Lecture 19 Engineered Systems for Air Pollution Control

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Lecture 19 Engineered Systems for Air Pollution Control

© All Rights Reserved

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ChE 150 Environmental Process Engineering

2nd Semester AY 2014-2015

ChE

150

Environmental

Engr.

Kristian

July R. Yap Process Engineering

nd Semester

University of 2the

Philippines

Diliman

AY 2014-2015

OUTLINE

Settling Chambers

Cyclones

Baghouse Filters

Electrostatic Precipitators (ESP)

Absorption

SETTLING CHAMBERS

SETTLING CHAMBERS

SETTLING CHAMBERS

Usual velocity through settling chambers

-- Between 0.5 and 2.5 m/s

-- For best results, gas flow should be

maintained at less than 0.3 m/s

Assuming that Stokes law applies, an

expression can be derived for calculating the

minimum diameter of a particle collected at

100 percent theoretical efficiency in a chamber

of length L.

ChE 150 Environmental Process Engineering

SETTLING CHAMBERS

vt vh

=

H L

(1)

H = height of settling chamber, m

vh = horizontal flow-through velocity, m/s

L = length of settling chamber, m

SETTLING CHAMBERS

From Stokes Law:

vt =

g ( p a ) dp

(2)

18

v h H g ( p a ) dp

=

L

18

ChE 150 Environmental Process Engineering

(3)

SETTLING CHAMBERS

a can be dropped from equation (3)

since ( a << p )

Solving for the minimum particle diameter:

18 v h H

dp =

gL p

-- applicable for quiescent conditions ( = 1 )

-- a correction factor ( = 1 ) is applied in general

ChE 150 Environmental Process Engineering

SETTLING CHAMBERS

EXAMPLE

Calculate the minimum size of the particle that will be

removed with 100% efficiency from a settling chamber

under the ff. conditions:

Air:

Temperature is 77C.

-- viscosity of air is 2.1 x 10-5 kg/ms

Particle:

Specific gravity is 2.0.

Chamber:

Length is 7.5 m.

Height is 1.5 m.

*Use = 2 .

ChE 150 Environmental Process Engineering

CYCLONES

Standarddimension

cyclone

collector

(Lapple

standard

cyclone)

CYCLONES

The operating or separating efficiency of a

cyclone depends on the magnitude of the

centrifugal force exerted on the particles.

vi2

Fc = Mp

R

where

Fc = centrifugal force, N

Mp = particulate mass, kg

vi = particle velocity, m/s

R = radius of cyclone, m

CYCLONES

Performance of Lapple standard cyclones

can be described by a single grade fractional

efficiency curve:

CYCLONES

The size of the particle is determined by the

following equation based from Lapples work:

9b

d50 =

2 Ne v i p

L2

1

Ne = L1 +

h

2

50% efficiency, m

= gas viscosity, kg/ms

b = width of cyclone inlet, m

Ne = no. of effective turns within the cyclone

vi = inlet gas velocity, m/s

p = density of particulate matter, kg/m3

ChE 150 Environmental Process Engineering

CYCLONES

Calvert and Englund (1984) suggest an equation

for the pressure drop of the Lapple standard

cyclone:

Q

P ( cm H2O ) = 40.96

bh

where

Q = actual gas volumetric flow rate, m3/s

b,h = inlet dimensions, m

ChE 150 Environmental Process Engineering

CYCLONES

EXAMPLE

An air stream with a flow rate of 7 m3/s is passed

through a cyclone of standard proportions. The

diameter of the cyclone is 2.0 m, and the air

temperature is 77C.

a) Determine the removal efficiency for a particle

with density of 1.5 g/cm3 and diameter 10 m.

b) Determine the collection efficiency based on the

above if a bank of 64 cyclones with diameters of

24 cm are used instead of the single large unit.

ChE 150 Environmental Process Engineering

CYCLONES

EXAMPLE

BAGHOUSE FILTERS

BAGHOUSE FILTERS

BAGHOUSE FILTERS

EXAMPLE

A fabric filter is to be constructed using bags

that are 0.3 m in diameter and 6.0 m long.

The baghouse is to receive 10 m3/s of air,

and the appropriate filtering velocity has

been determined to be 2.0 m/min. Determine

the number of bags required for a continuously

cleaned operation.

ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS

ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS

The size-efficiency relationship for an ESP is a

curvilinear function similar to that for a cyclone.

[Deutsch equation]

Aw

= 1 exp

Q

where = efficiency

A = area of the collection plates, m2

w = drift velocity of charged particles, m/s

Q = flow rate of the gas stream, m3/s

ChE 150 Environmental Process Engineering

ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS

The drift velocity w is the velocity at which the

particle approaches the collection plate.

-- analogous to terminal settling velocity

in gravity settling

w = adp

where a = [s-1] function of:

> charging field

> carrier gas properties

> ability of particles to accept an

electrical charge

ChE 150 Environmental Process Engineering

ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS

EXAMPLE

An ESP is to be constructed to remove fly ash

particles from stack gases flowing at 10 m3/s.

Analysis of a similar system shows that the drift

velocity can be taken as

w = 3.0 10 dp m/s

5

m particle with (a) 90% efficiency, and (b) 99%

efficiency.

ChE 150 Environmental Process Engineering

ABSORPTION

Review design equations in ChE 133.

>> Equilibrium Curve

>> Operating Line

>> Limiting flow rates

>> Film and overall mass transfer coefficients

>> For packed towers:

Z = HOGNOG = HOLNOL

Z = HGNG = HLNL

QUESTIONS???

ChE

150

Environmental

Engr.

Kristian

July R. Yap Process Engineering

nd Semester

University of 2the

Philippines

Diliman

AY 2014-2015

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