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ENGINEERED SYSTEMS FOR

AIR POLLUTION CONTROL


ChE 150 Environmental Process Engineering
2nd Semester AY 2014-2015
ChE
150
Environmental
Engr.
Kristian
July R. Yap Process Engineering

nd Semester
University of 2the
Philippines
Diliman
AY 2014-2015

OUTLINE






Settling Chambers
Cyclones
Baghouse Filters
Electrostatic Precipitators (ESP)
Absorption

ChE 150 Environmental Process Engineering

2nd Semester AY 2014-2015

SETTLING CHAMBERS

ChE 150 Environmental Process Engineering

2nd Semester AY 2014-2015

SETTLING CHAMBERS

ChE 150 Environmental Process Engineering

2nd Semester AY 2014-2015

SETTLING CHAMBERS
 Usual velocity through settling chambers
-- Between 0.5 and 2.5 m/s
-- For best results, gas flow should be
maintained at less than 0.3 m/s
 Assuming that Stokes law applies, an
expression can be derived for calculating the
minimum diameter of a particle collected at
100 percent theoretical efficiency in a chamber
of length L.
ChE 150 Environmental Process Engineering

2nd Semester AY 2014-2015

SETTLING CHAMBERS
vt vh
=
H L

(1)

where vt = terminal settling velocity, m/s


H = height of settling chamber, m
vh = horizontal flow-through velocity, m/s
L = length of settling chamber, m

ChE 150 Environmental Process Engineering

2nd Semester AY 2014-2015

SETTLING CHAMBERS
From Stokes Law:

vt =

g ( p a ) dp

(2)

18

Equating the vt expressions from (1) and (2):

v h H g ( p a ) dp
=
L
18
ChE 150 Environmental Process Engineering

(3)

2nd Semester AY 2014-2015

SETTLING CHAMBERS
 a can be dropped from equation (3)
since ( a << p )
Solving for the minimum particle diameter:

18 v h H
dp =
gL p
-- applicable for quiescent conditions ( = 1 )
-- a correction factor ( = 1 ) is applied in general
ChE 150 Environmental Process Engineering

2nd Semester AY 2014-2015

SETTLING CHAMBERS
EXAMPLE
Calculate the minimum size of the particle that will be
removed with 100% efficiency from a settling chamber
under the ff. conditions:
Air:

Horizontal velocity is 0.3 m/s.


Temperature is 77C.
-- viscosity of air is 2.1 x 10-5 kg/ms
Particle:
Specific gravity is 2.0.
Chamber:
Length is 7.5 m.
Height is 1.5 m.
*Use = 2 .
ChE 150 Environmental Process Engineering

2nd Semester AY 2014-2015

CYCLONES
Standarddimension
cyclone
collector
(Lapple
standard
cyclone)

ChE 150 Environmental Process Engineering

2nd Semester AY 2014-2015

CYCLONES
 The operating or separating efficiency of a
cyclone depends on the magnitude of the
centrifugal force exerted on the particles.

vi2
Fc = Mp
R
where

Fc = centrifugal force, N
Mp = particulate mass, kg
vi = particle velocity, m/s
R = radius of cyclone, m

ChE 150 Environmental Process Engineering

2nd Semester AY 2014-2015

CYCLONES
 Performance of Lapple standard cyclones
can be described by a single grade fractional
efficiency curve:

ChE 150 Environmental Process Engineering

2nd Semester AY 2014-2015

CYCLONES
 The size of the particle is determined by the
following equation based from Lapples work:
9b
d50 =
2 Ne v i p

L2
1
Ne = L1 +
h
2

where d50 = diameter of particle that is collected with


50% efficiency, m
= gas viscosity, kg/ms
b = width of cyclone inlet, m
Ne = no. of effective turns within the cyclone
vi = inlet gas velocity, m/s
p = density of particulate matter, kg/m3
ChE 150 Environmental Process Engineering

2nd Semester AY 2014-2015

CYCLONES
 Calvert and Englund (1984) suggest an equation
for the pressure drop of the Lapple standard
cyclone:
Q
P ( cm H2O ) = 40.96
bh
where

= actual gas density, g/cm3


Q = actual gas volumetric flow rate, m3/s
b,h = inlet dimensions, m

*Acceptable pressure drop is generally less than 20 cm H2O.


ChE 150 Environmental Process Engineering

2nd Semester AY 2014-2015

CYCLONES
EXAMPLE
An air stream with a flow rate of 7 m3/s is passed
through a cyclone of standard proportions. The
diameter of the cyclone is 2.0 m, and the air
temperature is 77C.
a) Determine the removal efficiency for a particle
with density of 1.5 g/cm3 and diameter 10 m.
b) Determine the collection efficiency based on the
above if a bank of 64 cyclones with diameters of
24 cm are used instead of the single large unit.
ChE 150 Environmental Process Engineering

2nd Semester AY 2014-2015

CYCLONES
EXAMPLE

ChE 150 Environmental Process Engineering

2nd Semester AY 2014-2015

BAGHOUSE FILTERS

ChE 150 Environmental Process Engineering

2nd Semester AY 2014-2015

BAGHOUSE FILTERS

ChE 150 Environmental Process Engineering

2nd Semester AY 2014-2015

BAGHOUSE FILTERS
EXAMPLE
A fabric filter is to be constructed using bags
that are 0.3 m in diameter and 6.0 m long.
The baghouse is to receive 10 m3/s of air,
and the appropriate filtering velocity has
been determined to be 2.0 m/min. Determine
the number of bags required for a continuously
cleaned operation.

ChE 150 Environmental Process Engineering

2nd Semester AY 2014-2015

ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS

ChE 150 Environmental Process Engineering

2nd Semester AY 2014-2015

ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS
 The size-efficiency relationship for an ESP is a
curvilinear function similar to that for a cyclone.
[Deutsch equation]
Aw
= 1 exp

Q
where = efficiency
A = area of the collection plates, m2
w = drift velocity of charged particles, m/s
Q = flow rate of the gas stream, m3/s
ChE 150 Environmental Process Engineering

2nd Semester AY 2014-2015

ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS
 The drift velocity w is the velocity at which the
particle approaches the collection plate.
-- analogous to terminal settling velocity
in gravity settling

w = adp
where a = [s-1] function of:
> charging field
> carrier gas properties
> ability of particles to accept an
electrical charge
ChE 150 Environmental Process Engineering

2nd Semester AY 2014-2015

ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS
EXAMPLE
An ESP is to be constructed to remove fly ash
particles from stack gases flowing at 10 m3/s.
Analysis of a similar system shows that the drift
velocity can be taken as

w = 3.0 10 dp m/s
5

Determine the plate area required to collect a 0.5


m particle with (a) 90% efficiency, and (b) 99%
efficiency.
ChE 150 Environmental Process Engineering

2nd Semester AY 2014-2015

ABSORPTION
Review design equations in ChE 133.
>> Equilibrium Curve
>> Operating Line
>> Limiting flow rates
>> Film and overall mass transfer coefficients
>> For packed towers:
Z = HOGNOG = HOLNOL
Z = HGNG = HLNL

ChE 150 Environmental Process Engineering

2nd Semester AY 2014-2015

QUESTIONS???
ChE
150
Environmental
Engr.
Kristian
July R. Yap Process Engineering

nd Semester
University of 2the
Philippines
Diliman
AY 2014-2015