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THE 12 CONSTRUCTS

Construct 1 : Able to identify and distinguish shape of the letters of the alphabet
Construct 2 : Able to associate sounds with the letters of the alphabet
Construct 3 : Able to blend phonemes into recognizable words
Construct 4 : Able to segment words into phonemes
Construct 5 : Able to understand and used the language at word level
Construct 6 : Able to participate in daily conversations using appropriate phrases
Construct 7 : Able to understand and used the language at phrase level in liner texts
Construct 8 : Able to understand and used the language at phrase level in non - linear texts
Construct 9 : Able to read and understand sentences with guidance
Construct 10 : Able to understand and used the language at paragraph level in non - linear texts
Construct 11 : Able to understand and use the language at paragraph level in linear texts
Construct 12 : Able to construct sentences with guidance

LITERASI MEMBACA LISAN

CONSTRUCT 1 :
Able to identify shape of letters
The ability to identify and distinguish the shapes of letters. Pupil read the given letters.
Pelajar diberikan kad huruf yang dipilih secara rawak A hingga Z oleh guru. Pelajar menyebut
huruf yang tercatat pada kad huruf yang ditunjukkan.

CONSTRUCT 2 :
Able to associate sound with the letters of alphabet
The ability to say aloud the sounds of the phonemes. Pupil says aloud the sound of the phonemes.
Guru menunjukkan huruf yang dipilih dan pelajar dikehendaki membunyikan huruf tersebut dengan
bunyi yang betul. Pada tahap ini pelajar tahu atau kenal huruf dan faham dengan membunyikannya
dengan betul. Konstruk 1 dan 2 adalah konstruk asas. Jika gagal pelajar dikelasifikasikan tegar.

CONSTRUCT 3 :
Able to blend phonemes into recognizable word.
The ability to blend sound of phonemes into recognizable word. Pupil blends the phonemes and says
the words aloud. Pupil should be allowed to say the whole word aloud without spelling it. Pelajar
membunyikan perkataan yang diberi dengan membunyikan dengan kuat. Perkataan yang diberi
mengandungi 2 suku kata. Contohnya :
m
at

a
p

nt
a n

CONSTRUCT 4 :
Able to segment words into phonemes.
Ability to segment words into phonemes. Pupil says the words then sounds the given phonemes.
Guru menunjukkan gambar beserta perkataan yang tertera pada kad yang dipilih. Pelajar akan
melihat gambar yang diberi dan membunyikan perkataan yang tertulis pada kad tersebut.
Contohnya :
Gambar tap
Gambar tin
Gambar muka sedih

tap
tin
sad

CONSTRUCT 5 :
Able to understand and use the language at word level
Teacher describes the picture given for example mat, tin and pin. Pupil listens to the teacher, circles
the correct words and says them aloud.

CONSTRUCT 6 :
Able to participate in daily conversations using appropriate phrases. Teacher asks pupil to read and
tick the correct responses. Pupil read and ticks the correct answers. Example :
Responses Thank you

correct answers
You are welcome
I am sorry

CONSTRUCT 7:
Able to understand and used the language at phrase level in linear texts. Teacher shows the picture
and phrases. Teacher may describe the picture briefly. Pupil read and matches the pictures to the
correct phrases. Example :
Picture
Phrases
a toy car
a cup of tea
two big bags

walk to school

walk to school a cup of tea

two big bags

a cup of tea

a toy car

CONSTRUCT 8:
Able to understand and use the language at phrase level in non-linear texts. Teacher shows the
picture to the pupil and asks: What do you see in this picture?
A picture in the playground :
a dog , cat sleeps , three flowers , one kite

Tick the correct answers


1. a dog
a birds
2. a cat sleeps
a boy stand
3. two kites
three flowers

CONSTRUCT 9 :
Able to read and understand sentences. Teacher may guide the pupil to read the entire paragraph
aloud and prompt when necessary. Not more than 3 mispronounced words in the paragraph can be
accepted and full marks should be awarded. Pupil read the sentences aloud. Example :
I have a bag, It is a big bag. It is a big blue bag.
CONSTRUCT 10 :
Able to understand and use the language at sentence level in non - linear texts. Teacher points to the
picture and briefly describe them. Pupil listens, reads and matches the picture to the correct
sentences. Example :
Picture

Sentences

Picture Sarah walks to school

She brushes her teeth.

She eats breakfast

She eats breakfast.

She wakes up early

Sarah wakes up early.

She brushes her teeth

Sarah walks to school.

CONSTRUCT 11 :
Able to understand and used the language at paragraph level in linear texts. Teacher guides the
pupil to read aloud the paragraph, prompting where necessary. Pupil reads the paragraph and
answers the questions by ticking Yes or NO. Example :
Picture of a cat
This is a cat

Questions
Is this a dog?

It is a big cat

Is it a big cat?

It likes milk

Does it like milk?

Yes

No

CONSTRUCT 12 :
Able to construct sentences with guidance. Teacher guides the pupil to form simple sentences using
the substitution table. Pupil constructs sentences from the substitution table and reads them aloud.
Example :
Words

construct sentences

This
She

a book
is

Today

Mimi

This is a book.

She is Mimi.

Monday

Today is Monday.

LITERASI MENULIS
CONSTRUCT 1 :
CONSTRUCT 2 :
CONSTRUCT 3 :
CONSTRUCT 4 :
CONSTRUCT 5 :
CONSTRUCT 6 :
CONSTRUCT 7 :
CONSTRUCT 8 :

Pupil writes the letters correctly given in the question paper


Pupil writes the letters with the correct sounds in the given boxes
Pupil writes the correct words based on the pictures given
Pupil fills in the boxes with the correct letters to spell the words based on
the pictures
Pupil reads the greeting card given and fills in the blanks with the correct
words
Pupil read the sentences and writes the correct answers.
Pupil reads the form and writes the correct phrases in the blanks
Pupil reads he phrases and write them correctly based on the picture
given

CONSTRUCT 9 :
CONSTRUCT 10 :
CONSTRUCT 11 :
CONSTRUCT 12 :

Pupil reads, traces and copies the sentences correctly based on the
pictures given
Pupil reads and copies the sentences correctly in neat legible print
Pupil reads and answers the questions given
Pupil reads and rearranges the phrases to form correct sentences