.008

b) 1200 curved plate

c) Hemispherical cup

40

33.30

0.150

0.023

60

27.72

0.180

0.032

80

21.66

0.231

0.053

2. Plot the graph of mass of jockey weight m versus Q2 for flat plate, 120o inclined plate and
hemispherical cup and find the slope of the graphs.

7.0

DISCUSSIONS

1) Besides that, weight of load also effects to the result because if the weight of load is
high, the distance between of nozzle and conical plate will be near and the rate
of water flow hence will be high. Readjustments were not properly made for the
datum each time weight is added to the device, hence increasing errors to the data.
2) Based on the results, our measured slope value of all plates are larger than the
theoretical slope value. These may be affected by the gradient of the graph. As it is
apparent from the result of this experiment, the velocity and the reaction forces are
proportional in their amounts. The theoretical calculated slope was smaller compared
to the experimental measured slope for all targets.
3) The theoretical calculated slope shows that the 120 degree, hemispherical, target has
the lowest flow rate. However, the experimental measured slope shows that the 90
degree target has the lowest flow rate. The results display inconsistencies which
indicate errors incurred during the procedure. It is also apparent that the errors were
the largest for the 90 degree target.
4) The experimental values were different from the theoretical values since theoretical
values were applied from the formula given. So we conclude that there were errors in
our experiment.
Errors found and may be affected on the results in the experiment due to many
reasons listed below:

1) Zero error: If the setup reading isnt zero at zero load.


2) Human error: if the experimenter read the output and calculate
incorrectly.

It is recommended to make sure that there is no zero error.


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CONCLUSION

In conclusion, the calculated theoretical force is correlated with the experimental


measured force. Both forces have a directly proportional relation. Theoretically, both forces
should be equal. However, this is not the case due to errors incurred during the experiment. It
can be determined from this experiment that higher water jet velocity will produce a higher
force exerted onto the target vane. The amount of weight required to achieve a state of
equilibrium is directly proportional to the amount of force exerted by the jet.
According to the results, the theoretical calculated slope shows that the 120 degree,
hemispherical target has the lowest flow rate. However, the experimental measured slope
shows that the 90 degree target has the lowest flow rate. These inconsistencies infer that
errors were accumulated during the procedure. Most likely, the errors occurred during the
recording of the time taken to collect the desired volume. We believe that this experiment
could possibly be improved by choosing a higher collection volume. We also believe that this
would allow for less error when recording the time to collect that volume because it would
lengthen the time.
We can conclude, from this experiment we know the criticism of get are producing
from single stream water that come out from narrow a muzzle and the size is fixed. This get
will hit are surface that could be obtained m various forms like flat plate, 120 degrees
inclined plate and hemispherical cup. And from this experiment, the results show that when
the mass of the jockey increase, the value of flow rate, Q also increase.

9.0

REFERENCES
1) Internet
Impact of a jet | Rania Sabbah - Academia.edu

http://www.academia.edu/7467087/Impact_of_a_jet

2) Report
https://www.scribd.com/doc/167244278/Mubarak-Impact-of-Jet-lab-report