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Cornell University Library

TC 540.B64 1916

Dams and weirs; an analytical and practic

3 1924 004 065 664

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DAMS AND WEIRS


AN ANALYTICAL AND PRACTICAL TREATISE ON GRAVITY
DAMS AND WEIRS; ARCH AND BUTTRESS DAMS;
SUBMERGED WEIRS; AND BARRAGES

By

W.

G.

BLIGH

FORMERLY EXECUTIVE ENGINEER, PUBLIC WORKS DEPARTMENT OF INDIA,


AND INSPECTING ENGINEER, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, CANADA.
MEMBER, INSTITUTE CIVIL ENGINEERS (LONDON)
MEMBER. AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS
MEMBER, CANADIAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS

ILLUSTRATED

AMERICAN TECHNICAL SOCIETY


CHICAGO
1916

%\10
15

7^

/.3?21I5

COPYRIGHT.

1916,

BY

AMERICAN TECHNICAL SOCIETY


COPYRIGHTED IN GREAT BRITAIN
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

CONTENTS
PAGE

Gravity

dams

Pressure of water on wall

Method

for graphical calculations

Conditions of "middle third" and limiting stress

Compressive stress limit

Design

of

dams

4
4
8

Theoretical profile
Practical profile

Crest width

Rear widening

10

Variation of height

13

High and wide crest


Graphical method
Analytical method

16

Pressure distribution

23

Graphical method for distribution of pressure


pressure limit

25
27
29
30
31
31
34
36
37
37
39
41
42
43

13

18

Maximum

Limiting height
Internal shear and tension
Security against failure

by

sliding or shear

Influence lines

Actual pressures in figures


Haessler's

method

Stepped polygon
Modified equivalent pressure area in inclined back

Curved back profiles


Treatment for broken line profiles
Example of Haessler's method
Relations of R. N. and

Unusually high dams


Pentagonal profile to be widened
Silt against base of dam
Ice pressure.
Partial overfall

dam ...

43
,

47
50
51

dams

52

CONTENTS
PAGE

Notable existing dams

53

Cheeseman Lake dam

53
55

Analytical check

Roosevelt

New

dam
dam

56

Croton
Assuan dam

...

Cross River and Ashokan dams


Burrin Juick dam

Arrow Rock dam


Special foundations

69

Aprons affect uplift


Rear aprons decrease uplift
Rock below gravel
Gravity dam reinforced against
Gravity overfall

58
59
65
65
67

dams

70
71
72
ice pressure

73
75

or weirs

Characteristics of overfalls

75

Approximate

77

width
Pressures affected by varying water level
Method of calculating depth of overfall
crest

79
82

85
85
90
92
92

Objections of '*Ogee" overfalls

Folsam weir

Dhukwa

weir,

Mariquina weir
Granite Reef weir
Nira weir
Castlewood weir
American dams on pervious foundations

95
96
97

Arched dams

101

Theoretical and

102

practical profiles

Support of vertical water loads in arched


Pathfinder

dams

104

dam

104
107
109
Ill
112

Shoshone dam
Sweetwater dam
Barossa dam
Burrin Juick subsidiary dam
Dams with variable radii
Multiple arch or hollow arch buttress

112

dams

113

Multiple arch generally more useful than single arch dams. 113
114
Mir Alam dam
.

CONTENTS
Multiple arch or hollow arch buttress

dams

continued

117
118

Stresses in buttress

dam
Ogden dam

Belubula

120

Design for multiple arch


Reverse water pressure
Pressure on foundations
Flood pressures
Big Bear Valley dam

dam

122

124
125
129
131

Hollow slab buttress dams

136

Formulas for reinforced concrete


Guayabal dam
Bassano dam

137
141

146

Submerged weirs founded on sand


Percolation beneath

Governing factor for

151

dam

152

153

stability

Vertical obstruction to percolation

Rear apron
Example of design type A
Discussion of Narora weir
Sloping apron weirs, type B
Restoration of Khanki weir
Merala weir
Porous fore aprons
Okhla and Madaya weirs
Dehri weir.

PAGE

159
159

164
167

169
171
,

171

173
177

178

Laguna weir

179

Damietta and Rosetta weirs

179

Open dams

or barrages

Barrage defined. .Weir sluices of Corbett dam


General features of river regulators
Stabihty of Assiut barrage
Hindia barrage
American vs. Indian treatment
.

North Mon canal


Upper Coleroon regulator
St. Andrew's Rapids dam
Automatic dam or regulator

182
182
189
193

194
194
196
200
201

201

205

INTRODUCTION
A N

**

unused

waterfall, -no matter

how

beautiful, appeals to

an

engineer mainly as an economic waste, and he fairly aches to

throw a

dam

across the rushing torrents or to utilize the

the water which glides gracefully over the

many

into useless spray

power

and dashes

of

itself

His progress in the past

feet below.

years has, however, in no

falls

way measured up

to his desires, but

with the United States and other governments undertaking gigantic irrigation

projects in order to reclaim vast areas of tillable

lands and with

hydroelectric

companies

acquiring the power

few years have witnessed

rights of our great waterfalls, the last

The use

wonderful progress in this type of engineering work.


reinforced concrete as a standard material

many problems

in connection with

it

and the solving

of

of the

has greatly simplified and

cheapened the construction, thus avoiding the greater

difficulties

of

masonry construction usually found

in the older dams.

All of this progress in the design of

dams and

weirs, however,

has served to multiply the types of design and has increased the

need for an authoritative and up-to-date treatise on the theoretical

and practical questions involved.

The author

of this

work has

been a designing engineer for more than a generation and has


built

He

dams and

is,

therefore,

weirs in India, Egypt, Canada, and this country.

abundantly qualified to speak, not only from the

work but from the modern

historic side of the

practical side as well.

In addition to a careful analysis of each different type of


he has given

critical studies of

profile,

the examples of this type, showing

the good and bad points of the designs.

wealth of practical

problems together with their solution makes the treatise exceedingly valuable.

It is the

satisfy the
ject

hope of the publishers that

demand

and that

it will

for a brief

this

modern

treatise will

but authoritative work on the sub-

find a real place in Civil Engineering literature.

DAMS AND WEIRS


PART

INTRODUCTION
1.

A dam may

Definitions.

be defined as an impervious wall

of masonry, concrete, earth, or loose rock

water at

its rear,

while

its

which upholds a mass of


is free from the pressure

face or lower side

any appreciable extent. The waste water of the reservoir impounded by the dam is disposed of by means of a waste weir,
or by a spillway clear of the work, or in rare cases, by sluice openings
in the body of the dam.
Weirs, or overfall dams, although often confounded with bulkhead dams, differ from the latter in the following points, first,
that the water overflows the crest, and second, that the tail water
These two differences often modify the
is formed below the dam.
conditions of stress which are applicable in the design of dams
of water to

proper,

and consequently the subject

of weirs

demands separate

treatment.
Classification.

2.

Dams and

weirs

may

be

classified

as

follows

Dams

Gravity

2.

Gravity Overfalls, or Weirs

3.

Arched

4.

Hollow Arch Buttress Dams


Hollow Slab Buttress Dams

5.

Dams

6.

Submerged Weirs

7.

Open Dams,

The

or Barrages

subjects of earth, rock

fill,

and

steel

dams

will

not be

treated in this article, as the matter has been already dealt with in

other volumes.

made

use

of,

Graphical as well as analytical methods will be

the former pronedure being explained in detail as

occasion demands.

DAMS AND WEIRS

GRAVITY DAMS
GENERAL DISCUSSION OF DAMS
A

gravity

dam

is

one in which the pressure of the water

is

by the weight or ''gravity" of the dam itself.


Pressure of Water on Wall. The hydrostatic pressure of
the water impounded by a wall or dam may be graphically represented by the area of a triangle with its apex at the surface and its
base drawn normal to the back line of the dam, which base is equal
resisted
3.

or proportionate to the vertical depth.


is

When

the back of the wall

vertical, as in Fig. 1, the area of this pressure triangle will

H being the vertical height.


this area will

be

H'H

which equals

surface,

The

When,

as in Fig.

H' being the

cosec

2,

the back

weight

is

^c,

is

the

This unit

Fig. 2.

Vertical

symboUzed by

dam

Water Pressure Area with


Back of Dam IneUned

Water Pressure Area

Dam

inclined,

<j>.

actual pressure of water per unit length of

with Back of

inclined length of the exposed

above area multiplied by the unit weight of water.

Fig. 1.

is

be

which

is

62.5 pounds, or

short ton, or

^V long ton, per cubic foot.


Unit Pressure, The pressure per square foot, or unit pressure

measured by the corresponding ordinate


drawn parallel to its base, and is evidently

on the wall at any point,

is

above triangle,
the same in both Figs.

and

of the

back as represented by
greater than in Fig. 1.

The

total pressure

on the inclined

will,

however, be

Method for Graphical Calculations. For graphical calculawhen forces of dissimilar unit weight or specific gravity are

4.

tions

2.

the triangle in Fig.' 2

DAMS AND WEIRS

engaged, as in the case of water and masonry, or earth and masonry,


the usual practice to reduce

it is

them

to one

common denominator

by making aUerations in the areas of one or the other, the weight of


the masonry being usually taken as a standard. This result is
effected by making the bases of the triangles of water pressure
jj

F, but to

p (rho) being the sign of the specific


P
gravity of the solid material in the wall. The triangle thus reduced
equal, not to

then represent a weight or area of masonry

will

which

is

t<J

Xp

i.

e.,

engaged,

The

1 unit thick,

equiva-

This device enables the item of unit weight,

lent to that of water.

common

to be eliminated as a
of the water pressure

and

factor

from the forces

of the weight of the wall.

factor thus omitted has to be multiplied in again at the close

of the graphical operation, only,

however, in cases where actual

pressures in tons or pounds are required to be known.

Value of

The

p.

values ordinarily adopted for p, the specific

gravity of masonry or concrete, are 2\ and 2.4,

i.e.,

equivalent to

weights of 141 and 150 pounds, respectively, per cubic foot, while
for

brickwork 2

is

a sufficiently large value.

The value

former case will be .069 ton and in the latter .075, or

of

wp

in the

3 ton.

In some cases the actual value of p mounts as high as 2.5 and


even

2.7,

The

when heavy

granite or basalt

reduction thus

made

is

the material employed.

in the water pressure areas has further

the convenience of reducing the space occupied

The

by the diagram.

areas of the reduced triangles of water pressure in Figs. 1 and

2 are -r and

Zp
5.

respectively.

Zp

Conditions of ^'Middle Third" and Limiting Stress.

tions of gravity

dams

the "middle third."

are designed

Sec-

on the well-known principle

This expression

signifies

of

that the profile of

the wall must be such that the resultant pressure lines or centers of
pressure due

first

to the weight of the

dam

considered alone, and

second with the external water pressure in addition, must both


fall

within the middle third of the section on any horizontal base.

These two conditions of


(R.E.)

stress are designated.

and Reservoir Full (R.F.).

insures the following requirement:

The

Reservoir

Empty

fulfillment of this condition

The

maximum

compressive ver-

^DAMS

tical unit stress (s), or reaction

mean

twice the

AND WEIRS
on

compressive unit

the base of

stress, or,

a iam^ shall not exceed

stated syrnbolically,

s^2si

Now the mean vertical compressive unit


structure divided

by

its

base length-

stress Si is the

weight of the

i.e.,

W
''=T
Hence,

s,

the

maximum vertical

unit pressure, should not exceed

2W

Further comments on the distribution of the reaction on the base


of a

dam
6.

"wdll

be made in a later paragraph.

Compressive Stress Limit.

second condition imposed

that of the internal compressive stress limit, that


"permissible compressive unit stress

which

is

is

The

is

maximum

developed in the interior

This value can be


masonry of the
experimentally found by crushing a cube of the material employed,

dam, must not

of the

be exceeded.

and using a factor of safety of 6 or 8. Cement concrete will crush


at about 2000 pounds per square inch, equivalent to 144 tons (of
The safe value of s would then be
2000 pounds) per square foot.
144
= 18

tons per square foot.

For ordinary lime concrete as

employed

in the East, the limit pressure

adopted

'long" tons, equivalent to 9 tons of 2000 pounds.

common

tons, or 11.2 "short" tons is also a

generally 8

is

Ten "long"

value.

DESIGN OF DAMS
7.

Theoretical Profile.

The

so-termed "low" masonry dam,

theoretically correct profile of a

i.e.,

one of such height that the limit

under the conditions above outlined, is that


having its back toward the water vertical,
triangle
right-angled
of a
and its apex at the water surface. It can be proved that the proper
base width b of this triangle is expressed bv the formula
stress is not attained

This

profile,

shown

gular profile",
less based.

in Fig. 3, will be

as on

it

termed the "elementary trian-

the design of

all profiles of

dams

In this expression, // is the vertical height.

is

more or

The base

DAMS AND WEIRS

width of -7=- insures the exact incidence of the vertical resultant (W)
(R.E.)

and

of the incUned resultant

(R.F.) at the inner

and outer

The

edge, respectively, of the central third division of the base.

condition of the middle third

manner

and

thus

fulfilled in

the most economical

a factor of safety of 2 against overturning

is

further, the angle of inclination of the resultant

possible,

obtained,

is

with regard to the base

is

usually such as to preclude danger of

by sliding.
The fore slope or hypothenuse will be in the ratio 1 "Vp which,
when p = 2^, will equal 2:3, a slope very commonly adopted,
failure

DOUBLE 3CHLE
(o)

Elementary Triangular

Fig. 3.

and with p = 2.4 the


mentary

Profile for

"Low" Masonry

ratio will be 1:1.549.

while, as

triangle is

we have

Dam

The area

of the ele-

seen, that of the

water

2Vp
pressure

is

'

is

the vertical angle between

2p
sec S

Vp+1
=

1.187 with p

and R, and

= 2.4.

In Fig. 3 the resultant pressure hues are drawn to intersect the


base so as to afford ocular proof of the stability of the section under
the postulated conditions.
Graphical Method.
explained,

and

The

graphical procedure will

also in the future as fresh

now be

developments

briefly

arise, for

DAMS AND WEIRS

who

the benefit of those

are imperfectly acquainted with this valu-

able labor-saving method.

There are two forces engaged, P the horizontal, or, it may be Pi,
the inclined water pressure acting through the center of gravity of its
area normal to the back of the wall, and
the weight or area of the

Of these two forces the item wp^ or unit weight, has already
been ehminated as a common factor, leaving the pressures reprewall.

sented

by

superficial areas.

As, however, the height

is

also

com-

mon to both triangles, this can likewise be eliminated. The forces


may then be represented simply by the half widths of the triangular
areas by which means all figuring and scaling may be avoided.
a force polygon has to be constructed.

First,
first

drawn horizontally to designate the water

being

made

From

the extremity of P, the load line

equal to the half width of

its

In Fig. 3a,

pressure, its length

pressure area in Fig.


is

is

drawn

3.

vertically, equal

to the half width of the elementary triangular profile, then the


closing line

according to the law of the triangle of forces will

represent the resultant in magnitude and direction.

Second, the

lines of actual pressures reciprocal to those

on the force polygon

have to be transferred to the


resultant water pressure on the back

The

will

the

profile.
is

that of a line drawn through

the area of pressure, parallel to

e.g. of

incidence of the

its

base, in this case, at

or one-third the height of the water-pressure triangle, above the


base.

normal to the back, in


and if prolonged it will intersect the vertical
W, which in like manner acts through the center of gravity of
Its direction, like that of the base, is

this case horizontal,

force

From

the elementary profile of the wall.


the resultant

is

this point of intersection

Both
and these points
be found to be exactly at the inner and outer

drawn, parallel to

its

reciprocal in Fig. 3a.

W and R are continued until they cut the base


of intersection will

edges of the middle third division of the base.

line,

It will be seen that

is empty the center of pressure on the base is at


Wj when full it is shifted to that of P.
Analytical Method. The same proof can be made analytically
and P can be repreThe weight of the two triangles
follows

when the

reservoir

the incidence of

as

sented

by their bases which

are -j=

Vp

and

respectively.
,

If

moments

DAMS AND WEIRS


be taken about the outer edge of the middle third, the lever arm of
the vertical force

is

clearly

or r^^ and that of P, the horizontal

force, is the distance of the center of gravity of the triangle of

pressure above the base, viz,

The equation

will

water

then stand

(^x4:)-(fx|)or

3p
If the actual values of

R and of

3p

W were required, their measured or

calculated lengths would have to be multiplied

to convert

them

by i?and by ivp in order

to tons, pounds, or kilograms, as

may

be required.

In many, in fact most, cases actual pressures are not required to be

known, only the position of the centers of pressures in the profile.


Thus a line of pressures can be traced through a profile giving
the positions of the centers of pressure without the necessity of
converting the measured lengths into actual quantities.

In the

elementary triangle, Fig. 3, the value of the vertical resultant


_fi_i^_^.

That

of

is

required in the older methods of calculation

2
IS

P OR

The following values relative to

p will be found useful.

DAMS AND WEIRS


When
inside

section
8.

and
is

the back

overhanging, on the other hand,

is

outside the middle third.

The

will fall

vertically

backed

consequently the most economical.

Practical Profile.

In actual practice a

dam

profile

must be

provided with a crest of definite width, and not terminate in the

apex of a
nite

triangle.

The upper part

of a

dam is

subjected to indefi-

but considerable stresses of an abnormal character, due to extreme

changes in temperature, consequently a solid crest

The

is

a necessity.

imposition of a rectangular crest, as shown in dotted lines on

Practical Pentagonal Profile for

Fig. 4.

Masonry

Dam

"Low"

Fig. 3, transforms the triangular profile into a pentagon.

This has

the effect of increasing the stability of the section (R.F.) so that


the base width can be somewhat reduced, at the same time the
vertical resultant

(R.E.), falls outside the middle third, but to

so small an extent that this infringement of the imposed condition


is

often entirely neglected.

In order to provide against

this,

a strip

of material will have to be added to the back of the plain pentagonal


profile.

Fig.

The dimensions

is

a diagram explanatory of these modifications.

of this

added

strip, as well as its position,

can be

DAMS AND WEIRS


conveniently expressed in terms of

The

in Fig. 4.

the crest width

(Jc)

third at the depth

AD, which

not be produced

here,

to

is

be

AB

i.e.,

line of pressure (R.E.) will begin to leave the

middle

found by calculation which need

Below the point D, the

2/{;Vp.

divergence of the line of pressure will continue for a further depth

DE,

the point E, being close upon S.lfcVp below the crest,

lAh^p below D.

Below point E, the

line

longer diverge outward, but will tend to regain

consequently no further widening

will

of pressure

or

will

no

its original position,

be necessary, and the added

^3.,^
EII6ID.S

Fig. 5.

strip will

and

Profile of Chartrain

Showing Crest with Overhang

be rectangular in form down to the base.

The

points

being joined, this portion of the back will be battered.

width of this added strip


or

Dam

EF

will be,

The

with close approximation,

.06fe.

16
9.

Crest Width.

The

crest

width of a

dam

should be propor-

dam, and in the case of


a "high" dam to the limiting height i.e., to that depth measured
below the crest at which the maximum stress in the masonry is first
tioned to

its

actual height in case of a "low"

DAMS AND WEIRS

10

reached. Thus in "high" dams the upper part can always be of


the same dimensions except where the requirements of cross com-

munication necessitate a wider

The
causing

crest.

an abnormally wide crest can be modified by


to overhang the fore slope, this widening being carried

efTect of

it

-by piers and arches.

good example of this construction occurs


dam, Fig. 5. The arches form a stiff but light
finish to the dam and have a pleasing architectural effect.
The
same procedure, but in a less pronounced degree, is carried out in
in the Chartrain

the Croton dam, Fig. 27.

The formula

M\'
/frea

width

can

be

for crest

expressed

either in terms of the limit-

ing

height Hij or of the

base

6,

height

where the limiting


is

not attained, and

a good proportion

by the

is

given

following empirical

rule

= <'Hi

(2)

h = lhh\

(2a)

k
or
Fig. 6.

Pentagonal Profile

Back Vertical

This latter formula makes


the crest width a function of the specific gravity as well as of the
height,
10.

dam

is

which

is

theoretically sound.

Where the

Rear Widening.

arrangement shown in Fig.

When the
body of the dam

line.

(k)

rear widening of a *'low"

neglected or where a uniform batter

and the base

back

is

4,

vertical the

are similar.

h
(b),

or

-r-

is

substituted for the

the profile will be pentagonal in out-

two

triangles

If the ratio existing

be designated by

depth of the vertical side in Fig.

6,

r,

composing the

between the crest

then

A;

= Hr and kxh=

= &r, and

A,

the

Hbr^,

In order to find what value the base width b should have, so


that the center of pressure (R.F.) will

middle third, the moments of

all

fall

exactly at the edge of the

the forces engaged will have to be

taken about this point and equated to zero.

The

vertical forces

DAMS AND WEIRS


W,

consist of

11

the lower, and TT^ the upper triangle; the horizontal

of P, the water pressure.


1 1

Method

by the

The

of Calculation.

areas of the prisms involved, the triangle of water pressure

being as usual reduced by dividing

common

ination of

common

is

pressures can be represented

to

all

base by

its

W\

because the actual original value

is

further elim-

by discarding

factors can be achieved

three forces, the area

p.

which

being represented by 6r^

The

forces then are PF,

TI

represented

by

h;

W\ by

hf^;

and

P by

the actual value of the

P
latter being -

The

lever

arm

distances of the c.g.'s of these three

Ip

from A, the incidence

forces

(6

br)

and of P,

-.

of

i?,

W o

are as follows: of

The equation will then

of W\,

stand, eliminating -,

bXb+br^(2b-2XbT)- =
P
or

62(l+2r2-2r3)- =
P

whence

b=^x^=l=
Vp Vl+2r2-2r3
The value of

b thus obtained will

the base width even

when the back

(3)

prove a useful guide in deciding

of the wall is not vertical, as only

a small increase will be needed to allow for the altered


k

or r = .15 the
of
r

which

reducing coeflBcient works out to

is .981.

= .15, the

Thus with a

profile

profile.

When

1
.

the reciprocal

80 feet high with p = 2.5 and

base width of the pentagonal profile will be

80

X .981

V2.5

= 49.64 feet; the decrease in base width below that of the elementary
without crest will be 50.60-49.64 = 0.96 feet. The crest
width will be 49.64 X. 15 = 7.45 feet. In actual practice, the dimenprofile

sions

would be in round numbers, 50

feet base

and 7^

feet crest

DAMS AND WEIRS

12

width as made on Fig.

by

The

6.

face of the profile in Fig. 6

is

made

joining the toe of the base with the apex of the triangle of water

pressure.

Graphical
incidences of

shown on
(l)j

ants

Fig. 6.

The

45 square feet and


fall

The

Process,

graphical

processes

of

finding

the

W and of R on the base are self-explanatory and are


profile is divided into
(2),

2000 square

feet.

two triangular areas,


The two final result-

almost exactly at the middle third boundaries, TF, as

might be conjectured, a

trifle

outside.

Areas are taken instead of

not being a common factor.


I widths, owing to
Analytical Process. The analytical process of taking

about the heel

is

shown below:

moments

DAMS AND WEIRS


The

Variation of Height.

12.

form throughout;
bedj so that the

it

while the remainder

height of a

must vary with the

maximum

dam

is

seldom uni-

irregularities of the river

section extends for a short length only,

This situation

of varying height.

is

13

will affect

the relationship between the crest width and the height, and also
the base width.

To be

consistent, the former should

in proportion to the height.

This, however,

is

vary in width

hardly practicable,

consequently the width of the crest should be based more on the


average than on the

maximum

height,

and could be made wider

wherever a dip occurs in the foundation

High and Wide

13.

wide

crest, i.e.,

Crest.

one carried

level.

In case of a very high as well as

much

higher than the apex of the trian-

water pressure,

gle of

it

is

not

desirable to reduce the base width

much below
tary

that of the elemen-

triangle.

The

excess

of

material in the upper quarter of

a *'low"

dam

manipulating

This

latter,

can be reduced by
the

which

fore
is

ward from the toe

slope.

drawn up-

of the base,

in Fig. 7, can be aligned in three


First,

directions.

by a

line ter-

minating at the apex of the trian-

water pressure; second,

gle of

it

CB
Fig. 7.

--=r

to the vertical,

and

is,

CBi^SO.O'

it

C.

Showing Different Disposition


of

can be made parallel to that of


the elementary profile, that

Off

Profile

Fore Slope

can be given an inclination of

third, the slope

or batter can be

made

Vp
than the last. This latter disposition is only suitable with
an abnormally high and wide crest and is practically carried out
in the Chartrain dam, Fig. 5, where the base is not reduced at all
flatter

H
below ~i=.

Vp

Reduction to any large extent, of the neck of the


effected

dam

is,

is

profile

thus

however, not to be commended, as the upper quarter of

exposed to severe though indeterminate stresses due to

DAMS AND WEIRS

14

changes of temperature, Avind pressure,

masses of

and

etc.,

probably to

also

put in motion by the wind.

The Cross River dam,


Ashokan dam, are examples of
an abnormally thick upper quarter being provided on account of
ice

to be illustrated later, as well as the

\Yhatever disposition of the fore slope

ice.

is

adopted, the profile

should be tested graphically or analjlically, the hne of pressure,

if

necessary, being d^a^^TL through the profile, as will later be explained.

From

the above remarks

the section of a

few

dam

it ^dll

based on the elementary

lines

be gathered that the design of

do^\Ti to the limiting

depth can be

profile which,

dra^^^l

by a

necessary, can

if

be modified by applying the test of ascertaining the exact position


of the centers of pressiu-e

on the base.

If

the incidence of these

resultants falls at or close AAithin the edge of the middle third division of the base, the section can be pronounced satisfactory;

other^ase,

it

can easily be altered to produce the desired

if

result.

The crest has to be raised above actual full reservoir


by an extent equal to the calculated depth of water passing

Freeboard,
level

over the waste weir or through the spillway, as the case

may

be.

which adds considerably to the cost of a


work, particularly when the dam is of great length and connected
with long embankments, can be avoided by the adoption of auto-

This extra freeboard,

matic waste gates by which means


level are

merged

full reservoir level

In addition to the above, allowance


the height of

and high flood

into one.

which

is

is

made

for

wave

action,

obtained by the following formula:


Ji^

= lMF+{2.5-yY)

(4)

In this expression F is the ''fetch", or longest line of exposure of


surface to wind action in miles. Thus if F = 4 miles, the
water
the
extra height required over and above maximum flood level will be

5X2) + (2.5-1.4)=4.1
5i feet. The apex of the
(1

feet.

If

f = 10

miles, h^

at this higher level; the crest, however,

is

work out to
must be placed

\^-ill

triangle of water pressure

frequently raised

still

higher, so as to prevent the possibility of water washing over it.


Example. The working out of an actual example under
14.

assumed conditions
cal

methods.

will

now be

given by both graphical and analyti-

Fig. 8 represents a profile 50 feet in height \Adth crest

level corresponding with the

apex of the triangle of water pressure,

DAMS AND WEIRS


The assumed value
the crest width

X 50 = 33.3
carried

down

here on,

it is

made

is

feet,

of p is 2^.

.15b

is

thus 5

edge of the crest

is

extent that the heel

line joining the toe

is

the

full

The back

77

Vp

slope

is

-7^ =

a distance of 8 feet,

Profile for

therefore .84 foot.


is set

feet.

nearly pentagonal,

and from
1 in 50.
The outset at the heel beyond
a vertical line drawn through the rear
e^

Diagram Showing Suitable

Fig. 8.

If

is

vertically to the point

given a batter of

is

and the base width

the crest width

the axis of the dam, which

by a

The outhne

15

out.

The

The

50-Foot

toe

Dam

is set

face line of the

in the

body

is

same

formed

with the apex of the water-pressure triangle.

the face line were drawn parallel to the hypothenuse of the ele-

mentary

triangle,

i.e.,

to a slope of

Vp,

it

would cut

off

too

much

material, the area of the wall being then but very httle in excess of

that of the elementary triangle, which, of course,


quantity.

As

will

be seen

later,

is

minimum

the analysis of the section will show

that the adopted base width could have been reduced below what

DAMS AND WEIRS

16

has been provided, to an extent somewhat in excess of that given in


formula (3).

The

Graphical Method.

15.

the resultant lines

graphical procedure of drawing

W (R.E.) and R (R.F.) to their intersection of the

base presents a few differences, from that described in section

7,

Here the profile is necessarily divided


6,
into two parts, the rectangular crest and the trapezoidal body. As
the three areas (1), (2), and Pi, are not of equal height, the item H
with regard to Fig.

page

3.

common

cannot be eliminated as a

factor, consequently the forces

have to be represented as in Fig. 6 by their actual superficial


areas, not by the half width of these areas as was previously the case.
In Fig. 8a the vertical load line consists of the areas 1 and 2 totaling
844 square feet, which form W. The water pressure Pi is the area
will

IT

of the

inchned triangle whose base

is

This

is

best set out graph-

polygon by the horizontal

ically in the force

the horizontal water pressure, which

The

feet.

is

line P,

made

= 555 square

~
9

-77-=
2p

equal to

water-pressure area strictly consists of two parts corre-

sponding in depth to

(1)

and

but the difference

(2) as

the upper part

is vertical,

not

and
considered
area
of
water
pressure
is
as
it
would
be
if
the
the
back
so
of
the wall were in one inclined plane. In Fig. 8 the line Pi normal to
and it is cut
the back of the wall is drawn from the point of origin
inclined,

off

by a

vertical

is

so slight as to be inappreciable,

through the extremity of the horizontal

This intercepted length

Oi

is

line P.

clearly the representative value of

the resultant water pressure, and the line joining this point with the

base of the load line


horizontal line
it will

is

cut off an intercept

termination of Pi.

This

W and of

R, the resultant of

^P be drawn from the


(

N) from a

line

AB = P,

Pi.

If

lower end of the load line

drawn through the


the vertical comand Pi as well as
and
are naturally

vertical

and

N.

ponent of P, the latter being the resultant of


and P- When the back is vertical,
of

is

identical in value, their difference being the weight of water over-

lying the inclined rear slope.

The

further procedure consists in drawing the reciprocals of

the three forces Pi, IF,

and

on the

profile.

The

first

in finding the centers of gravity of the vertical forces 1

step consists

and 2

in

which

DAMS AND WEIRS


the hexagonal profile

is

That

divided.

middle of the rectangle whose base

The

a trapezoid.

is de.

17

of (1) lies clearly in the

The lower

center of gravity of a trapezoid

is

the following extremely simple graphical process.

division (2)

best found

is

by

From d draw

dh horizontally equal to the base of the trapezoid fg and from g,


gj is set off equal to de; join /y, then its intersection with the middle
line of

the trapezoid gives the exact position of

Thus a few

its

center of gravity.

what would involve considerable


calculation by analytical methods, as will be shown later.
The next step is to find the combined c. g. of the two parallel
and vertical forces 1 and 2. To effect this for any number of parallel
lines effect graphically

or non-parallel forces, tw;o diagrams are required,


force

and ray polygon and, second,

chord, or funicular polygon.

The load

in the former of these figures.

rays

must be taken.

First,

Its position

line in Fig.

a so-termed

first,

its reciprocal,

the force and

8a can be utilized

a point of origin or nucleus of

can be anywhere relative to the

load line, a central position on either side being the best.


point Oi, which

is

The

the real origin of the force polygon at the extremity

Pi can be adopted as nucleus and often is so utilized, in which


case the force line Pi and R can be used as rays, only one additional

of

ray being required.

For the sake of

illustration,

both positions for

nucleus have been adopted, thus forming two force and ray poly-

on the same load line, and two funicular polygons,


the resultants of which are identical. The force and ray polygon is
formed by connecting all the points on the load line with the nucleus
as shown by the dotted line a, 6, and c, and a', 6', and c'. Among the
former, a and c are the force lines Pi and P, the third, &, joins the
termination of force (1) on the load line with the nucleus. These
lines a, b, c, are the rays of the polygon.
Having formed the force
and ray diagram, in order to construct the reciprocal funicular
polygon 86 the force lines (1) and (2) on the profile Fig. 8 are congons, both based

tinued

down below

the figure.

anywhere right through

Then a

(1) parallel to

line

marked

the ray

a,

(a) is

from

drawn

its intersec-

drawn parallel to the ray (b)


8b meeting (2); through this latter intersection the third
chord (c) is drawn backward parallel to its reciprocal the ray c.
This latter is the closing line and its intersection with the initial
tion with the force (1), the chord (b) is

in Fig.

fine (a), gives

the position of the eg. of the two forces.

DAMS AND WEIRS

18

A
JV.

through this center of pressure, which represents


is continued on to the. profile until it intersects

vertical line

JV1+W2,

i.e.,

the inclined force Pi drawn through the center of gravity of the

water pressure area.


draAA-n

This intersection

the starting point of R,

is

on the

parallel to its reciprocal

force polygon 8a.

This

resultant intersects the base at a point within the middle third.

is

the resultant "Reservoir Full", while

vertical forces in the

Empty".

masonry

The intersection of the

edge of the middle third

The

fulfilled.

incidence of

on the base

is

the resultant of the

almost exactly at the inner

latter is

thus the

condition of the middle third

question of induced pressure and

the base will be considered

The

Wj

wall, is the resultant "Reservoir

iV",

its

it

is

later.

W,

naturally not identical with that of

line

fix

the position of

on the

the resultant

The

is vertical.

the resultant of both Pi and IF, and of

be required to

is

on

the vertical component "Reservoir Full",

"Reservoir Empty", unless the back of the wall


line

distribution

P and N.

profile,

If

a horizontal

should be drawn through the intersection of Pi with the back

of the wall.

This

will represent

water pressure Pi, and

it will

the horizontal component of the

intersect P,

produced upward.

a line drawn vertically through this latter point

Then

will represent

The position of N
N is made to fall at the inner

the vertical component (Reservoir Full).


necessarily outside of

W, consequently if

edge of the middle third of the base,


third.

iV,
is

W must

fall

within the middle

This fact will later be made use of when the design of the

lower part of a "high"


16.

dam comes

Analytical Method.

under consideration.

The

analytical

method

of ascertain-

ing the positions of the incidences of

W and of R on the base, which

has just been graphically performed,

will

The

first

step

is

and trapezoid

some

vertical plane,

moments
with the

of those

moment

two

forces

of which the profile is composed,


and then to equate the sum of the
about any fixed point on the base,

of their sum.

The most convenient

point in most cases

this projects a distance {y)


is

explained.

to find the positions of the centers of gravity

of the rectangle
relative to

now be

beyond the

is

the heel of the base

axis of the

dam, which

axis

a vertical line passing through the inner edge of the rectangular

crest,

DAMS AND WEIRS


As the

19

areas of the divisions, whether of the

masonry wall or

of the water-pressure triangle, are generally trapezoids, the follow-

enumeration of A^arious formulas,


whereby the position of the e.g. of a
trapezoid may be found either with regard
ing

to a horizontal or to a vertical plane,


will
9, if

be found of practical

In Fig.

utility.

the depth of the figure between the

parallel sides

be termed H, and that of

the truncated portion of the triangle of

which the trapezoid

termed

d,

of the e.g.

is

a portion be

and h be the "sertical height


above the base, then

Fig. 9. Diagram
of Gravity of

Showing Centers
Water Pressure

Trapezoids

r_H H + 3d
(5)

Thus, in Fig.

9,

^=13

and d = Q
,

If

then

feet,

13/13 + 18\
3

V13 + 12/

o.o 7 feet

the base of the triangle and trapezoid ^vdth

decreased in length, the value of h

dependent only on

H and d,

T\ill

it

be increased or

not be thereby affected,

which values are not

altered.

as

it is

If,

however, the base of the triangle be inclined, as shown by the

'l

rrt,

^Fig. 10.

Diagram

dotted lines in Fig.

Illustrating

9,

be higher than

before,

base through

the

(/,

Height of

Trapezoid above Base

the center of gravity of the trapezoid vrAl

but a

c. g.

will

line dra-^-n parallel to

the inclined

always intersect the upright side of

the trapezoid at the same point,


vertically

c. g.

^iz,

above the horizontal base.

one which

is

h feet distant

DAMS AND WEIRS

20

The value

of h can also be obtained in terms of a

parallel sides of the trapezoid,

For example,

If
tical
8,

in Fig. 10,

and

R = \2, a =10,

the horizontal distance of the

plane

is

is

and

c. g.

the two

then

from a ver-

of a trapezoid

can be considered as divided into

its angles;

is

As shown in Fig.
two triangles, the

equivalent to that of three equal weights

each weight can thus be represented by one-

third of the area of the triangle in question, or


tively,

= 16,

explanatory of the working.

weight of each of which


placed at

6,

required, as, for example, that of the trapezoid in Fig.

the following

11, this area

and

is

by --- and ---,

respec-

Let y be the

being the vertical depth of the trapezoid.

projection of the lower corner


aff.bh

beyond that of the upper


one -B. Then by equating
the

sum

moments

of the

of

the corner weights about the

point
their

A with the moment of


sum, the distance (x) of

the e.g. of the whole trapeFig. 11.


of

Method of Finding Distance of Center


Gravity of a Trapezoid from Heel

zoid from

will

be obtained

as follows

{^^Ex = ^ [6(a+6)+a(a+2/)+2/(a+6)]

where

2/

= 0,

the formula becomes

For example,

in Fig. 8, a or de = 5 feet, 6

= 33.3, and

2/

=-84, whence

DAMS AND WEIRS


The

21

similar properties of a triangle with a horizontal base, as

in Fig. 12,

may

and are obtained

well be given here

in the

same way

by taking moments about A, thus

-^^
In Fig. 12, 6 = 14

y=S

feet,

Reverting to Fig.

8,

feet,

(8)'

and h=10

feet,

then

the position of the incidence of

W on the

obtained by taking moments about the heel g of the base as


base
follows
Here
is the area of the whole profile, equal, as we have
is

844

seen, to
ft.

and

arm

lever

of

is

2.5+.84 = 3.34

(1) is

by formula

(7)

11.63 feet.

Hence, as the

is

area of the upper component (1)

is

40

sq.

of (2) 804.

The
that of

The

sq. ft.

equal to the

by hypothesis
feet,

x,

that of (2)

has already been shown to be

sum

moment of the whole


moments of the

of the

parts, the equation will

become

844a: = 40x3.34+804xll.63

= 9484.1

^.^^e. 12. Method of


t 1 n d 1 n g Genter of
Gravity of a Triangular
Profile

a:

=11. 23

feet

This

fixes

The

position of the inner third point

The

the position of the incidence of

incidence of

is

is

relative to the heel.

or

-^ from

the heel.

therefore 11.23- 11. 10

= .13

foot within the

middle third, which complies with the stipulated proviso.

The
the base.

next step

As

is

to find the position of

forces are considered'; the water-pressure area

one,

relative to the heel of

in graphical methods, only horizontal


is split

and vertical
two parts,

into

the horizontal component, the value of which

is

or 555

2p

feet,

and W3 the reduced area

of the back.

The

of

latter area is

water overlying the rear projection

a trapezoid of which the upper side

DAMS AND WEIRS

22
(a) is

8 feet long and

&,

the lower side, 50 feet, the depth being .84

hence the distance of

foot,

byformula

(6),

^^^^ = ,32

'-^

.84 = 24.4 feet; this

masonry base.

The

nearly.

its e.g.

inside the heel of the base will be


Its actual area

foot.

ft.,

11.23 .32
TT'^

and

of

i?,

has to be divided by p or 2i to reduce it to a


area will then be 10.8 square feet,

distance of the incidence of

W from the
ft.

the distance of the e.g. of the latter

= 10.9,

R be

will

^X

The reduced

base has already been determined to be 11.23


being .32

is

nearly.

termed

the distance between the incidences of

If

the equation of

.r,

heel of the

and that of Ws
from
will be

moments about the

incidence

stand thus

or

555X^ = 844x+10.8a^+117.83
i.e.

^^ 9132.2 ^ ^^^ ^
854 8

'

therefore 10.7+11.23

is

= 21.93

ft.

"^

distant from the heel.

The

point being 22.2 ft. from the same point, R falls .3 ft. (nearly)
within the middle third. This shows that a small reduction in the

area of the profile could be effected.


17.

it

is

Component.

Vertical

component

of

obtained

and

If

the position of N, the vertical

Pi, is required, as is

by the equation

sometimes the

case,

NXx=={WXll.2S) + {w3X.32),

X being the distance from the heel of the base.

Or

in figures,

854.8a:=(844Xll.23) + (10.8X.32)
a:

The

incidence of

the middle third.

is,

= 11.1

feet

therefore, in this case, exactly

middle third, which refers to the resultant

ponent
high
is,

N (R.F.)

dam comes

middle

limit of

but, as will be seen later,

W (R.E.) not to the comwhen the lower part of a


commonly imposed

to be designed, one condition

that the vertical component


third, in

on the

This of course does not affect the condition of

which case

N must fall at the inner edge of the


will necessarily fall inside thereof.

DAMS AND WEIRS


It

may

(/), is

actual value of

PH

force R,

- =

844
- X9

32X4
is

PH

59.3 tons, as

w;

= -

='^ N^+P^-

R = ^l 60^+39^ = 71.5

That

ton.

i.e.,

by

of the inclined

P NR

and the

in

which

Here iV = 855 square

P = 555

feet,

i?,

feet,

equivalent to 39

tons.

In the design of the section of a

Pressure Distribution.

the distribution of pressure on a plane

pier, or retaining wall,

in the section

The

32

obtained from the triangle of forces

whence

are taken

by the eliminated unit weight,

equivalent to 60 tons, nearly, and

18.

moments

therefore /=-rr.

being the hypothenuse

dam,

if

W in tons of 2000 pounds will be the superficial area,

square feet multiplied

wp, viz,

PH
rr because

Nf=;

about the incidence of R, then

tons,

N and

here be noted that the space between the location of

R, which will be designated

or 844

23

relations existing

between

maximum

unit

and mean or average unit stress (si) will


now be considered. The mean unit stress on any plane is that
which acts at its center point and is in amount the resultant stress
acting on the plane (the incidence of which may be at any point)
divided by the width of the lamina acted on. Thus in Figs. 3 or 8
take the resultant W. This acts on the horizontal base and its
stress,

symbolized by

mean unit stress ^i

will

vertical coxnponent of

(s),

be

In the same way, with regard to

-7-.

R the mean unit

horizontal base will be

N
~.

stress

The maximum

produced by

it

TV",

the

on the

unit stress occurs at

that extremity of the base nearest to the force in question which


i?.

Thus the maximum

unit stress due to

that due to a combination of


at the toe of the base

and

It

is

dence of the center of pressure

is

is

maximum

b.

is

is

at the heel while

N acting at the incidence of R

evident that the nearer the incito the center point the less is the

developed at the outer edge of the section, until


the center of pressure is actually situated at the center point itself.
stress

The maximum pressure at the outer part of the section then equals
the average and is thus at a minimum value. The relation between
maximum and mean unit stress or reaction is expressed in the fol-

DAMS AND WEIRS

24

lowing formula in which

it is

assumed that any tension at the heel

can be cared for by the adhesion of the cementing material or of


reinforcement anchored do^vn

-'040

(9)

m equal the expression in brackets,

OFj letting

In formula

(9a), q is

= 7nsi

(9a)

the distance between the center point of the

base and the center of pressure or incidence of whatever resultant


pressure

and

tion,

under considera-

is

is

.51

the

mean

stress,

or the resultant pressure di-

vided by the base.

In Fig. 8 as explained in
section 16, the incidence of
i.e.,

center

the

(R.F.), falls .3

of
ft.

i?,

pressure

within the

middle third of the base, consequently the value of q will be

^-'

33.3

--.3=5.25 ft., and

in formula

= 1-

31.5

(9a)

m=

= 1.95.

6?

The maxi-

33.3

mum
=

/.

reaction

at

the

rSTons

always designated by
Fig, 13.

1.95X60

Diagram Showing Pressure Distribution

on a

Dam with Reservoir Empty and

ft.

m = l .95 = .05,

and

^2

tons per sq.

33.3

Reservoir Full

the heel,

= 3.51

toe

= mN

For the reaction (R.F.) at

= .05X60 = .09 tons. The distribu-

tion of pressure due to the vertical

33.3

component of

R is shown hatched

in Fig. 8 as well as in Fig. 13.

From formula

(9)

the facts already stated are patent.

the incidence of the resultant force

is

When

at the center of the base.

DAMS AND WEIRS


q

= 0,

consequently

and

mean when at one of the

to the

when

m=l

= Si,

that

is,

25

the

third points, q

==

maximum

m=
,

is

equal

and s = 2si

2,

W
m = 4, and s = 45i, or 4^-.

at the toe,

b
If the material in the

strain, the

incapable of caring for tensile

is

vertical compression, or

not apply.

Formula

falls, outside

the middle third.

(9) will

ever

maximum

dani

In designing sections

5,

obtained by formula

(24), section 86, should

is

it

be used when-

maneuver the

often necessary to

incidence of the resultant stress to, a point as close as possible to the


jcenter of the

base in ord^r to reduce the

possible value,

which

that of

is

thje

and may be

less,

and besides

The

stress.

maximum

njiddle third, insures that the


the,;mean,

mean

maximum stress to the least


stress

condition of the

cannot exceed twice

insures the absence of tensile

stress at the base.

Graphical

19.

Method

Distribution

for

The

Pressure.

of

graphical method, of ascertaining the distribution of pressure on the


ba,se pf

a masonry wall^ which has already been dealt with analytiexhibite4,in Fig. 13, which

cally,, is

The procedure

pFig. 8.

on the base

and

line,

i?,

a reproduction of the base of

Two

semicircles are struck

having their centers at the third division points

their radii equal to

incidence of

is

as follows:

is

the line eg

the two semicircles.

From

is

drawn

the point marked

to

g,

Again from g a

that of the

e,

the point of intersection of


line

gn

is

set off at right

angles to eg cutting the base or its continuation at a point n.

point
sure

is

nil in either

is

.clear of
ff

termed the antipole of

be continued upward,

latter point will,

The

is let fall,

line

Kg

is

by the

compressive
cutting the
it will

or tensile.

mean unit pressure, =1.8


from n cutting the new base line
and the liiie continued
from the toe of the

lar let fall

is

Below and

now made, and from

new base

in g^ while,

intersect the base at

if

K.

the

This

construction, be the center point of the base.

continued through

the

Joined

This

or the neutral point at which pres-

the projBle a projection of the base

a perpendicular

line

spnse

e,

g'

to h\ g'h' being

tons.

made equal

perpendicular

at ni; the points Ui

and

is let

are

tQ

f^H

then

until it intersects another perpendicu-

base.

A third perpendicular is drawn

DAMS AND WEIRS

26

from the heel of the base, cutting off a corner of the triangle. The
hatched trapezoid enclosed between the last two lines represents the
distribution of pressure
scale close
^

upon

W 59,3
= =

oo^^^-7^

"r~

3.52

3.51

on the base. The maximum stress will


and the minimum .09 tons. If
be considered,

tons, the

maximum

stress at the heel

and the minimum .04, at the toe.


Examples to Illustrate Pressure

20.
is

will

be

In Fig. 14
on the base, due to the

Distribution.

illustrated the distribution of pressure

incidence of R,

first,

at the toe of

the base, second, at the two-third


point,

third,

and

the center,

at

an intermediate

fourth, at

position.

,.^-^JC.

In the

case

first

.(i?i),

it

will

seen that the neutral point n\


at the

first

third point.

thirds of the base

and one-third in

mum

is

be

falls

Thus two-

in compression

tension, the maxi-

in either case being propor-

tional to the relative distance of the

-TENSION

neutral point from the toe and heel


of the base, the compression at the

toe being four times, while the ten-

twice the

mean

In the second case

{R^)

sion at the heel


stress.

is

the two-third point,

intersects at

of n is
The whole base

and the consequent position


exactly at the heel.

.-.J.
Fig.

14.

Pressure Distribution on
Dam under Various
Conditions

Base of

is

thus in compression, and the max-

imum

is

third

case

double the mean.

drawn at

{Rz)y

The

distance to

line

right angles to fg.

latter is vertical

quently be horizontal.

the

is

and gn

In the

gn

will conse-

thus infinite and the

area of pressure becomes a rectangle with a uniform unit stress

In the fourth case {Ra), the neutral point

lies

is

The

s.

well outside the profile,

consequently the whole is in compression, the condition approximating


to that of

i?3.

DAMS AND WEIRS


Maximum

21

Pressure

27

maximum

The

Limit.

pressure

increases with the depth of the profile until a level is reached where

the limit stress or highest admissible stress


this level the design of the section of

is

Pown

arrived at.

to

a dam, as already shown, con-

simply in a slight modification of the pentagonal profile with

sists

a vertical back, the base width varying between that of theele77

mentary

profile or --=, or its

reduced value given in formula

(3).

Vp
Beyond this limiting depth, which is the base of the so-termed
"low" dam, the pentagonal profile will have to be departed from
and the base widened out on both sides.
Formulas for

22.

in the interior of a

Maximum

were

a function of

In Fig.

Si.

is

R = ^~W+P^ = diho

and P; therefore
vertical,

is

shown composed of
the horizontal water pressure, and

sentative triangle of forces

of

The maximum unit stress

dam is not identical with {s), the maximum vertical

unit reaction at the base, but

force (R.F.),

Stress.

N and W would

coincide

N sec

and then

The

a dam.

hitherto

the assumption, see Fig.


c

= ^ = m

Another theory which

maximum

d.

a repre-

resultant

If the

internal

based on

is

unit stress

(10a)

Europe and

East assumes that the

maximum

normal to the direction

of the resultant forces as illustrated

stress lines

stress

on the base of Fig.

due to

R would not

be

-r-

be

-^

Oi

mum unit

But

8.

stress is

in the

developed on a plane

According to

but ^ and the


,

back

RyW^+P^,

7-sec^

finds acceptance in

still

R the

most prevalent theory

that the

8,

8,

the vertical

maximum

Various views have been current regarding the


stress in

this,

the

by the
mean

maximum stress

will

Oi

= \b and R= N sec

6,

consequently the maxi-

Oi

stress

would be
c

= ^sec2^

(10b)

Recent experiments on models have resulted in the formula for


maximum internal unit stress being recast on an entirely different
principle from the preceding. The forces in action are the maxi-

'

DAMS AND WEIRS

28

mum

vertical unit force or reaction s

shearing unit stress ^s=-r-

water pressure, 6r
equally resisted

by each

ing stress will thus be

The

combined with a horizontal

shearing force

symbohzed by P, which

the horizontal

is

assumed to be

is

unit in the base of the dam;' the unit shear-

These forces being at-right angles to

-7-.

each other, the status

is

that of a bar or column subject to compres-

and

sion in the direction of its length

length.

The combination

and

increased compressive stress,

The formula

also to a shear

normal to

recently adopted for

also a tension in ;the naaterial.

maximum

unit compression!^ is

as follows

In this 5 = ??i5i,

mN
z
=

= is+^is' + Ss'

(10)

As

its

of shear with compression produces ran

before ^3=^-, substituting

we

have
,_,

mN

c=-

>

26

When

m = 2,

as

is

462

the case

^2

when

26

the incidence of

is

exactly at

outer boundary of the middle third


c

23.

=-7-

(1+

sec 6)

(IO2)

N=W

and sec B=

profile

(section 7,

which has a

page

5)

and

vertical

m = 2; then

Vp
formula (IO2) becomes

c=y
Now

"

Application of All Three Formulas to Elementary Profile.

In the case of elementary triangular


back,

iM.Q

'

(1+

sec

W H\

^)=y 0+^l^0
Vp

Hwp

-^H^)

(11)

DAMS AND WEIRS

29

in elementary triangle = 150 feet,

p=2.4, ^P = 7X ton.

Example,

Let

When, according

to

(11),

^^

(1

+ 1.187) = 12.3

tons per

square foot.

Taking up formula (10a)

mWT
2WTsec 6
sec 6

^=

W = Hwp
-
as above
,

-j-

iU

c=

= Ew^'p^^l
HwpJ^
^

(11a)

Example with conditions as before

150XlXl.55V3^

= 'TOAx/iQ^ = 1QQ4

c=-

With formula

7.26X1.84

(10b),

c=

c= Hwp

13.3 tons

or in terms of

H,

f^^=Hw{p+l)

(lib)

Therefore, with values as above,

150X1X3.4

_^

32

Ffom

the above

it is

a very high value to

dams appear

t6 have

c.

evident that formulas (10b) and

(1 lb)

give

Tested by this formula, high American

maximum

compressive unit stresses equal to

20 tons per square foot, whereas the actual value according to

However, the stresses in the


is more like 14 tons.
Assuan dam, the Periyar,'and other Indian dams, as also French
dam^ have been worked out from formula (lOb) which is still in use.

formula (iO)

24.

Limiting Height by Three Formulas.

The

limiting height

(Hi) of the elementary triangular profile forms a close guide to


that obtaining in any trapezoidal section, consequently a formula will

be given for each of the three cases in connection with formulas (10),
Referring to case (10), we have from formula (11)
(lOa), and (lOb).

f(.W^)

DAMS AND WEIRS

30

Whence Hu

2c

the limiting height = -

Exarri'ple,

With

^
mentary
4.

= 16

tons and p==2A, Hi, the hmit height of the ele-

2X16X33 =
^^^^^^^

fii
-Ilk
profile
will
be

Referring to case (10a),

1024

,^^

^^ = 195

we have from formula

c=Hw

feet.

(lla)

VpVp + 1

^VpVp+1
Exam'ple,

With data

16x32
tttt = 180 feet, nearly.^
H = -z

as above

1.55X1.84

Referring to case (10b),

we have from formula

(1

lb)

c=Hwip+l)
Hi=wip+1)
Exam'ple.

With same data Hi =

Thus the new formula

(10) gives

^"7 = 150

much

feet.

the same results as that

formeriy in general use in the United States (10a), while in the

more conservative formula (10b) the difference is marked.


Internal Shear and Tension. We have seen that the
25.
combination of compressive and shearing stresses in a dam (R.F.)
produces an increased unit compression.
increase in the shearing stress

and

It further develops

also a tensile stress.

The

formulas are given below.

Compression as before

= y^ + Al^+^.^or

an

three

(10)

DAMS AND WEIRS

31

Shear
'^

= y-^+'^"

or

^^'~

'

(13)

The tensile and shearing stresses are not of sufficient moment to require
any special provision in the case of a gravity dam. The tension is
This fact suggests

greatest at the heel, diminishing toward the toe.

The

that a projection of the heel backward would be of advantage.


direction (a) of c to the vertical

Tan 2a=

when m = 2, tan 2a = -^.

^=

is

but

as follows:

is

sob
^-r-=
=-r

jf

mJy

In Fig.

8,

P = 555and

whence 2a = 33 00' and

.649

not that of

(a)

= 16

/.tan2a =

iV = 855.

The

30'.

inclination

855
of

to the vertical, or

The

direction of

of

c.

Sh

the shear,
26.

lies

6, is
is

33 50',

i.e.,

twice as large as that

at right angles to that of

by

on the angle

between

sliding

depends on the inclination of

W and R.

Thus tan

.7.

Security

W to P,

6 should be less

angle of friction of masonry on masonry, or less than

same

t,

Security against Failure by Sliding or Shear.

against failure

i.e.,

than the

This

is

the

and P must be such that 6


be greater than 35, or that the complement of be not less

as stating that the relation of

shall not

while that of

c,

at 45 from the directions of either c or

The adoption of the middle third proviso generally insures


With regard to sliding on the base, this can be further provided against by indentations in the base line or constructing it
inclined upward from heel to toe.
than 55.
this.

27.

Influence Lines.

It is

sometimes desirable for the purpose

of demonstrating the correctness of a profile for tentative design,

two conditions
and empty, through the profile of a dam. This is
far better effected by the use of graphic statics.
There are two different systems of graphic construction that
give identical results, which will now be explained and illustrated.
The first method, which is most commonly adopted, is exhibited
to trace the line of pressures corresponding to the
of reservoir full

in Fig. 15,

gravity 2|.

elementary

which

is

the profile of a 100-foot high

dam

It thus lies within the limiting depth,


profile

would be 190

feet.

with

specific

which for the

DAMS AND WEIRS

32

The

profile is pentagonal,

base width of the elementary

with a vertical back, and has the

profile, viz,

which

full

in this case is

Vp

-X 100 = 66.7

The

feet.

crest k

pressure triangle has a base of

is

V// = 10

The

feet wide.

The water-

profile, aS well as

the water-

pressure triangle,

is

divided into five equal laminas, numbered 1


h-/^H //=/^

Graphical ConBtruction for Tracing Lines of Pressure on

Fig. 15.

to

5'

in

which

one case and


is

is,

1'

to 5' in the other.

therefore, a

common

Dam

of Pentagonal Profile

The depth

factor

of each lamina:,

and can be eliminated as

5
well as the item of unit weight, viz, wp.

The

half widths of- all

these laminas will then correctly represent their areas

and

als6 their

weights, reduced to one denomination, that of the masonry.


Fig. 15a a force polygon

is

formed*

In

In the verticalload line the

several half widths of the laminas 1 to

^5;

are

first set off,

and

at.

DAMS AND WEIRS

33

right angles to it the force line of water pressure is similarly set

out with the half widths of the areas

Ri to
step

i?6

is

are drawn.

5'.

to

Then the

resultant

on marked

This completes the force polygon.

The next

with

1', 1, 2,

with

and

1' 2'

to find the combinations of the vertical forces on the profile,

that of

viz,

1'

so

combination of

lines of the

and

and

2, 1, 2,

This, as usual,

3, etc.

is

effected

by

constructing a force and ray polygon, utilizing the load line in


Fig. 15a for the purpose.

individual areas
in section 15,

below the

and

the centers of gravity of the several

by the graphical process described

to 5 are found
verticals

On

profile.

polygon Fig. 15b

Then

drawn through these points

constructed,

is

are projected

these parallel force lines 1 to 5, the funicular

reciprocal rays in Fig. 15a.

The

its

chords being parallel to their

intersection of the closing lines

of the funicular gives the position of the centroid of the five forces

engaged.

By

producing each chord or intercept backward until

intersects the initial line, a series of fresh points are obtained

it

which

1 and 2; 1, 2, and
and so on. Verticals through these are next drawn up on the profile

denote the centers of gravity of the combinations of


3,

so as to intersect the several bases of the corresponding combinations,

thus

1, 2,

and

and

3 will intersect the base of lamina 3;

4 will intersect that of lamina 4; and so on.

1, 2, 3,

and

These intersections

many points on the line of pressure (R.E.). The next step


draw the horizontal forces, i.e., their combinations on to the
profile.
The process of finding the centers of gravity of these areas
is rendered easy by the fact that the combinations are all triangles,
are so
is

to

not trapezoids, consequently the center of gravity of each


its

height from the base.

bination l'+2'+3'
3'

is

to the apex, in the

Thus the

is

at J

center of gravity of the com-^

at J the height measured from the base of^

same way

for

any other combination, that

of

being at i the total height of the profile. The back


being vertical, the direction of all the combined forces will be hori--

Vi

2', 3', 4', 5',

zontal,

to

and the

intersect

Thus

the

lines are

drawn through, as shown

in the figure,

corresponding combinations of vertical forces.

1' intersects 1,

1' 2' intersects 1 2,

several intersections the resultant lines

i?i,

and so on.
R^, to

i?5

are

From these
now drawn

do\yn to the base of the combination to which they belong, these


last intersections giving the incidence of

many

Ri,

points on the line of pressures (R.F.).

i?2,

The

etc.,

and are

process

is

so

simple

DAMS AND WEIRS

34

and takes as long to describe as to perform, and


tage,
rest,

it has this advaneach combination of forces is independent of the


and consequently errors are not perpetuated. This system

that

can also

be

used where

the back of the

has one or

profile

several inclinations to the vertical, explanation of which will be

given later.
Actual Pressures in Figures.

28.

described,

it is

calculation is required.
it or to

TF

the actual

If

N scales

tiplied

by

^Xl

-,

^^u
that IS,

all

174, to reduce this to tons

is

the procedure.

it

has to be mul-

and wp =

174X20X9 .. ^
\T
=244 tons.
N=
^^3^

the value of g

and that

is -7-

of

of

=
^lm+P^ 244+ V2442+
c:=N + ^-=
667
is

unit stress due to

the eliminated factors, which are - = 20


5

Assuming the incidence

value

maximum

required to be known, the following

is

In Fig. 15a,

In the whole process above

noticeable that not a single figure or arithmetical

therefore

exactly at the third division,

157 tons.

1572

2;

is

also scales

112,

Applying formula

534

= 667 =

its

(IO2),

.,

^ *""^ ^'' ^^- ^'^

As 8 tons is obviously well below the limiting stress, for


which a value of 16 tons would be more appropriate, this estimation
is practically unnecessary but is given here as an example.
roughly.

29.

Analytical

Method.

The

analytical

method

of calculation

now be worked out for the base of the profile only. First
position of W, the resultant vertical forces (R.E.) relative to
will

heel of the base will be calculated

the
the

The back

and next that of R.

of

the profile being in one line and vertical the whole area can be con-

two right-angled

veniently divided into

triangles,

ening of the curvature at the neck be ignored.

has an inclination of
(1) is A;Vp in

Vp

its

the thickfore slope

the vertical side of the upper triangle


area will then be

r =

^ = 75

from the heel of the base, which


20
feet = 6f feet.
case corresponds with the axis of the dam, is

sq. feet.

in this

The

length;

if

As the

distance of

its c. g.

DAMS AND WEIRS


The moment

75X20

=
-

then be

will

35

With regard

500.

to the lower

--= = 5000 X- = 3333.3

triangle, its area is

2Vp

lever

its

arm

the whole

is

one-third of

is

about the axis

will

its

is

of the incidence of

length of

The moment
The moment of
the parts. The

base, or 22.2 feet.

then be 3333.3X22.2 = 74,000.

sum of the moments of


75+3333 = 3408. Let x be the required

equal to the

area of the whole

The

sq.feet.

distance

W from the heel, then


a:

X 3408 = 74,500

= 21.9feet
x=^^^
3408
The

inner edge of the middle third

heel; the exact incidence of

third, a practically negligible

of

YtFJ

the distance
in this

is,

is

o or 22.2

from the

therefore, .3 foot outside the middle

amount.

With regard to the position


R and that of
is

between the incidence of

(/)

^=2220.

the water-pressure area=

= 21.7

feet distant

The

feet.

then be 21.7+21.9 = 43.6

total distance of

feet; the outer

.'./=

from the heel

will

edge of the middle third

is

44.4 feet distant from the heel, consequently the incidence of

is

44.4-43.6 = .8 foot within the middle

-.8 = 10.3

ft,

and

third,

^6 .8=
6

then q = ~

m= A+^'^ = l + .93 = 1.93.

At

this stage it

be convenient to convert the areas into tons by multiplying


2 25
them by pw, or -^. Then
and
become 239.6, and P becomes
will

156.3 tons.
figures;

Formula

(10) will also

be used on account of the high

then

'=f+<J+'^'

6.93

tons,

|6.93'

^
therefore,c=-^+\^+(2.34)'=3.46+Vl7.48
^5
= 7.64
,

tons.


DAMS AND WEIRS

36

17

i*or

1
or -.u
the compression at^^u
the 1.
neel,m

'

52,

6^
~^

= 1l

n^
= S)1.

S2

tttt;
= 239.6X0.07
66.7

= ^51 ton. The area of base pressure is accordingly drawn on Fig. 15.

If

= "^^'
2.03;

239.6X2.03

therefore, s
"
'

66.7

base pressure

is

m=l+

be considered, ^ = 4-+-3 = 11.42, and


o

(R.E.)

= 7.30

tons.

The

66.7

therefore greater with (R.E.) than with (R.F.);

-^-^annnnjU]],
Diagram Showing

Fig. 16.

there

This pressure area


Haessler's Method.

line of pressures

16, the

Method

also a slight tension

is

quantity.
30.

Haessler's

same

system, which

which

is

on a

Dam

at the toe of .11 ton, a negligible


is
,

shown on

Fig. 16.

second method of drawing the

termed "Haessler's"
used as in the

profile being
is

for Locating Lines of Preaaure

is

last

exhibited in Fig.

example.

In this

very suitable for a curved back, or one composed

of several inclined surfaces, the forces are not treated as independent


entities as before,

but the process of combination

from the beginning.

They

polygon, Fig. 16a and are


1',

is

1,

2\ the

1'

can readily be followed


with

last resultant being the

then combined with 2 producing

is

continuous

on the force

producing Ri] Ri with


dotted reverse hue.

i?2,

and

so on.

2', i.e.,

This

last

DAMS AND WEIRS


The

reciprocals

on the

c.g.'s of all the laminas

profile are

drawn

37
as follows:

1, 2, 3^ etc.,

First the

are obtained by

1', 2', 3', etc.,

Next the water-pressure lines, which in this case


are horizontal, are drawn through the profile. Force line (1') intersects the vertical (1), whence Ri is drawn parallel to its reciprocal

graphical process.

in Fig. 16a through the base of lamina (1), until

zontal force line

(2')

a line

line in Fig.

From

is

reaches the hori-

Its intersection with the base of (1) is a point

(2').

in the line of pressure (R.F.).

with

it

Again from the intersection of Ri

drawn backward

16a until

this point ifa is

the horizontal force

it

parallel to its dotted reciprocal

meets with the second vertical force

then drawn downward to

its intersection

repeated until the intersection of

i?5

the operation for (R.F.).

It is evi-

dent that Rs as well as

the other

all

with

intersection with the base of lamina

(3'), its

giving another point on the line of pressures.

(2)

(2).

with the

final

This process

is

base coiripletes

resultants are parallel to the cor-

responding ones in Fig. 15, the same


result being arrived at

by

different

graphical processes.

Stepped

31.

16b

Polygon.

Fig.

a representation of the so-

is

Fig.

called
IS

^'stepped"

17.
Transformation of Inclined
Pressure Area to Equivalent
with Horizontal Ease

which

employed; the form

also often

differs,

polygon,

but the principle

is identical

with that already described.

Inspection of the figure will show that

all

the resultant lines are

drawn radiating to one common center or nucleus (0).


The process of finding the incidence of
,
on the bases

several lamina

is

of the

identical with that already described with regard

to Fig. 15, viz, the same combination of

1+2, 1+2+3, and so on,


and then projected on to the profile.
32.
Modified Equivalent Pressure Area in Inclined Back Dam.
When the back of a dam is inchned, the area of the triangle of water
are formed in the funicular 16c

pressure

with

ABC, in Fig.

its half

17, will^not equal the

width, which latter

consequently the factor

is

product of H, but of Hi

measured

parallel to the base,

cannot be eliminated.

The triangle
can, however, be altered in outhne so that while containing
the same area, it will also have the vertical height
as a factor
itself

38

DAMS AND WEIRS

^HIPJM f

DAMS AND WEIRS


This

in its area.

is

and subsequently repeated


is

by the device

effected

illustrated in Fig. 17,

in other diagrams.

By

the triangle of water pressure.

to the back of the wall

39

AB,

a.

point

In this figure

drawing a
is

line

CD

ABC

parallel

obtained on the continu-

dam. A and D are then


joined. The triangle ABD thus formed is equal to ABC, being
on the same base AB and between the same parallels. The area
ation of the horizontal base line of the

of

TiD

ABD

equal to

is

-XH,

and that

of the wall to half width

ji

EF X H.
triangle

Consequently we see that the half width

BD
-^

of the

ABD can properly represent the area of the water pressure,

and the half width EF that of the wall. The vertical height
may, therefore, be eliminated. What applies to the whole triangle
would also apply to any trapezoidal parts of it. The direction of the
resultant line of water pressure will still be as before, normal to the
surface of the wall, i.e., parallel to the base BC, and its incidence on
the back will be at the intersection of a line drawn through the e.g.
of the area in question, parallel to the base.
ally

This point

will natur-

be the same with regard to the inclined or to the horizontally

based area.

Curved Back

33.

Profiles.

In order to illustrate the graphical

procedure of drawing the line of pressure on a profile having

a curved back, Figs. 18 and 19 are put forward as illustrations


merely

as models of correct design.

In these profiles the


lower two laminas of water pressure, 4' and 5', have inclined
^not

Both are converted to equivalent areas with horizontal


the device explained in the last section. Take the lowest
lamina acdb; in order to convert it into an equivalent trapezoid
with a horizontal base, de is drawn parallel to ac; the point e is
bases.

bases

by

joined with Ay the apex of the completed triangle, of which the trapezoid

is

a portion.

When af is drawn

then be the required converted


half width of

which multiplied by

horizontally, the area acef will

figure, the horizontally

will

measured

equal the area of the original

trapezoid acdb; - can then be eliminated as a


5

common

factor

and

the" weights of all the laminas represented in the load line in

40

DAMS AND WEIRS

DAMS AND WEIRS


by the

Fig. 18a,

41

The lamina

half widths of the several areas.

4' is

treated in a similar manner.

The

graphical processes in Figs. 18 and 18a are identical with

those in Fig. 15.

of
in

In the force polygon 18a the water-pressure forces

drawn in directions normal to the adjoining portion


the back of the profile on which they abut, and are made equal
length to the half widths of the laminas in question. The back

V, 2\

3', etc. J

are

of the wall is vertical

down

to the base of lamina 3, consequently

and 3', will be set out on the water-pressure load


line in Fig. 18a from the starting point, horizontally in one line.
In laminas 4 and 5, however, the back has two inclinations; these
forces are set out from the termination of 3' at their proper directions, i.e., parallel to their inclined bases to points marked a and b.
The direction of the resultants of the combinations, 1' and 2', and
the forces,

1', 2', 3',

1', 2^,

will clearly

be horizontal.

the directions of the combination


resultant line

Thus the

Aa and

that of

If

1^ 2' 3' 4' 5' will

inclination of the resultant of

forces placed

on end, as

Aa and Ab

1^ 2' 3' 4' will

be joined, then
be parallel to the
be parallel to Ab.

any combination

of inclined

in the water-pressure load line, will always

be parallel with a line connecting the terminal of the last of the


forces in the combination with the origin of the load line.
Profiles.
The method of
and directions of the resultants
of water pressure areas when the back of the wall has several inclinaThis system involves
tions to the vertical is explained as follows
the construction of two additional figures, viz, a force and ray
polygon built on the water-pressure load line and its reciprocal
funicular polygon on one side of the profile. These are shown conof the vertical force
structed, the first on Fig. 18a, the nucleus
and ray polygon being utilized by drawing rays to the terminations
of 1', 2', 3', 4', and 5'.
In order to construct the reciprocal funic-

Treatment for Broken Line

34.

ascertaining the relative position

ular polygon, Fig. 18c, the

trapezoidal laminas which


1'

to

first

step

is

to find the c.g.'s of all the

make up the

w^ter-pressure area, viz,

This being done, lines are drawn parallel to the bases of

5'.

the laminas (in this case horizontal lines), to intersect the back of
the wall.
etc.,

are

From

drawn at

the points thus obtained the force lines

on which they abut.

On these

force lines,

1', 2', 3',

back of the wall


which are not all parallel,

right angles to the portions of the

DAMS AND WEIRS

42

the chord polygon (18c)


line

is

AO is drawn anywhere parallel to

From

its reciprocal

the intersections of this line with the force

marked

OV

is

drawn

First the initial

constructed as follows:

parallel to

OV

in Fig. 18a

AO,

in Fig. 18a.

line 1'

and

the chord

intersecting

Again from this point the chord '02' is drawn inter3'


whence the chord 03^ is continued to force 4 and
secting force
04' up to the force line 5\ each parallel to its reciprocal in Fig. 18a.

hne

force

2'.

The

The intersection of the initial and the

closing line is 05.

lines of the funicular


line 1' 2' 3' 4' 5',

reciprocal

Ob

closing

polygon gives the position of the final resultant


is then drawn from this point parallel to its

which

in Fig. 18a to its position

on the

The

profile.

resultants are obtained in

other

a sim-

manner by projecting the sevbackward till they


intersect the initial line OA^ these

ilar

eral chords

intersections being the starting

points of the other resultants,


viz, r-4^ l'-3', l'-2', and 1'.
These resultant lines are drawn

parallel

to their reciprocals in

18a, viz, l'-4' is parallel to Aa,

while the remainder are horizontal in direction, the same as


Diagram Showing Third Method
Determining Water Pressure Areas

Fig. 20.

of

their reciprocals.

This procedure

is

identical

with that pursued in forming the funicular 18b, only in this case the
forces are not all parallel.

35.

used

is

Example

of Haessler's

Method.

In Fig. 19 the

similar to Fig. 18, except in the value of p,

not 2.4 as previously.

The graphical system employed

profile

which
is

is 2|,

Haessler's,

each lamina as already described with reference to Fig. 16 being


independently dealt with, the combination with the others taking
place

on the

profile itSelf.

In this case the changes of batter coin-

cide with the divisions of the laminas, consequently the directions


of the inclined forces are
their areas abut.

normal to the position of the back on which

This involves finding the

pressure trapezoids, which

is

c. g. 's

of each of the water-

not necessary in the

first

system, unless

the funicular polygon of inclined forces has to be formed.

In spite

DAMS AND WEIRS


most cases Haessler's method

of this, in

will

43
be found the handiest

to employ, particularly in tentative work.

Example

36.

of Analytical Treatment.

In addition to the

two systems already described, there is yet another corresponding


In
to the analytical, an illustration of which is given in Fig. 20.
this the vertical and horizontal components of R, the resultants
(R.F.), viz, N and P are found.
In this method the vertical component of the inclined water pressure Pi is added to the vertical

dam

weight of the

itself,

and when areas are used to represent

weights the area of this water overlying the back slope will have to

be reduced to a masonry base by division by the specific gravity of


the masonry.
Relations of R. N. and

37.

W.

The diagram

in Fig.

20

further illustration showing the relative positions of R, P, Pi,

and W,
force

that

R
a',

is

The

P with
it is

from

a,

the intersection of the horizontal

all

the vertical forces, for the reason

starts

the resultant of the combination of these two forces; but

also the resultant of Pi

and W, consequently

The

the intersection of these latter forces.

consequently in the resultant


position of

by the

N,

the resultant of

line
iV,

is

is

known, that of

intersection of

and
and

it

it will

pass through

points a

and

follows as well that

ai are
if

the

W can be obtained graphically

or Pi with R.

These

lines

have already

been discussed.

UNUSUALLY HIGH DAMS


38.

"High" Dams.

An example

the design of a high dam,


before stated.

i.e.,

will

now be

given, Fig. 21, of

one whose height exceeds the limit

As usual the elementary

triangular profile forms

We have seen in
24 that the limiting depth with p = 2.4 and c=16 tons =
195 feet, whence for 18 tons' hmit the depth will be 219 feet. In

the guide in the design of the upper portion.


section

down to a depth of 180 feet.


made 15 feet wide and the back is battered 1 in 30; the
base width is made 180X.645 = 116 feet. The heel projects 6 feet
outside the axis line. The graphical procedure requires no special
Fig. 21 the tentative profile is taken

The

crest is

explanation.

It follows the analytical in dealing

with the water

pressure as a horizontal force, the weight of the water overlying

the back being added to that of the solid dam.

For purposes of

44

DAMS AND WEIRS

DAMS AND WEIRS

45

divided into three parts (1) the water on


the sloping back, the area of which is 540 sq. ft. This has to be
calculation the load

is

reduced by dividing

it

by

p and so becomes 225 sq.

not areas, will be used, this procedure

is

for the sake of uniformity in treatment to

As

ft.

not necessary, but

is

avoid errors.

tons,

adopted

The

the heel of the base of (3),

e.g.

about

is clearly 2 feet distant from


which point moments will be taken. That of the crest (2) is 13.3 feet
and that of the main body (3) obtained by using formula (7) comes

of (1)

to 41.2 feet.

No.

The statement

of

moments

is

then as follows:

DAMS AND WEIRS

46

The

middle third.
feet,

and

value of q (R.F.)

is

-.7=

19.33 -.7

18.6

m =04)=

Then by formula

(Id),

^+TI^--N being 815 and P, 506

^_ 1.96X815+V(1^96x815)^+4

(506)^

232

_ 1597+V2551367+1024144
232

= 15.03 tons per square foot


Extension of Profile,
This value being well below the limit
of 18 tons and both resultants (R.F.) and (R.E.) standing within the

middle third
another 30

now be a
3769

it is

ft.

trifle

sq. ft.

deemed that the same

over 135

=283

tons.

The

feet.

The

can be carried down


The base length will
the new portion (4) is

profile

in depth without widening.

area of

distance of its e.g. from the heel

by

will be
The position of
(7) is found to be 63.4 feet.
obtained as follows, the center of moments being one foot farther

formula

to right than in last paragraph.


No.

DAMS AND WEIRS


being

moment about the heel will be 23 X2..3 = 52.9,

or 2.3 feet the

47

*^

This amount added to the

say 53.0 ft.-tons.

represent that of iVi

Ni

is

The

Wi+

that of

Ni from the heel

distance of

moment

of

Wi

will

and will be 50,864+53 = 50,917. The value of


the water on back or, 1081+23 = 1104 tons.
then

is

=46.2

To

feet.

1104
obtain that of

i?i

the value of

f=~

to 46.2

= 89.9

the incidence of Ri

ft.,

=43.7

added

feet: this

3X1104

-^

is

^^~

therefore

89.9

90 89.9 =

1 ft.,

-.1=22.5-.1=22.4

and

ft.,

m = l+^ = 1+^^^ = 2.00,

m
.

find

formula (10) will be used, the quantities being

c,

,-,

iormula

(lOi).

689

T~=7TT7=^-1
,

Here

nearly.

135

To

q = -^

Then

within the middle third boundary.

mN'= 2.00X1104
_

=16.4
^
135
.

less

than
,

tons and

Ss

inen

^
tons,

135

2^4

'=^vV'
The

(16.4)2

limit of 18 tons, being

(5j)2^8_2+9.7 = 17.9tons

now

reached, this profile will have to

be departed from.
39.

Pentagonal Profile to Be Widened.

be adopted

is

The method now

to

purely tentative and graphic construction will be

its solution.
A lamina of a depth of 60 ft.,
be added to the profile. It is evident that its base width must
be greater than that which would be formed by the profile being
continued down straight to this level. The back batter naturally

found a great aid to


will

will

be greater than the

fore.

From examination of

other profiles

appears that the rear batter varies roughly from about


in 8 while the fore batter is

extra offset at the back

about

to

1.

As a

1 in

first trial

was assumed with a base

5 to

an 8

it

ft.

of 200 feet; this

would give the required front projection. Graphical


showed that N would fall without the middle third, and

trial

lines

W as well;

A second trial was


was increased and the base

the stress also just exceeded 18 tons (R.E.).

now made

in which the back batter

shortened to 180 feet.

In this case c exceeded the 18 ton

limit.

DAMS AND WEIRS

48
Still

further widening

was evidently required

at the heel in ordei

to increase the weight of the overlying water, while

that the base width would not bear reduction.

was

it

The

clear

rear offset

was then increased to 15 feet and the base width to 200 feet. The
stresses now worked out about right and the resultants both fell
within the middle third.
e.g. of the trapezoid of

By

using formula

(6)

the distance of the

water pressure, which weighs 112 tons, was

found to be 7.2 feet from the heel of the base, and by formula
that of the lowest lamina

(5)

from the same point

91.8 feet; the weight of this portion


vertical forces

tion are
ft.

is

754 tons.

is

These two new

can now be combined with Ni whose area and posi-

known and thus that

of

N2 can be

ascertained.

distant from the heel of the upper profile; its lever

therefore,

(7)

found to be

be 46.2+15 = 61.2

the heel will then be

feet.

Ni is 46.2
arm will,

The combined moment about


DAMS AND WEIRS
P2
1139 .^^
tons
Ss= ; = -^^r:r =5.7
200

Now
Whence by formula

(10),

16.3

which

is

-^1^+32.5 = 8.15+9.9 = 18.05

tons

the exact Umit stress.

The value

of

52

(the pressure at the heel)

same formula, using the minus


fore,

49

52=7 =

"

tions are set out

posed of PFi+(5).

= 3.4

sign, viz,

m=l

tons, nearly.

is

obtained by the

-^ =
130 8

These

.34, there-

vertical reac-

^uu

below the

The

With regard to W2
moments is as follows:

profile.

table of

it is

com-

DAMS AND WEIRS

50

In the force diagram the water part of


is kept on the top of
W. This enables the lengths of the
series to be
clearly shown. The effect is the same as if inclined water pressure

the load Hne

were drawn, as has already been exhibited in several cases.

lines

Base of Dam.

Silt against

40.

In Fig. 21, suppose that the

water below the 210-foot depth was so mixed with


specific gravity of 1.4 instead of unity.

shown graphically without

The

silt

as to have a

effect of this

alteration of the existing work.

can be
In the

trapezoid lying between 210 and 270 the rectangle on ab represents

the pressure above 210 and the remaining triangle that of the lower

60 feet of water.

The base

of the latter, be

is,

therefore,

=
= 7rT
2.4
p

25

Now the weight of the

feet.

water

is

increased in the proportion

H'xlA

=
'

of 1.4

consequently the proper base width will be

1,

60X1 4

7r7~="^^

The

f^^t.

The normal pressure on the back of the


silt is shown graphically by the triangle
whose base = cd= 10 feet; its area is 310 square feet,

pressure area due to

dam due

triangle acd then represents the additional

silt.

to the presence of

attached,

combined with R2 at
is Rs] on the
profile the reciprocal inclined force is run out to meet R2 and from
this intersection R3 can be drawn up toward P2.
This latter intersection gives the altered position of iV^2, which is too slight to be
noticeable on this scale.
The value of c and the inclination of R
both
increased,
which
is detrimental.
are
If the mud became consolidated into a water-tight mass the
pressure on the dam would be relieved to some extent, as the earth
equivalent to 23 tons.

This inclined force

is

the top right-hand corner of Fig. 21a and the resultant

will

not exert liquid pressure against the back.

Liquid

mud

pres-

sure at the bottom of a reservoir can consequently be generally

neglected in design.
41.

dam

Filling against

be considered.

immersed 's.
case.

g. of 1.8 is

Then a

45 feet

is

Toe

of

Dam. Now

let

the other side of the

Supposing a mass of porous material having an


deposited on the toe, as

is

often actually the

pressure triangle of which the base equals

drawn;

its

HX-^8 =
1

area will be 1755 and weight 132 tons; the

DAMS AND WEIRS


resultant P4 acting through its

c. g. is

51

run out to intersect

At the

i?2.

same time from the lower extremity of i?2, in the force diagram, a
reciprocal pressure line Pa is drawn in the same direction equal in
length 132 tons and its extremity is joined with that of P2; the resulting line -R4 is then projected on the profile from the previous intersection until it cuts the force Une P2; this gives a new resultant R4,
also
and a new position for N, viz, N4., which is drawn on the profile
dam
increases
The load on the toe of the
will be similarly affected.
;

its

stabiUty as the value of 6

is

improved, but that of R^, which

To adjust matters,

the

c. g.

lessened, the position of


is

nearer to the toe than

of (5) requires

is also

i?3, is

not.

moving to the right which

fee Pressure

J
Diagram Showing

Fig. 22.

is

affected

by

Z9 Tons

Effect of Ice Pressure

shifting the base line thus increasing the

back and
same as

decreasing the front batter, retaining the base length the


before.

42.

Ice Pressure,

Ice pressure against the back of a

has sometimes to be allowed for in the design of the


rule,

however, most reservoirs are not

expansive pressure
lower

is

full in

dam

profile; as

winter so that the

summit but at some distance


negligible.
In addition to this when

exerted not at the

down where the

effect is

the sides of a reservoir are sloping, as

can take place and so the

is

dam

generally the case,

movement

from any pressure.


In the estimates for the Quaker Bridge dam it is stated that an
ice pressure of over 20 tons per square foot was provided for.
No
of ice

is

relieved

DAMS AND WEIRS

52
definite rules

Many

The

suitable.

is

run on a hundred-

effect of a pressure of ten tons per foot

dam

foot

seem to be available as to what allowance

authorities neglect it altogether.

acting at the water level

For

in Fig. 22.

is illustrated

this

purpose a trapezoidal section has been adopted below the sum-

mit

level.

The

crest is

made

15 feet wide and 10 feet high.

solid section is only just sufficient, as will

of R'

on the

The

base.

area of this profile

is

of the ordinary pentagonal sections as dotted

Two

Fig. 23.

contain but 3325 sq.


therefore 825 sq.

ft.

W the

weight of the

The
is

43.

An

Partial Overfall

Dams.

is first

their resultant

combined

cuts

It falls just within the

actual example
It

is

is

graphical procedure

at a

run down to the base parallel to

reciprocal in the force diagram.

third of the base.

The

ice pressure

dam and

point from which the final Ri

Dams

increase due to the ice pressure

or about 25 per cent.

hardly needs explanation.

with

4150 sq. ft., while one


on the drawing would

Profiles for Partial Overfall

The

ft.

This

appear from the incidence

its

middle

given in section 56.

not infrequently happens that

the crest of a dam is lowered for a certain length, this portion acting as

a waste weir, the crest of the balance of the


the water level.

dam

being raised above

In such cases a trapezoidal outline

is

generally

and the section can be continued


upon the same lines to form the upper part of the dam, or the upper
part can be a vertical crest resting on the trapezoidal body. In a
preferable for the weir portion

DAMS AND WEIRS


trapezoidal

dam,

the ratio of

if

be

-r-

53

the correct base width

r,

is

obtained by the following formula:


h

= JL

(14^)

This assumes the crest and summit water level to be the same.
In Fig. 23j p
vertical

back

is

taken as 2.4 and


then be

will

-^X
Vp

feet,

and the

crest

width k

will

as

The base width with

.2.

^
.

V1 + .2-.04

= 5QX.645X.935 = 31.3

be 31 .3 X .2 = 6.3

In the second

feet.

shown canted forward, which is desirable in


weirs, and any loss in stability is generally more than compensated
for by the influence of the reverse pressure of the tail water which

figure the profile is

influence increases with the steepness of the fore slope of the weir.

The base width is, however, increased by one foot in the second figure.
As will be seen in the next section, the crest width of a weir
should not be less than

ViZ+Vd;

in this case // = 45

This would provide a crest width of

6.7+2.2 = 9

feet,

and d = 5.
which it nearly

NOTABLE EXISTING DAMS


Cheeseman Lake Dam. Some actual examples of dam
sections will now be exhibited and analyzed.
Fig. 24 is the section
of the Cheeseman .Lake dam near Denver, Colorado, which is one
44.

of the highest in the world.

It is considered a gravity

however, and will be analyzed as such.


into three unequal parts

1, 2,

a curvature of 400 feet

It is built to

radius across a narrow canyon.

and

3,

The

and the

dam,

section can be divided


lines of pressure (R.F.)

and (R.E.) will be drawn through the bases of these three divisions.
Of the vertical forces (1) has an area of 756 sq. ft., (2) of 3840, and
being 17,952 sq. ft., which is marked
(3) of 13,356 the total value of

on the load line in Fig. 24a. With regard to the water-pressure


most convenient method, where half widths are not used,
which can only be done with equal divisions, is to estimate the
areas of the horizontal pressures only and set them off horizontally,
off

areas the

the values of the inclined pressures being obtained

For

this purpose the triangle of horizontal

adjacent to, but separate from, the

profile.

by

construction.

water pressure

The

is

shown

three values of

DAMS AND WEIRS

54

H2

which are equal to

will

be 270, 2631, and 7636, respectively, the

2p
ft.
In this computation the value of p is
assumed to be 2.4. These several lengths are now set out horizontally from the origin
in Fig. 24a, and verticals drawn upward
intercept the chords, 1', 2', 3', which latter are drawn from the
origin 0, parallel to their respective directions, i.e., normal to the

total being 10,537 sq.

The

adjacent parts of the wall.

rest of the process is similar to that

already described, with reference to Figs. 16 and 18, and need not

In Fig. 24a

be repeated.

N scales

19,450, equal to 1457 tons,

and

Radius = 400

p=.4

Fig. 24.

on the
1.51.

Profile of

CheeserQan Lake

profile q scales 15 feet, therefore, in

Therefore, 5 =

4.45; then

12.5

>

With regard

to

12.5 tons,

W^

90
m = 1+-

783

and 5s =-r-= ^^

176

(10)

q scales about 20

^=~r"~

tons, approx.

then works out to

1.7,

= .^

1.7X1346

7^

ft.,

ld.Utons.

exercise the inchned final resultant

This

(9),

mW

and

As an
profile.

176

formula

^^^^^'+(4.45)2 = 6.25+V59 = 13.9

nearly,

1.51X1457

by formula

c=-

mN

Dam

line is parallel to

Oc in Fig. 24a,

its

is

drawn on the
is worked

location

out by means of the funicular polygon, the construction of which

need not be explained after what has gone before.

DAMS AND WEIRS

55

In order to check this result analytbe, first, calculate the position of the e.g. of

Analytical Check.

45.
ically the

procedure will

the trapezoids (2)

and

to the rear corner of their bases

(3) relative

(7) and also the positions of the resultants of the vertical


components of the water pressure overlying the back with regard

by formula

same points by formula (6). Second, convert the areas into


tons by multiplying by A- The statement of moments about the
to the

heel of the base, with the object of finding the position of

is

given

below.

Moment

of (1)

Moment

of (2)

288

Moment

of (3)

1001

56.7X32.5

W=

Total

The distance

X47.9

order to obtain N, the

moments

13795

90713

1346 tons

will

1843

= 75075

X75

W from the heel

of

then be

of the

90713
,^,^ =67.5
1346

water weights

will

ft.

In

have to

be added as below.

Moment

of

1346X67.5

Moment

of Wi

10X21.6

Moment

of wz

Total

107 X9

N=

90713

=
=

216
963

91892

1463 tons

and
x=-

91892
''

62.8 feet

1463

R and its distance {q) from the center


position
of N must be computed from
known
the
from
point, that
To

find the incidence of

the formula

/=^ = ^^^ = 40

14.8 feet.

This

which was taken as 15

is

feet.

to that obtained graphically.


is

as follows, g =

67.5

ft.,

therefore,

g=(62.8+40.0)

close to the value obtained graphically

The value of iV is also seen to be close


(R.E.)
The value of q with regard to

= 20.5 feet,

almost exactly what it scales on

DAMS AND WEIRS

56
the diagram.

up

In this profile the upper part

is

Hght, necessarily

made

for in the lower part.

At the upper base

line of (2)

the middle third edge, while


position of

= 58.6

IS

is

the incidence of

R falls

within

62.8 distant from the heel

it.

At the

is

exactly at

final

base the

and the inner third point

distant, consequently the incidence of TV lies 4.2 feet

3
within the boundary.
If

N were

the position of

the middle third, the value of

made

obligatory at the inner edge of

W would be increased,

but

jR

would

P/iP/t/S 410' v-s^.i-i^e!^

4.

lOOOdOOO

Fig. 25.

be decreased.

maximum
by the

Profile of Roosevelt

There

SOOO

Dam

IO.00O3.Fr.

across Salt River, Arizona

may have been special reasons for limiting the


On Fig. 24 the position of iV is obtained

stress (R.E.).

intersection of the horizontal resultant

upward.
structure

If

Roosevelt

Dam.

it

prolonged

would amount to 21^ tons by the

In Fig. 25

Roosevelt dam, and Fig. 26

is

For some years, the Roosevelt


existence.

with

the stress were calculated on the supposition that the

was an arched dam,

"long" formula, given in section 78, Part


46.

It spans a very

is

II.

given the profile of the

the site plan of that celebrated work.

dam was

the highest gravity

dam

in

deep canyon of the Salt River in Arizona

DAMS AND WEIRS

57

and impounds the enormous quantity of 1 J million


which will be utilized for irrigation. This work

acre-feet of water,
is

part of one of

the greatest of the se\'eral large land reclamation projects under-

taken by the U. S. Government for the watering and settling of


arid tracts in the

The

dry zone of the western

profile is

states.

remarkable for the severe simplicity of

It closely follows the elementary profile right

line.

its

down

out-

to its

extreme base and forms a powerful advocate for this simple style
of design.

example.
first

The graphical procedure is similar


The section is divided into three

two are comparatively

to that in the last

As the

divisions.

small, the triangle of forces in Fig.

25a

^'^

Fig. 26.

is first

Site

Plan for Roosevelt

plotted at a large scale in pencil

Dam

and the

inclinations of the

resultants thus obtained are transferred to the profile ; this accounts


for the long projecting lines

near the origin of the force diagram

which also appear in some previous examples.


overcoming this

for

when the

forces (1)

difficulty is that

and

(2) are

first

neater

method

adopted in the next

figure,

amalgamated into one before

being plotted on the force diagram.

In Fig. 25a,

scales roughly 19,000 sq.

tons, q also measures approximately 20


,

and

mN

s=r =
b

formula (10)

ft.,

ft.,

equivalent to 1425

then m=l-\

120

= 1.75,

160

1425X1.75
rr-r

loO

= __^
15.5 tons.

5s

826

.^^tons.
= - = -=5.1
160

^
By

DAMS AND WEIRS

58

= ^;^+\^^^+(5.1) = 7.75 + V86 = 17

With regard
.,

tons roughly

to

q measures 23

ft.

and

works out to 1.86

mW
,
=
= 1.86X1378
=16 tons per sq.

thereiore s

it.

160

dam is built on a radius of 410 feet, measured from the


measured from the extrados of the curve at the base it will
be 420 feet and the arch stress as calculated from the "long" formula
This

axis;

if

used in ''Arched

The

site

Dams"

will

amount

to 23.3 tons.

plan given in Fig. 26 forms an instructive example of the

arrangement of spillways cut in the sohd rock out of the shoulders


of the side of the canyon, the material thus obtained being used in

the dam.

down

These spillways are each 200

feet

wide and are excavated

to five feet below the crest of the dwarf waste weir walls which

This allows of a

cross them.

much

greater discharge passing under

a given head than would be the case with a simple channel without
a drop wall and with bed at the weir crest
or afflux,

is

by

this

the height given to the

New

47.

level.

means diminished and that

dam

The "heading

up,

is

a matter affecting

profile of the

New Croton dam


New York City

crest.

Croton Dam.

The

constructed in connection with the water supply of


is

This

given in Fig. 27.

dam

has a straight alignment and

is

1168

accommodated by an overfull weir


1000 ft. in length, which is situated on one flank forming a continuation of the dam at right angles to its axis. The surplus water
falls into the Rocky River bed and -is conveyed away by a separate
channel. An elevation and plan of this work are given in Figs.

feet long.

Waste

fiood water

is

28 and 29.

The system

of graphical analysis

employed

ent from that in the last two examples and


18,

where independent combinations of

are used.

The

is

in this case

is differ-

that illustrated in Fig.

vertical

and

inclined forces

profile is divided into four divisions, the first being

a combination of two small upper ones. The further procedure after


the long explanations already given does not require any special
notice except to point out that the directions of the combined forces

V, l'+2', l'+2'+3'
lines

on

tively.

Fig. 27a,

The

etc., in {d)

are

drawn

parallel to their reciprocal

namely to the chords Oa, Oh, Oc, and Od, respecresultants are R^ (R.F.) and
(R.E.).
The

final

DAMS AND WEIRS

value of

is

fflTF

out to 1.82 therefore

Wj

and

s
'

1484 tons, consequently

case scales 20 feet

first

^ 1.82Xl380
190

and

m works

13.2 tons =c, as with

'

c are identical.

With regard

to

iV,

1.22X1484
1.22,

N is

1380 tons and that of

applying formula (10), g in the

59

q scales 7 feet, consequently

tons

9.5

As

only.

m=1+

42
190

P = 10,010 = 750

tons,

190

9.5

4 tons;
"' therefore

moderate.

Fig. 27.

+^

= X1

which

is

very

It is probable that other external pressures exist

due

c
"

Diagram

of Profile of

New

>

Croton

Dam

(4) 2

tons,

Showing Influence Lines as in

Fig. IS

front and rear, as also ice pressure, which would materimodify the result above shown. This dam, like the Cheeseman, is of the bottleneck profile, it is straight and not curved on plan.

to

filling in

ally

48.
in Egypt,

the

Assuan Dam. The section. Fig. 30, is of the Assuan dam


which notable work was built across the Nile River above

first cataract.

As

it

stands at present

it is

not remarkable for

DAMS AND WEIRS


its

height, but

works,

is

what

made up

it

61

lacks in that respect, as in

in length,

which

latter is

6400

most eastern

feet.

No

single

modern times has been more useful or far-reacl:ing


in beneficial results upon the industrial welfare of the people than
this dam.
Its original capacity was 863,000 acre-feet and the back
water extended for 140 miles up the river. The work is principally

irrigation

work

of

remarkable as being the only solid

dam which

passes the whole

discharge of a large river like the Nile, estimated at 500,000 secondfeet,

through

its

low and 40 high

body, for which purpose


sluices.

it is

provided with 140

These are arranged in groups of

ten,

each

STLEL RODS COfifiCCTlNO


HLW WORK WITH OLD

40 H/6H LE\/EL VEtfTJ


6-^6'x //.4d'

Assuan

Fig. 30.

low

sluice is

Dam

across the Nile

Showing Old and

New

Profiles

23 feet deep by 6| feet wide with the dividing piers


of the weight of the dam due to
an excess of width over what would be sufficient
in addition to which the maximum pressure in the

The diminution

16J feet wide.

sluices necessitates

for a solid

dam

piers is liniited to the extremely

The

low figure of 5 tons of 2000 pounds.

designers have thus certainly not erred on the side of boldness;

the foundation being solid granite, would presumably stand, with


perfect safety, pressure of treble that intensity, while the masonry,

being also granite, set in cement mortar,


carrying a safe pressure of 15 tons, as

is

certainly capable of

many examples

prove.

'"'iiii^'hiiuii'i'iii^K;^''^".

DAMS
This

AJND WEIRS

63

dam has proved such a financial success that it has recently

been raised by 23 feet to the height originally projected.


water thus impounded

is

nearly doubled in quantity,

The

i.e.,

to

over IJ million acre-feet; exceeding even that of the Salt River

As

was decided not to exceed the low unit


by 16J
feet throughout. A space has been left between the new and the
old work which has been subsequently filled in with cement grout
under pressure, in addition to which a series of steel rods has been let
reservoir in Arizona.

it

pressure previously adopted, the profile has been widened

Fig. 32.

View

of

Assuan

Dam before Being Heightened with Sluices in Operation

by boring, and built into the new work. The enlargeshown in the figure. The sluices are capable of discharging
500,000 second feet; as their combined area is 25,000 square feet

into the old face

ment

is

this will

mean a

velocity of 20 feet per second.

the possibility of adjustment of level,


gates, they will never be

sluices

in process, Fig. 33,

put to so severe a

of the sluice

test.

and longitudinal section shown in Fig. 31, a


in operation. Fig. 32, and a view of the new work
will give a good idea of the construction features.

location plan

view of the

Owing, however, to

by manipulation

64

DAMS AND WEIRS

DAMS AND WEIRS

Two further sections are

Cross River and Ashokan Dams.

49.

given in Figs. 34 and 35, the

dam

second of the Ashokan

of the Cross. River

first

New

in

65

dam, and the

Both are of unusually

York.

thick dimensions near the crest, this being specially provided to

enable the

dams

to resist the impact of floating

are left to be analyzed

vided with a vertical

a German innovation, which enables any

Dam

Fig. 35.

Fig. 36,

which

is

Dam.

New

feet.

The

It

South Wales not

784

feet

on the

is

batter 20 vertical to

far

crest,

from the new Federal Capital.


the

maximum

height being 240

and the back

horizontal, both identical with those adopted


crest

width

curve to a radius of 1200

feet.

This

The

a close copy of

Murrumbidgee

built across the

is

dam; the

acre-feet.

is

a further corroboration of the

fore batter is 3 vertical to 2 horizontal,

in the Roosevelt

Dam

thereby guarding against

generally termed "Barren Jack",

excellence of that profile.

Its length is

Ashokan

is now frequently adopted.


The Burrin Juick dam in Australia,

the Roosevelt dam, Fig. 25, and

River in

off,

Profile of

This refinement

Burrin Juick

50.

pro-

is

leakage through the wall to be drained


hydrostatic uplift.

is

line

Profile of Cross River

Fig. 34.

profiles

of porous blocks connected with two inspec-

This

tion galleries.

by

These

ice.

The Ashokan dam

the student.

material of which the

is

18 feet.

It is built

dam wdll impound


dam is composed is

on a

785,000

crushed

sandstone in cement mortar with a plentiful sprinkling of large

'plums" of

granite.

The

ultimate resistance of specimen cubes

DAMS AND WEIRS

66

was 180 "long" tons, per square foot; the high factor of safety of
12 was adopted, the usual being 8 to 10. The maximum allowable
stress will, therefore, reduce to 15 "long" tons = 16.8 American
short tons.

With regard

to the

maximum

16,100, equivalent to 1210 tons,

S63-

stresses, for Reservoir Full,

and

N=

q scales. about 15 feet, conse-

DAMS AMD WEIRS


The above proves that
(R.F.).

the stress (R.E.)

is

67
greater than that of

Probably allowance was made for masses of porous fiUing


and
to be
dam, which would cause

lying at the rear of the

and so equalize the pressure. It will be noticed


that the incidence of N, the vertical component (R.E.) falls exactly
shifted forward

at the edge of the middle third, a condition evidently observed in

the design of the base width.

^<:o5g ff

2000 Tons

Fig. 37.

Profile of

The dam

Arrow Rock Dam, Idaho, Showing Incidence

is

which

Centers of Pressure on Base

provided with two by- washes 400 feet wide; the

reservoir will be tapped


sluices of

of

will

by a tunnel 14X13

feet,

the entrance

be worked from a valve tower upstream, a

dam. It is interesting
to note that an American engineer has been put in charge of the
construction of this immense work by the Commonwealth Governsimilar arrangement to that in the Roosevelt

ment.
51.

just

Arrow Rock Dam.

completed (1915)

project, a

U,

S.

is

The

reclamation work.

for^ curtain is 351 feet.

highest

the Arrow

dam

in the world

Rock on the

From

now

Boise, Idaho,

the crest to the base the

graphical analysis of the stress in th^

DAMS AND WEIRS

68
base

given in Fig. 37.

is

For Reservoir Empty, 17 = 2609 tons, and

=2

m=l-\

q measures 38 feet; therefore

222

= 23.5
2X^^
222
1.73X2609

tons.

For Reservoir

^.^^^
=20.2tons.

222

(20.2)2

+ (7.3) = 22.6
-

Full,J qi

1610

^^"^^"=^22^
tons.

nearly and 5 =

^ =
b

= 27, and m = l+^^ =

^ ^

222

These values

20.2
.

^""Y"^

'

are,

of

course,

but

approximate.

Thus the compressive stresses (R.F.) and (R.E.)


and the incidence of
and also of N is close

equal,

Fig. 38.

are practically

to the edge of

Location Plan of Arrow Rock Dani

CouTUfiy of "Engineering Record^'

the middle third.


crest.

The high

The dam

is

built

on a radius of 661

feet at the

stresses allowed are remarkable, as the design is

the gravity principle, arch action being ignored.

on

The curvature

doubtless adds considerably to safety and undoubtedly tends to

reduce the compressive stresses by an indeterminate but substantial

amount.

It is evident that

formula (10) has been applied to the

DAMS AND WEIRS


design.

69

dam

Reference to Figs. 38 and 39 will show that the

divided into several vertical sections by contraction joints.


also provided with inspection galleries in the interior

weeper drains 10

which

is

feet apart.

carried to a

and

is

It is

vertical

These intercept any possible seepage,

sump and pumped

out.

TopB.jns

These precautions are


^'JJS^.

^^

Eorih Surface'^

Diversion Tunnel

Fig. 39.

Elevation of Arrow

to guard against hydrostatic uplift.

The

resembling that of the Roosevelt dam,

52.

Rock

is

Dam

simplicity of the outline,

remarkable.

SPECIAL FOUNDATIONS
Dams Not Always on Rock. Dams are not always founded

on impervious roclcbut sometimes, when of low height, are founded

on boulders, gravel, or sand. These materials when restrained


from spreading, and with proper arrangements to take care of subpercolation, are superior to clay,

ous material to deal with.


base of a dam,

it

which

When

latter is

always a treacher-

water penetrates underneath the

causes hydrostatic uplift, which materially reduces

Fig. 40 represents a wall


on a pervious stratum and upholding water. The water
has ingress into the substratum and the upward pressure it will
exert at c against the base of the wall will be that due to its depth,

the effective weight of the structure.


resting

in this case

30

feet.

Now the

point of egress of the percolation will

and, as in the case of a pipe discharging in the open, pressure

be at

6,

is nil

at that point; consequently the uplift area below the base will

be a triangle whose area equals

HXh

The diagram,

the combinations of the horizontal water pressure

Fig. 40,

w^ith the

and with the weight of the wall W, P


bined with F, Ri resulting, whose direction is upward.
static uplift

shows

hydro-

is first

com-

Ri

then

is

DAMS AND WEIRS

70

combined with W,

i?2 being their resultant.


The conditions without uphft are also shown by the dotted line drawn parallel to dc in

Fig. 40.

The

piezometric

termed the hydraulic gradient;

ab

is

line, i.e.,

line

line

it is

also the

connecting water levels in piezometer

tubes, were such inserted.


Fig. 41 shows the same result produced on the assumption that
the portion of the wall situated below the piezometric line is reduced
in weight by an equal volume of water, i.e., the s.g. of this part may

be assumed reduced by unity,

Fig. 40.

i.e.,

Effect of Uplift on

from 2.4 to

Dam Shown

The combination

with that shown in Fig. 40.

of

1+2

with

The

wall

is

Graphically

thus divided diagonally into two parts, one of


of s.g. 1.4.

1.4.

s.g.

2.4

and the other

is identical

in result

In the subsequent section, dealing

with "Submerged Weirs on Sand", this matter of reduction in weight

due to

flotation is frequently referred to.

53.

Aprons Affect

principle involved in

onal profile abCj


uplift is absent.

is

Uplift.

Fig. 42

dams with porous

is

further illustrative of the

foundations.

The pentag-

of sufficient base width, provided hydrostatic

Supposing the foundation to be porous, the area

DAMS AND WEIRS


of uplift will be

ctifec,

which

in

bai,

equals ab.

71

This area

is

equal

to abc, consequently practically the whole of the profile lies below

the hydraulic gradient,


loses weight;

may

be considered as submerged, and hence

can thus be assumed as reduced by unity,

p 1. The

from p to

making

its s.g.

correct base width will then be found

H
instead of r=

Vp-1

The new

profile will

by

then be adb;

\p

the base width having been thus extended, the uplift


increased in the

i.e.,

same proportion.

Now

is

likewise

supposing an impervious

apron to be built in front of the toe as must be the case with an


overfall

dam; then the area

Diagram Showing

Fig. 41.

of uplift

becomes

Weight
Submersion

Identical Result If

Due

to

baie,

and the

Is Considered

piezo-

Reduced

all these cases happen


Under these circumstances the

metric line and hydraulic gradient, which in


to be one and the same

line, is ae.

comparatively thin apron

is

subjected to very considerable uplift

blow up unless sufiiciently thick to resist the hydrostatic


pressure. The low water, or free outlet level, is assumed to be at

and

will

the level

e,

consequently the fore apron

lies

above this

level

and

is

considered as free from flotation due to immersion.


54.

Rear Aprons Decrease

apron substituted.
ing water

Uplift.

Another case

will

now be

In Fig. 42 suppose the fore apron removed and a rear

examined.

is

In this case the point of ingress of the percolat-

thrown back from

b to 6' the hydraulic gradient is a'cj

DAMS AND WEIRS

72

the triangle of hydrostatic upHft


is

more than neutralized by the

is b'azc.

This uplift from

6'

to b

rectangle of water a'ahV ^ which

overlies the rear apron; the latter is therefore not subject to

any

from erosion by
moving water, consequently it can be made of clay, which in this
position is water-tight as concrete masonry. A glance at Fig. 42
uplift and, oA\ing to its location, is generally free

will

demonstrate at once the great reduction of uplift against the

base of the wall effected by the expedient of a rear apron, the uplift
being reduced from a^c to fhc, more than one-half.

Fig. 42.

apron

is

DIasram Showing

Uplift with

as

heavy slabs with open joints.

ing clay

is

55,

it

if

solid,

should

should be formed of open work,

In the rear of overfall dams stanch-

by natural
Many works owe

often deposited

effective rear apron.

although

else

rear

and without Fore and Rear Aprons

a sure remedy for uplift while the fore apron,

be made as short as possible, or

Thus a

process, thus forming an


their security to this fact

often passes unrecognized.

Rock Below Gravel.

Fig. 43 represents a

dam

founded

on a stratum of pervious material beneath which is solid rock. A


fore curtain wall is shown carried down to the impervious rock.
The conditions now are worse than those resulting from the imper-

DAMS AND WEIRS

73

vious fore apron in Fig. 42 as the hydraulic gradient and piezometric


line are

now

pressure

is

is,

The reduced

horizontal.

area of vertical hydrostatic

1066 against which the wall can only furnish 1200; there

an

therefore,

effective area of only 134 to resist

overturning as the graphical stress lines clearly

diaphragm curtain wall

position of a

the dam; in this location

is

a water pressure

by sliding or
prove. The proper

must

at the rear of 800, consequently the wall

fail

at the heel, not at the toe of

prevent

it will effectively

all uplift.

In

the case where an impervious stratum does not occur at a reasonable

depth the remedy

is

to provide a long rear apron which will reduce

may be desired, or else a


combination of a vertical diaphragm with a horizontal apron can be
hydrostatic uplift to as small a value as

PIEZOMETRIC LINE

SOLID
Fig. 43.

used.

In

many

be provided

= 60'

ROCK

Effect of Impervious Fore Curtain Wall on Uplift

cases a portion only of the required rear apron need

artificially.

With proper precautionary measures the

deposit of the remaining length of unfinished apron can safely be


left for

the river to perform

by

silt

deposit,

if

time can be afforded

for the purpose.

56.

Gravity

Dam

Reinforced against Ice Pressure.

tion will be concluded with a recent example of a gravity

forced against ice pressure, which


St.

Maurice River

dam

is

This sec-

dam

rein-

given in Fig. 44, viz, that of the

situated in the Province of Quebec.

The

taken as 25 tons per foot run, acting at a level corresponding to the crest of the spillway, which latter is shown in Fig.
ice pressure is

58.

The

profile of Fig.

44

is

pentagonal, the crest has been given

DAMS AND WEIRS

74

the abnormal width of 20 feet, while the base

which

The

is

f of the height,
about the requirement, were ice pressure not considered.
is

horizontal ice pressure, in addition to that of the water upheld,

will cause the line of pressure to fall well outside the

middle third,

thus producing tension in the masonry at the rear of the section.

To

obviate this, the back of the wall

is

reinforced with steel rods to

the extent of IJ square inches per lineal foot of the dam. If the
safe tensile strength of steel be taken at the usual figure of 16,000

Tee F^ressure

liiiil

Fig. 44.

Profile of Saint

Maurice River

Dam

at

Quebec

pounds, or 8 tons per square inch, the pull exerted by the reinforcement against overturning will be 12 tons per foot run. This force

can be considered as equivalent to a load of

like

the back of the wall, as shown in the figure.

dam

is

amount applied at
The section of the

divided Into two parts at El 309 and the incidence of the


and at the base is graphically obtained.

resultant pressure at this level

The
file.

line of pressure connecting these points is

The

line falls outside

drawn on the pro-

the middle third in the upper half of

the section and within at the base, the inference being that the

DAMS AND WEIRS


section

75

would be improved by conversion into a trapezoidal outline

with a narrower crest and with some reinforcement introduced as


has been done in the spillway section, shown in Fig. 58.
It will

be noticed that the reinforcement stops short at El

allowed for by assuming the imposed load of 12 tons


removed at the base of the load line in the force polygon. The
line jRs starting from the intersection of Ri with a horizontal through
El 275.0 is the final resultant at the base. This example is most

This

275.

is

instructive as illustrating the combination of reinforcement with a

gravity section in caring for ice pressure, thus obviating the undue

enlargement of the

profile.

GRAVITY OVERFALL DAMS OR WEIRS


Characteristics of Overfalls.

57.
crest of a

dam

it is

termed an overfall

When water overflows the


dam or weir, and some modi-

fication in the design of the section generally

Not

becomes necessary.

only that, but the kinetic effect of the falling water has to be

provided for by the construction of an apron or floor which in

by

many

most important part of the general design.


This is so pronounced in the case of dwarf diversion weirs over wide
sandy river beds, that the weir itself forms but an insignificant part
of the whole section. The treatment of submerged weirs with aprons,
cases forms

will

far the

At present the

be given elsewhere.

section of the weir wall

alone will be dealt with.

Typical Section,

Fig.

45

is

a typical section of a trapezoidal

weir wall with water passing over the crest.


as before, will be designated
crest

by

upper

d,

still

and that
water

of river

by H, that
below by D.

level, will therefore,

be

The

height of the crest

of reservoir level above

The

total height of the

H+d,

The depth

of water passing over the crest should be measured


upstream
from the overfall just above where the
some distance

break takes place; the actual depth over the crest

is less

of the velocity of the overfall being always greater

approach.
reach.

On

by reason

than that of

This assumes dead water, as in a reservoir, in the upper


a river or canal, however, the water

is

in

motion and has


In order to

a velocity of approach, which increases the discharge.


allow for this, the head

Qi)

corresponding to this velocity, or

^9

DAMS AND WEIRS

76
multiplied

by

1.5 to allow for impact, or

added to the

/j=.0233F^ should be

Thus supposing the mean

reservoir level.

velocity

river in flood to be 10 feet per second 100 X. 0233 or 2.3


would have to be added to the actual depth, the total being
15 feet in Fig. 45. The triangle of water pressure will have its
apex at the surface, and its base will, for the reasons given
previously, be taken as the depth divided by the specific gravity
of the
feet

of the material of the wall.

S.S -lSh-s

AFFLUX

AFFLUX^ IJ

The

triangle of water pressure will

h,

Fig. 45.

Typical Section of Trapezoidal Weir Wall

be truncated at the crest of the

overfall.

The water

pressure acting

by a

against the back of the wall will thus be represented

not a triangle, whose base width

level

is

and

its

Its area therefore (back vertical) will

If

the back

is

inclined the side of the trapezoid

general formula

is

top width at crest

be (

trapezoid,

|~-

becomes

J^i.

therefore

^ = (/f

.(iy+2(i)
or 7/x)X-

2p

The

(15)

DAMS AND WEIRS


Hi being the
distance of

formula

back of the wall. The vertical


application above the base according to

inclined length of the

its

point of

page 19

(5)

77

is

= -I
3

whether the back

is

'

and

|
\H+2a/
,

will

be the same

vertical or inclined.

Approximate Base Width. With regard to the drop wall


owing to the overfall of water and possible impact of floating

58.
itself,

timber,

ice,

or other heavy bodies, a wide crest

further strengthening

is

effected

The ordinary approximate

by adopting the

rule for the base

is

a necessity.

trapezoidal profile.

width of a trapezoidal

weir wall will be either


,

(H+d)
(16)

or

(H+M)
(16a)

The

correctness of either will depend

such as the value of

head and

also of

on various considerations,

the depth of the overfall, that of

d,

D, the depth of the

tail

h or velocity

water; the inclination given

and lastly, whether the weir wall is founded on a porous


and is consequently subject to loss of weight from uphft.

to the back,

material

Hence the above formulas may be considered as approximate only


and the base width thus obtained subject to correction, which is
easiest studied by the graphical process of drawing the resultant on
to the base, ascertaining

its

position relative to the middle third

boundary.
59.
it

may

Approximate Crest Width.

With

reference to crest width,

be considered to vary from


t

= Vi/+cZ

(17)

fc

= V^+Vd

(18)

to

the former gives a width sufficient for canal, or reservoir waste weir
walls,

but the latter

when the weir


In

many

wall

is

is

cases,

more

suitable for river weirs,

and

is

quite so

submerged or drowned.

however, the necessity of providing space for


during times when the weir is not

falling shutters or for cross traffic


DAMS AND WEIRS

78

acting, renders obligatory the provision of

With a moderate width, a

an even wider

order to give the requisite stability to the section.

by joining the edge

This

of the crest to the toe of the base

the base width of

line,

^^

crest.

trapezoidal outline has to be adopted, in

by a

-= being adopted, as shown

formed

is

straight

in Fig. 45.

Vp

When
of the
of

the crest width exceeds the dimensions given in formula

the face should drop vertically

(18),

elementary

An

dams.

The

weir.

profile, as is

example of this

is

if

meets the hypothenuse

given in Fig. 52 of the

tentative section thus

graphical process and

till it

the case with the pentagonal profile

Dhukwa

outlined should be tested

by

necessary the base width altered to conform

with the theory of the middle third.

In Fig. 45
with

d=15

is

feet.

given a diagram of a trapezoidal weir 60 feet high

According to formula (17) the crest width should

be V75 = 8.7feet, and according to

(18),

7.74+3.87 = 11.6.

age of 10 feet has been adopted, which also equals

An
The

aver-

profile

P
therefore, exactly corresponds with the elementary triangle canted

forward and truncated at the overfall


60.

Graphical Process.

crest.

In graphical diagrams, as has already

been explained, wherever possible half widths of pressure areas are


taken off with the compasses to form load lines, thus avoiding the

and calculating the areas of the


which is always liable to error. There

arithmetical process of measuring


several trapezoids or triangles,
are,

however, in this case, three areas, one of which, that of the

an altitude of only half of the others.


overcome by dividing its half width by 2. If one

reverse water pressure, has

This difficulty
height

is

is

not an exact multiple, as this

is

of //, a fractional value

given to the representing line in the polygon will often be found to


obviate the necessity of having to revert to superficial measures.

The

application of the reverse pressure Pi here exhibited

is

similar

to that shown in Fig. 16; it has to be combined with R, which latter


This combination is effected in
is obtained by the usual process.
the force polygon by drawing a line Pi equal to the representative
.

width of the back pressure, in a reverse direction to P.


The closing line i?i is then the final resultant. On the profile itself
the force line Pi is continued through its center of gravity till it
area, or half

DAMS AND WEIRS


intersects R,

from which point Ri

is

drawn

tion of the face of the weir is very flat, as

may

be so deflected as to intersect

79

to the base.

If this por-

sometimes the case, Pi

is

below the base altogether as

shown in Fig. 50. In such event, i?i is drawn upward instead of


downward to intersect the base. The effect of Pi is to throw the
It imresultant Pi farther inward but not to any great extent.
is

proves the angular direction of P, however.

A dam is usually, but not invariably, exempt

Reverse Pressure.

from the

effect of reverse pressure.

This reverse water pressure

generally, as in this case, favorable to the stability of the weir,

there are cases

when

its

action

is

either too slight to

is

but

be of service or

This occurs when the face of the weir wall is


which points to the equiangular profile being most
suitable.
An example illustrative of the above remarks is given
later in Fig. 50 of the Folsam dam.

is

even detrimental.

much

inclined,

As the moments
side of the weir wall
is

of the horizontal pressure of water

small influence and

may

adopted, the slope

is

tail

given to the face;

given a

downward

it

water will have but

When

well be neglected.

is all

reverse water pressure


its

either

vary almost with the cubes of their height,

evident that a comparatively low depth of

is

on

a vertical back

by which the normal

inclination that reduces

capacity for helping the wall.


61.

of the

Pressures Affected by Varying Water Level-

Calculations

depths of water passing over the weir or rather the height of

reservoir level

above the weir

corresponding depth

crest,

by

designated

d,

and of the

in the tail channel, are often necessary for

the purpose of ascertaining

what height

of water level upstream,

on the weir wall. In


low submerged or drowned weirs, the highest flood level has often
the least effect, as at that time the difference of levels above and
or value of d, will produce the greatest effect

below the weir are reduced to a minimum.

This

is

graphically

weir wall,

which represents a section of the Narora dwarf


to which further reference will be made in section 124,

Part

In this

shown

in Fig. 46,

11.

profile

shown, of which Pi, due to

under comparison,

The Narora

falls

two resultant

much

pressures,

Pi, are

nearer the toe of the base.

weir, the section of the weir wall of

insignificant, is built

and

lower water level of the two stages

across the Ganges River in

which

is

so

Upper India at the

DAMS AND WEIRS

80

head of the Lower Ganges Canal, Fig. 93. The principal part of
which is founded on the river sand, consists not in the low

this work,

weir wall, although that

is f mile long, but in the apron or floor,


which has to be of great width, in this case 200 feet.
As will be seen in Fig. 46 the flood level of the Ganges is 16 feet

above the

two

floor level, while the afflux, or level of the

The

feet higher.

when

river discharges

When

in flood.

full

less

is

when

AFFLUA

Fig. 46.

much
tail

it will

this occurs

be seen that the stress on

than when the head water

is

l8'-0

Section of Narora

lower.

is

flood occurs, the weir is completely

drowned, but from the diagrams


the wall

head water,

about 300,000 second-feet

Dwarf Weir Wall

This result

is

across

Ganges River in Upper India

due to the reverse pressure of the

water.

The

rise of

the river water produces, with regard to the stress

induced on the weir, three principal situations or "stages" which are

enumerated below.
(1)

When

the head water

where a water cushion


is

exists,

is

at weir crest level; except in cases

natural or

artificial,

the

tail

channel

empty, and the conditions are those of a dam.


(2)

When

the level of the

tail

water

lies

but above half the height of the weir wall.


rocal depth of the head water above crest

below weir crest level


In this case the recip-

is

found by calculation

DAMS AND WEIRS


At highest

(3)

and

tail

fall

dam

water

minimum.

the greatest stress

is

In an unsubmerged weir or over-

generally produced during stage (3).

In a submerged weir the greatest stress

Moments

62.

between the head

flood level, the difference

at a

is

81

is

produced during stage

The moments

of Pressure.

(2).

of the horizontal

water pressure on either side of a wall are related to each other in

In cases where

proportion to the cubes of their respective depths.


the wall

is

latter, as

(M) of

overflowed

we have

by the

seen,

is

water, the triangle of pressure of the

this trapezoidal area of pressure will

area with

formula

h,

(5)

The moment

truncated at the weir crest.

be the product of

its

or the product of the expressions in formula (1) and


as follows

or

Hw
^=-^

iH+U)

(19)

That

of the opposing tail water will be

these

two being the resultant moment.

shown

in Fig. 46, during stage (1)

=1^=166.6.
6p

In stage

M = -Dho
op

= 10,

the difference of

For example,

if = 10,

(2) //

Z* = 0,

(^

in the case

unbalanced moment

= 3.5, and D = 10.

Then

the unbalanced

In stage

(3)

moment

will

H = 10, D = 1Q;

be ;^ [(100
op

d^S, and

X 20.5) - 1000] =175


.

D- if = 6 feet.

There

p
will

thus be two opposing trapezoids of pressure, and the difference in


their

moments

will

be

w(100X28) ^

w(100x34)

6p

Qp

Thus
(3),

^w_
p

stage (2) produces the greatest effect, the least being stage

In this expression

symbolizes, as before, the unit weight

(to)

of water, per cubic foot or,

ton.

many weir wall sections have been


under
the
erroneous
supposition
designed
that the overturning
moment is greatest when the upper water is at crest level and the tail
In spite of this obvious

channel empty,

i.e.,

fact,

at a time

when the

difference of levels

above and

DAMS AND WEIRS


below the weir

is

at a

maximum, or at full
flood when the difference is at a minimum.
63.
Method of
Calculating Depth of

During the

Overfall.

second stage of the


river the value. of d,

the depth of the over-

have to be

will

fall,

To

calculated.

effect

this the discharge of

the river must

estimated

first

when the

reaches

surface

be

the

crest level of the weir,

which
.a

is

done by use

Q=

of the formula,

Ac^rs, given in secO

page 47 of

.3

tion

"a

"Hydraulics,

<

35,

Ameri-

can School of Correspondence",

being

the area, equal to d

times length of weir


(c)

Kutter's

coeffi-

cient, (r) the hydraulic

mean

and

radius,

5,

the surface grade or


slope of the river.

The

discharge for the whole


river should

divided

now be

by the

length

of the weir crest, the

quotient

giving

the

unit discharge, or that


SS3S9NI JO J-NlOd

per foot run of the weir.

DAMS AND WEIRS


The depth
is

83

required to pass this discharge with a free overfall

found by use of Francis' formula of 3.33d^ or a modification of it

for

wide crest weirs for which tables are most useful.

See ''Hydrau-

lics", section 24, p. 30.

For example, supposing the

up

to crest level

3.33(i^

= 20. Whence

rf^

= 6 and d=^lQ^ = 3.3

64.

by

feet.

Illustrative

Example.

47

Fig.

illustrates

(2)

head water

With

(3)

tail

is

assumed as 4

reciprocal depth of the

and
and head water assumed 7

feet

crest.

From

three resultants have been worked out graphically.

their location

case.

feet;

water at crest level

deep above

The

an assumed

15 feet high, 3 stages are shown:

is

When head water is at crest level;


When tail water is 7^ feet deep, and the

(1)

This ignores

the velocity head, or by .0155 T^.

(hi)

Here the weir

Then

which would be to

velocity of approach, a rough allowance for

decrease d

water

river discharge with tail

20 second-feet per foot run of the weir.

is

on the base the greatest

stress is

due to

i?2, i.e.,

stage (2).

The hydraulic gradients of

all

weir body

lies

shown with
more than half the
which here corresponds

three stages have been

an assumed rear and fore apron on

floor.

below the piezometric

with the hydraulic gradient, while in

In

line,

(2)

(1)

nearly the whole

lies

below

and in (3) entirely so.


Owing to this uplift it is well always to assume the s.g. of a weir
wall under these conditions as reduced by immersion to a value of
In these cases the triangles of water pressure are shown with
p1
this line

their bases

made

p1

or - instead of
,

-.

Actually, however, the

2.4

1.4

resistance of the weir wall to overturning relative to its base at floor


level is

not impaired by flotation, but as weight in these cases

desideratum, the weir wall should be designed as

The rear apron is evidently


and

its resisting

power,

i.e.,

65.

weirs will

this

is

effective weight, is

were the case.

subject to no uplift, but the fore apron

See section 52 and also the later sections on

Sand", Part

if

is,

impaired by flotation.
''

Submerged Weirs

in

II.

Examples of Existing Weirs.

now be

given.

Fig. 48

is

Some examples of existing


LaGrange over-

profile of the

DAMS AND WEIRS

84
fall

dam

No less

at the

head

of the

Modesto and Tuolumne

than 13 feet depth of water passes over

canals, Fig. 49.

its crest,

2 feet being

1.315

f!EVO

Fig. 48.

Profile of

LaGrange

Overfall

Dam at

\CA4iAL HEAD

Head

of

LWL

/99.0

Modesto and Tuolumne Canals

added to allow for velocity of apIt is built on a curve of

proach.

300 feet radius.

The

analj^sis of the section

graphical

shows that

the resultants (R.E.) and (R.F.)

drawn on the

profile fall within

f-\S'^o

the middle third.

In this process

the reverse pressure due to

water

has

effect will

been

neglected.

Location Plan of LaGrange Weir

whether

the reverse pressure actually exercised is that

Fig. 49.

Its

be small.

It is a doubtful point
--'~.:?6o

tail

due to the

of the tail water.

causes a disturbance and probably more or less of

full

depth

The overflow
a vacuum at

the toe of the weir wall, besides which the velocity of impact causes

a hollow to be formed which must reduce the reverse pressure.

some

instances^ as in the case of the Granite Reef

dam,

In

Fig. 55, the

DAMS AND WEIRS


effective

deptb of the

tail

water

is

assumed as only equal to that

This appears an exaggerated view.

the film of OTerflow.

dam, the

that

can well be neglected altogether.

it

water

rises to f or

more

of

How-

effect of the reverse is often so small

ever, in

iiigh overfall

85

In cases where the

of the height of the

dam

its effect

tail

begins to

be considerable, and should be taken into account.

"Ogee"

Objections to

66,

seems

now

Overfalls.

curved base of the fore slope which

American

Professional

opinion

to be veering round in opposition to the "bucket" or

overfall

dams.

is

so pronounced a feature in

Its effects are

undoubtedly mischievous,

as the destructive velocity of the falling water instead of being

reduced as would be the case


is

if it fell

direct into a cushion of water,

conserved by the smooth curved surface of the bucket.

lately constructed

Bassano hollow dam

the action of the bucket

is

(see Figs.

In the

84 and 85, Part H),

sought to be nullified by the subsequent

addition of baffles composed of rectangular masses of concrete fixed

on the curved

slope.

The

following remarks in support of this

view are excerpted from ''The Principles of Irrigation Engineering"

by Mr. F. H. Newell, formerly Director of United States Reclamation


Service.
"Because of the difficulties involved by the standing wave
or whirlpool at the lower toe of overflow dams, this type has been

made

many

in

cases to depart from the conventional curve

and to

drop the water more nearly vertically rather than to attempt to


shoot

it

away from the dam

in horizontal lines."

Folsam Weir. Fig. 50 is of the Folsam weir at the head


of the canal of that name.
It is remarkable for the great depth of
passing
the
flood water
over
crest which is stated to be over 30 feet
67.

deep.

The

stress lines

have been put on the

profile

with the object

of proving that the reverse pressure of the water, although nearly

due to the flat incKnawhich has the effect of


water on the toe where it is least wanted

40 feet deep has a very small

effect.

This

is

tion given to the lower part of the weir,

adding a great weight of

and thus the salutary


neutralized.

effect of the reverse pressure is

omy would undoubtedly


equiangular profile,

and to drowned
but very

more than

The section is not too heavy for requirements, but econ-

little

were canted forward to a nearly


and this applies to all weirs having deep tail water,

weirs.

result

if it

It will

be noted that a wide crest allows

consequent reduction in the base width in any case.

DAMS AND WEIRS

86

The stress diagram in Figs. 50 and 50a are interesting as showmethod of combining the reverse pressures with the ordinary

ing the

Haessler's diagram of the direct water pressure. ,The profile

is

divided into three parts as well as the direct water pressure, whereas
the reverse pressure which only extends for the two lower divisions
is

in

i?2 is

two

The

parts.

stress

force 1" before

it

reaches

its

H:AD

Fig. 50.

pressure
of Rz,

is

diagrams present no novel features


objective 3^

WA TER H+

ifs

its

effect of the reverse

Graphical Analysis of Folsam Weir

to deflect the direction of the resultant in the direction

which

latter, as

continues

reverse line

The

shown

in the force polygon, Fig. 50a,

resultant of 1'^ set out from the point

ant

till

This force on the profile comes in contact with reverse

reached.

till it

meets

drawn upward

3^.

6,

The

and

of R^.

resultant of

is

the

3^ is

the

the dotted line joining the termi-

nation of 3S i.e., (a) with that of 1".


Following the same method the resultant R\
2",

Ri and

is

result-

to meet the vertical force 3, parallel to

reciprocal in Fig. 50a, which

downward to meet

The new

which

latter in the force

is

next drawn

polygon

is

set out

DAMS AND WEIRS


from the ternination of the vertical
2" is the final R^.

This

secting the base at B.

line is

If

87

The

(3).

and

resultant of Ra

drawn upward on the

profile inter-

the reverse pressure were left out of con-

R2 would continue on to its intersection with


and thence the reverse recovery line drawn to meet (3) will be

sideration, the force


3^

This reverse

ba (not drawn) in the force polygon.

parallel to

the line

will intersect

line

same spot

(3) in the profile almost at the

as before.

The

final line will

and

in Fig. 50a)

will cut

be parallel to

its reciprocal

ca (not

the base outside the intersection of

drawn

To

i?5.

prevent confusion these lines have not been drawn on; this proves
that the effect of the reverse pressure
of the wall, except in the
profile

were

tilted

detrimental to the stability

is

If the

matter of the inchnation of R^-

forward this would not be

If Pi the resultant

so.

water pressure at the rear of the wall be drawn through the


to intersect the resultant of
+ij2, this

all

point will be found to be the same as

producing the

profile

1+2+3+^)^
that obtained by

the vertical forces, viz,

R^ backwards to meet Pi.

final

Determination of Pi.

To

effect this,

the position of Pi has to

be found by the following procedure: The load line db, Fig. 50a,
continued to

and

oCj oj,

so as to include the forces 3,

I,

ol are

Vi,

and

V2*

drawn; thus a new force polygon dol

is

The

is

rays

formed to

is made reciprocal.
This decides the
1+2+3, viz, the center of pressure (R. E.) as
also that of W+V1+V2 which latter are the reverse pressure loads.
The location of Pi is found by means of another funicular polygon C

which the funicular. Fig. 50b,


position of

W,ov

of

derived from the force polygon oad,

Pi

oe;

is

then drawn through the

resultant last mentioned at A.

with P5 on Fig. 50.

The

by drawing the rays


profile intersecting

The

line

vertical fine

AB

through

is

oa, ofj

then coincident
is

not

iV, i.e., is

not identical with the vertical in Fig. 50, for the reason that
the resultant of
tion

is

all

is

the vertical forces, whereas the vertical in ques-

the centroid of pressiu'e of

all

the vertical force less Wi, the

weight of water overlying the rear slope of the wall.

and

the vertical

The

location

found by drawing a horizontal P through the intersection


of Pi with a line drawn through the e.g. of the triangle of water
of

is

pressure Wj this will intersect the back continuation of

vertical

CD

through this point

will

BA

at

c.

correspond with that marked

DAMS AND WEIRS

88

N in Fig. 50.

The

profile. Fig. 51, is

a reproduction of that shown

Fig. 50 in order to illustrate the analytical

that

method

of calculation or

by moments.

The

Analytical Method.

68.

incidence of the resultant

is

required to be as ascertained on two bases, one the final base and

the other at a level 13 feet higher.


is

divided into three parts

(3) of

838 square

mula

(7) to

feet.

The

section of the wall as before,

(1) of area 840 square feet, (2) of 1092,

The

position of the e.g. of (1)

and

found by for-

be 15.15 feet distant from a the heel of the base and will be

/r^r

FLOOD

is

LEVEL

Fig. 51.

Diagram

15.65 feet from

/FS7

^1.35

of

Folsam Weir

That of

h.

Illustrating Analytical

(2) is

Method

of Calculation

32.3 feet distant from its heel

reduced area of the water overlying the back down to h

is

Tk

h.

estimated

and by formula (6) to be .5 feet distant from 6.


Again the reduced area of the reverse water overlying the fore
at 26 square feet

slope

1)1

is

92 square feet and the distance of

its e.g.

from

6 is 55

18.5
"

= 48.8

feet.

with that of

The moments of all these vertical forces equated


their sum (iV) about the point h will give the position

of iV relative to

6.


DAMS AND WEIRS

89

Thus
840X15.65-13146
1092X23.3 =25443

(1)
(2)

{w)

26 X

(vi)

92X48.8 = 4490

.5

=43092 -Moment

2050Xa;

:,

To

P=1257 and

trapezoid having

its

wall

by formula

is

calculated

base at

&,

and

above base

its e.g.

^_
^'

is

120 square

For the lower base, the statement


its

"2050"^^*^^*

2050

and

feet,

Consequently:

feet.

(1257X22.1)-(120X8) _ 26820 _.,^,

lows, Vz being 240,

Now

^^

Again the reduced

to be 22.1 feet.

is

^-tjt.

crest level with that of the

its

area of the reverse water pressure triangle pi

the height of

/=

i?,

of

nearly

feet,

the height of the e.g. of the

and

(6),

21

obtain the distance / between

the reduced area of

13

of

moments about c is
by formula (6),

as fol-

distance 65 feet

(iV)2050X(21 + .3)=43665
(3)

838X32.3

=27067

{w)

lOX .15
240X65
3138XX

=15600

fa)

Total

86334

=86334

= 27.4

feet

3138

Now/i =

vi+v2

^^

j^ being the distance

between

iVi

and Rx,

iVi

The value

of Pi, the trapezoid of water pressure

27

feet,

that of

^o = 121

feet.

Then

(5) is

,
*^'

is

to the base

its e.g.

^ (1747x27)-(285Xl2i) _ 47169-3514 ^43655^


~
3138

The

{pi+V^

down

by formula (19) or
285 square feet and its lever arm

1747 square feet and the height of

c, is

and

are lines

3138

N and iVi being obtained, the directions of


drawn to the intersections o| the two verticals

positions of

i?i

3138

DAMS AND WEIRS

90

N and

with two

lines drawn through the c.g.'s of the trapezoid of


by the mcnnent of the reverse pressure, if any, or by
(Pp). This area will consist, as shown in the diagram, of a trapezoid superposed on a rectangle; by using formula (5) section 1, the
iVi

pressure reduced

positions of the e.g. of the upper trapezoid

above the base at

a,

the rectangle, then

by taking moments

height of the

found to be 23.6

e.g. is

found, to be 12.58 feet

is

while that of the lower

is

at half the depth of

of these areas about

feet

above the base at

down

the height for the larger area [Pi{'Pi+p2)]

to c

6,

is

the

while

6,

27

feet.

In the graphical diagram of Fig. 51a the same result would be


obtained by reducing the direct pressure by the reverse pressure
area. Thus in the force diagram the vertical load line would remain
unchanged but the water-pressure load line would be shorter being
Pp and Pi(pi+p2), respectively. This would clearly make no
difference in the direction of the resultants R and Ri and would save
the two calculations for the c.g.'s of P and Pi.

This weir
long,

in the

when

which

is

is

masonry
it falls.

provided with a crest shutter in one piece, 150 feet

and lowered by hydraulic jacks chambered


up by the gate
This is an excellent arrangement and could be imiraised

of the crest so that they are covered

tated with advantage.

The

shutter

at base of lamina 2 of this weir

is

is

55

The width

5 feet deep.
feet,

or very nearly

-^,
Vp

formula (16).

Dhukwa Weir.

69.

dam is

This overfall
of the crest this

The

very similar work

is

the

is

of pentagonal section.

stress resultant lines

does not

formula

Vp
TJ

is

up

Owing

have been drawn on the

to half the height of the weir.

nil.

applicable in stage

profile,

The

tail

which
water

Consequently the

63X = 42

3.

The

effect of the tail

water

According to this formula the base width would

be

to the width

j^r- is

practically

weir

obviously the best outline.

prove the correctness of the base width adopted.


rise

Dhukwa

which has been recently completed.

in India, Fig. 52,

feet,

which

it

almost exactly measures

a further

demonstration of the correctness of the formula.


should be, according to formula (18),

The

V50+Vl3 = ll

crest width
feet.

The

DAMS AND WEIRS


width of 17 feet adopted

is

necessary for the space required to work

These are of

the collapsible gates.

Ql

steel,

by
batches by

are held in position

struts connected with triggers,

and can be released

chains worked from each end.

The

in

gates, 8 feet high, are only 10

This involves the raising and lowering of 400 gates, the

feet wide.

The arrangement adopted

weir crest being 4000 feet long.

Folsam weir

hydrauUc jacks operating long gates

of

An excellent feature in this design is the subway with

is

in the

far superior.

occasional side

chambers and lighted by openings, the outlook of which is underneath the waterfall, and has the advantage of relieving any vacuum
under the

falling water.
AFFLUX

El. 903

->-h

850

'^

ei 840

"
^

Fig. 52.

^f

-"

'"^^

''
i

MyM^M/zd^

Graphical Analysis of Profile of

The subway could be

Dhukwa Weir

in India

utilized for pressure pipes

and

for cross

communication, and the system would be most useful in cases w^here


the obstruction of the crest

by

piers is inadvisable.

The

weir

is

4000 feet long and passes 800,000 second-feet, with a depth of 13


feet.

The

weir,

which

discharge
is

very high.

feet per second.


will

is,

therefore,

The

200 second-feet per foot run of

velocity of the film will be

With a depth

of 13 feet

still

=
-

15.4

w^ater, the discharge

be by Francis' formula, 156 second-feet per foot run.

To produce

a discharge of 200 feet per second, the velocity of approach must be

about 10 feet per second.

This

will

add

2.3 feet to the actual value

DAMS AND WEIRS

92
of

raising

rf,

it

from 13 to 15.3

feet

which

strictly

should have been

done in Fig. 52.


70.

Fig. 53,

of

American design,

the Mariquina weir in the Philippines.

It has the ogee

Mariquina Weir.
is

Another high weir

curve more accentuated than in the LaGrange weir.

The

stress

have been dra\vn in, neglecting the effect of the tail water
which will be but detrimental. The section is deemed too heavy
at the upper part and would also bear canting forward with advanlines

tage,

but there are probably good reasons

why an exceptionally solid

A FFLUX ^h {A5SUMED)

Fig. 53.

crest

was adopted.

Profile of

Mariquina Weir

The ogee curve

in tlie Phi!ippine9

also is

a matter on which

opinion has already been expressed.


71.

Granite Reef Weir.

The Granite Reef weir over

the

Salt River, in Arizona, Figs. 54 and 55, is a work subsidiary to the


great Roosevelt dam of which mention was previously made.
It is founded partly on rock and partly on boulders and sand
overlying rock. The superstructure above the floor level is the
same throughout, but the foundations on shallow rock are remarkable as being founded not on the rock itself, but on an interposed

cushion of sand.

(See Fig. 54.)

Reinforced concrete piers, spaced

20 feet apart, were built on the bedrock to a certain height, to clear

DAMS AND WEIRS


all inequalities;

these were connected

93

by thin

reinforced concrete

side walls; the series of boxes thus formed were then filled level
with sand, and the dam built thereon. This work was completed
The portion of the profile below the floor is conjectural.
in 1908.

This construction appears to be a bold and commendable novelty.


Sand in a confined space is incompressible, and there is no reason

why

it

should not be in hke situations.

suggested improvement

would be to abandon the piers and form the substructure of two


long outer walls only, braced together with rods or old rails encased
Fig. 55 is the profile on a boulder bed with rock below.
in concrete.

Hydraulic Condi=

72.

The

tions.

levels

of the

afflux flood of this river are

obtainable so that the stresses

In most

can be worked out.

cases these necessary statis-

The

wanting.

tics are

flood

downstream has been given


the same depth, 12 feet, as

^^

that of the film passing over

the crest.

This

erroneous.

The

is

clearly

velocity of

the film allowing for 5 feet


per second approach,

is

quite

12 feet per second, that in


54.
Section of Granite Reef Weir
Showing Sand Cushion Foundations

the river channel could not

be

much

quently

over 5

Fig.

feet, conse-

would require a depth of

it

12X12 =

28

feet.

The dam

would thus be quite submerged, which would greatly reduce the


stress.

As

previously stated, the state of

maximum

stress

would

probably occur when about half the depth of flood passes over
the crest. However, the graphical work to find the incidence
of the resultant pressure

on the base

given downstream flood level.


given,

no

special

comment

reverse water pressure.


into 2 straight lines

will

be made dependent on the

After the

explanations already

caUed for except with regard to the


Here the curved face of the dam is altered
is

and the water pressure

consists of

two

forces

DAMS AND WEIRS

94

having areas of 17 and 40, respectively, which act through their


Instead of combining each force separately with the resultc.g.'s.

ant (R)

it is

more convenient to

that single force with (R.)


the intersection of

its

find their resultant

and combine

This resultant Pi must pass through

two components, thus

if

their force lines are

DAMS AND WEIRS


run out backward

till

95

they intersect, a point in the direction of Pi

Pi is then drawn parallel to its reciprocal in the force


polygon which is also shown on a larger scale at the left of the profile.
The final resultant is Ri which falls just within the middle
third of the base.
i?2 is the resultant supposing the water to be
at crest level only. The water in the river is supposed to have
is

found.

mud
01t

-n

^
water
pressure

The

The base length

in solution with its s.g. 1.4.


will

^u
then u
be

of the triangle

(H+d)X(p-l) = 32X1.4 = .^
1o.od.
^r.
2A
p

other water-pressure areas are similarly treated.

curtain reaches rock the

dam

If the rear

should not be subject to uplift.

It

could, however, withstand sub-percolation, as the hearth of riprap

and boulders will practically form a filter, the material of the river
bed being too large to be disintegrated and carried up between the
interstices of the book blocks.
The effective length of travel would
being 20 feet,
then be 107 feet; add vertical 52 feet, total 159 feet,

works out to
H

--

= 8 which ratio is a

liberal

allowance for a boulder

20

bed.

The

fore curtain is wisely provided with

weep holes to

release

any hydrostatic pressure that might otherwise exist underneath the


dam. The Granite Reef dam has a hearth, or fore apron of about
80 feet in width. A good empirical rule for the least width for a
solid or open work masonry fore apron is the following

L = 2H+d

(20)

which H is the height of the permanent weir crest above floor,


and d is the depth of flood over crest. In this case H = 20j d=12;
The Bassano
least width of floor should then be 40+12=52 feet.
dam is 40 feet high with 14 feet flood over crest, the width of hearth
according to this formula should be 94 feet, its actual width is 80
With a low submerged weir,
feet which is admittedly insufficient.
in

formula

(34),

Part

II, viz,

L = 3Vrfl^,

will apply.

Beyond the hearth

a talus of riprap will generally be required, for which no rule can


well be laid down.
73.

Nira Weir.

Fig. 56 is of the Nira weir,

an Indian work.

Considering the great depth of the flood waterdown stream, the provision of so high a subsidiary weir

is

deemed unnecessary, a water


is bed rock.
The section of

cushion of 10 feet being ample, as floor

DAMS AND WEIRS

96
the weir wall

itself, is considered to be somewhat deficient in base


Roughly judging, the value of H+dy on which the base
width is calculated, should include about 3 or 4 feet above crest
level.
This value of d, it is beUeved would about represent the height
of head water, which would have the greatest effect on the weir.
The exact value of d could only be estimated on a knowledge of the
bed slope or surface grade of the tail channel. The above estimate

width.

would make (ff+rf)=36

The top

width, 8.3,

and with p = 2l,

feet,

is

just

^ H+^d,

H+d = 24

feet.

in accordance with the

rule given in formula (18).

section

on these

lines is

shown dotted on the

profile.

pro\dsion of an 8-foot top width for the subsidiary weir

Fig. 56.

quite

Section of Nira Weir in India Showing Use of Secondary Weir

indefensible, while the base

which

is

The

width

is

made

nearly equal to the

For purposes of instruction in the


principles of design, no medium is so good as the exhibition of plans
of actual works combined with a critical view of their excellencies
height,

or defects.

is also

excessive.

The former

is

obtainable from record plans in

technical works, but the latter

is

many
Thus

almost entirely wanting.

an inexperienced reader has no means of forming a just opinion and


to blindly follow designs which may be obsolete in form

is liable

or otherwise open to objection.

Castlewood Weir.

74.

The Castlewood

weir, Fig. 57,

is

of

remarkable construction, being composed of stonework set dry,


enclosed in a casing of rubble masonry.
section

is

any

less

It is doubtful if

such a

expensive than an ordinary gravity section, or

DAMS AND WEIRS


much

than an arched buttress

less

dam

97
Shortly after

of type C.

which was stated to be due


to faulty connections with banks of the river; but whatever the
cause it had to be reinforced, which was effected by adding a solid
constructioUj

bank

it

showed

signs of failure,

of earth in the rear, as

shown

in the figure.

This involved

In the overfall portion the bank must

lengthening the outlet pipes.

have been protected with riprap to prevent scouring due to the


velocity of the approach current.

American Dams on Pervious Foundations.

75.

States a very large


lating works,

number

of

up to over 100

feet in height

have been

Section of Castlewood Weir Showing Construction of Stone

Fig. 57.

In the United

bulkhead and overfall dams and regubuilt

Work

on foun-

Set Dry,

Enclosed in Rubble Masonry

dations other than rock, such as sand, boulders, and clay.

Most

of these, however, are of the hollow reinforced concrete, or scallop

arch types, in which a greater spread for the base

than would be the case with a


wall

is

solid gravity

dam.

practicable

is

Whenever a

not run down to impervious rock, as was the

core

the
Granite Reef Overfall dam. Fig. 55, the matter of sub-percolation

and

uplift require consideration, as is set forth in the sections

''Gravity

Dams" and "Submerged Weirs on Sand".

feet high is

and deep rear

piling will

it is

If

on

dam

clear that a very long

be necessary for safety.

down silt in suspension. When the overfall


a high one with a crest more than 15 or 20 feet above river-

All rivers bring


is

50
on sand or sand and boulders, of a quality demanding

a high percolation factor of say 10 or 12,


rear apron

dam

cr.se in

DAMS AND WEIRS

98

bed

the deposit that

level,

obstruction

Avill

additional light stanching

comparatively

dam.

is

bound to take place

in rear of the

not be liable to be washed out by the current, and

still

be deposited in the deep pool of

silt will

water that must exist at the rear of every high

For a low weir however

this does

not follow, and

if

deposit

is

made it will be of the heavier, coarser sand which is not impermeable.


The difficulty and expense of a long rear apron can be surmounted by the simple expedient of constructing only a portion of
it

of artificial clay, leaving the rest to

To

itself.

voir

filled,

ensure safety the


in

two or three

dam

stages,

be deposited by the river

should be constructed and reser-

with intervals between of

length to allow the natural deposit to take place.

sufficient

Thus only a

works are

in existence

which owe their safety entirely to the

nate but unrecognized

frac-

Many

tion of the protective apron need be actually constructed.

fortu-

circumstance of natural deposit having

stanched the river bed in their rear, and

many

failures that

have

taken place can only be accounted for from want of provision for
the safety of the work against underneath scour or piping and also

The author

uplift.

himself once had occasion to report on the

ure of a head irrigation work which was designed as

if

fail-

on rock,

was on a pervious foundation of boulders. When it


failed the designers had no idea of the real cause, but put it down
to a "treacherous river", "ice move", anything but the real reason,

whereas

of

it

which they were quite ignorant.

Had

a rear apron of sufficient

width been constructed, the work would be standing to

Dam

this day.

The fore apron and base


must be of one level throughout its
The
length, if the foundation is of any other material than rock.
foundation core walls may have to vary more or less with the surface
of the river bed, which is deep in some places, and shallow in
76.

of

Base of

an overfall

others, but the

dam

apron level should be kept at or about low water

level throughout.

built across a river


in
so,

it,

and Fore Apron.

or weir

When
bed

it

a horizontal wall as an overfall


obliterates the depressions

the discharge over the weir

is

the same at

all

dam

is

and channels

points or nearly

consequently the tendency will be to level the bed downstream by


the hollows and denuding the higher parts.
Under these conditions it is evidently sheer folly

filling

to step

up the

apron to coincide with the section of the river bed, as the higher

DAMS AND WEIRS


bound to be

parts of the bed are

in time

99

washed out by the faUing

water and deposited in the deeper channels, and portions of the

dam may

easily

be undermined.

This actually occured in one case.

Section of Spillway of St. Maurice River

77.

Dam.

Fig. 58

is

a section of the spillway portion of the reinforced bulkhead gravity

dam,

illustrated in Fig. 44.

crest of Fig. 44, the

back

Owing

heavy

to the absence of the

of the spillway profile is

\\\\u\^\uiiMiY/ft/////,/.-/\/A/////////////A^/-

provided with

^^0-a

UlJScaie inPeet

Fig. 58.

Diagram Showing

Profile of Spillway Portion of Saint


(See Fig. 44)

Maurice River

Dam

double the amount of reinforcement shown in the former example.

One

half, viz, \\ inches,

extends right

other half stops short at El 280.

diagrams in the same


final resultant

side the

way

This

down
is

to the base, while the

arranged for in the stress

as explained in section 55, R^ being the

on the base.

The

line of pressure falls slightly out-

middle third in the upper half of the section.

The

effect

would be to increase the tension in the reinforcement somewhat


above the limit of 8 tons per square inch. The adoption of a trapezoidal profile, would,

it is

as well as in the former.

deemed, be an improvement in this case

DAMS AND WEIRS


PART

II

ARCHED DAMS
General Characteristics.

78.

being arched in plan,

is

an arch under pressure.


to the foundations

In this type, the whole dam,

supposed to be in the statical condition of


As, however, the base

by the

freedom of motion nor

elasticity,

immovably

dam

cannot possess

and consequently must act more or

dam subject to oblique pressure.


However this may be, experience has conclusively proved

the profile be designed on the supposition that the whole

elastic arch, this conflict of stresses

by the

practical

The

man.

probability

is

an

that both actions take

is

merging into transverse

near the base; the result being that the safety of the

enhanced by the combination of tangential and vertical

two

that

near the base can be neglected

place, true arch action at the crest, gradually


stress

of

full

a gravity

less as

if

fixed

due to the weight

frictional resistance

the structure, the lowest portion of the

is

dam

stresses

is

on

planes.

In this type of structure, the weight of the arch

conveyed

itself is

to the base, producing stress on a horizontal plane, while the water


pressure normal to the extrados, radial in direction, is transmitted

through the arch rings to the abutments.

The

pressure

is,

therefore,

distributed along the whole line of contact of the dam with the sides
as well as the ground. In a gravity dam, on the other hand, the whole

pressure

is

Arch
pressure

is

concentrated on the horizontal base.

The average unit


expressed by the formula

Stress.

^^^RHw

M^

stress

developed by the water

"Short" Formula

(21)

"Short" Formula

(21a)

DAMS AND WEIRS

102
in

which

R is the radius of the extrados,

H the

center of the crest,

the unit weight of water or

sometimes measured to the

depth of the lamina, b

Into this formula

ton.

width, and

its

p,

gravity of the material in the arch, does not enter.

formula answers well for

all

the specific

This simple

arched dams of moderate base width.

When, however, the base width

is

considerable, as, say, in the case

dam, the use of a longer fornlula giving the maxibe preferred. This formula is derived from the
same principle affecting the relations of s and 5i, or of the maximum
and average stresses already referred to in Part I on "Gravity Dams".

of the Pathfinder

mum

The

stress (5) is to

expression

is

as follows, r being the radius of the intrados:

RHw 2R
2R
'-'\R+r)~ b "^R+r
or in terms of

R and b
2Hw

Long" Formula

(22)

K-i)
also

>

79.

"Long" Formula (22a)

Theoretical and Practical Profiles.

to gravity
is

= rIi~JiJl^\

dams, the theoretical

a triangle having its

In a manner similar

profile suitable for

an arched dam

apex at the extreme water

level, its

width being dependent on the prescribed limiting pressure.


ful

examples have proved that a very high value for

stress,

can be adopted with

able use of

safety.

arched dams would be

If it

s,

the

Success-

maximum

were not for this, the profit-

restricted within the

of a short admissible radius, as with

base

narrow

limits

a low limit pressure the section

would equal that of a gravity dam.

The practical profile is a trapezoid, a narrow crest being necessary. The water pressure area acting on an arched dam, is naturally
similar to that in a gravity

that there

is

as in a weir.

point

The

is

dam, the

difference being, however,

no overturning moment when reverse pressure occurs


The difference or unbalanced pressure acting at any

simply the difference of the direct and the reverse forces.

areas of pressure on both sides, therefore, vary with the squares

of their respective depths.

DAMS AND WEIRS


The water
back and

its

103

pressure on an arch acts normally to the surface of


radial in direction; consequently the true line of pres-

is

sure in the arch ring corresponds with the curvature of the arch and

has no tendency to depart from this condition.

no such tendency to rupture as

is

There

therefore,

is,

the case in a horizontal circular

arch subjected to vertical rather than radial pressure.

This prop-

erty conduces largely to the stability of an arch under

This condition

pressure.
to*

not strictly applicable in

is

its

liquid

entirety

the case of a segment of a circle held rigidly between abut-

ments as the arch

is

The

then partly in the position of a beam.

complication of stress involved

is,

however, too abstruse for practical

consideration.

Correct Profile.

80-

profile of the

with a narrow
outline

is

dam

arched

As we have already

With regard

crest.

acts

on a

different plane

due to the weight

The

in the arch ring.

which

may

be expressed as

This tends, when the extrados

back

most favorable

The

reason for

stresses in the arch

maximum

induced stress

vertical pressure produces a transverse expan-

WxEXtUj

cient of elasticity of the material

stress in the section;

the correct

of the arch, although

from the tangential

has a definable influence on the

ring, still

sion

to arch stresses, the

that with the back of the extrados vertical.

this is that the vertical stress


it

seen,

a triangle modified into a trapezoid

is

in

m that

and

is vertical,,

which

E is

the

coeffi-

of transverse dilation.

to diminish the

whereas when the intrados

is

maximum

vertical

and the

inclined, the modification of the distribution of pressure

unfavorable, the
trapezoidal profile
tion exists.

maximum
is

stress

being augmented.

When

is

the

equiangular, an intermediate or neutral condi-

profile

with vertical extrados should, therefore, be

adopted whenever practicable.


In very high dams, however, the pressure on the horizontal
plane of the base due to the weight of the structure, becomes so
great as to even exceed that in the arch ring; consequently

it is

necessary to adopt an equiangular profile in order to bring the center


of pressure at, or near to, the center of the base, so as to reduce the
ratio of

maximum

As stated

pressure to average pressure to a

in the previous section,

when a

minimum.

vertical through the

center of gravity of the profile passes through the center of the base,

the

maximum

pressure equals the average, or s = Si,

DAMS AND WEIRS

104

Support

81 .

When

of

Vertical

Water Loads

in

Dams.

Arched

dam is incHned, the weight of the


supported by the base, the horizontal pressure of

the back of an arched

water over

it is

the water alone acting on the arch and being conveyed to the

abutments.

In the case of inclined arch buttress dams, however, a

portion of the vertical load


thrust above

what

is

due to overhang,

82,

Crest Width.

This

safely

made much

less

is

by the

carried

arch, increasing its

due to the horizontal water pressure

is

i.

e,,

when the

alone.

e.g. falls outside the base.

The crest width of arched dams can be


than that of gravity dams and a rule of

i..|v7j

(23)

would seem to answer the purpose, unless reinforcement is used, when it can be made less.

EXAMPLES OF ARCHED DAMS


The following actual examples of arched
dams will now be given.
83.
Bear Valley Dam. This small work,
the most remarkable arched dam in
and forms a valuable example of the
enormous theoretical stresses which this type

Fig. 59,

is

existence

of vertical arch can stand.

The mean

radius

being 335 feet according to formula (21) the


unit stress will be

= 60
r-

Fig. 59.

Section of Old Bear


Valley Dam

tons, nearly

This section would be better


actual

stress is

if

reversed.

The

probably half this amount.

This work has now been superseded by a new

dam

built

below

it,

Fig. 77, section 103.


84.

to a

Pathfinder

Dam.

radius of 150 feet

This immense work, Fig. 60,

measured to the center of the

crest.

is

built

That,

however, at the extrados of the base of the section is 186 feet and this
quantity has to be used for the value of R in the long formula (22).

The

unit stress then works out to 18 tons, nearly.

in the lowest arch ring

is

undoubtedly

much

The actual stress

less, for

the reason

DAMS AND WEIRS

105

that the base must absorb so large a proportion of the thrust that

very Httle

is

The

transmitted to the sides of the canyon.

exact

determination of the proportion transmitted in the higher rings


is

an indeterminate problem, and the only safe method

is

to assume

with regard to tangential arch stress that the arch stands clear of
RAD. 150'

Fig. 60.

the base.

This

will leave

and enable the adoption

Section of Pathfinder

Dam

a large but indeterminate factor of safety


of a high value for

5,

the

maximum

unit

stress.

The
is

profile of the

dam is nearly equiangular in outline. This


dam in order to bring the vertical resultants

necessary in so high a

(W) R, E. and

(iV)

R. F. as near the center as possible with the

object of bringing the ratio of

maximum

to

mean

stress as

low as

possible.

The

estimation of the exact positions of

analytically as below.

W and of N

is

made

DAMS AND WEIRS

106

There are only two areas to be considered, that of the water


(v) and that of the dam itself {W).
Dividing v hy 2^ (the assumed specific gravity of the material),
reduces it to an equivalent area of concrete or masonry.
overlying the inclined back

210X31.5 ^
1470 =103 tons
2X2.25

Tr= :!^X210 = 10920 = 768

iV=12390 = 871 tons

Total, or

Using formula

(7),

tons

Part

I,

the

e.g. of

TF is 50.8 distant from the

toe of the profile, then q or the distance of the incidence of


94
= 3.8.
the center point of the base is 50.8

W from

Zd

The

value of

5i,

or the

mean

unit stress

m = l+^=l+^^ = 1.24;

and

then

94

is

768

or

=8.1

tons

94

^=^ = 1.24X8.1 =10.1


b

tons.

For Reservoir

moments

Full, to find the position of iV,

will

be

taken about the toe as follows

Moment
Moment

of
of

?j

= 103x83.5=

Total iV = 871

then

a:

47614
-

= 9.26. By

r^a
=54.6; whenceg = 54.6
^, ^

formula

(9),

From

Part

I,

=47614

.,

94

would equal W,

(7a),

c. g.

^i

is

= 9.26X1.48 = 13.7
a high figure.

tons

if

due to

be reduced by

It could

still

the back were vertical

Let this latter case be considered. The distance

of the profile

from the heel

will

then be by formula

Part I

and the value

871

= "r = "qT

m^W-^~-^\A%.

further inclining the back; on the contrary,

of the

iV

^=/.6teetand

this it is evident that the unit stress in the base,

vertical load only,

iV

8600

TF = 768X50.8 = 39014

of q will

be

94

-31.66 = 15.33 feet

DAMS AND WEIRS


Si

as before

= ^- = 8.1

107

tons

Then
Q2

m = l+^ = 1.98

and

= 8.1X1.98 = 16

tons

94

This stress

is

greater than that of

proves that the forward


to reduce the

maximum

tilt

N in the previous working which


dams

given to these high

is

necessary

unit stress on the base to a reasonable limit,

A more equiangular profile would give even better results.


85.

on

Shoshone Dam.

lines identical

The Shoshone dam,

with the last example.

being the highest

dam

Fig. 61.

in the world

Profile

and Force Diagram

Fig. 61, is designed

It has the distinction of

but has recently

for

Shoshone

lost

this

Dam

preeminence, as the Arrow Rock, quite lately constructed. Fig. 37,


Part I, is actually 35 feet higher. This work is also in the United
States,

The

incidents of the resultants Reservoir

Empty and

Reservoir Full, which will be explained later, have been shown


graphically,

and the

vertical forces

analytical computation

taken from

left

is

given below.

The

to right are (1), area 6480; (2),

14,450; (3), water overlying back, reduced area 1880; total 22,810.

Taking moments about the toe


(1) is

54

of (3)

is

feet, of (2) calculated

95

feet, roughly.

of the base, the distance of

by formula

(7),

Part

I, is

58.3,

and

DAMS AND WEIRS

108

Then (6480
.'.

a:

= 60

54)

(14450

58.3)

X 95) =22810Xa:.

(1880

feet, nearly.

The value

of q for

N then is 60-^ = 6 feet,

N --^ =211, and by formula


'^'^810

Now

51=

(108+36)

^^

=281 square ieet=

(9),

Part

I,

5= 211X

= ^_
21 tons, nearly.

281X2.4

lUo

32

The maximum arch unit

stress

by formula

(22) is as follows: the

radius of the extrados of the base beine


^ 197 feet the fraction

-=- '=

H=

and

.55

245 therefore

^^^^

s=

197

2x245x1

H^-i)

.55X1.45X32

490
,_,tons.
-=19.2

Below the

ft.

above base, the

stress

on the arch does

than that due to vertical


This base should undoubtedly have been widened,

N.

pressure

60

level

The arch

not increase.

stress is less

down

the battered faces being carried

to the base, not cut off by

vertical lines at the 60-foot level.

Center of Pressure

New Graphical Method.

In order to find the

center of pressure in a case like Fig. 61, where the lines of forces (1)

and

(2) are close together,

the ordinary method of using a force and

funicular polygon involves crowding of the lines so that accuracy


difficult

to attain.

Another method now

on the same principle as that


for finding the

c. g.

In Fig. 61,

will

be explained which

is
is

of the intersection of cross lines used

of a trapezoid.

first

the

c.g.'s of

the three forces are found

(1)

the

water pressure area divided by p or 2.4 which equals 1880 square


feet, (2) the upper trapezoidal part of the dam area 14,450, and (3)
the lower rectangular area 6480.
line projected

From
from

bj

bd

on one

side in

Then

a, ac is set off horizontally


is

(1) is

any location as at

drawn equal to

joined to (2) and this


b in Fig. 61a.

equal to

(1) or 1880; cd

is

(2)

or 14,450 and

then drawn and

its

intersection with ab at e gives the position of the resultant 1-2, which

can

now be

of the

projected on the profile at G.

components

(1-2)

with

(3)

To

the line G-3

is

obtain the resultant

drawn on the

profile

DAMS AND WEIRS


and a

parallel to

it

drawn from

zontal through (3) at

/.

From

on

e,

eg

109

Fig. 61a, intersecting the horilaid off horizontally equal to

is

and from/, fh equal to (1+2) or 1880+14,450 = 16,330.


hg is then drawn and its intersection with ef at j is the centroid of the
three forces, which projected on the profile to Gi on the line G-3 gives
(3)

or 6480

the location of the vertical resultant of

Sweetwater Dam.

^6,

The

in CaUfornia is given in Fig. 62.

^^-JtS-^

1+2+3.

profile of

The

the Sweetwater

original crest of the

dam
dam

_ ^^-^
>

/iddition

3-^3.^7bns
Fig. 62.

Graphical Analysis of Sweetwater

Dam,

was at
the

El, 220, or 95 feet

dam depended

California

above the base.

for its stabihty

sidered as a gravity

dam

on

its

Under these conditions


arched plan.

vertical pressure area is the triangle a&e, here g = 16.5

out to 3.15

3.15X226 =

iV

226 tons and 6

15.5 tons

which

If con-

with allowable tension at the heel, the

is set

and

46 feet whence

down from a

to

m
=

h.

46

The

tension at the heel

52

2^

15.5-9.82 = 5.7 tons

works

110

DAMS AND WEIRS

DAMS AND WEIRS


When

Value of S

111

Heel Is Unable to Take Tention, If the heel

is

unable to take tension, the pressure triangle will then be adc in which
ac

=3

times the distance of the incidence of

from the

toe, or

3X6.5 = 19.5 feet and s is obby the following formula

tained

(24)

4X226

= 23.2 tons
3X46-33
dam has lately been raised

here s = -

This

iVorl^F

to EZ240, or

by

20, feet

and by

the addition of a mass of concrete


at the rear transformed into a

gravity dam.

The

diagram,

resultant due

Ri on the
works out to 10.6

to this addition

tons and there

is

is

no tension at

the heel.

Any bond between

new

and the old has been

wall

the
Fig. 64.

studiously

work

is

avoided.

Profile of Barossa

Dam

The new

reinforced with cross bars

superstructure. Fig. 63

is

and the rear mass

a plan of the

Fig. 65.

Site

Plan

of

dam

Barossa

tied into the

as altered.

Dam

87.
Barossa Dam. This dam, Fig. 64, is an Australian work,
and although of quite moderate dimensions is a model of good
and bold design.

DAMS AND WEIRS

112

The back
outline

on a

is

is vertical

and the

viz,

a square crest imposed

with the hypothenuse of the latter by


The crest is slender, being only 4^ feet wide, but is strength-

triangle, the face joined

a curve.

ened by rows of 40-pound iron

rails,

The maximum arch

concrete.

fished together, built into the

stress

works out to 17^ tons, the

corresponding vertical stress on base to 6f tons.


plan of the work.
88.
is

The

fore batter is nearly 1 in 2.7.

not trapezoidal but pentagonal,

Lithgow Dam.

the Lithgow dam, No.

site

Another example very similar to the

last

2, Fig. 66.

The arch

Fig. 65

stress in this

out by the short formula to nearly 13 tons; the radius


feet,

is

is

works

only 100

the vertical stress works out to 7 tons.

Arched dams abut either on the solid


else on the end of

rocky banks of a canyon or


a gravity dam.

In cases where a narrow deep

central channel occurs in a river, this portion

can advantageously be closed by an

arched dam, while the flanks on which the


arch

can be

abuts

gravity

dams aligned
The dam

tangential to the arch at each end.


will

thus consist of a central arch with two

inclined straight continuations.

The plan

the Roosevelt dam, Fig. 26, Part


Fig. 66.

Profile of

Dam

Lithgow

an idea of

is

shown the

for domestic

The

profile of

Dam.

In

a temporary reinforced arched

dam

water supply at Barren Jack, or Burrin Juick, Australia.

reinforcement consists of iron

rails.

at the base works out to 21 tons, nearly.

nent dams

of

will give

this class of work.

Burrin Juick Subsidiary

89-

Fig. 67

I,

down

to the base

rode in time and cause

is

The

Reinforcement of perma-

not desirable, as the metal

failure,

although the possibility

The main Burrin Juick dam

stoutly denied.

unit arch pressure

is

may
is

cor-

often

given in Part

I,

Fig. 36.
90.

Dams

just described,

with Variable Radii.

is

The

use of

dams

of the type

generally confined, as previously noted, to narrow

gorges with steep sloping sides in which the length of the


level of the
crest.

bed of the canyon

The

is

dam

at the

but a small proportion of that at the

radius of curvature

is

usually fixed with regard to the

DAMS AND WEIRS

113

length of chord at the latter level, consequently at the deepest


level,

the curvature will be so shght that arch action will be absent

and the lower part

of the

dam

will

be subject to

to tension as well as compression.

beam

stresses,

In order to obviate

i.e.,

this, in

some recent examples the radius of curvature at the base is made


less than that at the crest, and all the way up, the angle subtending
the chord of the arc, which is variable
in length retains the same measure
throughout.

This involves a change in

the radius corresponding to the variable

span of the arch.


is

The

further advantage

obtained, of reduction in the unit stress

and in rendering the


more uniform throughout. In

in the arch ring


stress

very high dams, however, the base width


cannot be

much reduced as otherwise


due to the

limit stress
will

be exceeded.

varying radii

is

the

vertical loading

This arrangement of

somewhat

similar to that

used in the differential multiple arch


given later.

MULTIPLE ARCH OR

HOLLOW ARCH
BUTTRESS DAMS

Multiple Arch Generally

91.

Useful

Than

Single Arch

evident that a

Dams.

dam which

More
It is

consists of a

single vertical arch is suitable only for a

narrow gorge with rock

sides

on which the

Fig. 67.

Profile of Burrin Juick

Subsidiary

arch can abut, as well as a rock bed; consequently

its

Dam

use

limited to sites where such conditions are obtainable.

foundation

is also essential for

is strictly

rock

gravity dams, the unit compression

on the base of which

The

is too high for any material other than rock.


adA^antages inherent in the vertical arch, which are con-

can however be retained by use of the so-termed multiple


or scallop arched dam. This consists of a series of vertical or

siderable,

inchned arches, semicircular or segmental on plan, the thrust oi

DAMS AND WEIRS

114

which
tical

carried

is

by

The arrangement

buttresses.

with that of a masonry arched bridge.

is,

in fact, iden-

If the latter

be con-

sidered as turned over on its side, the piers will represent the but-

In the case of a wide river crossing, with a bed of clay,

tresses.

boulders, or sand, the hollow buttressed

and

dams
The wide

slab buttressed

are the only ones that can well be employed with safety.

spread that can be given to the base of the structure in these two
types enables the unit pressure on the base to be brought as low as

from 2 to 4 tons per square

foot.

As has already been noticed

in section 78, the arch is peculiarly

This

well suited for economical construction.

that the liquid pressure to which the arch


to the surface and

radial in direction.

is

The

is

due to the fact

subjected

is

normal

pressure lines in the

interior of the arch ring correspond with its curvature

and con-

sequently the arch can only be in compression; thus steel reinforce-

ment

is

unnecessary except in a small degree near the crest in order

to care for temperature stresses.

the deck
forced.

is

composed

The

In slab dams, on the other hand,

of fiat slabs

which have to be heavily

spacing of the buttresses for slabs

to 20 feet, whereas in hollow arch


limit to the spans which

may

dams

be adopted.

there

is
is

rein-

limited to 15
practically

Another point

is,

no

that

the extreme compressive fiber stress on the concrete in deck slabs


is

limited to five hundred to six hundred and fifty pounds per square

inch; in an arch,

pression which

is

on the other hand, the whole section

is

in

com-

much greater area. For the


type now under consideration should

thereby spread over a

reasons above given the arch

be a cheaper and more

scientific construction

than the slab type in

spite of the higher cost of forms.

Mir Alam Dam. The first example given is that of the


Mir Alam tank dam, Fig. 68. This remarkable pioneer structure was
built about the year 1806, by a French engineer in the service of
H. H. the Nizam of Hyderabad in Southern India. The ahgnment
of the dam is on a wide curve and it consists of a series of vertical
semicircular arches of various spans which abut on short buttress
92.

The spans vary from 83 to 138 feet, the one in Fig.


The maximum height is 33 feet. Water
feet.
overtop
the crest. The length of the dam is
has been known to

piers. Fig. 69.

68 being of 122
over 3000

feet.

DAMS AND WEIRS


On

account of the inequality of the spans, the adoption of the

semicircular form of arch


for the reason that

no

115

is

an arch

evidently a most judicious measure,

of this

lateral thrust at the springing.

form under liquid pressure exerts

The water

pressure being radial

in direction, cross pressure in the half arches in the line of the spring-

ing
is

is

balanced and in equilibrium.

not in the direction of the axis of the

piers.

On

the other hand,

the terminal thrust

two

resolved in

is

component acts along the

when

axis of

Plan of One Arch of oMir Alam Dam


built in 1806, and consisted of 21 such arches.

dam was

This has to be met, either by the abutment,

if it is

an

by the corresponding thrust of the adjoining half


The other component is carried by the buttress; therefore,

end span, or

if

exerted

intermediate between the two axes, and

Fig, 68.

arch.

is

but that of the buttress

the arches were segmental in outline

directions one

This remarkable pioneer

the dam.

if

Whatever thrust

dam

else

segmental arches are used, the spans should be equal in order to

avoid inequality of thrust.

The whole

of this

work

is

Longer buttresses

will also

built of coursed rubble

be requisite.

masonry in lime

mortar; the unit stress in the arch ring at the base, using the short
1
roi^
lormula
(21),

(^Hw)

dam,

works out to

therefore, forna^

68X33X1

- = 5
.

14:Xo2

an economical design.

tons, nearly.

rp,

The

DAMS AND WEIRS

116

The

buttress piers are

AB

being taken through


piers are

shown

in section in Fig. 70, the section

In this work the buttress

of Fig. 68.

very short, projecting only 25 feet beyond the spring Hne

and being altogether only 35, feet long. This length


and the corresponding weight would clearly be inadequate to withof the arches,

Fig. 69.

stand

Plan

of Entire

Mir Alam

Dam

immense horizontal thrust which

the

is

equivalent

to

E Iw = 332X1X146 = 2500 tons, nearly.


2X32
It is evident that

arches behind

it

must

if

the buttress pier slides or overturns, the

which reason the two half arches and

follow, for

the buttress pier cannot be considered as separate entities but as

and consequently the effective length


of the base must extend from the toe of the buttress right back
to the extrados of the two adjoining arches. At, or a little in the
actually forming one whole,

^-/0-0*i L^,,

Section Py-B

Present Surfocei

Fig. 70.

Section of Buttress Pier of

Mir Alam

rear of the spring line, the base

continuations.

The weight

of

Dam Taken through AB of Fig.

is split

up

into

these arms,

68

two forked curved

i.e.,

of the adjoining

half arches, has consequently to be included with that of the buttress proper

or sliding

is

a^

hen the

estimated.

stability of the structure against overturning

DAMS AND WEIRS


Stresses in Buttress.

93.

taken through

CD

117

In the transverse section, Fig. 71,

of Fig. 68, the graphical calculations establish

R intersects the base, thus lengthened,


center; the direction of the resultant R is

the fact that the resultant line


at a point short of its

also satisfactory as regards the angle of frictional resistance.


J?i

is

the resultant on the supposition that the buttress

is

on the base proves that the arch

is

nonexistent.

Its incidence

stable without the buttress,

With regard

which

is

to sHding on the base,

therefore actually superfluous.

P = 2500

and TF = 6828

tons.

^-^^^Tons

Fig. 71.

The

Transverse Section of Mir

Alam

Dam

Taken through CD,

Fig.

coeflicient of friction being .7 the factor of safety against sliding

If the arch were altered on plan from a semicircle


segment
of
a circle, the radius would of necessity be increased,
to a
and the stress with it; a thicker arch would, therefore, be required.
This would not quite compensate for the reduced length of arch,
is

nearly 2,

but on the other hand, owing to the


effective

being depressed, the

cfoa^ti

base width would be reduced and would have to be made

good by lengthening the buttress


position of arch

piers.

What

particular

and buttress would be the most economical

disis

DAMS AND WEIRS

118

matter which could only be worked out by means of a number of


trial designs.

J to |.

The

ratio of versed sine to span should

vary from

Arcs subtending from 135 to 120 degrees are stated to be

the most economical in material.


94.

Belubula Dam.

There are not as yet very

many modern

examples of arch buttress dams, but each year increases their numr^'^"

Fig. 72.

ber.

Profile Sections

and Force Diagram

for Belubula

The Mir Alam dam has remained

resting

Dam, New South Walea

on

its laurels

a rival for over 100 years, but the time has come
is

being largely adopted.

segmental panel arch dam.


Wales.

same

The arch

without

this type

shows an early example of a

Fig. 72

It is the

crest is 37 feet

as in the last example.

when

Belubula

dam

in

New

South

above the base, very nearly the

The arches, which are

inclined 60 degrees

to the horizontal are built on a high solid platform which obliterates

DAMS AND WEIRS


This platform

inequalities in the rock foundation.

high, so that the total height of the

119

dam

is

over 50

16 to 23 feet

is

The spans

feet.

are 16 feet, with buttresses 12 feet wide at the spring line, tapering

The buttress

to a thickness of 5 feet at the toe they are 40 feet long.


;

piers,

which form quadrants of a

by

thickness

diminish in

steps from the base up, these insets corresponding

These steps are not shown


drawn as if in one straight batter.
form, and the spandrels are filled up

with similar ones in the arch


in the drawing; the arch also

The arches

circle in elevation,

are elliptical in

itself.

is

flush with the crown, presenting a

flat

surface toward the water.

vSome of the features of this design are open to objection: Firsts


the

filling in

of the arch spandrels entirely abrogates the advantage

accruing to arches under liquid pressure.

The

direction of the water

but normal to the rear

pressure in this case is not radial

slope, thus

exactly reproducing the statical condition of a horizontal arch

The

bridge.

haunches and

pressure, therefore, increases


is

The

to allow of a radial

arches

and the spandrels left


pressure which partly balances itself.

should have been circular, not

empty

from the crown to the

parabolic, not circular, in curvature.


elliptical,

Second, the stepping in of the intrados of the arch complicates the


construction.
in concrete.

toe

is

plain batter would be easier to build, particularly

Third, the tapering of the buttress piers

toward the

quite indefensible; the stress does not decrease but with the

center of pressure at the center of the base as in this case, the


stress will

be uniform throughout.
Inclination of Arch to Vertical.

95.

The

inclination of the axis

of the arch to the vertical is generally a desirable, in fact, a necessary

feature

when segmental arched panels

carried

is

are used; the weight of water

of value in depressing the final resultant line to a suitable

angle for resistance to shearing stress.

As noted

in section 90,

the weight of the water overlying the arch does not increase the
unit stress in the arch ring.
axis can

Consequently,

be adopted without in any

way

any

inclination

of

increasing the unit stresses

due to the water pressure.

When an

arch

vertical it

water pressure is
conveyed to the abutments and the weight of the arch to its
base. When an arch hes horizontally under water pressure both
is

is

clear that the

all

the weight of the water and that of the arch

itself

are conveyed

DAMS AND WEIRS

120
to the abutment;

when in an intermediate

position part of the weight

and part to the abutments.


With regard to water pressure, the thrust being normal to
the extrados of the arch the whole is carried by the abutments.
In the case of arches which do not overreach their base the weight
In
of water overlying the inclined back is conveyed to the base.
of the arch is carried to the base

any case the unit

cannot exceed that due

stress in the arch

The

to horizontal thrust.

total water pressure is greater with

inclined back, as the length of surface acted

on

the diagram, Fig. 72a, the vertical load line

represents the

weight of one unit or one cubic foot of the arch ring which

This force

to wp.

n=W sin

vertical

force

and

'p

and the other

6,

=W

cos

the

The

6,

also radial in direction


is

mean

unit stress

The

normal to the former.

and

is

by the radial
by the water pressure which is

unit stress developed

RiU] but

the radius in this case,

i?i,

The

radius, the pressure being internal, not external.

Si will

then be

= Riwp sin 6

S\

When

n,

6 being the inclination of the arch axis to the

similar to that produced

is

equal

is

resolved in two directions, one p^ parallel

is

to the axis of the arch,


force

= ^; when

e is 30 sin

It will easily

an
In

increased.

is

45, sin 6

(25)

= ,

be understood that this unit stress due to n does


is the same at the first foot depth of the arch

not accumulate, but


as

it is

it.

at the bottom; the width of the lamina also does not affect

However, the component p does accumulate, and the expression


should be multipUed by the inclined height Ex, lying

lop cos B

above the base under consideration.


compressive stress at the base will be

would equal
96.

details of

Hwp

The Ogden dam,

which are shown

arch and buttress type.


is less

in

which

h is the mean

simply.

Ogden Dam-

of the arches

j^

unit

arch were a rectangle, not a trapezoid,

If the

width of the arch.

As Hi=Hsec.9j the

the profile and sectional

in Fig. 73, is a notable

Its height is 100 feet.

than | to

1,

example

The

of the

inclination

or about 25 degrees to the vertical.

DAMS AND WEIRS


The

equinangular except for a small out-

profile of the buttress is

throw of the

On

toe.

design, but could be

the arch

is

from 6 to 2

121

the whole

improved

it

must be pronounced a good


For example,

in several particulars.

unnecessarily thick at the crest, and could well be reduced


feet,

thus effecting considerable economy.

The designers

were evidently afraid of the concrete in the arch leaking, and so


overlaid the extrados with steel plates.

arch causing

it

by

could have been provided

SECTlOti Ofi

AA

The

greater thickness of

increasing the span

""

and radius

5ECTI0H Oti B3

Fig. 73.

arches.

to possess less liability to percolation under pressure,

Profile

and Sections

of

Ogden

of the

PL AH OVERALL

Dam

design consequently would be improved

by adopting

larger spans, say 100 feet; buttresses, say, 25 feet thick, their length

being dependent on the width of base required to provide sufficient

moment

of resistance;

and

further, the inclination of the arches

might require increasing to bring the center of pressure


to the center of the buttress.

arch forming a roadway

is

dam;

preferable

overflow provided.

an

at, or close

by another
arrangement, and is well

finish of the crest

excellent

for an overfall, on the other hand, the


on account of the increased length of
The stress diagram shows that the value of the

suited for a bulkhead

curved crest

is

The

DAMS AXD WEIRS

122

vertical load A' i3 155,000 cubic feet or 10,598 tons, p being

at 2J,

The

whence

incidence of

= Oj and by

on the base,

fomiida

taken

5 feet from the center,

is

Part I

(9),

^140

10598

-fxC4) = 110X16-X-~:=8.91

^
tons

110

the dimensions of

.1,

the area of the base, being

pressm'e on the arch ring at the base

by

110X16

The

feet.

the short formula works

.^
24X100
- = 9.4
out^^to -^
tons.

hX32

The

contents of the

dam ^per

2,177 cubic feet; that of a g^a^Hty

nm, making a
30 per cent. With a

foot run

amounts to

'-^

4S

dam would

be about 3,500 cubic


arched t^pe of

feet per foot

5a\-ing in favor of the

nearly

better disposition of the parts as indi-

cated above, the sa\'ing would be increased to 40 or 50 per cent.

Actually the sa^'ing amoimted to only 12 per cent; this was owing
to the steel covering which, as

we have

seen, could

have been

dispensed with.

Design for Multiple Arch Dam.

97,

Fig. 74 is a design for

a segmental arch panel dam, or rather, weir.


crest is

The

height of the

64 feet above base with 5 feet of water passing over; the

apex of the triangle of water pressure

The

the base.

will

inclination given the axis,

that of the spring line and the intrados,

is

then be 69 feet above

which

is

coincident with

60 degrees with the horizon.

In designing such a work, the following saHent points

first

require consideration.

Width of Span. This, it is deemed for economical reasons


should be not less than the height of crest unless the state of the
foundation requires a low imit stress. In the ^lir Alam dam
(1)

the span
case

is

it will

(2)

over four times the depth of water upheld.

be made the same, that

is,

two

(3)

In the present

feet,

As with bridge piers, the


accommodate the skew-backs

Thickness of Buttress Piers.

^sidth should be at least sufficient to


of the

64

arches; a ^\idth of 12 feet or about \ span will effect this.

Radius and Versed

feet; this allows

Siiie.

The

radius will be

a versed sine of J span, or 16

feet,

made 40

which

is

con-

sidered to be about the flattest proportion to afford a good curva-

DAMS AND WEIRS

124

ture, the greater the length of the arc, the

more

condition will

its

approximate to that of a circular arch, under liquid pressure.


(4)

This must

Thichiess of Arch.

thickness depends on

the value assigned to

be assumed, as

first

its

the radius of the extrados, as well as on

i?,

This latter

the limiting pressure.

Sij

will

be fixed at below 15 tons, a value by no means excessive for arches

under liquid pressure.

With a base width of 7 feet, the radius


The base will be considered, not
64 feet below crest, but at the point marked

of the extrados will be 47 feet.

at the extreme depth of

where a

Z),

line

normal to the base of the inclined intrados cuts


// will, therefore, be

the extrados of the arch.

The

for the reverse pressure.

stress

60

feet, allowing

due to the water pressure,

using the short formula (21), section 78, will be

47X60X1

RHtv

To

,...,

must be added that due to the weight of the arch ring from
being 30 and its sine = i),
(25), Si = Riwp sin 6 (the angle
43.5X3
=1.6 tons, the total stress being
which in figures will be
this

formula

Z X4U

trifle

is

The

over 14 tons.

taken as 2.4 and

this pressure is

ivp

7-foot base width will then be adopted,

= j\

ton.

The depth

taken as 60, not as 65, feet which

being that the reverse pressure due to the

of water producing

is

tail

H+d),

be at least level with the water cushion bar wall,


effective depth to 60 feet, during flood conditions.
98.

Reverse Water Pressure.

pressure of water
pressure alone

is

is

much more

exerted than

is

The

the reason

water, which must


will

reduce the

influence of the reverse

considerable

when

hydrostatic

the case with overturning moment.

In the case of an upright arch acting as an overfall weir the pressure of the tail water effects a reduction of the pressure to the extent
of its area.

Thus

if

be the area of the upstream water pressure,

and a that of the downstream, or


will

be their difference, or

respective depths.

When

A a,

tail

and

water, the unbalanced pressure


will

overturning

vary as the square of their

moment

is

concerned, the

areas have to be multiplied by a third of their depths to represent


the moment on the base. The difference of the two will be in

that case as the cubes of their respective depths.

DAMS AND WEIRS


99.

The

Crest Width of Arch.

ing to formula (23), should be

made

width of the arch, accord-

|V// = 3J

feet, nearly.

It will

if

this falls

The

below 2

feet,

be

The

3 feet, with a stiffening rib or rim of 3 feet in width.

width could be made proportional to the base width, say

crest

and

crest

125

.36,

reinforcement will be required.

length of the pier base

is

measured from the extrados

of

the arch, the two half arches forming, as already explained in section
92, a forked continuation of the buttress pier base.

The

battering of the sides of the pier would clearly be a correct

procedure, as the pressure diminishes from the base upward.

combined batter of

The

of 5.6 feet.

determined by

in 10

is

length of the pier base, as also

trial

adopted, which leaves a crest width


its outline, w^ere

maneu-

graphical processes, with the object of

vering the center of pressure as near that of the base as posequalize the

sible, so as to

much

as possible.

dence of the

final resultant

measured by

the

mean

unit stress as

sho^^^l

by the

on the elevation of the buttress

The

Pressure on Foundations.

ICO.
is

maximum and

This has been effected, as

N in the force diagram,

and

total
is

imposed weight

equivalent to 150,000

cubic feet of masonr}', which at a specific gravity of 2.4

150,000X3

n 9rn
=11,^50

.
tons.

inci-

pier.

T^i.

Ine average pressure

is

is

equal to

.i.-

this quantity

the quotient being 7| tons, nearly.

125X12 = 1500 square feet,


The maximum pressure will

be the same owing to the incidence of

divided by the area of the base, or by

This 7i tons
if

is

at the center of the base.

a very moderate pressure for a hard foundation;

excessive, additional spread should be provided or else the spans

N greatty exceeds W. This is


due to the added weight of water represented by the inclination
given to the force line P, which represents the water pressure.
reduced.

It will be noticed that

Economy

of Multiple

run work out to

Arches.

The

cubic contents per foot

^ =850 cubic feet, nearly, the

denominator in

the fraction being the distance apart of the centers of the buttress piers.
o

The
top
is

contents of a gravity weir with base width f


o

^ H+d, works out

{H+d) and

to 1,728 cubic feet; the saving in material

therefore over 50 per cent.

DAMS AND WEIRS

126

Differential Arches.

101.

buttress arch weir.


in the
stress

The

Fig. 75

is

a study of a differential

principle of the differential arch consists

radius increasing with the height of the arch, the unit

thus kept more uniform, and

is

sponds more closely with the trapezoidal


to be adopted, than

is

the case

the stress area corre-

profile that

when a uniform

has necessarily

radius

is

adopted as

in Fig. 74.

The

arches are supposed to stand on a concrete or masonry

platform ten feet high above the deepest part of the river bed,
so that sluices
is

required could be provided below L.W.L, which

if

The

identical with the floor or fore apron level.

The depth

to crest level.

and the

at 5 feet

analyses will be
level

The

and the

reciprocal depth of tail water

made

at

two

river channel

stages, first,

below

is

is

12 feet.

when water

empty, second, at

inclination given to the intrados of the arch

The

horizontal.

height

is

of film passing over the crest is

"buttresses are placed 31

is

35 feet

assumed

Graphical
is

at crest

full flood.

3 vertical to 2

feet centers,

allowing

a span of 25 feet at base, here they are 6 feet wide, tapering to 2


feet at crest.

25 to 29

feet.

The span of the arch thus gradually widens from


The versed sine of the arc is made 5 feet at base
The radii at these positions are therefore 18.1
crest.

and 2| feet at
and 43.3, respectively, measured to the intrados of the arch. These
radii are horizontal, not normal to the intrados as in Fig. 73, and
thus vary right through from 18.1 to 43.3 corresponding to the
altered versed sine which decreases from 5 to 2^ feet, that half

way up

being 22

The

feet.

thickness of the arch at base

Arch Unit

made 2

is

feet.

Taking the base radius as

Stress.

unit stress due to water pressure will be

by formula

18.1, the base


(21), s

adding that due to the transmitted weight of the arch, formula


s

= Rwl

18. Iw
s

\-p sin

|-(2.4X.6)

= 10.4

tons, a

The

sin

1,

being

it

the

p being taken at 2.4,

expression

w?

(25),

becomes

at 3^ ton,

whence

moderate

stress for a vertical arch.

real thickness of the arch

as properly

.6,

should be measured

is

more hke 2^

feet

than 2 feet

horizontally, not normally.

DAMS AND WEIRS

127

upper Pari io be Reinforced


for Temperature

uj

H^

/
\

cfc'

m/er"^\'\\

onffrch

/393 To
//

/ //

^l

i/ //

"^^nil-'fr^ssHrea

...^

ffrch,

35kewback::^'^

iv=d?'8

Shock

'

X \

k'

onBase

Doe to R

p=ro

Fig. 75.

Design Diagrams for Differential Buttress Arch Weir

DAMS AND WEIRS

128

Load Line.
weights:

five

In the force polygon the load

(1)

that of

line is

made up

33x24x35 =

13860 cubic

145 tons;

the contents of the pier underlying the arch

(3)

equivalent to 433 tons;

feet,

by taking the contents of the whole as if the


and deducting the pyramid formed by the side
contents of the whole

batters.

A2) in which

by the prismoidal formula comes

Ai and

is

found

Thus the

=2310, that of the pyramid

is

are areas of the ends

^i = 0,

^;^ =

X = 52.5,

to

(5)

the contents

6 liAi-^- 4^^ +

Am

and

is

the weight of

(4)

the horizontal arch of the crest of the weir, 12 tons;


of the buttress,

the arch

(2)

were vertical

sides

=513, difference 1797, or 135 tons;

of

the overlying water has a content of

of the middle

and ^2 = 35X4 = 140;

section.

Here

therefore

(5)=-^X35X[0+(4X52.5) + 140]=2042

cubic feet equiv-

alent to 153 tons.

The

total load foots

up to 878

tons.

= u'-- X = X
772

the horizontal water pressure

(35)^

X 31 = 593

tons.

The
That of
of 2

is

position of the several vertical forces


1,

a triangular curved prism

found by formula

on to the plan.

The

(7),

Part

I,

is

obtained as follows

at J its horizontal width;


and by projection of this level
is

position of 3 has to be calculated

by moments

as below.

The

lever

arm

of the whole

mass including the battered

sides

at J width from the vertical end of 7^^ feet while that of the pyramidal batter is at J the same distance, or 5J feet.
is

The statement

is

then

2310X7J = (1797Xa:) + (514X5.5)

The

whence

a:

= 7.84

position of 5, the battered sloping buttress

is

feet

obtained by

taking the center part 2 feet wide and the outer side batters separately.

The

35
the length,
= 11 from the
1

e.g. of

the former

is

at

DAMS AND WEIRS

129

352

vertical end,

The weight

and

contents are

its

of the whole

is

feet

= 92

tons.

153 tons, so that the side batters will

weigh 153 92 = 61 tons, and be

Taking moments about the

-^X2 = 1225 cubic

= 8.75 feet distant from the end.

vertical end,

we have

153a;=(92XlL67) + (6lX8.75)

x=

1606

.r^rfleetX
=10.5

15o
Therefore, the incidence of the resultant on the base line meas-

ured 6.5 feet upstream from the center point.


TV

In Fig. 75a, iV = 878 tons and -^ = 14;


g = 6.5 feet,

foot wide,

divided

being 63 feet and

= 1.62 and the stress on the buttress,


=14x1.62 = 22.7 tons. The compression at

whence

??i

2N 5=
(28 22.7) =5.3

=-7

only

the toe

These quantites have now to be

tons.

by the base widths

if

to obtain the unit stresses, which are as

22 7

follows: at heel,

14
5 3
= 3.8; at center, - = 2.3; at toe, '--=
-^
2.6 tons.
2
6
6

This stress area

is

shown hatched

This stress diagram


incidence of

is

in Fig. 75f.

useful as showing that

toward the toe of the buttress, consequently

ishes

owing to the

being behind the center point the total stress dimin-

tapered on plan, as has been done.

In Fig. 74

it

should be

it

has been shown

that the stress being uniform by reason of the incidence of


the center point of the base, the buttress has been
in plan at its base.

which

is

The

Here the

by 140 tons, the

vertical load line

resultant being

12 feet of water
results in

Ri.
is

Pi

The

is

now 763

is

by the

now be

increased

arch.

The

tons and iV=1018, their

reverse pressure due to

a depth of

70 tons, this combined with Ri, in Fig. 75a,

R2 the final resultant. The value of d is 35 15' which is


As q scales 5 feet, the unit stresses work out as

satisfactory.

follows:

N in Fig, 75e

additional weight of water carried

horizontal water pressure

at

bad foundation.

Flood Pressures. The second, or flood stage, will

investigated.

rectangular

indicated unit stresses are very light

a great adv^tntage on a

102.

made

<^Mm^

''^^^zmT^^/^

DAMS AND WEIRS

131

At heel 3.9 tons, at center 2.7, and at toe, 4.2 tons.


The stress in the arch under a head of 38 feet comes to 11.5
tons.
Thus the stresses in stage 2 are higher than is the cage with
stage

1.

At the end of a series of these scallop arches near either abutment the thrust of the arch resolved axially with the weir has to
be met either by tying the last two arches by a cross wall and reinforcing rods, or abutting the arch on an abutment supported by
wall or a length of solid dam. This design would, it is considered,
be improved if the versed sine of the arcs were made somewhat
greater, as the arches are too flat near the crest.

The

men-

following remarks bear on the curvature of the arch

When

tioned in section 101.


spring line

is

a segmental arch

is

inclined,

the

at a lower level than the crown, consequently the

water pressure

is

also greater at that level.

should vary with the pressure which

it

But the

thickness

This

does not in this case.

proves the advisability of making the circular curvature horizontal,

then a section at right angles to the inclined spring line will be an


ellipse,

The

while a horizontal section will be a segment of a

reverse occurs with arches built in the ordinary way.

circle.

There

appears to be no practical difficulty in constructing forms for an

on this principle.
Big Bear Valley Dam. Fig. 76 is a plan and sectional
103.
elevation of the new Bear Valley reinforced concrete multiple
arch dam which takes the place of the old single arch dam menThe following description is taken from
tioned in section 83.
"Engineering News", from which Fig 78 is also obtained.

inclined arch

The new dam


top, abutting

consists of ten arches of 30^ feet, clear span at

on eleven

363 feet on the crest;

is

92

feet (in

buttresses.
its

The

maximum

total length of the

dam

height from crest to base

is

a pocket at the middle buttress only), although, as the

elevation in Fig. 76 shows, the average height of the buttresses

much less than that figure. The water face of the structm-e
and the rear edge of the buttresses are given such slopes as to bring
the resultant of the water-pressure load and that of the structure
is

through the center of the base of the buttresses at the highest


portions of the dam.

up

Fig.

79.

to within 14 feet of the top

The
is

slope

for

the water face

36 52' from the vertical, and

DAMS AND WEIUS

132

from that point to the crest

is vertical.

stream edges of the buttresses

is

2 on

The

slope of the

down-

from the bottom to the

top,

the vertical top of the face arches giving the piers a top width of 10

from the spring

feet

back edge. The buttresses are 1.5


and increase in thickness with a batter of

line to the

feet thick at the top

0.016 feet per foot of height or


all

heights.

down

The arch

in 60

on each side to the base

to the bend, from which point they are increased in thick-

ness at the rate of 0.014 f^et per foot to the base, or

Fig. 77.

The

View

of Big

Bear Valley

Dam

with Old

Dam Shown in

arc of the extrados of the arch ring

is

in 72.5.

Foreground

140 08' from the

top to bottom the radius being maintained at 17 feet and the


at

11.22 feet.

The

uniform throughout,
16

feet,

the arc

extrados
all

is,

therefore,

rise

a cylindrical surface

changes in dimensions being

Thus at the
145 08', and the

intrados of the arch.


is

for

and

rings are 12 inches thick at the top

made on

the

top, the radius of the intrados


rise 11.74 feet.

At 80

feet

from

the top. Fig. 79, the thickness of the arch ring will be 2.15 feet,

the radius of the intrados 14.85 feet (the radius of extrados less
the thickness of the wall), the arc 140 48' and the rise 10.59

DAMS AND WEIRS


In

feet.
rise of

all

133

cases of arch-dam design the clear gpan, radius,

and

the intrados decrease from the top downward.

t3

=3

>

Strut-tie

members

are

provided between the buttresses to

stiffen and take up any lateral thrusts that might be set up by

seismic disturbances

or vibrations,

these

consisting of

T-beams

DAMS AND WEIRS

134

and supporting arches all tied together by heavy steel reinforcement.


The T-beams are 12 inches thick and 2.5 feet wide, with a 12inch stem, set on an arch 12 inches square at the crown and thickening to 15 inches toward the springing

with two spandrel


on each side connecting the beam and arch, all united into
one piece. There are provided copings for the arches and the tops
lines,

posts

of the buttresses

with 9-inch projections, making the arch cope


wide and that on top of the buttresses 3 feet wide. The
beam slab of the top strut members is built 4 feet wide to serve
2.5 feet

as an extra stiffener, as well as a comfortable footwalk across the


dam. This footwalk is provided with a cable railing on both sides

Fig. 79.

to

make

it

Profile

and Sections

of

Big Bear Valley

a safe place upon which to walk.

Dam

To add

to the archi-

tectural effect of the structure, the arches of the strut

terminate in imposts, built as part of the buttresses.


are reinforced with twisted steel rods,
all

all

members

The

struts

being tied together and

being continuous through the buttress walls.

The ends

entering

the buttresses are attached to other reinforcement passing cross-

by which the stresses


beams may be transmitted to and distributed in the buttress
walls.
The ends of the strut members are all tied onto the granite
rock at both ends of the structure by hooking the reinforcement
rods into drill holes in the rock. The buttresses are not reinforced,
except to be tied to the arch rings and the strut members, their
wise into the buttress walls, forming roots

in the

DAMS AND WEIRS

135

shape and the loads they are to carry making reinforcement super-

The arch

fluous.

ribs are reinforced with |-inch twisted rods hori-

and variably
to the rods protruding from the

zontally disposed 2 inches from the inner surface

These rods were tied


For reinforcing the extrados of the arch ring ribs of
HXlJX A-inch angles were used, to which "ferro-inclave" sheets
were clipped and used both as a concrete form for the outer face
and a base for the plaster surface.
spaced.

buttresses.

Stress Analysis-

!04.
is

shown

On

79 a rough stress analysis

Fig.

As

depth of water.

for 80 feet

be seen the resultant

will

cuts the base just short of the center point.

is

estimated at 4100 tons, the area of the base

sq. feet

The

... RHw
weight 13 7

stress

on the arch, 80

16X80X1
^7T~ = ^^
20

feet deep,

tons, nearly,

of

= 110x4. 2 = 460

N 4100
whence - =
= 9 tons nearly, evenly distributed

taken as unity).
its

The value
yl

(vi

being

neglecting

u
ims shows

rri,-

or 3 of this

.i

the

necessity for the reinforcement provided to take

The tangent
This
better.

is

of (9=4-t =
iV

= -78.
7T^
4100

.'. 6'

= 39.

a large value, 35 degrees being the usual

If the

stress.

2i

limit,

33 degrees

arch thickness were doubled, reinforcement would not

be necessary except near the crest and the additional load of about
320 tons would bring Q down to 35 degrees. If not, a greater inchnation
given to the arch would increase the load of water on the extrados.
It is quite possible that

be actually cheaper.

due to

its

own weight

a thicker arch without reinforcement would

The downward
is

on a

thrust acting on the arch

different plane

Its effect is to increase the unit stress to

from the arch

a certain extent, as

thrust.
is also

the case with the combination of shearing and compressive stresses


in the interior of

dam

however, be neglected.

as explained in Part

I.

This increase can,

considerable but undefined proportion

of the water pressure near the base

is

conveyed to

it

and not

to

the buttresses; this will more than compensate for any increase

due to

The

and consequently it can be ignored.


form an excellent provision for
them against buckUng and vibration and are universally

vertical compression

ribs connecting the buttresses

stiffening

DAMS AND WEIRS

136

employed

The

in hollow concrete dams.

buttresses in this instance

are not reinforced.

HOLLOW SLAB BUTTRESS DAMS


main

Construction

deck

is

is

dam and

a class of

is

introduced by the Ambursen Hydraulic

first

Company

weir

which

principles to the arch buttress type

believed to have been

flat

There

Description of Type.

105.

similar in its

In place of the arch an inclined

of Boston.

substituted, which has necessarily to be

made

of rein-

For this reason, the deck slabs cannot exceed a


moderate width, so numerous narrow piers take the place of the
forced concrete.

thick buttresses in the former type.

further development

is

thin deck which covers the downstream ends of the buttresses or

forming a rolhvay.

piers,

The

enclosed box thus formed

sionally utilized as a

power house

which purpose

well suited.

for

The

it is

occa-

is

for the installation of turbines,

inclination given to the flat deck

is

such that the incidence

of the resultant (R.F.) will fall as near the center of the base as pos-

and at the same time regulate the

sible

inclination of the resultant

to an angle not greater than that of the angle of friction of the


material,

30 degrees with the

i.e.,

tendency to

slide

on the foundation

Dam an

Ells^vorth

is

Example.

By

vertical.

this

means any

obviated.

good example

of this style of

given in Fig. 80 of the Ellsworth dam in Maine. In


inclination of the deck is 45 or very nearly so; the
design
the
this

construction

is

piers are 15 feet centers with

widened ends, so that the

clear span

of the concrete slabs is 9' 1" at the bottom.

The

calculations necessary to analyze the thickness of the

and the

slabs

steel reinforcement at

one point,

viz, at

EL

2.5, will

given.
In this case the pressure of water on a strip of the
one foot wide, the unsupported span of which is 9' 1", is HIw.

now be
slab,

Here

H = Q7

feet

67X9.1X^=19
slab.
is

As

and
tons.

is

To

this latter lies at

partly carried

ton per cubic foot; therefore,

must be added the weight

an angle with the horizontal

by the base and

piers.

The diagram

of slab

is

ife

this

in Fig. 80c

resolved in

two

is

is

its

W=

of the

weight

not entirely supported by the

the triangle of forces.

directions, a

and

b,

The weight

respectively, parallel

DAMS AND WEIRS


and normal to face

of slab.

The

137

angle being 45 degrees,

a^hr^'
V2

Consequently the thickness, 37 inches, can be considered as reduced


QfJO
0001

00

to

^=

The

2.2 feet.

1.4

portion of the weight of

the slab carried to the


piers will, therefore,

9.1X2.2X~ = 1.5

be

tons,

the weight of the con-

assumed at

crete being

the usual value of 150

pounds per cubic foot.


The total distributed
load in the strip will then

be 19

+ 1.5 = 20.5

tons.

Now the moment of


on a uniformly

stress

beam with

loaded

in

ends

or

M=

279

inch-

is

20.5X109

free

tons.

moment must
be equaled by that of
This

the

resistance

the

of

concrete slab.

Formulas for

106.

Reinforced Concrete.

For
tions

purpose

the

showing

in detail,

leading

of

the calcula-

some

formulas con-

nected with reinforced

beams and

now be

slabs

exhibited:

will

M2 =

DAMS AND WEIRS


approximate formulas
cZ

= 35

inches

and

(31a)

and & = 12

(32a),

139

=8

/s

tonSj /c

= .3

ton,

inches; then

il^

= 8x3X-rX35 = 735

inch-tons

8
^^^c

= :^XX 420X35 = 735


10

As already noted the moment

the results being identical.


is

The end

but 279 inch-tons.

inch-tons

shear

may

of stress

have governed the thick-

Testing for shear the load on a 12-inch strip of slab

ness.

tons of which one-half

is

supported at each end.

is

Allowing 50

20.5

lb.,

or

.025 ton, as a safe stress, the area of concrete required is 10.25 h- .025

= 410 square inches the actual area being 37 X


107.

it.

The

piers are not reinforced at

stresses are all compressive


is

= 444 square inches.

The reinforcement

Steel in Fore Slope.

more a matter of judgment than of


hardly any weight to support, as the
is

of

12

water

falling
all,

nor

and the inclination


i.e.,

of the

30 degrees.

bay is estimated

the trapezoid of water pressure,

80 drawn through the

e.g. of

is

drawn upward

upstream deck

Fig. 80a is a force

EL

The

0.00.

at 783 tons while that of P,

1700 tons.

The force line P in

Fig.

the water pressure area intersects the

W below the base hne.

vertical force

shoot clear

\\ith the vertical

diagram of the resultant forces acting on the base at


total weight of a 15-foot

deck having

will

necessary, as the

is it

such that the resultant pressure makes an angle

not greater than that of friction,

of the fore slope

calculation, this

From

this intersection

is

parallel to its reciprocal in the force polygon, cutting

the base at a point some 9 feet distant from the center point.

The maximum

107X2 = 214

sq. ft.;

A=
m = i^^^

stress will occur at the heel of the base.

= 9-34 tons; q being 9


4 = 7^
^ ^
214
.4

ft.,

107

'

= 1.5 and 5 = 9.34X1.5 = 14 tons. Formula (9), Part I. The horizontal component of P = 1200 tons.
The base being 2 ft. ^nde,
5s=^7TT7j^

5.6 tons;

V49+31.4 = 16.5
shearing stress

therefore

by formula

(10),

Part

I, c

The usual Hmit to


per sq. inch, equivalent to 7.2 tons per

tons, a decidedly high value.

is

100

reinforcement

lb.

therefore not necessary

and is not provided.


There appears to be no reason why a steeper slope should not
have been given to the deck so as to bring the center of pressure up
sq. ft.,

is

DAMS AND WEIRS

140

to the center of the base

and thus reduce the unit

higher river stage has been allowed

The

for.

Possibly a

stress.

position of

W as well

as the weight of the structure were obtained from the section given
Fig. 80

in Schuyler's Reservoirs.

of the so-termed "Curtain''

is

The "Half Apron" type,

type of dam.

Fig. S2c, is

sometimes used for

main section of Fig. 82 illustrating the "Bulkhead" type.


Slab Deck Compared with Arch Deck Dam. The Ambur-

overfalls, the

108.

sen dam, wherever the interior space


tion of turbines,

not required for installa-

is

undoubtedly a more expensive construction than

is

the multiple arch type.

This fact has at

last

been recognized and in

one of the latest dams erected, scallop arches were substituted for
the

deck, thus obviating the expense of reinforcement.

flat

Fig. 81.

By

Section of Arch with 30-Foot Span

increasing the width of the spans, the piers, being thicker in like

proportion, will be in

much

better position for resisting compressive

a thick column can stand a greater unit stress than a thin


Another point in favor of the arch is that the effective length
of the base of the piers extends practically to the crown of the arch.
stress, as

one.

The arch

itself

need not be as thick as the

radial pressure to

which

it is

subjected

slab.

it is

in a

Owing

to the liquid

permanent state

of

compression and does not require any reinforcement except possibly

dam. Here the arch is generally widened, as in


Ogden dam. Fig. 73, and thus greatly stiffened at the

at the top of the

the case of the

point where temperature variations might develop unforeseen stresses.


Fig. 81

is

a sketch illustrative of the saving in material afforded

by doubling the spans from 15 to 30 feet and conversion to multiple


arch type. The radius of the extrados of the arches is 18.5 ft. H
is 67 at elevation 2.50 and w= ^ ton; hence the thickness of the
arch by formula (21) (si being taken as 15 tons), will be
,

1=

RIIw = 18.5X67X1
oAfteet^
_=2.6
s
32X15

DAMS AND WEIRS

141

than the reinforced slab of one-half


the span, or 15 feet. The greater length of the arch ring over that
The area of
of the straight slab is thus more than compensated.
It is thus actually thinner

is 35X2.6 = 91 square
bracketing at juncof
the
=93,
that
30X3.1

the arch, counting from the center of the pier,


feet,

that of the slab

is

The saving

tion with the piers, 13, giving a total of 106 square feet.

EL3JF.0
60

P'O

SO SO

fOOfl.

pe Thick
StSOSpillwaij

Crost^ Section of 5pillyva(^

Cresf Level

'^1

Fig. 82.

Profile

and Detailed Sections

due to decreased length


lower part of the

of

x_.

^^o.o

Guayabal Dam, Porto Rico

of the piers is 25 square feet.

of concrete is saved, also all the steel reinforcement.


is

Thus

in the

dam over 40 cubic feet per 30' bay per foot in height
If

a roUway

considered necessary in the weir, the deck could be formed

thin reinforced concrete screen supported on

by a

I-beams stretching

across between the piers.


109.

dam
it is

Guayabal Dam.

Fig. 82 is a section of the

recently constructed in Porto Rico, its height

on a rock foundation.

The

is

Guayabal

127 feet and

following are the conditions govern-

DAMS AND WEIRS

142
ing the design;

maximum

pressure

on foundation 10 tons per square


pounds per square inch or 21.6

foot; compression in buttresses 300

tons per square foot; shear in buttresses 100' pounds per square
inch, or 7.2 tons per square foot; shear in
.03

ton per square inch;

square inch;

fs for

deck slabs 60 pounds, or

deck slabs 600 pounds or

fc for

ton per

.3

deck slabs 14,000 pounds, or 7 tons per square

inch.

The

concrete in the slabs

buttresses 1:3:6;

n = -^

is

is

in the proportion of 1 2 4, in the


:

taken as 15 and r='^* = 23.3.

Ec
slab

is

The deck

Jc

55 inches thick at El. 224, d

taken as 53, allowing 2 inches

is

=
By

for covering the steel, bd or the area of the section one foot wide

= 636

53 X 12

Now A

square inches.

P=

the area of the steel =pM.

-01044, hence the


,(,3.3)4',3.3x,5
required area of steel will be 636X.01044 = 6.64 square inches,
provided d is of the correct value. The calculation will now be
made [for the thickness of the slab which is actually 55 inches.
formula

(28),

The load on

^(^)

a strip 12 inches wide

is

109X13
_
w
Water pressure ^ = 44.3 tons
.

To

..

must be added a portion

this

(13X55\
4 5
= 3.2
-W

weight of the slab

of the
/'

tons must be added to the 44.3 tons above, 44.3+3.2 = 47.5

V2
tons,

rp.

1-

ihe bendmg moment

M.r

is

TrX-= 47.5X13X12
-
=
8

The depth

tons.

of the slab can be estimated

(27) or the

(26) or

of k

and

j will be
fc

all

four will be worked out.

found by formulas (29) and

For the

First the values

(30).

= V.313+.0245-. 156 = 582^.156 = 0.426


.

j=ri=-^) = l-.142 = .858


By

formula

(26),

by using formulas

approximate ones (26a) and (27a).

purpose of illustration,

^^
927 mcn-

^^^J^f ,,^,^Tmxm =

''''

DAMS AND WEIRS


(i

= Vl234 = 35.07
9

By

formula

inches

Q27 X 2

T/f

(27),

^^=i^-=i2X.3X.426X.858^^^^^
rf= 1406 = 37.5 inches
approximate formulas will be used. By (26a)

Now the

^.-

8X927
^1854^^210
7X12X7X.0104 1.53

= Vl210 = 34.8

<i

by

1^3

inches

(27a)

^,^6X927^556_2^^342
12X.3
(i

3.6

= Vl542 = 39.3

inches

The approximate formulas (26a) and (27a) give higher results than
(26) and (27). The result to select is 37.5 inches, formula (27), which is
higher than by (26) The depth of beam would then be 40 or 41 inches.
.

It is actually 55.

been given a

This discrepancy

s.g. in

The corresponding

1.5, or

With regard

to direct shear

which half acts at each

on the

is

be

" round rods


1 A

inches.

the criterion.

^=pM =

slab,

The
shear

usually turned

up

224

is

23 7
'

.036

This figure exceeds the Umit of

is

over 20 tons.

With regard

These rods are

to shear in the buttresses, the

horizontal component of the water pressure as

FA.

safe resistance is

at their ends in order to care for the shear.

Shear in Buttresses.

is

=47.5 tons of

The deficiency is made up by adding the shear of the


The sectional area of this reinforcement is 4.7 square

inches the safe shearing of which

diagram

0104X12X37.5

W as before
The

tons, nearly.

ton = 72 pounds per square inch.

spaced 3 inches would answer.

pier, viz, 23.7 tons.

6dXS, = 12X55X.03 = 20

steel rods.

shear

steel area will

= 4.7 square

60 pounds.

mud

excess of unity, owing to the presence of

say of 1.3 or

in suspension,

be due to the water having

may

3400 tons.

The

marked on the

force

area of the base of the buttress at

138X3.2 = 441.6, the shearing

stress or 5,

then

=^^ = 8
441.6

tons per square foot, nearly.

The allowable stress being only 7.2


made good by reinforcing rods

tons the difference will have to be


of

which two of f-inch diameter would

suffice.

DAMS AND WEIRS

144

Now

with regard to compressive stresses on the buttresses the

R strikes the base at EL


224 almost exactly at the center, the angle

graphical working shows that the resultant

^^^ ^^^^,
^

WfBPlI" /
1^ "^T

The value of N is
mean and s the maximum

^ ^Iso is 30 degrees.

r^^l

^H

5650 tons

stress will

^i

the

both equal; and

5650
=

12.78 tons.

442
pression on the foundation
is

4 feet lower

Tsill

well as

the area
sq. ft.;

Thecom-

itself,

not be any

although the base width

as

138X3.2 = 442

of the base, equals


therefore, 5

. 1

which

less for,

is greater,

N as

Thus the

are also increased.

c3

Q $

pressure on the foundation


of the limit

extent

is

and widening to a further

The maximum

Part

I,

EL

internal stress

224, will be

in

f:

c,

by formula

Here 5 = 12.8
i5+J^+5,2.
\

and 5s as we have seen


rt

in excess

required.

the buttress at
(10),

is

= 6.4+

164

is

8 tons, therefore,

+64 = 16.6 tons. The limit

compression in the buttress is 300 pounds


per square inch, or 21.6 tons per square
foot.

In the bulkhead portion of the dam,

shown in

Fig. 82b, every pier is run

up

14 inches thick through the deck to form

a support for a highway bridge, the spans


of which are therefore 16 feet 10 inches

roadway is carried on
which are supported by arches of

in the clear; the

slabs

The buttresses are


by several double rehi-

reinforced concrete.
laterally supported

sway beams, 16"Xl4'', and below the crest a through roadway is provided. The spillway section is shown on Fig. 82c. The

forced

DAMS AND WEIRS

145
"^"yfir^

fa

>

DAMS AND WEIRS

146

ground

EL

on a high bench at EL 295.

level is here

325, the

fall is

The roadway

30

The

feet.

spillway

is

The

crest being

of the "half apron type".

on four reinforced concrete girders, a


very neat construction; the piers are run up every alternate span
and are therefore at 36-foot centers; they are beveled on both faces
The spillway will pass 70,000 secondto reduce end contraction.
here

feet; its length is

carried

is

775

The bulkhead

feet.

section of the

dam

(see also Fig. 83)

has 51 spans

of 18-foot centers, total length 918 feet; that of the spillway consists

The whole

of 21 spans of 36-foot centers.

depth of the
20 feet and
hollow

tail

water

its effect

dams ever

not known,

is

would be but

constructed.

or corbels of the buttresses

work

is

it

length

1674

is

feet.

The

would probably be about


is

one of the largest

The arrangement

of the haunches

trifling.

This

a better one than that in the older

of Fig. 80.

Bassano Dam.

110.

Another important work

is

the Bassano

dam illustrated in Figs. 84 and 85. This is an overfall dam built over
the Bow River at the head of the eastern section of the Canadian
Pacific

Railway Company's

irrigation canal

and

is

estimated to pass

100,000 second-feet of water at a depth of 14 feet.

high nor so long as the Guayabal


interest.

dam

First its foundations are

it

on a thick blanket

very hard blue clay of excellent quality.

this formation,
is

that

so

presents several features of

twelve feet deep which overhes boulders and gravel.


is

Though not

The

of clay

some

This material

great advantage of

which extends over 1000 feet upstream from the work,


all uphft, or very nearly so, consequently no

precludes

it

have to be adopted, such as a long apron to


would be necessary in case of a
foundation composed of porous and loose materials. It has also
disadvantages. The allowable pressure on the clay is limited to
special precautions

ensure length of percolation, as

2| tons per square foot. This influences the design necessitating


a wide spread to the buttresses, laterally as well as longitudinally.

The whole

of the

dam

is

an

overfall

and the general arrangeiaents

are very similar to those prevailing at Guayabal.

The hearth

or

horizontal fore apron, a provision not necessary in the last example,


is

at

EL

2512.

The

crest is at 2549.6

a height of 37.6 feet above

the apron and corresponds with the level of the canal intake

floor.

by draw

gates

Wat^r

is

held up to eleven feet above crest level

DAMS AND WEIRS

147

"^Si
q!

Qi

DAMS AND WEIRS

148

eleven feet high, and this full supply level

the estimated afflux, which

is

three feet below that of

is

fourteen feet above the crest.

For overturning moment the water-pressure area will be a


truncated triangle with its apex at afflux level plus the height h or
1.5

57,

Part

to allow for velocity of approach, as explained in section


I.

This, in the

Bow

about 12 feet per second;

River with a steep boulder bed

h therefore will equal 1.5

will

144

3.4 feet

be

and

64

the apex of the truncated triangle will be at a point 14+3.4 = 17.4


feet
is

above the

crest level.

not known, the ratio

consequently with

(i

The depth

with a steep bed slope

= 14, D will have a value

d being depth over crest and

moments

of the tail water at full flood

of

will

about 25 to 28

D that of tail water.

depths up- and downstream and the unbalanced

The upstream head

downstream head say 25

feet.

.5,

feet,

The overturning

and reverse can be represented by the cubes

direct

difference.

not be under

of the

moment by

37.0+14+3.4 = 55

their

and the
Their cubes are 166,375 and 15,625
is

feet

the difference being 150,750, thus the reverse pressure will not have

much

above crest

will

This quantity

the afflux level

moment when water

is

full flood will

the flood level up- and downstream, which

water

is

ft.

channel empty.

when

is

be the difference of
30

feet, as

allowed access to the rear of the deck slabs.


feet,

held up to canal

estimating

In the case of direct water pressure on

the deck slabs, the acting head at

is

tail

that which has to be considered

than the head, 49

cor-

held up to 11

than the 150,750 previously stated, consequently

the overturning moment.

water

is

be 49^ = 117,649, supposing the

is less

The

the stability of the structure.

effect in assisting

responding representative

the

This

tail

is less

which exists when the gates are closed and


full

supply,

the head that has to be considered

i.e.,

is

to

EL 2560.6,

consequently

that at this latter stage.

Analysis of Pressures on Bassano

Dam.

With

this data the

design can be analyzed, the procedure being identical with that

explained in the last example, excepting that the reverse pressure

might be taken into account as it will modify the direction and


incidence of i? in a favorable sense though not to any great extent.

The

limit stresses are those given in the last

example with the

fol-


DAMS AND WEIRS

149

Footings, compression in bending, 600 pounds

lowing additions:

per square inch, shear, 75 pounds per square inch.

Some

explanation will

now be

given of the method of calcu-

lation of the footing to the buttresses

be referred

known

=41
138

This

tons,' nearly.
^

is

will

the base of the buttresses are

In section 109 the value of

quantities.

=
6

the pressures on

to, as

and the Guayabal dam

N is 5650

tons and

the unit pressure per foot run

on the base of the buttress. Supposing the limit pressure on the


foundation was fixed at 3 tons per square foot, then the requisite
base width of the footing would be

41
=13.7

The footmg con-

feet.

o
sists of

two

cantilevers attached to the stem of the buttress.

moment

bending

foot wide will be

The

-^.

'^ =
13.7

of

The moment

buttress

the

be

side will

3.2

reaction on a strip one foot wide will be

15.75 tons.

Then

at the base will be

According to formula (27a),


28.8 inches.

5.25 feet.

5.25X3X1 =

in inch-tons about the edge of the section

be

will

buttress being 3.2 feet wide the pro-

on each

jecting length of footing

The

The

at the junction with the buttress of a strip

'

M^-^.

.-.

d=

= 498

inch-tons.

J^|^ = V830 =

= 28.8X12 = 346 and A the area of the steel


0104X346 = 3.61 inches, this in a 12-inch
IJ-inch bars 4 inches apart. When the weight

fed

pM =

wide strip will take


on the buttress is considerable the depth of footing slab thus estimated becomes too great for convenience. In such cases, as in Fig.
85, the

beam

will require reinforcement in

compression at the top.

This complicates the calculation and cases of double reinforcement


are best

The

worked out by means of tables prepared for the purpose.


shown in Fig. 85, were thus double reinforced, in fact

footings

through bars were inserted at each step, the lower being in tension
the upper ones in compression.
right through the base of the

footing

is

111.

The lower bars were continuous


dam.

This reinforcement of the

not shown on the blue print from which Fig. 85

Pressure

on

Foundation

Foredeck.

is

derived.

great

many

DAMS AND WEIRS

150

Ambursen dams have been constructed on river beds composed


of boulders and gravel, which require a pressure limit of about
4 tons per square foot. This can always be arranged for by widening the footing of the pier buttresses, the same can of course be
done with arch buttressed dams. The base of the arch itself can
be stepped out in a similar manner. In the Bassano dam the
sloping fore deck is unusually thick and is heavily reinforced in
addition; this

is

done with the idea of strengthening the structure


ice, as well as from the falling water, and with

against shock from

the further idea of assisting the buttresses in carrying the heavy


load of the piers and superstructure.
lations can well

be made

for this;

It

it is

is

doubtful

if

any

calcu-

a matter more of judgment

than of estimation.

As with the Guayabal spillway, every alternate


buttress is run up to form the piers of the superstructure, which latter
consists of a through bridge which carries the lift gear for manipulating the draw gates. The so-termed blind buttresses that is,
those that do not carry a pier are of thinner section and are apparently not reinforced. Both kinds of buttresses have cross-bracing
as shown on the profile. In hollow dams the location of the center
of pressm*e moves with the rise of water from the heel toward the
Buttresses.

center within the upstream half of the middle third.

on the other hand, the movement

is

In solid dams,

along the whole of the middle

third division, consequently in hollow

dams

there

is

no tendency

to turn about the toe as with solid dams, rather the reverse, namely,

to upset backward.

This latter tendency must cause tension in

the buttresses which the cross-bracing


Baffles.

As noted

is

intended to care

for.

already in section 66, baffles have been built

on the curved bucket with the object of neutrahzing this mischievous arrangement which it is hoped will soon ^become as obsolete in
western practice as has long been the case in the East.
Hearth and Anchored Apron. The dam is provided with a
horizontal fore apron or hearth 76 feet long

and beyond

solid

this the

device of an anchored floating apron of timber 30 feet in length has


been added. The apron is undoubtedly too short and should have

been made 100 feet or 2

below

it.

The wooden

(H+d)

in length, with cribbed

sheet pihng in the rear of the

sidered to be worse than useless;

it

work

riprap
is

con-

merely breaks up the good clay

DAMS AND WEIRS


blanket

by

cutting

it

in two.

wide

151

'

solid curtain of concrete,

not

would have been a superior


below the bucket is provided to

so deep as to penetrate the clay blanket,

arrangement.

The

guard against

sliding.

inclined piling

This

Their capacity

openings.

dam is provided with

is

such that one half

a number of sluice
will

pass ordinary

dam to be cut off from the river


construction. On completion of the work

floods, allowing the other half of the

by

sheet piling during

these sluices were

closed from the inside

all

by

slabs of concrete

deposited in position.

SUBMERGED WEIRS FOUNDED ON SAND


1

Description of Type.

12.

There

or submerged diversion weir which

is

is

a certain type of drowned

wide rivers or

built across

streams whose beds are composed of sand of such depth that a solid
foundation on clay

is

an impossibility.

Consequently, the weir has

to be founded on nothing better than the surface of the river bed,

with perhaps a few


this class of weir

lines of

but one

the United States, viz,


at the head of the

hollow curtain walls as an adjunct.

Of

beHeved to have been constructed in


the Laguna weir over the Colorado River

Yuma

is

irrigation canals.

This type originated in India and in that country are foxmd

numerous examples of weirs successfully constructed across very


large rivers of immense flood discharge.
For instance, the Godaveri River in Southern India has a flood discharge of 1,200,000

second-feet

Not only

is

and the weirs across it are nearly 2J miles in length.


the length great, but as will be seen, the width has to be

The Okhla weir,

very considerable.
the Jumna below
f mile long. The

Figs. 101

the historic city of Delhi

and
is

102, situated

height of these submerged weirs

is

12 feet, their role being purely diversion, not storage.

more of

this type of

low diversion weirs

will in

on

250 feet wide and

seldom over

No

doubt

the future have to be

constructed in the United States or in Mexico, so that a knowledge


of the subject is a necessity for the irrigation engineer.

Principles of Design.

The

principles underlying the successful

design of these works are a comparatively recent discovery. Designs

were formerly made on no fixed principles, being but more or less


Fortunately some of these works

modified copies of older works.


failed,

and

it is

from the practical experience thus gained that a

DAMS AND WEIRS

152

knowledge of the hydraulic principles involved has at

last

been

acquired.

weir built on sand

is

exposed not only to the destructive

influences of a large river in high flood which completely submerges

but

it,

foundation being sand,

its

is liable

to be undermined and

worked out by the very small currents forced through the underlying sand by the pressure of the water held up in its rear. In spite
of these apparent difficulties, it is quite practicable to design a work
of such outline as will successfully resist all these disintegrating

and remain as

influences,

solid

and permanent a structure as one

founded on bed rock.

Laws

113.

The

of Hydraulic Flow.

principle

which underUes

the action of water in a porous stratum of sand over which a heavy

impervious weight

is

imposed

is

analogous to that which obtains in

HeodWaler /I

Fig. 86.

Diagram Showing Action

a pipe under pressure.

a pipe
is

line

Fig.

BC, leading out

of

Water Pipe Leading Out

of Reservoir

86 exemplifies the case with regard to

The

of a reservoir.

acting head (i?)

the difference of levels between A\ a point somewhat lower than

A, the actual summit

level

the outlet of the pipe.


line

A\C

is

and C the

level of the tail

The water having a

the hydraulic gradient or grade

pressure in the pipe at any point

drawn from the center

is

water beyond

free outlet at C, the

line.

The

hydrostatic

measured by vertical ordinates

of the pipe to the grade line

form velocity of the water in the pipe

is

A\C.

The

uni-

dependent directly on the

head and inversely on the frictional resistance of the sides of the pipe,
that is, on its length. This supposes the pipe to be straight, or
nearly

so.

114.

Dam. We will now consider the


embankment thrown across the sandy bed of a

Percolation beneath

case of an earthen

DAMS AND WEIRS


stream. Fig. 87.

The

rally cause leakage

pressure of the

153

impounded water

beneath the impervious earthen base.

low depth of water impounded

it

leakage might be harmless; that

under current would be

may

natu-

will

With a

well be understood that such

the velocity of the percolating

is,

insuflBcient to

wash out the particles of


When, however, the

sand composing the foundation of the dam.

head
will

is

increased beyond a safe limit, the so-termed piping action

take place and continue until the

Governing Factor for

115.

dam is completely undermined.

Stability.

The main governing

factor in the stability of the sand foundation

evidently not the

is

superimposed weight of the dam, as the sand

is

incompressible;

although a load in excess of the hydraulic pressure must

e^sercise

a certain though possibly undefined salutary effect in delaying the


disintegration of the substratum.

Diagram Showing

Fig. S7.

However

this

Effect of Percolation under Earthen

may

be, it is the

Embankment

across

Stream

enforced length of percolation, or travel of the under current, that


is

now

recognized to be the real determining influence.

In the case of a pipe, the induced velocity

is

inversely propor-

In the case under consideration, the hydraulic


condition being practically identical wdth that in a pipe, it is the
tional to the^ length.

enforced percolation through the sand, and the resulting friction


against its particles as the water forces its way through, that effects

the reduction of the velocity of the undercurrent, and this frictional


resistance is directly proportional to the length of passage.

In the

case of Fig. 87, the length of enforced percolation is clearly that of


the impervious base of the earthen dam. The moment this obstruction is passed the water is free to rise out of the sand

and the hydro-

static pressure ceases.

116.

Coefficient of Percolation.

This length of enforced per-

colation or travel, which will be symbolized

by i, must be some

DAMS AND WEIRS

154

multiple of the head H, and

if

reliable safe values for this factor

can

be found, suitable to particular classes of sand, we shall be enabled


to design

any work on a sand foundation, with

its stability.

If

perfect confidence in

by c, then

the percolation factor be symbolized

i, or

the length of enforced percolation, will equal c H, II being the head of


water.

The factor

Fig.

c will vary in value with the quality of the sand.


88 represents a case similar in every respect to the last

dam

except, instead of a

of earth, the obstruction consists of a

termed the weir or drop

vertical wall

wall,

having a horizontal

impervious floor attached thereto, wliich appendage

is

necessary to

prevent erosion of the bed by the current of falling water.

At the
level

stage of

with the

crest,

maximum

and the

pressure the head water will be

level of the tail

water that of the

HB, which

consequently the hydraulic gradient will be

is

piezometric line and as in the previous case of the pipe

-..-'.-,
Fig. SS.

-'.

^QpiJ

Diagram Showing Design

86, the ordinates of the triangle

of Profile to

HAB

line, Fig.

-,.,-.-.

Reduce Percolation

will represent the

hydrostatic pressure on the base of the weir wall and of the


117.

structure

Criterion for Safety of Structure.


is

moment

The

upward
floor.

safety of the

evidently dependent on the following points:

First, the weir wall

ing

floor;

also the

must be dimensioned to

of the horizontal water pressure.

with in a previous section.

resist

the overturn-

This has been dealt

Second, the thickness,

i. e.,

the weight

must be such that it will be safe from being


blown up or fractured by the hydrostatic pressure; third, the base
length, or that of the enforced percolation L, must not be less than
cH, the product of the factor c with the head H. Fourth, the
length of the masonry apron and its continuation in riprap or concrete book blocks must be sufficient to prevent erosion.
It is evident that the value of this factor c, must vary with the
of the apron or floor

nature of the sand substratum in accordance with

its qualities of

DAMS AND WEIRS


fineness or coarseness.

135

Fine light sand will be closer in texture,

passing less water under a given head than a coarser variety, but at

the same time will be disintegrated and washed out under less

on which the design mainly depends,


can only be obtained experimentally, not from artificial experiments,
but by deduction from actual examples of weirs; among which the
most valuable are the records of failures due to insufficiency in
ReUable values for

pressure.

length of percolation.

relation of

c,

From

these statistics a safe value of the

to H, the factor

which

c,

also the sine of the

is

hydraulic gradient, can be derived,

Adopted Values of Percolation

118.

Coefficient.

The

follow-

ing values of c have been adopted for the specified classes of sand.

River beds of light

Class I:

passes a 100-mesh

silt

and sand,

of

which 60 per cent

sieve, as those of the Nile or Mississippi; percola-

tion factor c = 18.

Fine micaceous sand of which 80 per cent of the

Class II:

grains pass a 75-mesh sieve, as in

Himalayan

rivers

and

in such as

the Colorado; c = 15.


Coarse-grained sands, as in Central and South

Class III:

India; c = 12.

Boulders or shingle and gravel and sand mixed;

IV:

Class
varies

from 9 to

In Fig. 88
of percolation

if

the sand extended only

would be CD, the

rise

up to the

from

to

level C, the length

not being counted

In that case the area of hydrostatic pressure acting beneath

in.

the floor would be the triangle

from

The

step

of

5.

to

HAB,

As, however, a layer of sand

interposes, the length will be

HHi

occurring in the outline

is

ACD, and

outline IlyB.

due to the neutrahzation

head symbolized by h, effected in the depth AC. Supposing


to be 6 feet and the percolation factor to be 12, then the step
the pressure area, equal to h, will be 6-^12 = 6 inches. The

^C
in

resulting gradient

HxB

will,

however, be

flatter

than

in 12; conse-

quently the termination of the apron can be shifted back to

HiBiy being parallel to

HB;

J?iZ)i,

in which case the area of hydrostatic

IIiABu The pressure at any point on the base is


by the ordinates of the triangle or area of pressure.
Thus the upward pressure at E, below the toe of the drop wall,
where the horizontal apron commences, is represented by the line
pressure will be

represented

DAMS AND WEIRS

156

FG.

Supposing the head

HA to be

length

CB

.1

percolation between

H and G

is

the base width of the drop wall

= 8f

feet,

The neutralization of head,

i .

h=-^ = l\

10

The upward

feet.

then the total required


This is the
feet.

c^ = 12X10 = 120

length of percolation will be

by the enforced
represented by (?J, and supposing

CE

h,

effected

to be 9 feet,

FG

pressure

is

AC

being 6

feet,

= 10-li

(i7-/t)

feet.

The stepped upper


noted in Part
level to

I, is

line bounding the pressure area as has been


termed the piezometric line, as it represents the

which water would

It is evident

rise if pipes were inserted in the floor.


from the above that when no vertical depressions

occur in the line of travel that the piezometric line will coincide

with the hydraulic gradient or virtual slope; when, however, vertical


depressions exist, reciprocal steps occur in the piezometric

which then

falls

line is naturally

of the floor at

sure

is

below the hydraulic grade


always parallel to the

E is

always a

critical

The piezometric
The commencement

line.

latter.

point in the design as the pres-

greatest here, diminishing to zero at the end.

common

In the same way that


by the head producing it, the

Simplifying the Computations.

119.

the water pressure

represented

is

factor Wy or the unit weight of water,

nated from the opposing weight of the

masonry, therefore,
as the pressure,
its

line,

weight.

represented

is

by

its

and if t be the thickness

Now the

floor

floor.

may

be

elimi-

The weight

of the

also

thickness in the

same way

of the floor, tp will represent

hes wholly below low water

level.

Con-

sequently, in addition to the external hydrostatic pressure repre-

sented by H, due to the head of water upheld, there

due to immersion.

The

measured by HC, not


in the floor the water

is

actual pressure on the base

HA. Thus
would

rise

if

the buoyancy

CDx

is really

a vertical pipe were inserted

up to the piezometric

line

and be

depth the ordinate of the pressure area plus the thickness of the
floor.
But it is convenient to keep the hydrostatic external pressure distinct from the effect of immersion. This latter can be

in

allowed for
ture that

lie

by

reduction in the weight of these parts of the struc-

below L.

W.

Effect of Immersion,

L.

See sections 52 and 53, Part

When

a body

is

I.

immersed in a liquid

it

loses weight to the extent of the weight of the liquid displaced.

DAMS AND WEIRS


Thus the

unit weight of a solid

weight will be w{p l)*

As

is

wp.

is

157

When

immersed, the unit

a discarded factor, the unit


weight being represented
only by

the specific

p,

gravity, the weight of

the floor in question will


g

be

We

t{p

l)

immersed.

if

have seen that the

hydrostatic pressure acting at

meet

i^ is

8f

To

feet.

this the weight, or

of

thickness,

effective

the floor must be equal

+^

to 8f feet of water
for

sym-

safety, or, in

bols,

t =

Assuming a value
of 2, the

for p

thickness re-

quired

to

counterbal-

ance

the

hydrostatic

pressure will be
^

= 8fX^ = 11.6feet
The

formula

for

thickness will then stand

-1(1^)

on

Uplift
Apron,

It

<")

is

Fore

evident

that in Fig. 88 the long


floor

is

subjected to a

very considerable uplift

measured by the area

HABy

the weight of the

apron also
the ratio of p

(p 1)

as

it lies

is

reduced in

below L.W.L., consequently

have to be made as already noted

of a

it will

depth of 11.6 feet which

is

DAMS AND WEIRS

158

The remedy is either to make the floor porous


which case the hydrauhc gradient will fall below 1 in 12, and failure

quite impossible figure.


in

will

take place by piping, or

reduce the effective head

else to

insertion of a rear apron or a vertical curtain wall as has

mentioned in section 53, Part

by the

been already

In these submerged weirs on

I.

large ri\-ers

and

in fact in

advisable.

The

length of this should however be limited to abso-

lute requirements.

most

overfall

dams a sohd

fore apron

is

This length of floor is a matter more of individual

judgment or following

successful precedent than one of precise

estimation.

The

following empirical rule which takes into account the nature

of the sand as well as the

head

of water is believed to be a

good guide

in determining the length of fore apron in a weir of this type,

L=3V^
In the case of Fig. 89, the head is 10
quently,

i-3Vl20 = 33

feet,

of floor has been inserted.

say

Now

times the head, or 120 feet = 10c


3c

36,'

(34)

and

assumed at

c is

12, conse-

In Fig. 89 this length

or 3c.

a total length of percolation of 12


is

by

required

hypothesis, of this

used up by the floor leaving 7c to be provided by a rear apron

is

and

feet

it is

Supposing the curtain

curtain.

is

made a depth equal

to IJc,

this will dispose of 3 out of the 7 (for reasons to be given later),

leaving 4 to be provided for

by the

rear apron, the length of which,

counting from the toe of the weir wall,

is

made

4c or 48 feet.

IV which

hydraulic gradient starts from the point

is

The

vertically

above that of ingress A, At the location of the vertical diaphragm


of sheet piling, a step takes place owing to the sudden reduction of

head of 3
sides.

feet,

From

the obstruction being 3c in length counting both

here on, the line

pressure area

is

is

termed the piezometric

the space enclosed between

actual pressure area would include the floor

already allowed for in reduction of weight,


unity instead of

The

uplift

this portion

and the

itself,

line

and the
The

floor.

but this has been

its s.g.

being taken as

2.

on the weir wall

base and the piezometric


if

it

line.

is

the area enclosed between

its

In calculating overturning moment,

were considered as having

lost

weight by immersion

would not quite fully represent the loss of effective weight due to
uphft, because above the floor level the profile of the weir wall is
it

DAMS AND WEIRS

159

is more nearly so.


The foundation could be treated this way, the superstructure above
AF being given full s.g. and the uplift treated as a separate vertical
force as was the case in Fig. 40, Part I.

not rectangular, while that of the pressure area

Now

Vertical Obstruction to Percolation.

120.

to the vertical obstruction,

when water

with regard

percolates under pressure

beneath an impervious platform the particles are impelled upward

by the hydrostatic
there

is

dam and

pressure against the base of the

The

a slow horizontal current do"vvnstream.

resistance is along the surface of

any

solid in preference to

course through the middle of the sand, consequently

also

line of least

a shorter

when a

vertical

obstruction as a curtain wall of masonry or a diaphragm of sheet

downward and
the obstruction being passed it ascends the other side up to the base
line which it again follows.
The outer particles follow the lead
of the inner as is shown by the arrows in Fig. 89. The value of a
piling is encountered the current of

water

is

forced

vertical obstruction is accordingly twice that of a similar horizontal

length of base.

Valuable corroboration of the reliability of the

theory of percolation adopted, particularly with regard to reduction


of

head caused by vertical obstruction, has been received, while this


was on the press, from a paper in the proceeedings of the

article

American Society of Civil Engineers entitled ''The Action of W^ater


under Dams" by J. B. T. Coleman, which appeared in August, 1915.
The practical value of the experiments, however, is somewhat
vitiated by the smallness of the scale of operations and the disproportion in the ratio
of the

head

dam

H: L

experimented on should not be

less

The

length of base

than 50 feet with a

of 5 feet.
121.

Rear Apron.

termed the rear apron.


subject to
fore

to actual conditions.

The

extension of the floor rearward

Its statical condition is peculiar,

any upward hydrostatic pressure

apron or

floor.

as

is

is

not being

the case Mith the

Inspection of the diagram, Fig. 89, will show

that the water pressure acting below the floor is the trapezoid enclosed

and the floor level; whereas the downward pressure is represented by the rectangle HiAiHA, which is
considerably larger. Theoretically no weight is required in the
rear apron, the only proviso being that it must be impervious and
have a water-tight connection with the weir wall, otherwise the
between the piezometric

line

DAMS AND WEIRS

160

H may fall between the rear apron and the rest of the

incidence of

work, rendering the former useless.


occurred.

It

Such a case has actually

however, considered that the rear apron must be

is,

of a definite weight, as otherwise the percolation of water under-

neath

would partake

it

of the nature of a surface flow,

and

so pre-

vent any neutralization of head caused by friction in its passage


through sand. Consequently, the effective thickness, or rather
t

(p

1)

should not be less than four

same as that of the

apron or

fore

feet.

Its level

In

floor.

need not be the

fact, in

some cases

it

has been constructed level or nearly so with the permanent crest

llsr^^
'ijl? f ^ ?

_^^\j.f^
J

'^

^rlS^^^fli

--

^^;'vi:n'

ii^ -^^ ^--^(ffi^-^^,

^^

View of Grand Barrage over Nile River

Fig. 90.

But

of the drop wall.

.. -'^-

this disposition has the effect of reducing

the coefficient of discharge over the weir and increasing the afflux
or head water level, which
is

is

open to objection.

The

best position

undoubtedly level with the fore apron.

free

Another point in favor of the rear apron is the fact that it is


from either h^'drostatic pressure or the dynamic force of falling

water, to which the fore apron


structed of

wet,

i.e.,

more inexpensive

puddle,

is

is

subject;

material.

it

can, therefore, be con-

Clay consolidated when

just as effective in this respect as the richest

cement masonry or concrete, provided


where necessary by an

overlay of

it is

protected from scour

paving or riprap, and has a

reli-

DAMS AND WEIRS

161

and the rest of the work. In old


works these properties of the rear apron were not understood, and
able connection with the drop wall

the stanching of the loose stone rear apron

commonly provided, was

by the natural deposit of silt. This deposit


and is of the greatest value in increasing
the statical stability of the weir, but the process takes time, and
until complete, the work is liable to excess hydrostatic pressure and
an insufficient length of enforced percolation, which would allow
piping to take place and the foundation to be gradually undermined.
122.
First Demonstration of Rear Apron. The value of an
impervious rear apron was first demonstrated in tlie repairs to the
Grand Barrage over the Nile, Fig. 90, some time in the eighties.
This old work was useless owing to the great leakage that took
place whenever the gates were lowered and a head of water applied.
left

to be effected

e^^entually does take place

In order to check this leakage, instead of driving sheet

Fig. 91.

Section Showing Repuira IMado on

piling,

which

Grand Barrage

the;

was feared would shake the foundations, an apron of cement


masonry 24U feet wide and 3.28 feet thick, Fig. 91, \vas constructed

it

over the old

floor,

extending upstream 82 feet beyond

proved completely successful.


drilled in the piers,
all

By means

of pipes

it.

This

set in

holes

cement mortar was forced under pressure into

the interstices of the rubble foundations,

filling

up any hollows

that existed, thus completely stanching the foundations.

So

effec-

was the structure repaired that it was rendered capable of


holding up about 13 feet of water; whereas, prior to reconstruction,
it w^as unsafe with a head of a Kttle over three feet.
The total
length of apron is 238 feet, of which 82 feet projects upstream
beyond the original floor and 44 feet downstream, below the floor
tually

itself,

the latter having a width of 112 feet.

13 feet, and
18,

which

is

being 238

feet, c,

The head

or the percolation factor

being

is

^ =

the exact value assigned for Nile sand in Class

7,

DAMS AND WEIRS

162

This value was not originally derived from the Grand

section 118.

Barrage, but from another work.

The

utility of this barrage

has been further augmented by the

construction of two subsidiary weirs below

two branches of the Nile delta.


and enable an additional height of ten
across the

it,

see Figs. 92

These are ten


feet

to be held

the gates of the old barrage, the total height being

The

increased rise in the

additional head on the

the

moment

tail

106,

up by

now 22 J

feet.

water exactly compensates for the

wort as regards hydrostatic pressure, but


on the base of the masonry piers

of the water pressure

BlVi

and

feet high

DAMS AND WEIRS


TABLE

Showing Actual and Calculated Values


Formula

(35),

163

of Li or Talus

L,=lOc^J^X^jf^

Width

DAMS AND WEIRS

164

a weir 13 feet in height; where the height

more or

is

less,

the

width should be increased or reduced in proportion to the square


root of the height

and that

of the factor

c.

Beyond the impervious floor


a long continuation of riprap or packed stone pitching is required.
123.

Riprap to Protect Apron.

The width

of this material

clearly independent of that appro-

is

priate to the floor, and consequently will be

same

starting point as the

The formula

floor,, viz,

measured from the


from the toe of the drop wall.

for overfall weirs is

L^-lOc^^X^j^^

(35)

^75

'10

For sloping aprons, type B, the coeSicient of

c will

be 11

Then

.-n,4M:
This formula

is

founded on the theory that the distance of the

toe of the talus from the overfall will vary with the square root of

the height of the obstruction above low water, designated

by

H],,

with the square root of the unit flood discharge over the weir crest
g,

and

directly with

the percolation factor of the river sand.

c,

standard being these values;

Narora weir.

This height, Ih

and is
manent masonry crest

The

10, respectively, in

when

W.

there are no

L. below the per-

This formula, though more or

remarkably in consonance with actual

will, it is believed,

form a valuable guide to design.

Table I will conclusively prove this.


this class

and

equal to

of the weir.

less empirical, gives results

and

is

10, 75,

always the depth of L.

crest shutters,

value,

viz,

As nearly

all

the weirs of

have been constructed in India, works in that country

are quoted as examples.


124.

in type

Example
will

of

now be

an actual work,

viz,

Design Type A.

Another example of design

given, Fig. 93, the dimensions being those of

the Narora weir over the Ganges River, the

design being thus an alternative for that work, the existing section

which is shown in Fig. 95 and discussed in section 125. The


data on which the design is based, is as follows: sand, class 2; peror difference between head and low water,
colation factor c = 15;
of

the latter being always symbolized

by L. W.

L., 13 feet, unit dis-

DAMS AND WEIRS

165

charge over weir g = 75 second-feet, the


total length of the impervious

apron and

^iiiiii-

vertical obstructions will, therefore,

have

tobeL-cH=15Xl3 = 195feet.
The

first

point to be determined

is

the length of the floor or fore apron.

Having

fixed this length, the balance of

have to be divided among the

will

rear apron
It is

and the

vertical sheet piling.

minimum

essential that this

be not exceeded, as
tage to put as

it is

much

length

clearly of advan-

of the length into

the rear apron as possible, owing to the

inexpensive nature of the material of

which

it

can be constructed.

According

X = 42 feet, which is nearly

to formula (2),

equivalent to 3c, or 45 feet, there thus

remains 10c to be proportioned between


the rear apron and the vertical curtain.
If

the latter be given a depth of

feet the length of travel

absorb 4c, leaving


rear apron.

t7-

J-^-

6c, or

30

90 feet for the

The measurement

taken

is

The
from the toe of the drop wall.
neutralization of the whole head of 13
feet is thus accomplished.

L+r/-

2c, or

down and up mil

A second cur-

tain will generally be desirable

at the

extremity of the fore ^apron as a precautionary measure to form a protec-

downstream
washed out or sinks.
This curtain _must have open joints to

tion in case the loose riprap

from the apron

is

offer as little obstruction to percolation

as possible.
area,

^i

drawn

that

The
is

outline of the pressure

the

as follows:

piezometric

cH = 195 feet

line,
is

is

meas-

ured horizontally on the base line of the


pressure area, that

is,

at L.

W.

L. from a

DAMS AND WEIRS


line

through

167

The point B

to 5.

is

on the head water


level at the commencement of the rear
then joined with

apron.

The

thus be

this line

hydraulic gradient will

The

in 15.

BA

through the

intersection of

with a vertical drawn

first line

of curtain

two

location of a step of

is

the

feet equal to

the head absorbed in the vertical travel

Another

at this point.

line parallel to

the hydraulic gradient

now drawn

is

to the termination of the fore apron,


I

j. (;

this completes the piezometric line or

the upper outline of the pressure area.

With regard to the


at the toe of the
S

of h, or loss of

floor thickness

drop wall, the value

head due to percola-

tion under the rear apron, is 6 feet,

from the rear curtain, 4

Hh

feet.

The

is,

10

10 = 3.

thickness of the floor according

{H h)=^

to formula (33) where

^1

feet; total

therefore, 13

feet

comes to | X 3 = 4 feet, the value of p


being assumed at 2. The floor naturtoward

ally tapers

its

end where the

The thickness at this


made 3 feet which is about the
minimum hmit. There remains now
uplift is nil.

7^-

point

is

the talus of riprap,


Eh

formula (35)

its

is

L = 10caJ^\ ^ = 150
The
four
of

length from

feet

thickness of the talus

often

five feet

and

is
is

= 10c

generally

a matter

judgment considering the nature

of

the material used.


125.

Discussion of Narora Weir.

The Narora weir

itself, Fig. 94,

forms

DAMS AND WEIRS

168

a most instructive object lesson, demonstrating

what

the least

is

correct base A^idth, or length of percolation consistent with absolute


safety, that

can be adopted for sands of

class 2.

The system

of

analyzing graphically an existing work with regard to hydraulic


gradient

exemplified in Fig. 95 under three separate conditions;

is

as the

first,

work

originally stood, with a hydraulic gradient of 1 in

11.8; second J at the time of failure,

On

riprap blew up.

this occasion

when the floor and the grouted


owing to the rear apron having

been washed away by a flood the hydraulic grade

to

fell

1 in 8;

the extension of the rear apron and curtailment of the


fore apron had been effected.
Under the first conditions the horizontal component of the length of travel or percolation L from A
to E is 123 feet. The total length is made up of three parts: First,
a step down and up in the foundation of the drop wall of 7 feet
second, a drop down and up of 12 feet either side of the downstream
third, after

The

curtain wall; third, the horizontal distance 123 as above.


at the

end of the

floor is neglected.

123+7+12 + 12 = 154. This


point C.

ylC

is

is

set

The

total value of

out on a horizontal

is

rise

then

line to the

then the hydraulic gradient.

This demonstrates that the hydraulic gradient was originally

something under

1 in 12,

The

deficient in.thickness.

toe of the drop wall


tf)

of only 5 feet.

2, as

it

mortar.

is

and in addition to

The

submerged.

To meet

feet.

value of p

In spite of

hydrostatic pressure on the floor at the


this the floor has a value of

specific gravity of the floor will

was mostly formed

The

this the floor is very

not exceed

of broken brick concrete in hydraulic

1 will,

this,

therefore, be unity, the floor being

the work stood intact to

all

external

appearance for twenty years, when a heavy freshet in the river set
up a cross current which washed out that portion of the rear apron
nearest the drop wall, thus rendering the rest useless, the connection

having been severed.

On

this occurrence, failure at once took place, as the floor

doubtless been on the point of yielding for some time.


state of affairs

had been suspected, as

In

had

fact, this

holes bored in the floor very

shortly before the actual catastrophe took place showed that a large

Thus the
it, full, not of sand, but of water.
was actually held up by the hydrostatic pressure; otherwise it
must have collapsed. The removal of the rear apron caused this
space existed below

floor

DAMS AND WEIRS


pressure to be so

much

169

increased that the whole floor, together with

the grouted pitching below the curtain, blew up.

The
It will
line is

hydraulic gradient

EC

is

that at the time of the collapse.

be seen that it is now


not shown on the diagram.

reduced to

The

1 in 8.

piezometric

In restoring the work the rear apron was extended upstream as


shown dotted in Fig. 95, to a distance of 80 feet beyond the drop wall,
and was made five feet thick. It was composed of puddle covered
with riprap and at its junction with the drop wall was provided
with a solid masonry covering. The puddle foundation also was
sloped

to the level of the floor base to form a ground connec-

down

tion with the drop wall.

was driven to a depth

The grouted

At

its

upstream termination sheet piling

of twelve feet

below

floor level.

pitching in the fore apron

was

relaid dry, except

which was rebuilt in mortar, to form a continuation of the impervious floor. Omitting the mortar has the effect
of reducing the pressure on the floor. Even then the uplift would

for the first ten feet

have been too great, so a water cushion 2 feet deep was formed over
the floor by building a dwarf wall of concrete (shown on the section)
This adds 1 foot to the effective value of

right along its edge.

It will be seen that the hydraulic gradient

now works

out to

tp.

in 15.

value for c of 15 has been adopted for similar light sands from
which that of other sands, as Classes I and III, have been deduced.

be noticed that the crest of this weir

It will

shutters which are collapsible

hand or by

a traveling crab that

shutters as

it

20 feet long.

proceeds.

They

are

is

furnished with

when overtopped and


moves along the

are raised

crest, raising the

The shutters are 3 feet deep and some


held up against the water by tension rods

hinged to the weir, and at about J the height of the shutter,


at the center of pressure.
126.

Sloping Apron Weirs, Type B.

designated B, will

now be

vertical drop, the fore

the crest to the L.

being also on a

W.

by

i.e.,

Another type of weir,

discussed, in which there

is

no

direct

apron not being horizontal but sloping from


L. or to a

flat slope

little

above

it,

the talus beyond

or horizontal.

In the modern examples of this type which


the height of the permanent masonry weir wall

will
is

be examined,

greatly reduced,

with the object of offering as Uttle obstruction as possible to the

DAMS AND WEIRS

170

The canal level is maintained by means of


In the Khanki weir, Fig. 96, the weir proper,
7 feet high above L. W.L., while the shutters

passage of flood water.

deep crest shutters.


or rather bar wall,

are 6 feet high.


as

is

It, therefore,

holds up 13 feet of water, the same

was the case with the Narora

The
tion in

wet foundations, as most

above L.

weir.

object of adopting the sloping apron

W.

L.

striction of the

of it

The disadvantage

is

to avoid construc-

can be built quite in the dry

of this type lies in the con-

waterway below the breast

wall,

which causes the

With a
on the other hand, a depth of 7 feet for water to
churn in would be available at this point. This would check the
flow and the increased area of the waterway rendered available

velocity of overfall to be continued well past the crest.


direct overfall,

Fig. 96.

Profile of

Khanki Weir, Showing Restoration Work Similar to that


Narora Weir

should reduce the velocity.

For

of

this reason, although the action

on the apron is possibly less, that on the talus and river bed beyond
must be greater than in the drop wall of type A.
This work, like the former, failed for want of sufficient effective
base length, and it consequently forms a valuable object lesson.
As originally designed, no rear apron whatever, excepting a
small heap of stone behind the breast wall, was provided. The
value of
feet;

L up

whereas

to the termination of the grouted pitching


it

should have been

cH

or

hydraulic gradient, as shown in Fig. 96b,


neglects the small vertical

15X13 = 195
is

only

component at the breast

of this deficiency in effective base width, the floor,

is

but 108

feet.

1 in 8.3.

wall.

The
This

In spite

owing to good

workmanship, did not give way for some years, until gradually
increased piping beneath the base caused its collapse.

DAMS AND WEIRS


Owing to the

171

raised position of the apron,

high hydrostatic pressure.

At

its

not subject to

it is

commencement

it

ten feet

is

below the summit level and nine feet of water acts at this point.
This

is

met by four

almost balances

it.

masonry unsubmerged, of s.g. 2, which


Thus the apron did not blow up, as was the case
feet of

with the Narora weir, but collapsed.

Some
as

it

The

explanation of the graphical pressure diagram

some

offers

full

head, or

differing

peculiarities,
-ff,

is

from the

required,

is

last

examples.

Owing, however, to the raised and

13 feet.

sloping position of the apron, the base line of the pressure area will

not be horizontal and so coincide with the L.

W.

but

L.,

will

be an

from the commencement a to the point b, where the


sloping base coincides with the L. W. L. From b where L. W. L. is

inclined line

With a

reached onward, the base will be horizontal.


the pressure

is

shaped but approximates to a rectangle.


also properly rectangular in profile,

the profile
127.

is,

An

The

is

not wedge

apron, therefore,

is

whereas in the overfall type

or should be, that of a truncated wedge.

Restoration of Khanki Weir.

work the restoration was on very


weir.

sloping apron

nearly uniform, the water-pressure area

After the failure of this

similar lines to that of the

Narora

impervious rear apron, seventy feet long, was constructed

of puddle covered with concrete slabs, grouted in the joints.

A rear

curtain wall consisting of a line of rectangular undersunk blocks

twenty

feet deep,

was provided.

These additions have the effect


The masonry curtain having

of reducing the gradient to 1 in 16.

regard to

its

great cost

is

of doubtful utility.

further prolonga-

tion of the rear apron or else a line of sheet piling would,

have been equally

effective.

Reinforced-concrete

very suitable for curtain walls in sand and

is

ponderous and expensive block curtain walls

it is

deemed,

sheet piling

is

bound to supplant the


which form so marked

a feature in Indian works.


128.

Merala Weir.

quite recently constructed

same

historic river, the

Another weir on the same principle and


is the Merala weir at the head of the

Chenab, known as the *'Hydaspes" at the

time of Alexander the Great.

This weir, a section of which

upper reaches of the river and


consequently

its

is

is

given in Fig. 97,

is

located in the

subjected to very violent floods;

construction has to be abnormally strong to resist

DAMS AND WEIRS

172

the dynamic action of the water.


is

entirely a matter of

This

judgment and

no

definite rules can possibly be given


which would apply to different condi-

From a hydrostatic point of


view the two lower lines of curtain
tions.

blocks are decidedly detrimental and

could well be cut out.

If this were
done the horizontal length of travel

or percolation will

head

is

12 or 13

come to

feet.

If

The

140.

the

latter, c

having the value 15 as in the Khanki


weir, the value of

The

feet.
is

horizontal length of travel

140 feet and the wanting 55 feet

be just made up by the rear cur-

will

The

tain.

nr

L will be 15 X 13 = 195

hues

is

superfluity of the

The

hydrostatic requirements.

impervious sloping apron


'o

two

fore

thus apparent with regard to

is

long

a necessity

to prevent erosion.

t?^

It is a question

whether a

line of

steel interlocking sheet piling is equally


efficient as

a curtain formed of wells

of brickwork

12x8 feet undersunk and

connected with
filling.

^^

of solidity

former.

i^
^w^-C
.

The

of

piling

latter

and weight lacking

The system

undersunk blocks

India.

and concrete

has the advantage


in the

of curtain walls
is

peculiar to

In the Hindia Barrage, in

Mesopotamia, Fig. 115, interlocking


sheet piling has been largely employed
where well foundations would
have been used in India. This change
is probably due to the want of skilled
in places

well sinkers,

who in India are extremely

expert and form a special caste.

DAMS AND WEIRS


rear apron^ in the Merala weir

The

as the fore apron and

arrangement

is

built

on a slope

The

facilitates discharge.

is

173

of as soUd construction

right

up to

crest level; this

velocity of approach

be very great to necessitate huge book blocks of concrete

The

fore

apron extends for 93 feet beyond the

crest,

under

twice as long as would be necessary with a weir of type

The

normal conditions.

distance

of the talus is 203 feet against

182 feet calculated from formula (35a).

Khanki

is

6X6X3

behind the slope and beyond that a 40-foot length

feet being laid


of riprap.

must

170

feet.

That

of the lower weir at

This shows that the empirical formula gives

a fair approximation.

The
glacis.

of type

fore apron in type

will

extend to the toe of the slope or

on a sloping apron

It is quite evident that the erosive action

B is far greater than that on the horizontal floor of type A;


Summit Level

/f

Toll

underneaih woiL
Fig. 98.

the

Wafer Level

'

Diagram Showing

Effect of Percolation under a


Built on Sand

uplift howevei^ is less, consequently the sloping

Wall

apron can be made

thinner and the saving thus effected put into additional length.
129.

Porous Fore ApronSo

with

is

of it

and the

type C.

As

it

The next type

of weir to

principles involved will be necessary.

be dealt

involves some fresh points, an investigation

and

The

previous

have been cases where the weir has as


appendage an impervious fore apron which is subject to hydroThere is another very common type which will be
static pressure.
termed C, in which there is no impervious apron and the material
examples of types

which composes the body of the weir

is not solid masonry but a


porous mass of loose stone the only impervious parts being narrow

vertical walls.

In spite of this apparent contrariety

found that the same

it

will

be

principle, viz, that of length of enforced per-

colation, influences the design in this

type as in the others,

DAMS AND WEIRS

174

Fig. 98 represents a wall upholding water to its crest

on a pervious substratum, as sand,


of

all

The

three materials.

pressure area

ACB, and

Unless this base length

Now

undermined.

resting

hydraulic gradient

AD;

is

the upward

CD is the travel of the percolation.


equal to AC multiplied by the percolation

the base

is

by experiment, piping

factor obtained

and

gravel, or boulders, or a mixture

will set in

and the wall be

as shoAvn in Fig. 99, let a mass of loose stone

be deposited below the wall.

The weight

of this stone will evi-

dently have an appreciable effect in checking the disintegration and


removal of the sand foundation. The water will not have a free

untrammeled egress at D;
rise in

it will,

on the contrary, be compelled

the interstices of the mass to a certain height

by the extent

to

EE determined

to which the loose stones cause obstruction to the flow.

Summit Level

ProDoo
Fig. 99.

The
but

LOL '3e or

^aler pariicies i,ndcrneoth wall

Effect on Percolation

Due

to Stones below

resulting hydraulic gradient will


still

now be

Weir Wall

of Fig.

98

AEflatter than

AD,

too steep for permanency.

In Fig.

10.0,

the wall

is

shown backed by a

rear apron of loose

stone, and the fore apron extended to F. The water has now to
filter through the rear apron underneath the wall and up through

the stone

amount

During this process a certain


washed up into the porous body and the
sink until the combined stone and sand forms a

filling in

the fore apron.

of sand will be

loose stone will

compact mass,

offering a greater obstruction to the passage of the

percolating water than exists in the sand


greater resisting
of

water at

power to

disintegration.

itself

This

to rise until equilibrium results.

and possessing

far

will cause the level

When

this is the

If a
is flattened to some point near F.
body is p^o^'ided, the resulting gradient will be
equal to that found by experiment to produce permanent equilibrium.

case the hydraulic gradient


sufficiently long

DAMS AND WEIRS


The mass

after the

175

been

sinking process has

made good up to the original prorock filling. At F near the toe of

finished is then
file

by

fresh

the slope the stone offers but

by its weight or depth

either

so

little
it is

resistance

evident that

the slope of the prism should be flatter than the


hydraulic gradient.

The same

action takes place with the rear

apron, which soon becomes so

filled Avith silt,

as

to be impervious or nearly so to the passage of

But

water.

unless

silt is

deposited in the river

bed behind, as eventually occurs right up to


level,

crest

the thin portion of the rear slope, as well as

the similar portion of the fore slope, cannot be

counted as

effective.

Consequently out of the

whole base length this part GF, roughly, about


one-quarter, can be

deemed

inefficient as regards

length of enforced percolation.

As the

consoli-

dated lower part of the body of the weir gains


in consistency,
static pressure.

can well be subject to hydro-

it

Consequently, the value of

the mass should be in excess of that of


as

tp of

H h, just

was the case with an impervious floor.


130.
Porous Fore Aprons Divided by Core
/'///,

Walls.

In Fig. 101 a

effected

by the

still

further development

is

introduction of vertical body or

core walls of

masonry

fore apron.

These impervious obstructions mate-

rially assist

the stability of the foundation, so

much

in the pervious

mass

of the

a
Si

so that the process of underscour and set-

tlement which must precede the balancing of the

opposing forces in the purely loose stone mass

need not occur at


extent.

If

all,

or to nothing like the

same

the party walls are properly spaced,

the surface slope can be that of the hydraulic


gradient
is

itself

and thus ensure equilibrium.

clearly illustrated in the diagram.

passing underneath the wall base

CD

This

The water
will rise to

.^
tt

'

DAMS AND WEIRS


E being

th6 level F, the point

somewhat higher;

under the other walls in the substratum

The head

of water.

AC

177

will

will, therefore,

be

fill

similar percolation

all

split

the partitions

up

full

into four steps.

Value of Rear Apron Very Great, The value of water tightness


in the rear apron is so marked that it should be rendered impervious

by a thick under

layer of clay,

imperfect surface

dams where a

and not

left entirely

to more or less

stanching, except possibly in the case of high

silt

formed in rear of the work,


Okhla and Madaya Weirs. In Fig. 102 is shown a
detailed section of the Okhla rock-filled weir over the Jumna
still

settling pool is

131.

It is remarkable as being the first rock-filled weir

River, India.

not provided with any lines of curtain walls projecting below


the base

line,

stability

of

on

ent

its

The

which has hitherto invariably been adopted.

its

sand foundation

weight and

its

is

effective

seen, the section is provided with

The

the breast wall.

consequently entirely dependbase

As

length.

two body walls

will

be

in addition to

slope of the fore apron is 1 in 20.

It is

believed that a slope of 1 in 15 would be equally effective, a hori-

making up the continuation, as has been done in the


Madaya weir. Fig. 103, which is a similar work but under much
zontal talus

greater stress.

The head of the water in the Okhla weir is 13 feet, with shutters
up and weir body empty of water a condition that could hardly
This would require an effective base length, L, of 195 feet;
exist.

the actual

is

250

feet.

But, as noted previously, the end parts of

the slopes cannot be included as effective; consequently the hydraulic

gradient will not be far from


tp,

feet.

tp

1 in 15.

The weight

exactly balances this head at the beginning, as


If

of the stone, or

it is

10X1.3 = 13

the water were at crest level and the weir full of water,

would equal 8

feet,

or rather a

trifle less,

owing to the lower

level

body wall. The head of 13 feet is broken up


The first is 3 feet deep, acting on a part of the

of the crest of the

into four steps.

rear apron together with 30 feet of the fore apron, say, 1 in 15; the
rest are 1 in 20.

slope of 1 in 15 for the first party wall

cut the base at a point 40 feet short of the toe.


fourth party wall

is

would

Theoretically a

required at this point, but practically the rip-

rap below the third dwarf wall

is

so stanched with sand as not to

afford a free egress for the percolation; consequently the slope

may

DAMS AND WEIRS

178

be assumed to continue on to

its inter-

As
aheady noted, material would be saved
section with the horizontal base.

in the

by adopting a

section

reliably

stanch rear apron and reducing the fore


slope to 1 in 15, with a horizontal con-

was done

tinuation as

Madaya

in the

weir.

Economy
is

of

Type C,

This type

only economical where stone

is

dant.

It requires httle labor or

work.

On

abun-

masonry

the other hand, the mass of

the material used


greater, in fact,

is

very great, much

than is shown by the

sec-

This is owing to the constant sink-

tion.

ing and renewal of the talus which goes

on for many years after the

first

construc-

tion of the weir.

The
is

action of the flood on the talus

undoubtedly accentuated by the con-

traction of the

waterway due to the high

The flood

sloping apron.

velocity 20 feet

below the crest has been gaged as high


as 18 feet per second.

very materially reduced


overfall
,

the

A type

were adopted, as the area

of
of

waterway at
G^:

This would be
if

this point

than doubled.
Dehri Weir.
132.

example of

would be more
Another typical

this class is the Dehri weir

over the Son River, Fig. 104.


of L,

stone

if

The

value

the apexes of the two triangles of

filling

are deducted

and the

cur-

tain walls included, comes to about 12 H,

12 being adopted for this class of coarse


sand.

The curtain walls, each over 12,500

feet long,

costly.

must have been enormously

From

the experience of Okhla,

DAMS AND WEIRS


a contemporary work, on a

much worse

179

class

of sand, curtain protection is quite unneces-

sary

if

horizontal base

sufficient

The head on

provided.

and the height

is

this weir is 10 feet,

of breast wall 8 feet, tp

1.3X8 = 10.1, which

therefore,

width

is

is,

sufficient,

considering that the full head will not act

The

here.

lines of curtains

dispensed with

of pressure

length; (2)

duced;

the following alterations

if

Rear apron to be reliably


order to throw back the incidence

were made:
stanched in

could be safely

(1)

and increase the effective base


three more body walls to be intro-

(3) slope 1 in

12 retained, but base to

be dredged out toward apex to admit of no


thickness

under

five

feet.

This probably

would not cause any increase in the quantities


of masonry above what they now are, and
would entirely obviate the construction

of

nearly five miles of undersunk curtain blocks.


133.

Laguna Weir.

The Laguna weir

over the Colorado River, the only example of

in the United States is shown in Fig.


Compared with other examples it might
be considered as somewhat too wide if regard
is had to its low unit flood discharge, but the

type
105.

inferior quality

of the

sand of this river

probably renders this necessary.

The body

walls are undoubtedly not sufficiently numer-

ous to be properly effective.


of

an impervious

rear apron

The

provision

would

also be

advantageous.
134.

"-S^

Damietta and Rosetta Weirs.

location of the Damietta

The

and Rosetta subsid-

iary weirs, Fig. 106, which have been rather

recently erected below the old Nile barrage,


is

shown

in Fig. 92.

These weirs are of type

C, but the method of construction

is

quite

DAMS AND WEIRS

180

novel and

it is this

alone that renders this

work a valuable object

lesson.

The deep

foundation of the breast wall was built

without any pumping,

material having

all

been deposited in the water of the Nile


First the profile of the base was

River.

dredged out, as shown in the section.


the

core

Then
was constructed by first
a temporary box or enclosure

wall

depositing, in

by a few

piles,

loose stone from

barges floated alongside.

The whole was

secured

then grouted with cement grout, poured

through pipes

let into

the mass.

completion of one section

all

On

the

the appliances

were moved forward and another section


built,

and so on

completed.

until the

and the

of the core wall

up by
5^

whole wall was

Clay was deposited at the base


profile

then made

loose stone filling.

This novel s^^stem of subaqueous con-

struction has proved so satisfactory that in

many

cases

methods.
tions in

bound to supersede

it is

older

Notwithstanding these innova-

methods

of rapid construction, the

open to the objection of being extravagantly bulky even for


the type adopted, the base having been
profile of the weir itself is

dredged out so deep as to greatly increase


the
fi-iudcoi^ I

or

mean depth

of the stone

filling.

It is open to question whether a row


two rows of concrete sheet piles would

not have been just as efficacious as the deep


breast wall, and would certainly have been

much
[

less costly.

The pure cement

grout-

ing was naturally expensive, but the admixture of sand proved unsatisfactory as the

two materials of different specific gravity


separated and formed layers; consequently,

DAMS AND WEIRS


pure cement had to be used.
here

is

much

less

It

may

be noted that the value of

than would be expected.

Here, with a value of

or 165 feet.

181

At Narora weir

c of 18, it is

it is

but 8^c, or 150


This

instead of 200 feet, according to the formula.

is

Ic,

feet,

due to the

low flood velocity of the Nile River compared with the Ganges.

The Paradox

135.

prevailing in type

types

and B

is

of

From

a Pervious Dam.

it is clear

that an impervious apron as used in

not absolutely essential in order to secure a safe

length of travel for the percolating subcurrent.


free to rise

the conditions

through the riprap and at the same

If

the water

is

time the sand in the

prevented from rising with it, the practical effect is the


same as with an impervious apron, "Fountaining", as spouting
sand is technically termed, is prevented and consequently also
"piping". This latter term defines the gradual removal of sand
from beneath a foundation by the action of the percolating under
current. Thus the apparent paradox that a length of filter bed,
although pervious, is as effective as a masonry apron would be.
The hydraulic gradient in such case will be steeper than allowable
under the latter circumstance. Filter beds are usually composed
of a thick layer of gravel and stone laid on the sand of the river
bed, the small stuff at the bottom and the larger material at the top.
The ideal type of filter is one composed of stone arranged in sizes as
above stated of a depth of 4 or 5 feet covered with heavy slabs or
book blocks of concrete; these are set with narrow open intervals
between blocks as sho^vn in Figs. 96 and 97, Protection is thus
afforded not only against scour from above but also from uplift
underneath. Although the subcurrent of water can escape through
a filter its free exit is hindered, consequently some hydrostatic
pressure must still exist below the base, how much it is a difficult
river

bed

is

matter to determine, and


tion.

If

the

filter

bed

included in that of

is

it will

therefore be left out of considera-

properly constructed

Unless exceptionally deep, is not of


respect.

its

or the length of travel.

much,

if

length should be

Ordinary riprap.
any, value in this

The Hindia Barrage in Mesopotamia, Fig.

115, section 145,

is

bed consisting of a thick layer of stone 65.5 feet


wide which occurs in the middle of the floor. The object of this
is to allow the escape of the subcurrent and reduce the uplift on
provided with a

the

dam and on

filter

that part of the floor which

is

impervious.

DAMS AND WEIUS

182

Crest Shutters- Nearly all submerged river weirs are


136.
provided with crest shutters 3 to 6 feet deep, 6 feet being the
height adopted in the more recent works. These are generally
raised

of a traveling crane running

by means

the hinge of the gate.

When

on

raising of the shutters is effected

from a

trolley running

wires strimg over steel towers erected on each pier.

The

groins are 500 feet apart.

released

fall

In the case of the Merala weir. Fig. 97, the

over this railway.

held up

behind

rails just

the shutters are tripped they

on overhead

These

piers or

6-foot shutters are 3 feet wide,

by hinged struts which catch on to a bolt and are easily


by hand or by chains worked from the piers. On the

Betwa weir the

shutters, also 6 feet deep, are automatic in action,

being hinged to a tension rod at about the center of pressure, con-

sequently

when overtopped they turn over and

hinged at the same height; they should not

The advantage

ease the flood gradually.

fall

Not

fall.

all

are

simultaneously but

of deep shutters is very

much lower than othermuch less obstruction to

great as the permanent weir can be built

wise would be necessary, and thus offer


the flood.

dent

staff

The only drawback is that crest shutters


of experienced men to deal with them.

The Laguna

weir. Fig. 105, has

discharge of the Colorado

is,

no

shutters.

require a resi-

The

unit flood

however, small compared with that of

the Indian rivers, being only 22 second-feet, whereas the Merala


weir discharges 150 second-feet per foot run of weir, consequently
shutters in the former case are unnecessary.

OPEN DAMS OR BARRAGES


137.

Barrage Defined.

generally designates

what

is

The term "open dam",

or barrage,

in fact a regulating bridge built across

a river channel, and furnished with gates which close the spans as
required. They are partial regulators, the closure being only
effected during low water.

are opened

and

When

the river

is

in flood, the gates

free passage is afforded for flood water to pass, the

floor being level

with the river bed.

Weir scouring
sandy

are indispensable adjuncts to weirs built over


practically to the

sluices,

which

rivers,

belong

same category as open dams, as they are

also

partial regulators, the difference being that they span only a portion of the river instead of the whole,

and further are subject to great

DAMS AND WEIRS


when the

scouring action from the fact that

normal

raised above its


is

empty or nearly

level

by the

river water

weir, the

is artificially

downstream channel

so.

The

Function of Weir Sluices,


First, to train the

fold:

183

function of weir sluices

deep channel of the

course of which, is obliterated

by the

and
the low

weir, past the canal head,

Othermse, in a wide river

to retain it in this position.

two-

is

the natural

river,

water channel might take a course parallel to the weir crest


or else one distant from the canal head,

itself,

and thus cause the approach

channel to become blocked with deposit.


Second, by manipulating the sluice gates,

silt

The

deposit in the slack water in the deep channel.

is

allowed to

canal

is

thereby

when the accumulation becomes


can be scoured out by opening the gates.

preserved from silting up, and


excessive, it

The

sill

of the w^eir sluice

placed as low as can conveniently

is

be managed, being generally either at L.

W.

L.

itself,

or

somewhat

higher, its level generally corresponding with the base of the drop

Thus the maximum

or breast wall.
is

subjected

is

statical

head to which the work

the height of the weir crest plus that of the weir

shutters, or Hi,

The ventage provided


of the river,

is

dry season discharge.


the river low supply

by the low-water discharge


more than the average
that of the Laguna weir, where

regulated

and should be capable


In one case,

is deficient,

of taking

the weir sluices are designed to take

the whole ordinary discharge of the river excepting the highest


floods.

which

This

may

is

with the object of maintaining a wide, deep channel

be drawn upon as a reservoir.

This case

is,

however,

exceptional.

As the

object of a weir sluice

is

in order to scour out deposit for

work,

it is

to pass water at a high velocity

some distance to the rear

of the

evident that the openings should be wide, with as few

obstructions as possible in the

way

of piers,

and should be open at

the surface, the arches and platform being built clear of the flood
level.

Further, in order to take

power of the current, which

is

full

at a

advantage of the scouring

maximum

at the sluice

itself,

diminishing in velocity with the distance to the rear of the work,


it is

absolutely necessary not only to place the canal head as close

as possible to the weir sluices, but to recess the head as

little

DAMS AND WEIRS

184

Scale of Feet

ZO
""'

'

Sp 'Op
^0 6
20
'fTlevahonk refer to heojleyel

Fig. 107.

Plan

of

Laguna Weir-Scouring

Sluices

DAMS AND WEIRS


as practicable behind the face

185

Hne of the abutment

end

of the

sluice vent.

With regard
by these

effected

much

jected to a

to canal head regulators or intakes, the regulation


is entire,

not partial, so that these works are sub-

greater statical stress than weir sluices,

and conse-

quently, for convenience of manipulation, are usually designed with

narrower openings than are necessary or desirable in the

The design

works

of these

latter.

however, outside the scope of the

is,

subject in hand,
138.

lent

Example

of

Weir Scouring

example of a weir scouring

Fig. 108.

weir, the profile

canal intake

is

View

of

sluice,

Fig. 107

Sluice.

is

an

that attached to the

excel-

Laguna

Yuma Canal and Sluiceway Showing Sluice


Gatea under Construction

of which

was given

in Fig.

105.

The Yuma

placed clear of the sandy bed of the river on a rock

foundation and the sluiceway in front of

rock independent of the weir.

it is

At the end

also cut

through

of this sluiceway

solid

and

just

past the intake the weir sluices are located, consisting of three spans
of 33| feet closed

by

steel

counterweighted

hoisted clear of the flood


gates are clearly

shown

by

electrically

in Fig. 108,

at

EL

138.0, that of the canal intake

which can be

operated winches.

which

taken during the progress of the work.


is

roller gates

The

from a photograph
The bed of the sluiceway

sill

is

is 147.0,

and that

of the

DAMS AND WEIRS

1S6
weir crest 151.0

hence the

up with deposit to a depth

Fig. 109.

Plan of Weir Sluices for Corbett

discharge of the canal, or

the sluiceway can be


of the

draw

whole sluiceway can be allowed to

gates,

if

filled

i.e.,

fill

of 9 feet, without interfering with the

Dam

on Shoshone River,

Wyoming

the flashboards of the intake are lowered

up to EL 156 which

18 feet deep.

The

is

the level of the top

difference

between \high

DAMS AND WEIRS

187

188

DAMS AND WEIRS

DAMS AND WEIRS

189

water above and below the


is

consequently

feet,

are lifted

sluice gates

when the

gates

immense scour must take place

and any deposit be rapidly removed.

The

sluiceway

in

is

fact

a large

silt

trap.
139.

The weir

Weir Sluices
sluices of the

Corbett

Wyoming,

the Shoshone River,

Dam.

of Corbett

dam on

are given

inFigs. 109, 110,andlll.

The

canal takes out through a tun-

the head of which has necessarily to

nel,

be recessed far behind the location of the


Unless special measures

weir sluices.

were adopted, the space between the

and the tunnel head would


up with sand and deposit and block

sluice gates
fill

the entrance.

To

obviate this a wall 8 feet high

built encircling the entrance.

wall

is

also run out

sluices, cutting

and

its

these

is

''divide"

upstream of the weir

them

approaches.

off

from the weir

The

space between

two walls forms a sluiceway which

draws the current of the river in a low


stage past the canal head and further
forms a large
scoured out

trap which can be

silt

when

convenient.

Only a

thin film of surface water can overflow

the long encircling wall, then it runs


a paved warped slope which leads

the head gates, the heavy

silt

down

it

into

in suspen-

sion being deposited in the sluiceway.

This arrangement

The
is

is

admirable.

fault of the weir sluices as built

the narrowness of the openings which

One
would be much more

consist of three spans of 5 feet.

span of 12 feet

DAMS AND WEIRS

190

In modern Indian practice, weir sluices on large rivers

effective.

are built with 20 to 40 feet openings.

Weir Scouring Sluices on Sand. Weir scouring sluices


on pure sand on as large rivers as are met with in India are
very formidable works, provided \vith long aprons and deep lines
of curtain blocks.
An example is given in Fig. 112 of the so-termed
undersluices of the Khanki weir over the Chenab River in the Pun140.

built

The spans

jab.

are 20 feet, each closed

by 3 draw

gates, running

in parallel grooves, fitted with antifriction wheels (not rollers), lifted

by means
in

power winches which straddle the openings


which the grooves and gates are located.
The Merala weir sluices of the Upper Chenab canal have 8
of traveling

spans of 31

feet, piers

Fig. 113.

5^ feet thick, double draw gates 14 feet high.

View

of

Merala Weir

Sluices,

Upper Chenab Canal

These are Ufted clear of the flood, which is 21 feet above floor, by
means of steel towers 20 feet high erected on each pier. These carry
the lifting apparatus and heavy counterweights. These gates, Uke
those at

Laguna

Fig. 113

is

weir. Fig. 108, bear against Stoney roller frames.

from a photograph

of the

Merala weir

sluices.

The

a partial regulator, in that complete closure at high flood is


not attempted. The Upper Chenab canal is the largest in the world

work

is

with the sole exception of the Ibramiyah canal in Egypt,


charge being 12,000 second-feet.

Its

depth

is

13 feet.

The

its dis-

capacity

Ibramiyah was 20,000 second-feet prior to head regulation.


141.
Heavy Construction a Necessity- In works of this

of the

description solid construction


crete construction

is

a necessity.

Light reinforced con-

would not answer, as weight

is

required, not only

DAMS AND WEIRS

191

to witlistand the hydrostatic pressure but the


flood water in violent motion.

dynamic

effects of

Besides which widely distributed

;.

weight

is

undoubtedly necessary for works built on the shifting

sand of a river bed, although this


rules

can be formed.

is

a matter for which no definite

DAMS AND WEIRS

192

The

weir sluices at Laguna and also at the Corbett dam, are

solid concrete structures

without reinforcement.

In the East, generally, reinforced concrete


is

not employed nor

is

even cement concrete except in wet foundations, the reason

being that cement,

and wood

steel,

for forms are very expensive

items whereas excellent natural hydraulic lime

is

generally avail-

able, skilled and unskilled labor is also abundant.


A skilled mason's
wages are about 10 to 16 cents and a laborer's 6 to 8 cents for a

12-hour day.

Under such circumstances the employment

forced cement concrete

has to be taken care

is

of rein-

where tension

entirely confined to siphons

of.

In America, on the other hand, the labor conditions are such


that reinforced concrete which requires only unskilled labor and

is

mostly made up by machinery,

of

is

by

far the

most

suitable

form

construction from point of view of cost as well as convenience.

This accounts for the very different appearance of irrigation

Both are

works in the East from those in the West.

suitable under

the different conditions that severally exist.

Dams

Large Open

142.

across Rivers.

Of open dams

built

across rivers, several specimens on a large scale exist in Egypt.

These works,

like weir sluices are partial regulators

and allow

free

passage to flood water.


Assiut Barrage.

In the Assiut barrage, Figs. 114 and 115,*

constructed across the

quality than

value of

This

Nile

above the

dam

is

met with

in the

adopted for the Nile

is

silt

18, against 15 for

of a worse

rivers.

The

Himalayan

rivers.

great Himalayan

holds up 5 meters of water, the head or difference of

levels being 3 meters.

Having regard to

difference of levels but

when

the piers,

canal head

Ibramiyah

Egypt, the foundations are of sand and

in lower

is

uplift,

the head

considering overturning

the moment,

is

the

moment, on

and h being the respective

depths of water above and below the gates.

It

is

believed that in

the estimation of the length of travel the vertical sheet piling was
left

out of consideration.
*In

Figa. 115

and IIG and

sions used in the plans of the

Inspection of the section in Fig. 115

problems in the text, the metric dimenworks have been retained. Meters multiplied by the factor

in the discussion of these

3.28 will give the proper values in feet.

DAMS AND WEIRS

193

shows that the foundation is


mass cement concrete, 10 feet
deep,

on which platform the

superstructure

built.

is

This

122 spans of 5

latter consists of

meters, or 16 feet, with piers 2

meters thick, every ninth being

an abutment pier 4 meters thick


and longer than the rest. This
is

a work of excessive solidity

the ratio of thickness of piers


to the span being .48, a proportion of .33

S would,

sidered be better.

it is

con-

This could

be had by increasing the spans

20 feet right

to 6 meters, or

through, retaining the pier thickness as

it is

143.

at present.

General Features of

River Regulators. All these river


regulators are built on the

general lines, viz,

same

mass foundaan arched

tions of a great depth,

highway bridge, with spring


arch at flood

of

level,

then a gap

left for insertion of

the double

grooves and gates, succeeded by

a narrow

strip of

arch sufficient

to carry one of the rails of the

traveling winch, the other rest-

ing on the one parapet of the


bridge.

The
ter

piers are given a bat-

downstream

ter distribute

in order to bet-

the pressure on

the foundation.
of the weight of

The

resultant

one span com-

bined with the horizontal water

DAMS AND WEIES

194
pressure

must

within the middle third of the base of the pier,

fall

the length of which can be manipulated to bring this about.

In

even with increase of the span to 6 meters.

this case it does so

This combined work

from a military point

of value considered

is

of viewj as affording a crossing of the Nile River;

the extreme solidity of

consequently

construction was probably considered a

its

necessity.

In some regulators girders are substituted for arches, in others


as

we have noted with regard

to the Merala weir sluices, the super-

structure above the flood line

open

is

steel

work

of considerable

height.

The

Stability of Assiut Barrage.

144.

hydraulic gradient in

drawn on the profile


and is the line AB, the horizontal distance is 43 meters while the
head is 3 meters. The slope is therefore 1 in 14 J. The uplift is
the area enclosed between AB and a horizontal through B which is
only 1.4 meters at its deepest part near the gates. Upstream of
the gates the uplift is more than balanced by the weight of water
overlying the floor. The horizontal travel of the percolation is from
Fig. 115, neglecting the vertical sheet piling,

to

The

jB

plus the length of the

horizontal travel
51 5
= 17.2.
^
o

c, is

The

ing in this case the


uplift is

very

The

hne.

slight,

is

therefore

cB

the line be

is

similarly

This work

is

i.e.,

is

to

c; for

parallel to

the

Z),

BC

and

CD

-77,

or

being 8 meters

then the hydraulic gradient which

drawn up from
is

meters and the ratio

obtained by adding the vertical to

is

from

Steps occur at points b and

AD,

5H

135.

two vertical obstructions. Their effect on the


owing to the fore curtain which raises the grade

the horizontal travel,

AD

as explained in section

piezometric line has also been shown, includ-

slope in this case

each in length,

filter

is

first

which has the practical

AD
B

instance the line

^B

is 1
is

in 23.

part of

drawn up from C, and the

line

forming the end step.

to be built with a filter downstream,

effect of

adding to the length of percolation

travel irrespective of the hydraulic grade.


145.

The Hindia

Barrage.

The Hindia barrage,

erected over the Euphrates River near Bagdad,

is

quite recently

given in Fig. 116.

This work, which was designed by Sir WilUam Willocks, bears a

DAMS AND WEIRS

v-f

^1

Uj

1}

-Ci*
..diiik-

:?.

U311U

'</
Cj

f^;:;

-^

195

DAMS AND WEIRS

196

from

to

including .50 meter due to the sheet piUng

AB

meters.

is

then the hydraulic gradient, which

is

is

36.50

1 in

36-^
5

3.0

=1
to

The

in 10.4.

AB.

The

below the

area of uphft

line

DE

tion, leaving the area

is

however accounted

is

masonry situated below


counted

DFC is drawn up from D parallel


DGHEF; that part of the uplift

piezometric line

for

by assuming all
by flota-

El. 27.50 as reduced in weight

DEF

as representing the uplift

still

unac-

for.

Beyond the

filter is

a 21-meter length of impervious apron con-

puddle covered by stone paving, which abuts on a

sisting of clay

masonry subsidiary weir. This wall holds the water up one meter
in depth and so reduces the head to that extent, with the further
addition of the depth of film passing over the crest at low water

which

meter, total reduction 1.50 meters.

is .5

This

is

the

first

or talus; its object

instance of the use of puddle in a fore apron,


is,

by the introduction

of

an impervious rear

apron 21 meters long, to prevent the subsidiary weir wall from being

The head being

undermined.

1|

required, taking c as 18, will be

length of travel provided

is

meters,

the length of travel

18X1.5 = 27

meters.

The

actual

vertical 15, horizontal 41, total 56

more than double what is strictly requisite. The long,


hearth of solid masonry which is located below the subsidiary drop
wall is for the purpose of withstanding scour caused by the overBeyond this is the talus of riprap 20 meters wide and a row
fall.
The total length of the floor of this work is 364
of sheet piling.
That of the Assiut barrage
feet, with three rows of sheet piles.
The difference in head is
is 216 feet with two rows of sheeting.
meters,

meter only, so that certain unknown conditions of flood or


that of the material in the bed must exist to account for the excess.
half a

146.

ing works

American
it is

to locate the

vs. Indian

Treatment.

In American regulat-

generally the fashion where entire closure

draw gates and

head wall that


sluice openings.

closes the

required

upper part of the regulator above the

Thus when the

behind the panel walls.

is

their grooves inside the panel or bulk-

gates are raised they are concealed

In Indian practice the gate grooves in the

piers are generally located outside the bulkhead wall; thus

hoisted, the gates are visible

and

accessible.

Fig. 117 is

when

from a

DAMS AND WEIRS


photograph of a branch head, illustrating

197

this.

The work

is

of

reinforced concrete as can be told from the thinness of the piers.

In an Indian work of similar character the pier noses would project

beyond the face wall

well

raised in front, not behind

The

of the regulator

and the gates would be

it.

use of double gates

is

universal in Eastern irrigation works;

they have the following unquestionable advantages over a single


First j less

gate:

one; second^

power

when

for each is required to

lift

hoisted they can be stacked side

two gates than


by side and so

the pier can be reduced in height; third, where sand or


suspension, surface water can be tapped

down

while the upper

is

raised;

silt is

by leaving the lower

amd fourth, regulation

is

made

in

leaf

easier.

Typical American Regulating Sluices in ReinforcedConcrete Weir

Fig. 117.

In the Khanki weir

sluices, Fig. 112, 3 rates

running in 3 grooves

are employed.

dams the spans


as large as convenient, the tendency in modern
is to increase the spans to 30 feet or more; the Laguna weir
are 33| feet wide and the INIerala 31 feet. The thickness of

147.

should be
design
sluices

the piers

Length of Spans.

In designing open

made

is

a matter of judgment and

function of the span, the depth of water


piers is regulated,

the

is

best expressed as

by which the height

some
of the

forms another factor.

The depth of water upheld regulates the thickness more than


length. The length should be so adjusted that the resultant

combined of the weight of one pier and arch, or


of- the water pressure acting on one span falls
within the middle third of the base.
line of pressure

superstructure and

DAMS AND WEIRS

198

The

For example take the Assiut regulator, Fig. 115.

and span allowing

tents of one pier

The

meters of masonry, an equivalent to 1000 tons.

incidence of

about 2 meters from the middle third downstream boundary.

is

The moment

of the weight

2 = 2000 meter tons.

Let

about this point

is

therefore 1000 X

be depth of water upstream, and h

downstream, then the overturning moment is expressed by

Here H==5fh = 2 meters,


orf

con-

390 cubic

for uplift is roughly

one span

is

w = l,l

(H^~)wl

tons per cubic meter, the length

(125-8)X1.1X7 = _

',

7 meters;
,1.
,
7
then ,1.
the

moment =

150

meter tons. The moment of resistance is therefore immensely in excess


of the

moment of water

The

pressure.

governed by the high flood

height of the pier

highway bridge. At full flood nearly the whole


immersed in water and so lose weight. There

when the water

intermediate stage

is

however

the width by the necessity of a

level,

of the pier will be


is

probably some

pressure will be greater than

that estimated, as would be the case

the gates were left closed

if

while the water topped them by several feet, the water downstream
not having had time to rise to correspond.
148.

Moments

for Hindia Barrage.

In the case of the Hindia

barrage, Fig. 116, Ii = 5 meters, A = 1.5, then

^^^J12o-3.4)Xl.lX6.50^^^g

^^^^^ ^^^^

The weight

one span

is

about the toe of the base

is

The

factor of

The

long

base

of

estimated at 180 tons.

safety against
of

these

Its

moment

about 180X6.5 = 1170 meter tons.

piers

overturning
is

distributing the load over as wide

is

required

therefore
for

tt^=8.

the purpose of

an area as possible in order to

reduce the unit pressure to about one long ton per square foot.
This is also partly the object of the deep mass foundation. The

same

result could doubtless

be attained with

much

less material

by

adopting a thin floor say two or three feet thick, reinforced by steel
rods so as to ensure the distribution of the weight of the superstructure evenly over the M'hole base.

the Assiut barrage with

its

It seems to the writer that

mass foundation having been a success

DAMS AND WEIRS

199

DAMS AND WEIRS

200

TABLE n
Pier

Thickness Suitable

SPAN

for

Open

Partial Regulators

and Weir Sluices

DAMS AND WEIRS


152.

Upper Coleroon Regulator.

Fig. 119

201
is

from a photo-

graph of a regulating bridge on the upper Coleroon River in the

Madras Presidency^ southern India.

Originally a weir of type

constructed at this site in conjunction with a bridge.

The

A was

constric-

due to the drop wall, which was six feet high,


and the piers of the bridge, caused a very high afi3ux and great scour
on the talus. Eventually the drop wall was cleared away altogether,

tion of the discharge

the bridge piers were lengthened upstream and fitted with grooves

and

steel towers,

Fig. 119.

and counterweighted draw gates some 7

feet

deep

View of Regulating Bridge oq the Upper Coleroon River, Southern India

took the place of the drop wall.

In the flood season the gates can

be raised up to the level of the bridge parapet quite clear of the


flood.

The work was thus changed from one of a weir of type A,


The original weir and bridge were constructed

to an open dam.

about half a century ago.

Andrew's Rapids Dam. Another class of semi-open


dam consists of a permanent low floor or dwarf weir built across
the river bed which is generally of rock, and the temporary damming up of the water is effected by movable hinged standards being
153.

St.

lowered from the deck of an overbridge, which standards support

202

DAMS AND WEIRS

DAMS AND WEIRS


down

either a rolled reticulated curtain let

203

them

to cover

or else a

mounted on rollers.
The St. Andrew's Rapids dam, Fig. 120, a quite recent construcThe object of the dam is to raise
tion, may be cited as an example.
Manitoba,
to enable steamboats to navithe water in the Red River,
steel sliding shutter

from Winnipeg City to the lake of that name. To


effect this the water level at the rapids has to be raised 20 feet
above L. W. L. and at the same time, on account of the accumugate the

ri\'er

lation of ice brought do\\Ti

The Red River rises


where the thaw sets

by the

a clear passage

river,

in the South, in the State of


in

sequently freshets bring

is

a necessity.

North Dakota

much earlier than at Lake Winnipeg, condown masses of ice when the river and lake

are both frozen.

Camere Type of Dam, The dam is of the type known as the


Camer6 curtain dam, the closure being effected by a reticulated
wooden curtain, which is rolled up and do^n the vertical frames
thereby opening or closing the vents.

having been

first

dam

movable

French invention,

It is a

The

constructed on the Seine.

principle of this

consists in a large span girder bridge,

from which

vertical hinged supports carrying the curtain frames are let drop

on to a low weir. When not required for use these vertical girders
are hauled up into a horizontal position below the girder bridge and
In

fastened there.

The

needle dam.

spans of 138

The

fact,

the principle

river is

is

very

much

like that of a

800 feet wide, and the bridge

is

of six

feet.

bridge

is

composed

of three trusses,

from internal cross-bracing, and carry tram


ing apparatus of several sets of winches

two

lines

and

of

which are

with

all

free

the work-

hoists for manipuhiting

the vertical girders and the curtain; the third truss

is

mainly to

strengthen the bridge laterally, and to carry the hinged ends of the
vertical girders.
It will
is

be understood that the surface exposed to wind pressure

exceptionally great, so that the cross-bracing

tial,

as

is

the pier

also the lateral support afforded

itself

above

ing

absolutely essen-

by a heavy projection

of

floor level.

In the cross-section

opening in the

is

pier.

and unwinding the

it will

be seen that there

This footbridge
curtains,

and

is

will

is

a footbridge

carry winches for wind-

formed by projections thrown

DAMS AND WEIRS

204

out at the rear of each group of frames.

It will aflFord through


communication by a tramway. The curtains can be detached
altogether from the frames and housed in a chamber in the pier
clear of the floodline.

The lower

part of the work consists of a submerged weir of

solid construction

feet 6 inches

to

which water

actually holds

5ide

which runs right across the

above L. W. L. at El. 689.50.


is

upheld,

is

EL

river; its crest is 7

The top

of the curtains

703.6, or 14 feet higher.

The dam

up 31 feet of water above the bed of the river.

!levaiion- Sectic

Half Front rieyation


Lauchli Automatic Sluice Gate

Fig. 121.

This system

is

open to the following objections:

immense expense involved

in a triple

row of

First, the

steel girders of large

span carrying the curtains and their apparatus; and second, the
large surface exposure to ^ wind which

must always be a menace

to

the safety of the curtains.


It is believed that the raising of the water level could
for a quarter of the cost

of the

if

not

much

less,

be effected

by adopting a combination

system used in the Folsam weir. Fig. 50, with that in the

Dhukwa

weir. Fig. 52, viz, hinged collapsible gates

which could be

pushed up or lowered by hydraulic jacks as required.


lower part of the

dam

The

existing

could be utilized and a subway constructed

DAMS AND WEIRS


through

it

ment which

communication and accommodation for the

for cross

pressure pipes, as
is

is

205

the case in the

quite feasible would,

Dhukwa

it is

weir.

This arrange-

deemed, be an improvement

on the expensive, complicated, and slow, Camere curtain system.


1 54.
Automatic Dam or Regulator. Mr. Lauchh of New York,
writing for Engineering News, describes a

new

design for automatic

regulators, as follows:

dam

In Europe there has been in operation for some time a tj^e of automatic
or sluice gate which on account of its simpUcity of construction, adapt-

Fig. 122.

View

ability to existing structures,


its

Dam

of Lauchli Automatic
Which Has
in Successful Operation in Europe

Been

for Several

Years

exact mathematical treatment, and especially

successful operation, deserves to attract the attention of the hydraulic engineer

connected with the design of hydroelectric plants or irrigation works. Fig.


121 shows a cross-section and front elevation of one of the above-mentioned
dams now in course of construction, and the view in Fig. 122 gives an idea of
a small automatic dam of the same type which has been in successful operation
for several seasons, including a severe winter, and during high spring floods.
Briefly stated, the automatic dam is composed of a movable part or
panel, resting at the bottom on a knife edge, and fastened at the top to a compensating roller made of steel plate and filled with concrete. This roller moves
along a track located at each of its ends, and is so designed as to take, at any
height of water upstream, a position such as will give the apron the inclination
necessary for discharging a known amount of water, and in so doing will keep
the upper pool at a constant fixed elevation.
With the roller at its highest position the panel lies horizontally, and
the full section is then available for discharging water. Any debris, such as

DAMS AND WEIRS

206

pass over the dam without any difficulty, even


during excessive floods, as the compensating roller is located high above extreme

trees, or ice cakes, etc., will

flood level.

The dam now in course of construction is located on the river Grafenauer


Ohe, in Bavaria, and will regulate the water level at the intake of a paper mill,
located at some distance from the power house. The dam has a panel 24.27
ft. long, 6.85 ft. high, and during normal water level will discharge 1400 cu. ft.
per sec, while at flood time it will pass 3,530 cu. ft. per sec. of water. As shown
in Fig. 121, the main body of the dam is made of a wooden plank construction
laid on a steel frame.
The panel is connected with the compensating roller
at each end by a flexible steel cable wound around the roller end, and then
fastenedat the upper part of the roller track to an eyebolt. A simple form of
roof construction protects the roller track from rain and snow. The panel
is made watertight at each extremity by means of galvanized sheet iron held
tight against the abutments by water pr,essure. This type of construction has
so far proved to be very effective as to watertightness.
It

may be

needless to point out that this type of

to the crest of overflow


of

dam

of ordinary cross-section,

dam

can also be fitted


fulfill the duty

and then

movable flashboards.

The

probability

the future.
roller

is

that this type will became largely used in

A suggested improvement would be to

having instead separate

working independently.
the span adopted.

There

rollers

will

abolish the cross

on each pier or abutment,

then be no practical limit to

INDEX
PAGE

A
Aprons
71

decrease uplift, rear aprons

base of dam and


hearth and anchored
porous fore

98
150
173, 175
159,161
164

fore,

rear

riprap to protect

169

sloping
uplift, affect

70

Arched dams

101

characteristics

crest width

_'_

examples
Barossa
Bear Valley
Burrin Juick subsidiary
Lithgow
Pathfinder

Shoshone
Sweetwater
profiles

correct
theoretical

and

practical

variable radii, with


vertical

water loads, support of

Arrow Rock dam


Assiut barrage

Automatic

dam

or regulator

101

104
104
111
104
112
112
104
107
109
103
103
102
112
104
67
192, 194
205

B
Barossa dam
Barrages
Bassano dam
Bear Valley dam
Burrin Juick subsidiary

111
182

146
104

dam

112

C
Castlewood weir

96

D
Damietta and Rosetta weirs
Dams and weirs

179
1

INDEX
PAGQ

Dams and

weirs

continued

arched

101

definition

1
*

gravity

gravity overfall

hollow slab buttress


multiple arch or hollow arch buttress

open dama or barrages


submerged weirs founded on sand
Dehri weir

Dhukwa

75
136
113
182
151
178
90

weir

E
Ellsworth

dam

136

F
Folsam weiv

85

G
92

Granite Reef weir

Gravity dams

design

method

analytical

broken

line profiles,

18, 34,

treatment for

method of
high and wide

calculation,

11

crest,

13

crest

width

failure

by

31

sliding or shear, security against

method
method

graphical
Haessler's

36,

influence lines

maximum

stress, formulas for


elementary profile, application to
limiting height by
pressure area in inclined back dam, modified equivalent

pressure distribution

pressure limit,

maximum

pressures in figures, actual


profile, practical

27
28
29
37
23, 25, 26
27
34
8
4

profile, theoretical

39
10
30
37
22

curved back
rear widening
profiles,

shear and tension, internal

stepped polygon
vertical

16
42
13
31

height, variation of

component

discussion
.

4
43
41

graphical calculations

"middle third" and hmiting stress


pressure of water on wall

3
.

INDEX
PAQB

continued

Gravity dams
discussion

stress limit, compressive

examples

Arrow Rock
Assuan
Burrin Juick

Cheeseman Lake
Cross River and Ashokan

New

Croton

Roosevelt
foundations, special

aprons affect uplift


aprons decrease uplift, rear
gravity

ice pressure,

dam

reinforced against

rock below gravel


"high"
base of dam,

silt

against

partial overfall

pentagonal profile to be widened


pressure, ice

dam,

toe of

filling

against

Gravity overfall dams or weirs


American dams on pervious foundations
analytical

method

base width, approximate


characteristics

'

crest width, approximate


depth of overfall, calculation
examples

of

Castle wood

Dhukwa
Folsam _'
Granite Reef

Mariquina
Nira
"Ogee"
St. Maurice River
fore apron, base of dam and
graphical process

hydraulic conditions
pressm-e,

water

moments

of

96
90
85
92
92
95
85
99
98
78
93
81

level, pressures affected

Guayabal dam

4
^^
67
59
65
53
65
58
56
69
70
71
73
72
43
50
52
47
51
50
75
97
88
77
75
77
82
83

by

79
141

H
Haessler 's method

Hindia barrage
Hollow slab buttress

3G 42
194 198

dam

136

INDEX
FAQE

Hollow slab buttress

dam continued

description

examples
Bassano

136
146
146

j
-

Ellsworth

Guayabal

139
149

fore slope, steel in

foundation f oredeck, pressure on


baffles

150
150
150
137
140

buttresses

hearth or anchored apron


reinforced concrete, formulas for
slab deck

136
141

compared with arch deck

'^

K
Khanki weir

171

L
Laguna weir

179
112

Lithgow dam

M
92

Mariquina weir
Merala weir

171
114

Mir Alam dam


Multiple arch or hollow arch buttress

dams

arch, crest width of

113
125

arches, differential

126

design

122

examples
Belubula
Big Bear Valley

118
131
114
___.120

Mir Alam
Ogden

119

inclination of arch to vertical

pressure
flood

foundation, on

water, reverse
stresses

value

129
125
124
117
113

N
Narora weir
Nira weir

167

95

INDEX
PAGE

o
"Ogee' gravity overfall
'

dam

85
177
182

Okhla and Madaya weirs

Open dams

or barrages

advantages

American

vs.

Indian treatment

automatic
-Corbett dam, weir sluices of
'_

definition

.---

200
196
205
189
182

examples
192, 194

Assiut

Hindia
North Mon
Upper Coleroon
St. Andrew's Rapids

194,198
200
201
201
203
190
198
200
201
193
192

Cam^r^type
heavy construction
moments for Hindia barrage
piers, thickness of

regulator,

Upper Coleroon

river regulators, features of


rivers, across

197
185
190

spans, length of

weir scouring sluice, example of


weir scouring sluice on sand

P
Pathfinder

dam

104

S
Andrew's Rapids dam
Shoshone dam
Stepped polygon
Submerged weirs on sand

201
107

St.

37
151

apron, rear

159, 161

computations, simplifying
crest shutters

description

156
182
151

examples

Damietta and Rosetta


Dehri

Khanki
Laguna
Merala
Narora
Okhla and Madaya
fore aprons, porous

core walls, divided

by

179

178
171
179
171
167
177
173
175

INDEX
PAGE

continued

Submerged weirs on sand

hydraulic flow, laws of

152

percolation
coefficient of

153

dam

152

values of coefficient of

155
159

beneath

vertical obstruction to

pervious dam, paradox of a

181

riprap
safety, criterion for

164
154

sloping apron

169

stability,

Sweetwater

_.

governing factor for

153
109

dam

T
Tables

200

pier thickness

values of L^ or talus width

163

U
Upper Coleroon regulator

201