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UNIVERSIDAD DIEGO PORTALES

FACULTAD DE INGENIERIA
ESCUELA DE INGENIERA INDUSTRIAL
Ingls I

English for
Engineers
A Compilation for
Elementary Students

Index
Map of the book

One Obamarama

Two Financial services

11

Three More service and support, please Mr. Dell

15

Four Financial Profile

18

Five Sales Terminology

21

Six Cristinas Travails

25

Seven Wordcheck

27

Eight Retailers report dismal December sales

30

Nine Burris: Im the legally appointed senator

34

Ten A day in the life of Bill Gates

38

Eleven Company problems

44

Twelve Scales and Graphs

48

Thirteen The Assembly Line

53

Fourteen Job Adverts

61

Fifteen The Inditex Group

68

Sixteen Optical Fibres

72

Seventeen Project Planning

82

Eighteen A Turnkey Project

91

Nineteen Jobs

95

Students Notes

102

Annex 1 False Cognates

113

Annex 2 Irregular and Foreign Plurals

118

Annex 3 Irregular English Verbs

121

Annex 4: Signal Words for all tenses

124

Lesson
One
Obamarama

Learning Outcomes
Identifying central
ideas

Content
Cognates and
False Cognates
Indefinite article a
/ an

Vocabulary
Political Crisis.

Activities
Brainstorming
activity about
familiar words in
English
Organising cognates
Reading Comp.
Writing main ideas

Two
Financial services

Offering financial
services

Word Order
(Adjective +
Noun)

Financial world.

Deciding the correct


order
Reading Comp.

Three
More service and
support, please Mr.
Dell

Stablishing goals for


a market leader
company

Plural Nouns
Regular
Irregular
Foreign plurals

Production
processes.

Forming the plurals


Reading Comp.
Finding plurals in
context
Making a glossary

Four
Financial Profile

Writing a profile for a


business corporation
in the stock market

Compound Nouns
(Noun + Noun)

Corporation, stocks
and shareholders.

Finding Spanish
equivalents
Writing technical
collocations
Reading Comp.

Five
Sales Terminology

Writing definitions

Is Are
It They
Definitions

Retail and wholesale.


Communication (1).

Comprehension
exercise
Completing
sentences
Reading comp.
Writing definitions

Six
Cristinas Travails

Stating strengths and


weaknesses in a
dispute.

There is / There
are

Financial crisis,
inflation and
disputes.

Using structures
Completing a
paragraph
Identifying central
ideas

Seven
Wordcheck

Making predictions

No + Noun
The adverb no

Communication (2)
Wordcheck (previous
lessons)

Reading
comprehension.
Making predictions.

Eight
Retailers report
dismal December
sales

Writing short reports


about sales

The s Genitive

Shopping items
Management
positions
Retailers

Rewriting sentences
Reading comp.
Naming companies
and related sales

Nine
Burris: 'I am the
legally-appointed
senator'

Describing peoples
positions and
functions within a
company

Word formation
(1) Suffixes ly
and al Prefixes
in and un

Political positions
Legal words

Reading Comp.
Matching columns
Writing exercise
Completing a table

Ten
A day in the life of
Bill Gates

Describing job
expectations and
position obligations

The Present
Simple
Frequency
adverbs

Adjectives to qualify
a job.
Office habits
Job benefits

Reading Comp.
Matching columns
Writing
Completing a table

Eleven
What are the
biggest problems
facing your
company?

Reporting problems
at work.

The Present
Simple (negative
form)

Words used to
describe company
problems.

Listing company
problems
Working with the
dictionaries
Reading comp.
Matching words and
definitions

Studying a case

Twelve
Scales and Graphs

Analysing scales,
graphs and
nomographs

Can / Cant

Percentile Wages
The language of scale
and graphs
Requests, offers and
possibilities

Explaining variables
Matching columns
Reading Comp.
Writing

Thirteen
The Assembly Line

Looking for specific


information

The simple Past


Tense
(Affirmative,
negative, and
interrogative)

The World Bank


glossary
Irregular and regular
verbs

Reading a short
story.
Scanning a text.
Cloze procedure
Studying a chart
Working with the
dictionary

Fourteen
Job adverts

Comparing job offers

The comparison of
adjectives

Types of markets
A pie chart

Writing using
comparatives and
superlatives
Matching columns
Comparing job
adverts
Describing products
Reading comp.

The present
continuous

Verbs of action
A store layout
Business
development

Writing a report
Making a glossary on
a company growth
Completing
sentences
Identifying tense
concepts
Completing a
business profile

Commenting on a pie
chart

Fifteen
The Inditex Group

Writing a sales report


Drawing conclusions
from a store-layout
Comparing
permanent and
temporary situations

Sixteen
Optical Fibres

Reporting based on a
diagram
Analyzing a sales
report

Seventeen
Project Planning

Organising time
(Gantt Charts)

The role of an
engineering
consultant

Understanding and
writing a msn

How much / how


many
Quantifiers
Numbers,
numerals,
proportions

Sales report
vocabulary
Technical quantifiers

Writing a description
about quantities
Completing
sentences
Writing a short report
Vocabulary check
Playing games with
numbers

Future with Will


Prepositions of
time
If clauses type 1
(with will + simple
present)

Engineering
vocabulary.
Properties of
engineering
materials.
Stages of a
consultancy.

Understanding a
Gantt Chart
Reading Comp.
Completing
sentences using
prepositions of time
Writing a msn in full
Writing predictions
Answering questions.
Making a glossary

Completing
sentences.
Multiple choice.
Reading
Comprehension
Making a glossary
Infering information.
Completing missing
information.

Writing predictions
based on the
properties of
materials

Eighteen
A Turnkey Project

Describing the stages


of a project.

Verbs +
prepositions
Nouns +
prepositions

Glossary of a
turnkey project

Nineteen
Jobs

Discussing about jobs


skills and abilities.

The Present
Perfect Tense
Review of Simple
past v/s Present
Perfect

Jobs

Writing CVs in
English

Lesson One
(1) Cognates
Muchas palabras en Ingls son SIMILARES EN FORMA Y SIGNIFICADO a
palabras en espaol.

Por ejemplo, en la oracin


Mathematics is an exact science
hay palabras o combinaciones de palabras muy fciles de entender:
Mathematics ..
Exact ...
Science ..
Estas palabras se conocen normalmente como COGNADOS y facilitan la
comprensin ya que tienen raz semejante en ingls y espaol, aunque varan
mucho en sus terminaciones, ortografa en general, y pronunciacin. Entre
otros muchos ejemplos se pueden citar:

Mathematics
Botany
Engineering
Economics
Physics

telephone
oscilloscope
antenna
thermostat
capital

universe
pressure
hypothesis
air
television

reciprocal
complex
principal
direct
programme

De acuerdo a algunas terminaciones, los cognados pueden agruparse en:


(a)

Palabras que en INGLS tienen terminacin


y que generalmente en ESPAOL terminan en
organization = organizacin
information = informacin

(b)

integration = integracin
invention = invencin

Palabras que en INGLS tienen terminacin -SION o -SSION


y que generalmente en ESPAOL terminan en
-SIN
division = divisin
cohesion = cohesin

(c)

-TION
-CIN

expression = expresin
depression = depresin

Palabras que en INGLS tienen terminacin


y que generalmente en ESPAOL terminan en
society = sociedad
activity = actividad

-TY
-DAD

quantity = cantidad
specialty = especialidad

Indefinite Article
En los siguientes ejemplos, del mismo tipo anterior, los sustantivos llevan el
artculo A o AN; las palabras descriptivas (conocidas como adjetivos) no lo
llevan.
a base, a basis
basic

= una base
= bsico

a symbol
symbolic

= un smbolo
= simblico

an experiment
experimental

= un experimento
= experimental

a centenary = un centenario
centennial = centenario

Importante:
existen
los
Falsos
Cognados, es decir, palabras que en
ingls y en espaol son muy
PARECIDAS en FORMA, pero tienen
DIFERENTE SIGNIFICADO.

Ejemplos de falsos cognados:

Actual = real,verdadero

(current, present = presente, actual)

Alumnus = ex - alumno

(student = alumno, estudiante)

Exit = salida

(success = xito)

Success = xito

(event = suceso, hecho, evento)

Tenant = arrendatario

(liutenant = teniente)

(En el apndice 1 se incluye una lista de los falsos cognados de uso ms


frecuente para utilizar como referencia, ver pgina 113).
Exercise 1.1: Recognize and underline all the cognates you can find in the
following text.

Obamarama
Extract form the Financial Times
Published: December 29 2008 18:35 | Last updated: December 29 2008 18:35
Oil prices going up and down. A year with the Obama-mania ended with the
president-elect and his team at action stations, preparing themselves for
government amid what looks to be the surprise of the decade.
The abrupt escalation of the financial crisis in the last weeks of the campaign
has left little time for reflection on Mr Obamas triumph. The world applauded
as America, for the first time, sent a black man to the White House, but it is
important to remember that the Democrats victory in November was arguably
as much an expression of voter disgust with President George W. Bush and the
Republican party as it was a reflection of the president-elects political
abilities.
Exercise 1.2: Identify the central idea of the text and write it down.

__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

Exercise 1.3.. Traduzca estos cognados al espaol.


1. facility

10. capacity

2. utility

11. equation

3. humidity

12. solution

4. destruction

13. figure

5. definition

14. university

6. expression

15. alteration

7. ability

16. reduction

8. specialization

17. expulsion

9. expansion

18. function

Exercise 1.4.. Traduzca estos cognados al ingls.


1. velocidad

10. dimensin

2. accin

11. adaptabilidad

3. conclusin

12. produccin

4. densidad

13. relatividad

5. electricidad

14. reaccin

6. observacin

15. exposicin

7. friccin

16. fidelidad

8. visin

17. reduccin

9. identidad

18. direccin

Exercise 1.5. Escriba las palabras equivalentes en espaol.


1. a society

11.

a stimulus

2. social

12.

stimulant

3. a space

13.

an individual

4. spacious

14.

individual

5. a line

15.

a movement

6. linear

16.

movable

7. an experiment

17.

a nucleus

8. experimental

18.

nuclear

9. a specialty

19.

a distance

10. special

20.

distant

10

Lesson Two
(2) Word Order
En Ingls la POSICIN de las palabras descriptivas (adjetivos)
es distinta a la del espaol. Observe:
a Basic Function = una funcin bsica
an Essential Social force = una fuerza social esencial

Exercise 2.1.Traduzca estas frases al espaol


1. Social organization
2. Electric current
3. An energetic person
4. An adequate response
5. Physical contact ................................................................................
6. Nuclear physics .................................................................................
7. A relative difficulty ............................................................................
8. An evident result ...............................................................................
9. A collective stimulus ..........................................................................
10.Cellular biology .................................................................................
11.A simple fraction................................................................................
12.A simple linear equation .....................................................................
13.Descriptive statistics ..........................................................................
14.A reproducible experiment...................................................................
15.A provisory solution ...........................................................................
16.Obligatory elementary education .........................................................
17.An experimental design ......................................................................
18.A complex social structure ..................................................................
19.Industrial Engineering ........................................................................
20.Financial crisis ..................................................................................
21.Rigorous methods...............................................................................
22.Quantitative expression.......................................................................
23.Precise predictions..............................................................................

11

Exercise 2.2.Reading Comprehension.


Communication is not a human invention. In its broadest sense,
communication is a social force.
Communication occurs everywhere in the universe, and is occurring always. It
is a function of all matter.
Vocabulary:
In its broadest sense: en su sentido ms amplio
Occurs everywhere:

ocurre en todas partes

Always:

siempre

Matter:

materia

Segn el texto:
(a) La comunicacin es una creacin humana.

SI

NO

(b) La comunicacin es una funcin del hombre.

SI

NO

(c) La comunicacin es una funcin constante de toda materia. SI

NO

(d) La comunicacin como fuerza natural se manifiesta en todo


el universo.

SI

NO

The theme or central idea in the text is:


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

human invention
the universe
communication
matter

In the text, communication is defined as:


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

a natural force
a function of all matter
both (ambos) a force and a function
a human invention

12

Exercise 2.3.Reading Comprehension. Use your dictionary to find and


underline all the adjective + noun combinations.

Financial Services1
Cooper Financial Services Ltd.
Cooper Financial Services Ltd. offers a vast range of financial solutions to suit
the individual necessities of its clients. Today's investor has market
comprehension and requires the tools to take advantage of knowledge. To that
end, we provide advice based on our outstanding access to information
sources. Matching our knowledge-base with your understanding of individual
markets can make you a big winner in the increasingly complex marketplace.
Here are some of our offerings:
Historical fundamental equity database
Strategic planning
Comprehensive reports that permit industry-to-industry, company-toindustry and company-to-company analysis.
Report compilations detailing key items on market and industry
performance
Daily summary of stock market and industry tendencies (trends)
Secure access to financial data on publicly traded companies
Monthly reports that monitor company-to-peer performance

Exercise 2.4. Answer the following questions for general understanding


1.

What does Cooper Financial Services Ltd. offer?

____________________________________________________________
2.

What does Cooper Financial Services Ltd. provide?

____________________________________________________________
3.

What does Cooper Financial Services Ltd. match its knowledge-base to?

____________________________________________________________
4.

What type of planning does Cooper Financial Services Ltd. offer?

____________________________________________________________
1

About.com: English as a second language < http://esl.about.com/library/business/bl_read_financial2.htm>


(Consulta: Enero 2009)

13

5.

What type of daily summary does Cooper Financial Services Ltd.


provide?

____________________________________________________________
6.

What do monthly reports monitor?

____________________________________________________________

14

Lesson Three
(3) Plural Nouns

El plural de los sustantivos en ingls se forma


agregando s o es al singular como regla
general.
Existen algunos casos especiales, los plurales
irregulares, que no siguen la regla y que hay que memorizar. (Ver apndice II
en pgina 118)
Ejemplos:
SINGULAR
A class
An example
A society
A facility
A church
A dish
A car
An auction

REGULAR
PLURALS
Classes
examples
Societies
Facilities
Churches
Dishes
Cars
Auctions

SINGULAR
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A

man
woman
foot
tooth
(PC) mouse
mouse (animal)
child
goose

IRREGULAR
PLURALS
Men
Women
Feet
Teeth
(PC) mouses
Mice
Children
Geese

Observa que el sustantivo en PLURAL se expresa SIN artculo A/AN ya que ste
indica singular. (A/AN = 1)
Exercise 3.1. Forme el plural correspondiente.
1.

an organization__________________________________

2.

a function______________________________________

3.

a university_____________________________________

4.

an oscilloscope__________________________________

5.

a division_______________________________________

6.

an ability_______________________________________

7.

an engineer_____________________________________

8.

a business______________________________________

9.

a company______________________________________

10. a

problem______________________________________

15

Observe, en los siguientes ejemplos, que el adjetivo en ingls se mantiene


INVARIABLE, sea cual sea el nmero del sustantivo. Ejemplos:
Singular:

a chemical reaction

an important datum (*)

Plural:

chemical reactions

important data

Exercise 3.2. Cambie estas frases al plural. Recuerde consultar el anexo 2


para plulares extranjeros e irregulares.
1.

A primitive man. ____________________________________________

2.

A modern communication system. ______________________________

3.

A long-distance telephone call. _________________________________

4.

A chemical analysis (*). ______________________________________

5.

A basic criterion. (*). ________________________________________

6.

An interesting phenomenon. (*)________________________________

7.

A financial crisis. (*) _________________________________________

(*) Plurales extranjeros .

Exercise 3.3. Complete la tabla de singulares y plurales. Encuentre el par


faltante en el siguiente texto.

More service and support please, Mr Dell


By Michael Schrage
Published: May 9 2006 20:00 | Last updated: May 9 2006 20:00
Extract from the Financial Times

Were not going to be missionaries for innovation, said Kevin Rollins, Dells chief executive. We
only want to go into a market where the product or service is definable, standardisable, simplifiable
and repeatable.W e dont count on our margins existing because the technology is proprietary or
because the customer is stupid.
Indeed, the Dell production model remains as flexible, adaptable and opportunistic as when Mr Dell
launched it in 1983 from his college dormitory. But market competition has relentlessly eroded vital
elements of that models value proposition. Dells cost and price advantages have become less
significant as Hewlett-Packard and Lenovo have retooled their own supply chains and production
processes while becoming more innovative.
More serious for Dell, however, is that the perceived locus of value is evolving away from what the
company does best. As prices have relentlessly dropped, customers increasingly appear less
interested in the most cost-effective buy than in convenience, ease of use and support. Service
matters more than ever.
As more people become more reliant and dependent on their personal computers, printers, servers
and networks, they demand ever-higher quality of service and support. Managing expectations and

16

execution around service-related process innovation has proven far more difficult and expensive
than Dell expected particularly for its cheapest and least profitable machines. The economics of
support are hard.
So, just as customers of all kinds were thrilled to have more computer for less money, they also
expected more service and support for less, as well. For years, Dell enjoyed a top reputation for
customer service and support. But as product portfolios and their inherent software complexity
increase, Dells production challenge of build to order is giving way to the challenge of service to
order. That is apparently not a natural extension.

SINGULAR
missionary

PLURAL
executives

SINGULAR

PLURAL
innovations

year

interviews

markets

margins

products

customers

element

models

dormitories

advantage

costs

chain

prices

economics

process
loci

companies

computer

printer

server

network

portfolio

qualities

expectation

complexities

machine
extensions

Exercise 3.3. Lea nuevamente el texto y haga un glosario. Use un diccionario.

__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

17

Lesson Four
(4) Compound Nouns
Cualquier palabra que se encuentre en POSICIN DE ADJETIVO califica o
describe al sustantivo que le sigue, aunque dicha palabra funcione
normalmente como sustantivo.
Ejemplos:
NOUN

COMPOUND NOUN (N + N)

An animal + a society

An animal society

Life + mechanisms

Life mechanisms

Esta combinacin de sustantivo + sustantivo es muy usada en


ingls y se conoce como Compound Nouns (N+N)
Exercise 4.1.Escriba estas frases en correcto espaol.
1. energy transmission _________________________________________________
2. online family history resource.__________________________________________
3. word processor_____________________________________________________
4. wireless USB accessory adapters_______________________________________
5. a space station _____________________________________________________
6. group response _____________________________________________________
7. time concepts ______________________________________________________
8. an auto dealer _____________________________________________________
9. TV production methods _______________________________________________
10. family business ____________________________________________________
11. desk top computer __________________________________________________
12. sport facilities ______________________________________________________
13. metal structure ______________________________________________________
14. website blocker____________________________________________________
15. office assistant_____________________________________________________
16. sale figures ________________________________________________________
17. utility company _____________________________________________________
18. radio antenna ______________________________________________________

18

Exercise 4.2. Match columns A and B to form compound nouns.


Example:
A research program
Research methods
A
Program
Transmission
Society
Method
Theory
System
Organization
Industry
Analysis
Fatigue
Distribution

B
production
research (investigation)
population
organization
probability
insect
vector
communication
space
metal
relativity

__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

19

Exercise 4.3. Find and underline the compound nouns in the text. Then write
them in Spanish using your dictionary.

Financial Profile: ViewSonic Computers Financial Profile

ViewSonic computers is a publicly traded corporation actively traded on the NASDAQ.


The company was launched in 1999 with an IPO raising $70 million. Shareholders own
more than 80% of the company while upper level management and employee stock
options own the remaining 20%. ViewSonic is located in Denver, Colorado with
manufacturing plants in Taiwan and Indonesia. The total cash flow during 2000 was
$365 million. While total operating expenses for the past fiscal year totalled $180
million resulting in a pre-tax profit of $175 million. ViewSonic Computers market share
in the US domestic market has grown from 2% to 5% during the past 18 months.
Future plans include the development of a line of laptop computers to export to the
Chinese Market. CEO, Kevin Connery, was optimistic in his vision of the future. While
other computer manufacturers are loosing market share, we are increasing our market
share at over 100% annually. ViewSonic offers consumers computers that are made to
meet their specific requirements, while pricing these computers at mass market prices.
This unique combination ensures ViewSonic will be a major market player in the near
future.

Exercise 4.4. Answer the comprehension questions about the text.


Which market is ViewSonic traded on?
..................................................................................................
How much money did the IPO raise?
..................................................................................................
Who owns 80% of stock?
.
Where are ViewSonic manufacturing plants located?
..................................................................................................
How much has market share grown over the past 18 months?
..................................................................................................
How much did ViewSonic spend on operating expenses?
..................................................................................................
Which market is ViewSonic trying to enter with its new line of laptop
models?
..................................................................................................
2

About.com: English as a second language < http://esl.about.com/library/business/bl_read_financial1.htm >


(Consulta: Enero 2009)

20

Lesson Five
(5) Is Are
IS (forma del verbo be) se usa para expresar DEFINICIONES Y
DESCRIPCIONES EN SINGULAR.
Observe estos ejemplos:
A computer IS an electronic instrument.
It IS a component of modern communication systems.
En la segunda oracin, it reemplaza a computer su antecedente en este caso y evita
su repeticin.
ARE (otra forma del verbo be) se usa para expresar DEFINICIONES Y
DESCRIPCIONES EN PLURAL.
Observe estos ejemplos; comprelos con los de arriba:
Computers ARE electronic instruments.
They ARE components of modern communication systems.
En la segunda oracin, they reemplaza a computers su antecedente - y evita su
repeticin.
Exercise 5.1. Complete these sentences using IS or ARE.
1.

Business Engineering ________ an interdisciplinary field of engineering.

2.

Economics ________ a science. It _______ a social science.

3.

Physics and Chemistry ________ sciences. They ________ natural

sciences.
4.

Telstar ________ a satellite. It _________ a communication satellite.

5.

Early Bird and Telstar ________ satellites. They ________

communication satellites.
6.

Adidas ________ one of the worlds top sporting brands. Its current

marketing slogan ________ Impossible is Nothing.


7.

The emphasis ________ in establishing engineering foundation for the

redesign of functioning organizations.


8.

American Express credit cards ________ premium products.

21

9.

The companys core business ________ credit cards and travellers

cheques.
10.

Botany _________ the study of plants. Zoology _______ the study of

animals. They ________ branches of biology.


11.

Measurement ________ a valuable and essential part of scientific

research.
Exercise 5.2. Complete these sentences using IT or THEY.
REMEMBER :

IT = singular ............. (thing, animal, plant)


THEY = plural ........... (things, animals, plants)

1.

Metals are good conductors. _________ transmit energy.

2.

Water is a chemical compound. ___________ is essential to life.

3.

Adaptation is a characteristic of all living matter. __________ is

essential for survival.


4.

Inflation and overpopulation are serious problems. ________ have

economic and social repercussion.


5.

Mechanics is the study of the properties and motions of particles and

rigid bodies. _________ is a branch of physics.


6.

Artificial satellites are man-made objects. ____________ are used for

scientific exploration, navigation, communication and military reconossaince.


7.

Communication is a natural force. ________ occurs everywhere in the

universe.
8.

All types of communication require a force, a signal and a receiver.

_______ are the three essential elements in the process.


9.

Gravity is an exchange of energy in space. _________ is an example of

physical communication.
10.

Verbal and non-verbal are other types of communication. ________ are

two basic kinds of communication among humans.

22

Exercise 5.3. Complete these sentences using IS or ARE.


Sales Terminology

Julian: I'm new to this job, could you explain some of


the terminology?
Jack: That ________ what I'm here for. Shoot.
Julian: What _______ the difference between retail and
wholesale?
Jack: Wholesale _________ to distributors. Retail to consumers.
Julian: Distributors? Consumers?
Jack: Distributors ________ stores that sell our merchandise. Consumers
________ the people who buy the products.
Julian: Oh, I see. What __________ a bill of lading?
Jack: The bill of lading __________ the list of shipped merchandise. It
________ in every shipment or delivery.
Julian: I get what pre-paid means. That means the merchandise has been
paid for. But, what ____________ C.O.D.?
Jack: Cash on delivery.
Julian: What does that mean?
Jack: Exactly what it says: cash is paid upon receiving the goods. Of course, it
could be a credit card or a check, as well.
Julian: Oh, I understand. What _________ a delivery fee?
Jack: The delivery fee __________ an extra charge that the customer pays to
have the goods delivered.
Julian: I think I'm beginning to understand now.
Exercise 5.4. Answer True or False and check for understanding.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

Individuals usually buy from retailers.


Distributors sell merchandise.
Shipments include a bill of lading
You pay COD before your goods arrive.
Delivery fees raise the price of a shipment.

TRUE
TRUE
TRUE
TRUE
TRUE

FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE

About.com: English as a second language < http://esl.about.com/od/businessreading/a/d_salest.htm >


(Consulta: Enero 2009)

23

Exercise 5.5. Now rewrite the definitions included in the text.

Example:
The delivery fee is an extra charge.

__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

24

Lesson Six
(6) There is - There are

There is expresa existencia en singular (HAY un, una, uno)


There are expresa existencia en plural (HAY dos o ms)

Observe estos ejemplos:


There is one (1) star in the solar system; the sun
There are eight (8) planets, in the solar system: Mercury, Venus, Earth,
Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.
Exercise 6.1. Complete with THERE IS or THERE ARE.
1.

______________ a primitive indigenous civilization in Australia.

2.

______________ approximately 900,000,000 people in China.

3.

______________ responses for all stimuli.

4.

______________ women everywhere in the universe.

5.

________________ an element of reality in the human imagination.

6.

________________ different radii for each circle.

7.

________________ two electronic microscopes in Lab 1.

8.

________________ communication among various animal and insect

species.
9.

________________ psychological conflicts between impulses and reason.

10.

________________ speculation on the necessity of lunar experimentation.

11.

________________ 32 natural satellites or moons in the solar system.

12.

________________ five theories on the origin of the solar system.

13.

________________ always an exchange of energy in one form or

another in the universe.


14.

________________ more children in America than in Europe.

15.

________________ valid criteria in relation to this problem.

16.

________________ a financial crisis going on.

25

Exercise 6.2. Complete with THERE IS or THERE ARE.


Cristinas travails (Adapted from The Financial Times Limited 2008)
________________ a new president in Argentina, Cristina Fernndez, a
surprising

victory

of

sorts.

And

_______________

controversial

plans

approved by legislators and _____________ new export tariffs coming soon.


But her difficulties are not over by any means.
First, ________________ last minute concessions to farmers made by the
government that reduce the expected revenues from the new tariffs. Second,
_________________farm leaders who are still planning to resist the bill in the
Senate, where ________________discussion (in committee) starting on
Monday. Third, _________________the political alliance that has backed Ms
Fernndez as well as the presidency of her husband, Nstor Kirchner, and
which is seriously divided. Finally, __________________an enormous political
cost for taking such a hard line in the dispute, with her poll ratings going
down. Obviously, ______________ this loss of popularity which will be
abundantly clear in next years mid-term congressional elections.
All of this shows that _______________an overriding necessity for Ms
Fernndez to adopt a more conciliatory approach as she refocuses on urgent
economic difficulties from which the farm conflict has diverted attention.
_______________inflation,

which

is

one

problem,

and

_____________

another problem, how to deal with the $6.4bn in defaulted debt to the Paris
Club of Western creditor nations.
Original text by Jude Webber.

Exercise 6.3. The central idea in the text Cristinas Travails is:
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

26

Lesson Seven
(7) No + NOUN
NO, en Ingls, indica cantidad o nmero cero (0), es decir, AUSENCIA DE,
tanto en singular como en plural.
There is NO atmosphere on the moon.
No hay atmsfera en la luna.
There are NO seas on the moon, but maria.
No hay mares en la luna, sino mara.
Exercise 7.1. Lea estas oraciones y escriba si indican existencia o
ausencia de.

1.

There are maria but there is no


water on the moon surface
2.
There is a problem but there is no
solution stated in the report.
3.
The researchers have advanced
different hypotheses but there
are no results yet.
4.
Students have many exercises to
complete but there is no time to
do them.
5.
There are more and more cases
of HIV but there is no cure for it.
6.
There is inflation all over the
world, but there are no real
measures to prevent a financial
disaster.
7.
There are elections coming soon,
but there is no appropriate
candidate.
8.
There is a lot of delinquency, but
there are no sufficient prisons.
9.
There is a real necessity for work,
but there are no opportunities for
young professionals.
10. There are many political conflicts,
but there is no social concern.

EXISTENCE

ABSENCE

maria

water

27

Exercise 7.2 Lea esta oracin en Ingls.


Where there is no communication among social groups, there is
obvious social dissolution
Esta oracin significa:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

La comunicacin entre los grupos no es necesaria para la


cohesin social.
Si falta comunicacin entre los grupos que forman la sociedad,
no hay disolucin social.
Donde no hay disolucin social evidente, no hay tampoco
necesidad de comunicacin entre los grupos.
La disolucin social evidente es el resultado de la falta de
comunicacin entre los grupos de una sociedad.
Hay pocas sociedades en donde la falta de comunicacin afecta
de manera evidente la propia cohesin social.

Exercise 7.3 Reading Comprehension Exercise.


Communication is a basic function of society. It is a force of social
organization. Where there is social organization there is communication. Where
there is little communication, there is evident social dissolution. Where there is
no communication, there is no society.
Complete estas oraciones segn el prrafo anterior.
1.

Communication is:
a) a social force
b) society
c) social dissolution
d) a function of social dissolution
e) social organization

2.

Social organization is based upon:


a) no communication
b) little communication
c) communication
d) dissolution
e) none of the above

3.

Where there is little communication:


a) there is no social cohesion
b) there are problems of social integration
c) social disintegration is impossible
d) social dissolution occurs
e) social unity is automatic

28

4.

Where there is no communication


a) social unity is automatic
b) social dissolution is impossible
c) no social disintegration is possible
d) there are no problems of social integration
e) there is no social cohesion

Exercise 7.4 Writing negative predictions. (Group work sharing information to


the class.)
Example: There is no chance that Chile avoids the world recession.

__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
29

Lesson Eight
(8) The S Genitive
1. El genitivo s generalmente indica posesin y se usa con:
-

nombres propios

Lincolns monument

(de personas o geogrficos)

Dr. Burns student


Londons transport
Europes future

personas

my sisters book
the boys room (*)

sustantivos colectivos

the governments policy


the nations social security

animales superiores

the horses tail


the lions hunger

Otros usos del genitivo s incluyen

2. GENITIVE OF ORIGIN
- Torricellis theory

the theory that Torricelli developed

- Ohms law

the law that Ohm developed

3. DESCRIPTIVE GENITIVE
- a womens college

a college for women

- a doctors degree

a doctoral degree / a doctorate

- the schools library (**)

the library of the school

- sciences influence (**)

the influence of science

30

4. GENITIVE OF TEMPORAL MEASURE:


- a moments thought

the thought that lasted a moment

- ten days absence

the absence lasted ten days

(*) Cuando el sustantivo termina en S, normalmente el genitivo agrega


solamente el apstrofe
(**) Generalmente el genitivo S se usa con sustantivos que
corresponden a seres animados; por extensin, se usa tambin con
sustantivos de especial inters para la actividad humana.
NOTE: You should still use the genitive case when talking about things that belong to other
things.
For example:The door of the car.
The content of the website.
Tip - If you aren't sure what to use stick to (of the).

Exercise 8.1 Write the s GENITIVE which could be related to the following
sentences as in the example:
Example:

WOMEN HAVE RIGHTS

WOMENS RIGHTS

1. The world has problems.

___________________________

2. Europe has art treasures.

___________________________

3. Neruda wrote poetry.

___________________________

4. Einstein formulated the relativity theory.


____________________________________________________
5. The government has an international policy.
____________________________________________________
6. A school for girls.

___________________________

7. The work took a year.

___________________________

8. A planet has mass.

___________________________

31

9. The mean distance of the earth from the sun.


____________________________________________________
10.The total solid weight of the brain. ________________________
11.The general development of the mind.
____________________________________________________
12.Newton formulated the law of universal gravitation.
____________________________________________________
Exercise 8.2. Find all the genitive cases in the text.

Retailers report dismal December sales


Adapted from the text written by ANNE D'INNOCENZIO, AP Retail
Writer Anne D'innocenzio, Ap Retail Writer.

AP Pedestrians walk past Generations Menswear on 8th


Ave. in New York Wednesday, Jan. 7, 2009. Retailers
RELATED QUOTES
ANF

22.25

-1.49

COST

51.61

+1.49

GPS

12.85

-0.71

JCP

22.04

+0.54

LTD

9.95

-0.75

NEW YORK Retailers reported dismal sales figures for December on Thursday as even Wal-Mart
Stores Inc., one of the bright spots in the industry, finally buckled under the pressures of the
deteriorating economy.
Among the many retailers that reported steep sales declines were Sears Holdings Corp., which
operates Kmart and Sears stores, luxury retailer Saks Inc. and Gap Inc. But the biggest surprise
came from Wal-Mart, the world's largest retailer, which posted a smaller sales gain than what Wall
Street expected and cut its fourth-quarter earnings outlook.
"This suggests that the lower income group is feeling the pinch more than we thought and this is
clearly reflected in the lower-than-expected numbers at Wal-Mart," said Ken Perkins, RetailMetrics
LLC research companys president. "I think it says the economy is in more dire straits than we
thought."
"The current economy remains challenging for all businesses and retailers have already seen
customers pull back on discretionary spending," Wal-Mart's Chief Financial Officer Tom Schoewe
said in a statement. "Consumers are very focused on value and necessities."
Wal-Mart noted that health and wellness items were the categories that primarily fueled sales.
Electronics sales were solid, while the apparel and jewelry business was weak.

32

Given the disappointing sales and higher-than-anticipated expenses, Wal-Mart said it now expects
to earn 91 cents to 94 cents per share in the fourth quarter from continuing operations. That's down
from its previous projected range of $1.03 per share to $1.07 per share. Analysts surveyed by
Thomson Reuters expected $1.06 per share.
Discount rival Target Corp., which has been stumbling because its merchandise focuses more on
nonessentials like trendy clothes, announced a 4.1 percent decline in same-store sales, better than
the 9.1 percent drop that Wall Street analysts predicted.
Among department stores, Sears Holdings said its December same-store sales dropped 7.3
percent, weighed down by a 12.8 percent drop at domestic Sears stores. The company, whose
brands include Kenmore and Craftsman, said Kmart same-store sales fell 1.1 percent.
Macy's Inc. reported that same-store sales fell 4 percent in December, less than the 5.3 percent
decline that analysts had expected. For the combined November-December period, same-store
sales were down 7.5 percent. But the department store chain cut its fourth-quarter and full-year
earnings outlook due to heavy markdowns and announced plans to close 11 underperforming
stores. The chain operates more than 840 Macy's stores.
J.C. Penney Co.'s same-store sales within its department store division fell 8.1 percent, better than
the 10.3 percent decline analysts had expected.
"Customers waited until late in the month to shop and we faced a highly competitive promotional
environment," said Gap's Chief Financial Officer Sabrina Simmons.
Kitchen gadget chain Williams-Sonoma Inc., which didn't break out December figures, said its
same-store sales dropped more than 24 percent for the eight-week period ended Dec. 28 and
warned its fourth-quarter profit will likely come in at the low end of expectations.

Exercise 8.3. Name the business companies which reported declines in their
earnings. (Also, list the most/least-sold items for Christmas and the positions
associated to the financial world)

__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

33

Lesson Nine
(9) Word Formation
Una manera muy comn de formar palabras en ingls es la de agregar
PREFIJOS (al comienzo) o SUFIJOS (al final) de las palabras. Estudiando estas
reglas de formacin de palabras podr aumentar su capacidad de
reconocimiento de vocabulario.
1. Agregando el SUFIJO AL a algunos sustantivos
correspondiente adjetivo. Por ejemplo:
SUSTANTIVO
ADJETIVO
Instruction
instructionAL
Chemistry
chemicAL
Experiment
experimentAL
Vision
visuAL

se

forma el

Observe que, en algunos casos, ADEMS DEL SUFIJO, hay un


cambio en la ortografa del sustantivo.
2. Anteponiendo el PREFIJO IN o UN, a algunos adjetivos se los hace
negativos y expresan lo opuesto. Ejemplos:
A soluble solution
Animate objects
A stable economy
Reliable data
3. Agregando el SUFIJO LY
correspondiente adverbio.

An INsoluble solution
Inanimate objects
An Unstable economy
Unreliable data
a

cualquier

ADJETIVO
Exact
Essential
Possible
Necessary

adjetivo,

se

forma

el

ADVERBIO
exactLY
essentialLY
possibLY
necessariLY

Exercise 9.1. Complete el par correspondiente, agregando o quitando el


sufijo AL. Use su diccionario como ayuda.
1. organization
2.
3. integration

12.
theoretical

universe

13.

Natural

14.

Serial

34

4. information
5.

15.instrument
material

6. function

16.

conditional

17.

Social

7.

essential

18.physics

8.

principal

19.

9. motion
10.
11.gravitation

Additional

20.event
hypothetical

21.

Habitual

22.part

Exercise 9.2. Use el prefijo IN para negar estas ideas.


1. An adequate example. _______________________________________
2. Human conditions. __________________________________________
3. Direct communication. _______________________________________
4. A complete report. __________________________________________
5. Credible causes. ____________________________________________
6. Essential information. ________________________________________
7. A correct response. __________________________________________
8. Accurate results. ____________________________________________
9. A frequent error. ____________________________________________
10.Valid conclusions. ___________________________________________
Exercise 9.3. Use el prefijo UN para negar estas ideas.
1. Natural causes. ______________________________________________
2. A sophisticated model. ________________________________________
3. Important effects. ____________________________________________
4. A clear explanation. __________________________________________
5. Interesting hypothesis. ________________________________________
6. Solved problems. _____________________________________________
7. A necessary change. _________________________________________

35

8. Successful experience. _______________________________________


9. A true statement. ___________________________________________
10. An able person. __________________________________________
Exercise 9.4. In the following text, find and underline all words using prefixes
in, un and de, and suffixes al, able, tion, ty, ive, ic and ly. Then
complete the table below.

Computer Science vs Computer Engineering


What is computer science?
Computer science (CS) is the systematic study of algorithmic methods for
representing and transforming information, including their theory, design,
implementation, application, and efficiency. The discipline emerged in the
1950s from the development of computability theory and the invention of the
stored-program electronic computer. The roots of computer science extend not
unsurprisingly deep into mathematics and engineering. Mathematics imparts
analysis to the field; engineering imparts design. The main branches of
computer science are the following:
Algorithms refer to the study of effective and efficient procedures of
solving problems on a computer. (There is nothing invalid or inadequate
about computers).
Theory of computation concerns the meaning and complexity of
algorithms and the limits of what can be computed in principle.
Computer architecture concerns the structure and functionality of
computers and their implementation in terms of electronic technologies.
Software system is the study of the structure and implementation of
large programs. It includes the study of programming languages and
paradigms, programming environments, compilers, and operating
systems.
Artificial intelligence concerns the computational understanding of what
is commonly called intelligent behavior and the creation of artifacts that
exhibit such behavior.
Other important topics in computer science include computer graphics,
databases, networks and protocols, numerical methods, operating
systems, parallel computing, simulation and modeling, and software
engineering.

36

What is computer engineering?


Computer engineering (CEN) is the design and prototyping of computing
devices and systems. While sharing much history and many areas of interest
with computer science, computer engineering concentrates its effort on the
ways in which computing ideas are mapped into working physical systems.
Emerging equally from the disciplines of computer science and electrical
engineering, computer engineering rests on the intellectual foundations of
these disciplines, the basic physical sciences and mathematics. The main
branches of computer engineering are the following:

Network is concerned with design and implementation of distributed


computing environments, from local area networks to the World Wide Web.
Multimedia computing is the blending of data from text, speech, music, still
image, video and other sources into a coherent datastream, and its
effective management, coding-decoding and display.
VLSI systems involve the tools, properties and design of microminiaturized electronic devices (Very Large Scale Integrated circuits).
Reliable computing and advanced architectures considers how faulttolerance can be built into hardware and software, methods for parallel
computing, optical computing, and testing.
Other important topics in computer engineering include display engineering,
image and speech processing, pattern recognition, robotics, sensors and
computer perception.

Meaning

Stem

Word

Prefix

Suffix

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

37

Lesson Ten
(10) The Present Simple
El SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE tiene solamente dos formas:
La base (BASE) y la forma con s (-S FORM)
BASE occurs with all persons
(I, you, we, they) except third
person singular.

EXAMPLES:
Most planets HAVE satellites.
Satellites REVOLVE around the planets.
Mercury and Venus CLASSIFY as inner
Planets.

-S FORM occurs only with third


person singular (he, she, it)

Mars HAS two satellites.


The moon REVOLVES around the earth.
Jupiter CLASSIFIES as an outerplanet.

En ESP, el SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE se usa para expresar


GENERALIZACIONES: hiptesis, leyes, ideas centrales y hechos
que los corroboran.
Examples:
HYPOTHESIS

A cloud of comets CIRCLES the sun at a distance of more


than one light-year.

PRINCIPLE

Every object REMAINS at rest or MOVES at a constant speed


in a straight line unless made to change because of some
outside push or pull. (Newtons principle of inertia).

CORE IDEA and

All objects in the universe EXERT a force of attraction upon


each other. This force is called gravitation.

SUPPORTING FACTS

Gravitation KEEPS the stars in their courses and the planets


in their orbits. It also KEEPS people and common objects
anchored to the surface of the earth

Exercise 10.1. In the following texts, identify all the BASE and S FORMS.

A. Well, what matters to me is a high salary, long holidays and


helpful colleagues. I only have two of these in my present job!
4

COTTON, David, FALVEY, David, KENT, Simon. Market Leader. Essex: Pearson Education Limited,
2004, p14.

38

B. Bill wants to be a salesman, so whats important for him is a


company car, a mobile phone, and a laptop computer of his
own.
C. Janet expects a friendly boss, travel opportunities, oh, and a
large office.
D. I need fast promotion, flexible hours, and some sports
facilities, because I play tennis and football.
Exercise 10.2. (A) What do people want from work? Read the texts again and
make three compound nouns they use from the words in each box.
1. high

colleagues

long

salary

helpful

holidays

3. company

phone

2. Friendly
Travel
Large

4. fast

office
opportunities
boss

facilities

Mobile

computer

Flexible

promotion

Laptop

car

Sports

hours

(B) Match some compound words from exercise A to their


meanings 1 to 6.
1. a lot of money

high salary

2. a lot of time away from work..................................................................


3. good people to work with.......................................................................
4. the chance to go to different places on business .......................................
5. move quickly to a higher position at work................................................
6. you can change the times when you start and finish work...........................
(C) What are your job expectations? Write a short paragraph.
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

39

Exercise 10.3. A day in the life of Bill Gates5


The average day in the life of Bill Gates consists of attending meetings and reading email. He has three monitors in his office that contain his inbox, the current e-mail he is
reading, and a browser, respectively. Gates receives about 100 e-mails per day that he
reads, but his personal assistant filters out many unknown e-mails. For a man that
runs one of the most powerful companies in the world, that may not be as many as
you would have thought. Nevertheless, he still runs into information overload.
Staying focused is one issue; that's the problem of information overload. The other
problem is information underload. Being flooded with information doesn't mean we
have the right information or that we're in touch with the right people.
What is a man to do when there is more news than there is time? If that man is Bill
Gates, he turns to SharePoint.
SharePoint puts me in touch with lots of people deep in the organization. It's like
having a super-website that lets many people edit and discussfar more than the
standard practice of sending e-mails with enclosures. And it notifies you if anything
comes up in an area you're interested in.
When the day has come and gone, Gates puts the kids to bed, and, get this, he reads
his e-mail! There's no better way to relax than by reading e-mails that may have
slipped past you during the day, right?
Now that you have an idea of how Microsoft's head honcho lives out his day, do you
feel that you can relate? I do. Like a lot of us, his day is filled with meetings and
technology. That's just the way the IT industry works whether you are providing tech
support or managing a multi-billion dollar company.

(A) Now answer the questions about Bill Gates life.


1. How many e-mails does Bill Gates receive everyday?
_______________________________________________________________
2. Does he read all of them?
_______________________________________________________________

1one Microsoft way < http://arstechnica.com/journals/microsoft.ars/2006/4/4/3461 > [Consulta, Enero de


2009]

40

3. Who cleans his infobox?


_______________________________________________________________
4. How does he solve his problem of not having time for everything?
_______________________________________________________________
5. How many monitors does he have in his office and for what purpose?
_______________________________________________________________
6. Does the author think of Bill Gates as a normal person? Why?
_______________________________________________________________
7. What company does Bill Gates own?
_______________________________________________________________
8. What do you think Bill Gates marital status is?
_______________________________________________________________
9. How much is Bill Gates company worth?
_______________________________________________________________

(B) Vocabulary. Match the columns. Relate the two columns according to their
meaning.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Words in the text


Be in touch
Transfer information
Run a company
Honcho
Attend meetings

A
B
C
D
E

New words
Direct an enterprise
Big boss
Download data
Be present at a reunion
Be in contact

Grammar Focus: Frequency Adverbs


When we want to say how often something happens, it is common to use frequency
adverbs. It is possible to use them when referring to the past, present or future:
The following list shows the most common adverbs of frequency, with the one that
refers to things that happen most often at the top, and least often at the bottom:
Always
Usually
Frequently
Often
Sometimes
Occasionally
Rarely
Seldom

41

Hardly ever
Never
Facebook always keeps me in touch with friends and family around the globe.
(=every day)
I usually clear myr browsing history. (=happens most days) I frequently
surf the net. (=it's common)
I often browse the web. (=many times)
I sometimes pay cash. (=at particular occasions but not all the time)
I occasionally change my passcode. (=not happening often or regularly)
I rarely go on YouTube. (=it is not common)
I seldom have a chance to go to the theatre. (=almost never)
I hardly ever use my cell phone as a level to hang pictures. (=almost never)
I never lock my computer. (=not at any time or not on any occasion)
Adverbs of frequency can occupy different positions in the sentence. With most
verbs, the normal position is between the subject and the verb. With the verb "to be",
the adverb normally comes after the verb:

Pedro occasionally downloads new information.


She is often busy at work.

Exercise 10.4. According to the reading and based on the grammar focus
above decide how often Bill Gates does the following things.
1. Have lunch at home
_______________________________________________________
2. Attend school meetings
_______________________________________________________
3. Put his kids to bed
_______________________________________________________
4. Check his infobox
_______________________________________________________
5. Have money problems
_______________________________________________________
6. Depend on his personal assistant
_______________________________________________________
7. Turn to SharePoint
_______________________________________________________

42

Exercise 10.5. Read the following interviews and complete the table
below.
Interview 1. (I. Interviewer/ R. Rosalinda)
I.
What do you do when you get to work?
R.
I always check my e-mail.
I.
Where do you have lunch?
R.
I usually have lunch at home because its close to my work.
I.
How often do you travel on business?
R.
I go to Italy once a month to meet customers.
I.
Where do you come from?
R.
Well, I am from Bolivia, originally.
Interview 2. (I. Interviewer/ Is. Isabella)
I.
What do you do when you get to work?
Is
I usually look in my diary. Then I have a coffee.
I.
Where do you have lunch?
Is.
I often have a sandwich at my desk.
I.
How often do you travel on business?
Is.
I never travel on business.
I.
Where do you come from?
Is.
I was born in Italy, but we moved to Wales years ago.
Interview 3. (I. Interviewer/ S. Steven)
I.
What do you do when you get to work?
S.
I always say hi to my colleagues. Then I check my e-mails.
I.
Where do you have lunch?
S.
I usually have lunch in the cafeteria with my colleagues.
I.
How often do you travel on business?
S.
Twice a year I go to sales conferences in Europe and the U.S.
I.
Where do you come from?
S.
Im Australian.

Rosalinda
(Bolivia)
1.

2.
3.

4.
5.

Isabella
(Italy)

Steven
(Australia)

What do you do
when you get to
work?
Where do you
have lunch?
How often do you
travel on
business?
Who do you have
lunch with?
Where do you
come from?

43

Lesson Eleven
(11) The Present Simple Negative
In the simple present tense, negative and question forms are made using the
auxiliary verb "do".

Forming a negative
Negatives in the simple present are formed by adding don't or doesn't
before the simple form of the verb:

Subject

Auxiliary

Example

don't

I don't sing

You

don't

You don't sing

He

doesn't

He doesn't sing

She

doesn't

She doesn't sing

It

doesn't

It doesn't sing

We

don't

We don't sing

They

don't

They don't sing

Only THIRD PERSON SINGULAR subjects (he, she and it) use
DOESNT the rest use DONT

Exercise11.1.

Our agency interviewed four people about the


biggest problems their companies are facing.
Here are the answers:6

COTTON, David, FALVEY, David, KENT, Simon. Market Leader. Essex: Pearson Education Limited,
2004, p 24

44

We pay a lot of rent for


an office floor in the city
centre. There isnt
enough room for all our
staff. Everyone is
crowded into small
offices. We really need a
spacious office. We want
to move outside the city
centre a.s.a.p.

One of our sales team is not


a team player. He doesnt
work well with colleagues.
He doesnt attend meetings.
He never helps anyone, and
he doesnt send reports on
time. He isnt very popular

There are a lot of


modifications in our company

at the moment, and staff are


worried about losing their jobs.
They arent very happy. They
dont come to work on time
and often leave early
Our biggest problem is
that we spend too much
money. We need to cut
costs because we are
having difficulties
paying our bills. We
have a problem with our
cash flow

Match the answers in Exercise A with an appropiate heading. Use your


dictionary.
A) changes at work
B) space problems
C) money problems
D) difficult people

C
B

Find words in the replies which mean the following.


1. the money you pay regularly to use a building (reply 1)
____________
2. when a place is too full of people (reply 1) ___________
3. large, with a lot of space (reply 1) __________
4. unhappy about something (reply 2) ___________
5. someone who works well with other members of a group (reply 3)
________
6. people you work with (reply 3) ___________
7. a piece of paper showing how much you have to pay for something
(reply 4) ________
8. amount of money coming into and going out of a company (reply 4)
______
9. documentation that provides information obtained through
investigation (reply 3) ___________
10. A situation, matter, or person that presents perplexity or
difficulty(reply 4) ______

45

Study the Case, and list the problems that the


companies involved are facing. (Use the Negative forms of the verbs)
Exercise 11.2.:

CASE STUDY: DETROIT ... WE HAVE A PROBLEM

DETROIT (AP) - February 4, 2008 -- A dispute between Chrysler LLC and parts supplier
Plastech Engineered Products Inc. forced Chrysler to shut down or cancel a shift at five
factories Monday, and the automaker said it could idle all 14 of its assembly factories. In its
lawsuit filed Friday, Chrysler claimed Plastech no longer can meet its production demands.
Plastech has 36 facilities and 7,600 employees in the United States and Canada and
supplies Chrysler with about 500 plastic interior, exterior and powertrain components for
nearly all of its vehicles, according to a lawsuit Chrysler filed Friday in U.S. Bankruptcy
Court in Detroit. Chrysler terminated its contracts with the Dearborn-based supplier on
Friday, before Plastech filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection.
Plastech's contracts with the automaker were worth about $200 million, Plastech
spokesman Kelvin Scott said. Plastech does about $1.3 billion in total business, he said.
Faced with stiff competition and a shrinking market, many suppliers are willing to take on
work if it means getting contracts, said Craig Fitzgerald, a partner in Plante & Moran's
Strategy and Global Services Group.
Fitzgerald said Monday. "Production values are declining; there is high debt, weak earnings
and cash flow, and difficulty in getting credit."
Although Chrysler has an inventory of vehicles made by the plants, it will not benefit from
any plant closures, said Aaron Bragman, an auto industry analyst for the consulting
company Global Insight. "When a plant is idle, you're not making any money. You've got
people standing around, so it's just a cost," he said.
The shutdowns are having a ripple effect as auto parts maker Dana Corp. canceled Monday
night's second-shift at its modules plant in Toledo. About 150 people work at the plant,
which supplies drivetrain parts for Chrysler's Toledo Jeep plant.
Chrysler employees will be notified of return-to-work schedules from plant officials or
through local media, the automaker said. Chrysler's work shutdown should last no more
than a week or two, Fitzgerald said.
"I think they will not have any problems filling the void," he said. "There is a lot of excess
capacity. Chrysler would do everything to get up and run."

46

Adapted from a report made by Corey Williams Associated Press Writer on the Net.
Example: They dont benefit from plant closure.
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

47

Lesson Twelve
(12) Can / Cant (cannot)

En ingls existe un grupo de verbos DEFECTIVOS (tambin llamados


MODALES) muy usados en el lenguaje corriente con el significado de
poder, deber, querer. Estos verbos no se conjugan en todos los tiempos y
presentan algunas caractersticas especiales.
Son iguales para todas las personas
En las formas negativa e interrogativa se comportan como el verbo auxiliar be.
No llevan la s en la tercera persona del presente (he, she, it).
CAN significa poder, ser capaz de, saber (tener capacidad fsica o conocimiento suficiente
para hacer algo). Se utiliza tanto para el afirmativo como para el interrogativo y SIN auxiliares:
CAN'T es la forma contrada o reducida de CANNOT (nunca se escribe separado):

Can I swim very well?


Yes, I can swim. No, I cannot swim.
You can swim.
Can you swim very well?
Yes, you can.
She can swim.
Can she swim very well?
Yes, she can.

Can he swim very well?


No, he can't. He can't swim.

Can we swim very well?


No, we can't. We can't swim.
Can you swim very well?
No, you can't. You can't swim
Can they swim very well?
No, they can't. They cannot swim.

48

Exercise 12.1 Choose the correct answer.


1.

She cant ___________ Italian.


a. speak

2.

b. arent can

c. cant

b. cant

c. m cannot

__________ I see the doctor tomorrow, please?


a. Can

6.

c. Can he

Can you help me? Sorry, I ___________


a. dont

5.

b. Is he can

We ________ go to the party.


a. dont can

4.

c. speaking

________ play chess?


a. Does he can

3.

b. to speak

b. Am

c. Do

Can he swim? Yes, he _________


a. do

b. can

c. is

Exercise 12.2 Mix and Match the columns. Draw an arrow.

http://www.english-grammar-lessons.com/can/exercise1.swf

49

Exercise 12.3 Decide whether the following uses of can refer to requests,
offers or possibilities.
http://www.english-grammar-lessons.com/can/exercise2.swf

You can do it!


Exercise 12.4 Read the following passage in your own time. Use your
dictionary to help you. Then answer the questions.
7
SCALES AND GRAPHS.
In engineering it is often necessary to describe quantities
and relationships. We can give a pictorial representation of
vector quantities by using vectors. Scalar quantities are
simply described by giving their magnitude in a suitable
unit of measurement. For example, we can describe the
mass of a body as a quantity of grammes, the capacity of
a container as a number of cubic metres and a period of
time as so many seconds. We can also illustrate scalar
quantities by points or divisions on a scale. Thus, a clock
is a scale for measuring time and the clock hands indicate
the passage of time. Similarly a metre stick is a scale for
measuring length and a thermometer is a scale for

GLENDINNING, Eric H. English in Mechanical Engineering. 9 th ed. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1991,
22p.

50

measuring heat.
Scales can also be used to make
calculations.
For
example,
engineers use slide-rules for quick
multiplication and division. The
slide-rule
consists
of
two
logarithmic scales.
When there is a relationship
between two sets of observations,
we can often express this as a
mathematical formula. We can
also use a graph. A graph gives a
visual representation of the
relationship. This is often more
easily understood than a law. For
example, if we make a graph to
compare the safe working loads of steel ropes with the circumference of the ropes, it is
easy to see how the safe working load varies with the circumference. In addition, we can
use the graph as an information store, rather like a simple computer. In this way a graph
can present at a glance the information contained in a law or a collection of tables.
A more complex kind of graph is the nomograph. This can show the relationship
between more than two variables. A
simple nomograph can consist of a
number of scales arranged in a
special shape. For example, three
scales could be placed parallel to
each other or in the form of the letter
N, or even in curves. Such a
nomograph is read by drawing a
straight line to cut through all three
scales. With a nomograph of this type
an engineer could relate information
on the horse-power of a motor, its
speed, and the diameter of driving
shaft necessary to transmit the motors power.
More complex nomographs are made on special graph paper and may even be in three
dimensions.
1.

What is a vector used for ? __________________________________________


________________________________________________________________

2.

How can we describe a scalar quantity ? _______________________________


________________________________________________________________

3.

In what way is a thermometer a scale ? ________________________________


________________________________________________________________

51

4.

Name two uses of scales. ___________________________________________


________________________________________________________________

5.

What is a slide-rule and what is it used for ? _____________________________


________________________________________________________________

6.

Name two ways in which a relationship between two variables can be shown. __
________________________________________________________________

7.

Describe the advantages of a graph. ___________________________________


________________________________________________________________

8.

Give one difference between a graph and a nomograph. ___________________


________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

Exercise 12.5 Study the following graph and then explain all the variables.

________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

52

Lesson Thirteen
(13) Simple Past
El Pasado Simple es un tiempo verbal que se usa para describir acciones que
han sucedido en un tiempo anterior y que ya han finalizado, por ejemplo:
She cleaned her house.
I broke the window.
Observa que la estructura de la oracin es similar a la del Presente Simple:

SIMPLE PAST TENSE


AFFIRMATIVE

INTERROGATIVE

NEGATIVE

I worked

Did I work ?

I did not (didnt) work

You worked

Did you work ?

You did not (didnt) work

He worked

Did he work ?

He did not (didnt) work

She worked

Did she work ?

She did not (didnt) work

It worked

Did it work ?

It did not (didnt) work

We worked

Did we work ?

We did not (didnt) work

You worked

Did you work ?

You did not (didnt) work

They worked

Did they work ?

They did not (didnt) work

En las formas interrogativa y negativa se usa el auxiliar DID (que es la forma


pasada del verbo "DO") y el verbo principal va en su forma infinitiva. En las
negaciones puede utilizarse la forma contrada de DID NOT o sea DIDN'T. En
el

cuadro

superior

se

eligi

el

verbo

work

modo

de

ejemplo.

53

Forming the simple past tense (with regular verbs)


With most verbs, the simple past is created simply by adding -ED.
However, with some verbs, you need to change the ending a little. Here
are the rules:
Verbs ending in...

How to make the


simple past

Examples

Add -D

live - lived
date - dated

Consonant + y

Change y to i, then
add -ED

try - tried
cry - cried

One vowel + one


consonant (but NOT w or
y)

Double the consonant,


then add -ED

tap - tapped
commit committed

[anything else]

Add -ED

boil - boiled
fill - filled
hand - handed

The three most important irregular verbs


The three most important irregular verbs are BE, HAVE, and DO. BE is
the most difficult, because its forms are different depending on the
subject:
Pronoun

Verb

was

You

were

He / she / it

was

We

were

They

were

54

HAVE and DO are simpler:

Base form

Past Tense

have

had

do

did

Other irregular verbs


Other irregular verbs fall into three main categories:

Category

Examples

Verbs which don't change

cut - cut
hit - hit
fit - fit

Verbs which change their vowel

get - got
sit - sat
drink - drank

Verbs which change completely

catch - caught
bring - brought
teach - taught

Exercise 13.1 Reading Comprehension.


A

Read and then do the exercises below.


A SPACE DISASTER8

The wife of an Israeli astronaut who perished in the Columbia space shuttle
disaster today paid tribute to the crew of "angels" who died onboard.
Rona Ramon said she was consoled by the fact her husband Ilan had died
chasing his dream and "with people he loved in a place that he loved".
8

http://www.miguelmllop.com/practice/intermediate/readingcomprehension/shuttle.pdf

55

And she spoke of the comfort relatives of the Columbia crew gave each other.
"We are one big family," she said. "What unites us is the knowledge they really
enjoyed being there and loved being with each other. They are all angels and
will remain that way.
"The children are not saying much. They are trying to get used to the fact that
he is no longer here." Rona revealed her last contact with Ilan was via email
moments before the shuttle prepared for landing. He also sent emails to
former US President Bill Clinton and ex-Israeli Prime Minister Shimon Peres
who decided in 1995 to send an Israeli astronaut into space.
Rona choked back tears as she recalled the moment she realised her husband
was dead: "Just like at the lift-off, we counted back from 10, but we got to
zero and nothing.No sign - the shuttle wasn't drawing near, nor did we hear
the sonic booms that we knew would be heard before the landing.
"There was an odd, terrible quiet...As the minutes passed we already knew
that there was nobody to wait for and nothing to wait for."
QUESTIONS

B
A

1. Answer the following questions using your own words.


a. According to the text, who is comforting the widow right now?
_______________________________________________________________
b. How many e-mails did the astronaut send before the shuttle exploded and
who to?
_______________________________________________________________
2. Are the following statements true or false?
a. Bill Clinton decided to send an Israeli astronaut into space in the eighties.
____
b. Bill Clinton sent an e-mail to Shimon Peres in 1995. _____

C
A

Find a word or phrase in the text which, in context, is similar


in meaning to:

STAY: ________________

APPROACHING: ________________

SHIP: ________________

TEAM: ________________________

DIE: ________________ _

HOMAGE: _____________________

REMEMBER: __________

SOUND: _____________________

ODD: _______________

SPACE TRAVELER: _____________

56

D
C
A

Choose a, b or c in each question below. Only one choice is


correct.

1. Rona Ramon was comforted because her husband had died doing what he
liked.
a. Yes.
b. No.
c. Possibly.
2. The astronauts on the shuttle got on with one another.
a. Yes.
b. No.
c. Sometimes.
3. The children are getting used to:
a. Their fathers absence.
b. The shuttle.
c. Their mothers tears.
4. The noise that is heard before the landing was:
a. None.
b. Very low.
c. Very loud.

Cloze Procedure. The Assembly line. As you read, choose the best
alternative to complete the ideas.
The Assembly Line
Until the 1800s, a single craftsman or team of craftsmen created each part of a
product individually, and assembled them together into a single item, making
changes in the parts so that they fit together - the so-called English System of
manufacture.
Eli Whitney 1. _________ the American System of manufacturing in 1799,
using the ideas of division of labour and of engineering tolerance, to create
assemblies from parts in a repeatable manner.
This linear assembly process, or assembly line, 2. ________ relatively
unskilled laborers to add simple parts to a product. As all the parts were
already made (through simple tasks on other assembly lines), they just had to
be assembled.
While originally not of the quality found in hand-made units, designs using an
assembly line process required much 3. ________ training of the assemblers,
and therefore could be created for a lower cost.

57

Originally, all the parts moved on a belt or chains, and the 4. ________ stood
in a line to assemble the products. Hence, the name "assembly line." Modern
assembly lines often have much more complicated interdependencies.
In early industrial times, the assembly line ran smoothly, but as competition 5.
________, the workers had to work faster and longer hours, therefore
increasing the rate at which workplace injuries occurred.
Many workers 6. ________ unhappy with the assembly line, because most
never had the satisfaction of seeing the finished product (in sociological terms,
they felt alienated from the product of their work), and they were also 7.
________ with the unsafe, exhausting working conditions. Because workers
had to stand in the same place for hours and repeat the same motion hundreds
of times per day, they often suffered from what are now called repetitive stress
injuries.
1. Eli Whitney _________ the American System of manufacturing in 1799.
a. observed

b. described

c. supported

d. developed

2. This linear assembly process, or assembly line, ________ relatively


unskilled laborers to add simple parts to a product.
a. created

b. began

c. allowed

d. stopped

3. Designs using an assembly line process required much ________ training


of the assemblers.
a. more

b. beautiful

c. simple

d. less

4. Originally, all the parts moved on a belt or chains, and the ________
stood in a line to assemble the products.
a. workers

b. cars

c. parts

d. factory

5. as competition _______, the workers had to work faster and longer


hours.
a. began

b. increased

c. ceased

d. lay

6. Many workers ________ unhappy with the assembly line.


a. was

b. had

c. fed

d. were

7. and they were also ________ with the unsafe, exhausting working
conditions.
a. happy

b. satisfied

c. molested

d. frustrated

58

Reading comprehension
History of the Moving Assembly Line
(A) Ford assembly line, 1913
Henry Ford installed the World's first moving
assembly line on December 1, 1913, as one of
several innovations intended to cut costs and
permitting mass production. The idea was an
adaptation

of

the

system

used

in

the meat processing factories of Chicago, and


the conveyor belts used in grain mills. By
bringing the parts to the workers considerable time was saved. Ford's
production methods were based on two main ideas, which were the assembly
line and the uniformity of a product.
(B) Pre-Industrial Revolution
Although Whitney was first to use the assembly line in the industrial age, the
idea of interchangeable parts and the assembly line was not new, though it
was little used.
The idea was first developed in Venice several hundred years earlier, where
ships

were

produced

using

pre-manufactured

parts,

assembly

lines,

and mass production; the Venice Arsenal apparently produced nearly one ship
every day, in what was effectively the world's first factory.
Read the texts again and answer the questions. You can also use your
cell phones to look for the information.
1. Who was Whitney?
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
2. When and how did he create his system?
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

59

3. How did the assembly line work exactly?


_____________________________________________________________
4. What were the inconvenients of the so called assembly line?
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
5. How did Ford come up with the first moving assembly line?
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
6. Where was the world's first factory located and how did it work?
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
7. The assembly line was first introduced by Eli Whitney to create muskets for
the U.S. Government.

TRUE / FALSE

8. Mass production is notable because it permits very high rates of production


per person and therefore provides very inexpensive products. TRUE / FALSE
9. Apart

fom

Venice

Arsenal,

Matthew

Boulton's

Soho

Birmingham is widely regarded as the first modern factory.


10.

Manufactory

in

TRUE/ FALSE

In the mid- to late 20th century, Germany introduced next-generation

factories with two improvements. The first was advanced statistical methods
of quality control, pioneered by the American mathematician William
Edwards Deming, who was ignored in his home country.

TRUE/ FALSE

60

Lesson Fourteen
(14) The comparison of adjectives
We compare two people or things with comparative forms of adjectives
We compare three or more people or things with superlative forms of
adjectives
Monosyllabic adjectives are compared with -er, -est.
positive
strong
small
late
nice
big
thin
fat

comparative
stronger
smaller
later
nicer
bigger
thinner
fatter

superlative
the strongest
the smallest
the latest
the nicest
the biggest
the thinnest
the fattest

London is bigger than Vienna.


Disyllabic adjectives ending with y, er, ow, are compared with -er, -est.
positive

comparative

superlative

easy

easier

the easiest

happy

happier

the happiest

clever

cleverer

the cleverest

narrow

narrower

the narrowest

What is the easiest exercise?


All the other adjectives are compared with more, most.
positive

comparative

superlative

careful

more careful

The most careful

expensive

more expensive

The most expensive

difficult

more difficult

The most difficult

tired

more tired

The most tired

terrible

more terrible

The most terrible

Which dress is more expensive?


Which dress is the most expensive?

61

Irregular forms
positive

comparative

superlative

good

better

The best

bad

worse

The worst

much

more

The most

many

more

The most

little

less

The least

(not) as ... as Ann is as tall as Mary


I think tomorrow it will be as hot as today.
This test was not as difficult as the last one.
Exercise 14.1 Read and identify all the comparative and/or superlative forms in
the text Jaimies School Dinner Campaign.9

http://busyteacher.org/5791-jamie-oliver-s-campaign-reading-worksheet.html

62

Grammar Exercise. Put the adjectives into the correct form.

1. A polite email to a client is usually __________ than when sending an


informal email to a colleague. (long)
2. A text message is usually __________ than an email. (short)
3. Sending a
4. A memo is

letter

is __________ than sending an email. (romantic)

__________ than a company newsletter.(important)

5. BCCing someone is

__________ than CCing someone. (private)

6. Sending a signed contract by courier is __________ than faxing a


signed contract. (official)
7. Typing up the minute of a meeting is __________ than having to write a
report.(boring)
8. People who send very short emails with lots of abbreviations and
acronyms are usually __________than people who write out everything
in full. (busy)
9. A note is a lot __________ than a mem.(short)
For extra work, click here: http://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame
/

Match the beginning of the sentences 1 to 5 with their endings a) to e)


1. Coca-Cola is a mass market
product; it
2. Selling special interest holidays is
a niche market; it
3. Rolex watches sell in a luxury
market; they are
4. An export market
5. A home market

a) is a small but often profitable market


b) is outside the producers country.
c) is in the producers country.
d) high quality and expensive goods
e) sells to large numbers of people

Now think of 4 products you know and write about their types of market,
just like in exercise C.
E.g. Puma shoes sell in a mass market
Omega watches are a luxury market product.

_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

63

Read the following job adverts in the UK (taken from the Londons Times)
and compare them.
(Use adjectives like interesting, important,
challenging, permanent, well-paid, profitable, growing, attractive, declining,
etc.)

Technical Sales Manager / Business


Development Manager

Employer
Posted
Reference
Contact
Location
Industry
Position Type
Position
Salary

BMS
13 Jan 2009
SE030908
Patrick McKinney
Reading
Engineering and Manufacturing, Sales
Permanent
Technical Sales Manager / Business
Development Manager
30000 - 30000 pa

__________________________

______________________
______________________
______________________
______________________
______________________
______________________
______________________
______________________
______________________
______________________

Commercial Manager

Employer:
Posted:
Reference:
Contact:
Location:
Industry :

Harvey Nash plc


12 Jan 2009
HN4277TOL
Dorota Fila
North West
Engineering and
Manufacturing Utilities
Position Type: Permanent
Position :
Commercial Manager
Salary:
Up to 75k + benefits

UK General Manager
Employer:
CRIPPS SEARS & PARTNERS
Posted: 13 Jan 2009
Location:
St Albans
Industry:
Energy - Non-Renewable, Energy - Renewable,
Engineering and Manufacturing Environmental, Engineering and
Manufacturing - Leadership/Management,
Engineering and Manufacturing - Public,
Engineering and Manufacturing - Utilities,
Engineering and Manufacturing - General,
Engineering and Manufacturing - Sales
Position Type: Contract
Position:
UK General Manager
Salary:
Executive Package

_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

64

Create your own advertising campaign10

You have around one hour to create your own advertising campaign for a product of
your choice.
Prepare a poster to present your campaign!
What is your product?
(Invent a product or have a look at sites like http://www.totallyabsurd.com/
(absurd inventions) and decide on a product you would like to advertise)
What is your products name?
What is your products slogan?
(Develop a catchy slogan for your advertisement.)
How much is the product?
Who is your target group?
Where can you buy the product?
How many products are produced?
What ad technique/trick/style do you use?
What do you use the product for?
What is your chosen advertising medium?
(Decide if your product is advertised on the radio, TV, internet etc.)
What is shown in the ad?
(Develop a storyline etc.)
Did you follow the AIDA model?11
12

10

http://busyteacher.org/18167-create-your-own-advertising-campaign.html
AIDA is an acronym used in marketing and advertising that describes a common list of events that may
occur when a consumer engages with an advertisement.
11

A attention (Awareness): attract the attention of the customer.


I interest: raise customer interest by focusing on and demonstrating advantages and benefits (instead of
focusing on features, as in traditional advertising).
D desire: convince customers that they want and desire the product or service and that it will satisfy their
needs.
A action: lead customers towards taking action and/or purchasing.
12
http://distributedmarketing.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/aida-sized-for-blog.png

65

Comprehension: READING ADS,

For questions 1-4, choose the answer (A, B, C or D) which you think fits best
according to the text.
1. The text you read is
A a leaflet.
B an advertisement.
C a manual.
D a magazine article.
2. Power of knowledge in Volkswagen Amarok is realized best in
A 2-litre engine.
B design.
C low carbon dioxide emissions.
D the useful website.
3. In the first sentence the word intelligently means
A intensively.
B technologically advanced.
C accurately.
D industrially.
4. High-class gears for the car were created by
A a Nobel Prize winner.
B amateur mechanics.
C the group of experts.
D an experimental TV-show.

66

EXTRA ACTIVITY: Lower-level and higher level generalisations13

Statements which contain higher-level items are more general than statements
which contain lower-level items. Look at the following example:
Statement (a) is the most general statement. When statement (a) is true, statements
(b), (c), and (d) must also be true.
Study the following sentences. Column (a) contains statements with lower-level items.
Column (b) contains more general statements with higher-level items. Match each
lower-level statement with a general statement from column (b).
Example:
Iron rusts.
Metals corrode.

1. Iron rusts.

Engines consume fuel.

2. Bronze contains copper and tin.

Metallic elements are added to steel to improve

3. A square metre is made by multiplying a its properties.


metre by a metre.
4. Chromium

makes

steel

corrosion- Compressive forces shorten bodies.

resistant.
5. A

load

of

Metals corrode.
five

tonnes

compresses

concrete column.
6. Zirconia

heat

Derived units are products of basic units.


shields

withstand Alloys are mixtures of metals.

temperatures over 2000 C.


7. Vinylite can be shaped in a lathe.

Ceramics can resist high temperatures.

8. Railway lines extend in hot weather.

Plastics can be machined.

9. Four-stroke internal-combustion engines


burn petrol, diesel oil, and gas.

Metals expand when heated.

13

GLENDINNING, Eric H. English in Mechanical Engineering. 9 th ed. Oxford, Oxford University Press,
1991, 19p.

67

Lesson Fifteen
(15) The Present Continuous
We use the present continuous to talk about temporary actions and
situations that are happening now.
The factory is working seven days a week
We are selling in 72 different countries
What is Gates doing? He is checking his e-mail
The present continuous is formed with be (am-is-are) and the ing
form of the main verb.

Complete these sentences with the present continuous form of the verbs
in brackets.
1.

BMW _______________ (sell) Minis in China now.

2.

People _______________ (work) in the factory 51 weeks a year.

3.

I _________________ (call) about a problem.

4.

Many English people _______________ (learn) Chinese.

5.

She ______________ (attend) a course on presentation.

6.

He ______________ (not work) in the office today.

7.

They ______________ (entertain) some foreign guests.

8.

Janet ______________ (research) a project. She _____________


(use) the Internet a lot.

9.

Loreto _________________ (do) an MBA course.

10.

Chrysler Co. _____________ (develop) a new model.

11.

DKNY __________________ (launch) a new parfum.

12.

They _________________ (start) the project.

Complete the article about the food group Angus Steak House. Use the
present continuous form of the words in italics.
increase

export

plan

expand

translate

The number of Angus Steak Houses ____________ not only in London, but also
in other parts of the UK. At present, Angus Steak House _____________ its
overseas business, particularly in Asia. Currently, it ___________its advertising
materials into Japanese. Angus Steak House ____________ its winning formula
to India and Indonesia. It _____________ to open new shops in New York.

68

Write a small report on how your business, life, or institution is changing.

_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

Write about this production line at Mattel.

_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

69

Complete the sentences in the present continuous.

E
F

1. I (look for) ____________________my pen.


2. Jane (print out) __________________the contract.
3. As long as I am on holiday, Hannah and John (take care)
________________of everything.
4. Look! Graham (wear) _________________a tie today.
5. That's because he (meet) _______________________the big boss in
the afternoon.
6. I (work / not) _____________________tomorrow.
7. Bob (talk / not) ______________________on the phone.
8. What (you / do)______________________?
9. Where (Mister Bradley / stay)__________________________?

Choose the correct answer.14

1. I am living in London now. - What does this sentence mean?


a. I have moved to London to stay there for ever.
b. I am in London only for a limited period of time.
c. I am going to move to London soon.
2. We are meeting Tom tonight. - What does this sentence mean?
a. The action is arranged for the near future.
b. The action is taking place now.
c. The action might take place.
3. I'm working hard at the moment. - Is the sentence correct even if I am not
working at the moment of speaking?
a. yes
b. no
4. He is playing football. - Which situation cannot be expressed by present
progressive?
a. To express that the match is going on right now.
b. To express that he does not play football regularly, but only for a limited
period of time.
c. To express that he plays football regularly.

14

ENGLISH GRAMMAR ON LINE ... the fun way to learn English > http://www.ego4u.com/en/cramup/tests/present-progressive-3 > [Consulta: Enero 2009]

70

5. Look! The Millers are moving house. - Which of the following situations is
expressed by the present progressive?
a. They are in the middle of the action.
b. The action is going to take place next week.
c. They will come back to this place one day.

Complete the article with the present simple or the present continuous of
the verbs in brackets. Remember that:15
We use the present continuous to describe temporary situations, ones
which dont happen for a long time
We use the present simple to describe permanent situations, ones
which wont change.

PROFILE

The Inditex Group

The name Zara _________ (seem)


to come from Zaragoza, but nobody
________ (know) it for sure. The
Inditex Group ________(own) six
fashion chains including Zara. It
__________ (have) around 1,500
stores worldwide. It _______
(operate) in 44 countries. Inditex
____________(employ)
27,000
people and __________ (have)
more than 200 fashion designers.
Currently the fashion designers
____________ (work) on next
years designs. The Inditex group
__________ (do) very well at the
moment, and it ____________
(try) to become a global fashion
leader.
Amancio Ortega, the founder of
Inditex, also ___________ (invest)
in property and hotels. Most of this
years
investment
___________(stay) in Spain

15

COTTON, David, FALVEY, David, KENT, Simon. Market Leader. Essex: Pearson Education Limited,
2004, p 82

71

Lesson Sixteen
(16) Quantity and Amount
Reading Comprehension Optical Fibres
Optical fibre is a material used for transmitting sound and data.
Optical fibre is made of glass and uses light (usually from a laser) to transmit
messages.

Read this conversation between an engineer and a journalist about the


advantages of optical fibre compared with conventional copper cable.
As you read, match the advantage with its effect(s). The first one has
been done for you.

Optical Fibres. (A conversation.)


Engineer:

Journalist:
Engineer:

Journalist:
Engineer:

Journalist:
Engineer:

Theres no doubt optical fibre


systems
have
enormous
advantages
over
existing
transmission systems.
So we have heard. But what are
these advantages?
Well, first and foremost they have
a much higher capacity than
copper wires. In other words,
they can carry much more
information telephone calls or
data, it doesn't matter which.
Secondly they have a potentially
lower material cost. At the
moment, production costs of
optical fibre are relatively high,
but this is only because mass
production hasnt really started.
In the long term, optical fibre will cost much less to produce than
conventional cables. Another big advantage is their size; they
take up much less space. With conventional cable you need many
more ducts or pipes to carry the cable.
What about quality of transmission?
Yes they score very highly here as well. The signal doesn't need
to be amplified as often as with conventional cable, where signal
loss means you need far more repeaters or boosters in fact,
every 2 or 3 kilometres as opposed to every 20 kilometres.
As far as quality is concerned, optical fibres dont suffer from
interference or crosstalk as much as conventional cable.
Anything else?
Yes, they also have complete electrical isolation and therefore
there's much more security on the line the data cant be
corrupted or interfered with.

72

MATCH THE COLUMNS.

ADVANTAGE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

higher capacity
(D)
lower material cost
smaller size
higher quality of transmission
complete electrical isolation

EFFECT

a. less frequent repeaters


b. more security
c. cheaper to produce
d. more information
e. less space in ducts
f. less interference/crosstalk

Remember:
There is a difference between QUANTITY and AMOUNT:
QUANTITY
With conventional cable, you need many more ducts
With conventional cable, you can transmit far fewer telephone calls
AMOUNT
Optical fibres can carry much more information
Optical fibres take up much less space.

Controlled Practice.

(1) Classify the following nouns as either COUNTABLE (C) or UNCOUNTABLE


(U)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Telephone call
Crosstalk
Space
Data
Duct
Security

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Capacity
Equipment
Repeater
information
Money
Interference

(2) Complete these sentences using many more/far fewer/much


more/much less.
1. _________ _________ telephone calls can be transmitted using optical
fibre.
2. You hear ________ ________ crosstalk when using optical fibres.
3. There is________ _________interference on copper cables.
4. Optical fibres occupy__________ ___________ space.
5. You need ______ ______ ducts or cables pipes with optical fibre.
6. Conventional cable has _________ _________ capacity than optical fibre.
7. Conventional cable will cost_________ ________ to produce in the future
than optical fibre.

73

WORD CHECK: Match the word(s) to its definition.

WORDS

DEFINITIONS

capacity

channels for carrying cables

material cost

a type of interference sounds of another telephone call on the


line

ducts/pipes

to increase the strength of the signal

to amplify

a disturbance to the signal caused by unwanted signals

signal loss

how much something can hold e.g. the capacity of the truck is 200
cases.

repeater

outside electrical signals cannot interfere with the signal

interference

the information/data cannot be changed, accessed by other users

crosstalk

cost of the raw material (e.g.glass)

electrical

to change or delete data.

isolation
security

type of amplifier

to corrupt

decrease in the strength of a signal

(data)

Exercise 16.2: Look at the following table. Compare the sales volume during
the period. Write a short report using the words of measurement and quantity.
__________________
__________________
__________________
__________________
__________________
__________________
__________________
__________________
__________________
__________________
__________________

74

Notes about Quantifiers!

75

76

Exercise 16.3: In the following sentences, fill in the gaps with one of the
following quantifiers:
I.

(http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/quizzes/cross/quantifiers2.htm )

much, many, a lot of

a. It seems to me that we've had ______assignments in English this term.


b. How _____material can we be expected to read in one week?
c. _____books are not in the library.
d. I've had _____headaches already because of stress.
e. _____depression can be attributed to being overworked.
II.

much, many, few, little, most.

(HINT: Three of the last four sentences could have two different answers.)
a. Our yard looks awful this summer. There are too _____weeds.
b. I didn't use _____fertilizer last spring, and that has made a difference.
c. Also, I've paid _____attention to how _____rain we've had.
d. I'm afraid it's rained _____times this summer, and the grass is turning
brown and dying.
e. _____experts say you should fertilize your lawn in the fall.
f. It didn't seem to do my lawn _____good.
g. _____advice you get from experts doesn't seem to help.
h. _____of my neighbors ignore their grass, and they have better lawns this
year.
III.

a little, little, a few, few.

(HINT: Three of the four can have more than one correct response.)
a. They say _____knowledge is a bad thing.

77

b. I know _____instances where that proves true.


c. _____people know as much about computers as Tomasz does.
d. But it does him _____good when the whole system goes down.
Exercise 16.4: Complete these sentences with a few / a little.
1. There was a little bread in the cupboard.
2. We met __________ friends at the party.
3. Do you take _______ sugar in the coffee?
4. I put _________ cans of coke in the fridge.
5. Were there _______ bags of rice in the kitchen?
6. I found __________ wood and metal in the garage.
7. There were ________ car tyres next to the gate.
Exercise 16.5: Complete these sentences with many / much / a lot of.
8. I have many coloured T-shirts.
9. They dont have ________ interest in changing the rules.
10. We made _______ new prototypes for the exhibition.
11. Does she have ________ stocks?
12. Was there ___________ information in the PC?
13. Did they order ____________new products?
14. He brought __________ new tables to the office.
15. Do you need __________ paper for the printer?
Exercise 16.6: Complete with the following quantifiers: a few/ a little / a lot
of / several / much / many
16. I only had a little money for the books.
17. Were there ___________ reports on the table?
18. They took _____________ photographs of the prototype.
19. We didnt buy _____________ PCs because we had some at the office.
20. I like coffee with ___________ cream.
21. Are there ____________ engineers in the firm?
22. There isnt ___________ money in the budget for new investments.

78

Size, quantity, dimensions an d measurements


Games
The size, strength or capacity of things can be measured in
many different ways. Cover the columns on the right and
complete the following sentences with an appropriate word or
phrase of measurement or size.
1. Hes bought himself a new 750 ... Kawasaki
(a) Set
2. We really need another 100 - ... bulb.
(b) lap
3. We could also do with an extra 13- ... plug.
(c) area
4. Her wedding ring is 24 - ... gold.
(d) ratio
5. Its over 85 ... Fahrenheit in the shade today (e) Rate
6. We sailed across the Atlantic in a 20,000 - ... (f) Depth
liner
7. The ship was travelling at an average speed (g) Grade
of 28....
8. Winds of gale ... 9 were reported.
(h) Angle
9. The Krakatoa explosion (1883) happened too (i) Track
long ago for the intensity of its sound to be
measured in....
10. The recent earthquake gave a reading o f (j) Weight
point 7 on the Richter....
11. The Empire State is a 102- ... buildin g.
(k) Scale
12. Hong Kong has the highest ... of population (l) Storey
of any country in the world.
13. She passed her final exams with a ... 3.
(m) Density
14. The Tower of Pisa leans at an... of several (n) Force
.... to the vertical.
15. Parts of the Pacif ic Ocean are known to be (o) decibel.
well over 30,000 feet in ....
16. The people voted to remain in the Common (p) Degrees
Market by a ... of
two to one.
17. Redundancies are being announced now at a (q) Ton
...of a thousand a day.
18. A number of rock- groups now own their own (r) Knots
16 or 24- ... recording equipment.
19. The man thought to have been the heaviest (s) Carat
ever is reported to have been over 70 stone in
....
20. The final of the tennis championship mens (t) Degrees
singles was the best of five....
21. The 800 metres is nor mally a two-... race
(u) Watt
22. The duke's farm extends over an ... of 640 (v) amp. (ampere)
acres.
(w) c.c.

79

Games (2) Numerals and proportions


There are several prefixes which indicate number in English.
Try to find a word in the right-hand column which ma tches
each definition 1 21.

DEFINITION
1
being
able
to
speak
two
languages very well
2
a period of ten years
3
a
creature
with
about
a
hundred legs
4
a
childs
three-wheeled
vehicle
5
half a pair of glasses
6
to copy a document
7
one thousand watts
8
a tenth of a centimetre
9
the
process
of
making
a
country completely one
10 describing a decision that had
100% support
11 a very large number of people
as a crowd
12 the state of having rather a
lot of husbands or wives at once
13 a system in which the only
digits used are 1 and 0
14 describing a system like: 12
inches in 1 foot
15 the O in CO
16 a road consisting of 2 parts
with
traffic
going
in
one
direction only
17 half-yearly
18 a group of eight musicians
19 one-sided, the sort of nuclear
disarmament that pacifists would
be happy with
20 a longish passage spoken by
one person
21 a more romantic speech

WORD
a unification
b monologue
c soliloquy
d binary
e
f
g
h
i

biannual
octet
dioxide
duodecimal
unilateral

j unanimous
k polygamy
l.dual
m tricycle
n millimetre
o kilowatt
p multitude
q monocle
r duplicate
s bilingual
t decade
u centipede

80

Games (3)
Numerals and proportions

Practice
1 Which word or phrase is missing in each of the sequences
below? Complete and continue each se quence.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
2

one two three four


first second
third
once three times
one
a half
solo
trio
think of a number
a double whisky

five

six seven nine ten


fourth
sixth
four times
five times
a third
a fifth
quartet
quintet
double it
quadruple it
a triple (or treble) whisky

Now see how quickly you can find the answer to this rather
long sum.
Four add two, divide by three, subtract one, multiply by eight,
take away four, times three, plus two, minus four, halved,
equals wha t?

Of all these numbers, O presents the most linguistic problems.


Try to read out loud the following expressions including various
words for the figure O. Then work out the answer to questions
9 and 10. Look up the answers in the answer Key if you find
this exercise difficult.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Manchester City 0, Manchester United 0


5,4,3,2,1,0!
0.1% of the air
Tel.
01 906 3002
H20
4+26=0
60,61,60
the temperature is below 0
How many fingers have you got on your feet?

4.
For further pr actice of expressions describing numbers, give
an example of each item below.
1 an odd number _____________________________
2 a three -figure sum ____________________________
3

three

consecutive

numbers

after

the

decimal

point___________________________ ____________
4 a mu ltiple of 49 ________________________________
5 an even number _____________________________
6 a fr action __________________________________
7 a number with 5 digits _________________________
8 an equation _______________________________ __

81

Lesson Seventeen
(17) Will and Time Prepositions
time
El auxiliar de futuro Will expresa una decisin espontnea, una suposicin en
relacin al futuro o una accin en el futuro que no puede ser influenciada.
Funciona igual para todas las personas.

Formas del will

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

You

You

You

He

He

He

She

She

She

It

} will speak

It

We

We

You

you

they.

they

{will not speak.


(wont speak)

Will

It

speak?

We
You
they

Uses of will

a spontaneous decision : Wait, I will help you.

an opinion, hope, uncertainty or assumption regarding the future


He will probably come back tomorrow.

a promise: I will not watch TV tonight.

an action in the future that cannot be influenced: It will rain tomorrow.

conditional clauses type I: If I arrive late, I will call you.

82

Exercise 17.1: Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form of the simple
present or simple future (will). Pay attention to time indicators.
1. Today after I (get) _______out of class, I (go) _______to a movie with
some friends.
2. When you (arrive) ________in Stockholm, call my friend Gustav. He (show)
________you around the city and help you get situated.
3. A: Do you know what you want to do after you (graduate) __________?
B: After I (receive) ________my Master's from Georgetown University, I (go)
_________to graduate school at UCSD in San Diego. I (plan) _________ to
complete a Ph.D. in cognitive science.
4. This weekend, we (go) _________skiing near Lake Tahoe.
5. Your father (plan) _______to pick you up after school today at 3:00 o'clock.
He (meet) _______ you across the street near the ice cream shop. If he
cannot be there, I (pick) __________you up instead.
6. If the people of the world (stop, not) ________ cutting down huge stretches
of rain forest, we (experience) _________huge changes in the environment
during the twenty-first century.
7. If Vera (keep) _______ drinking, she (lose) ________ her job.
8. I promise you that I (tell, not) ________ your secret to anybody. I (reveal,
not) __________the truth to a single person.
9. She (make) _______ some major changes in her life. She (quit) _______
her job and go back to school. After she (finish) ________studying, she (get)
_______a better-paying job and buy a house. She is going to improve her life!
10. Tom (call) ________when he (arrive) ____________in Madrid. He (stay)
__________ with you for two or three days until his new apartment (be)
________ available.

PROJECT PLANNING (Prepositions of time)


Las preposiciones de tiempo indican cundo ocurre y cunto dura una
accin. Las frases preposicionales de tiempo responden a la pregunta
WHEN?

83

Preposition

Use

Examples

in months

in July; in September

year

in 1985; in 2002

seasons

in summer; in the summer of 99

part of the day

in the morning; in the afternoon; in the


evening

duration

in a minute; in two weeks

part of the day (special case)

at night

time of day (hours)

at 6 o'clock; at midnight

celebrations

at Christmas; at Easter

fixed phrases

at the same time

days of the week

on Sunday; on Friday

date

on the 25th of December*

special holidays

on Good Friday; on Easter Sunday; on


my birthday

a special part of a day

on the morning of September the


11th*

After

later than sth.

after school

Ago

how far sth. happened (in the


past)

6 years ago

Before

earlier than sth.

before Christmas

Between

time that separates two points

between Monday and Friday

By

not later than a special time

by Thursday

During

through the whole of a period


of time

during the holidays

For

period of time

for three weeks

two points form a period

from Monday to Wednesday


from Monday till Wednesday
from Monday until Wednesday

In

At

On

from ... to
from...
till/until

Reading Comprehension: Project Planning


This text deals with the timing of a project. The project leader is
responsible for different activities including installation of equipment,
testing of the equipment and training of the employees. Read the
transcription of a long-distance conference call between Roger, manager
of overseas operations at an engineering firm, and Colin, project leader in
charge of setting up a new plant in Saudi Arabia. They discuss the
schedule for the project. As you read, complete the key for the "Planner"
below.

84

Roger:Hi, Colin. It's Roger here. I'm calling about the Saudi project to find out
how the work's coming along.
Colin: Not bad, we're mostly on schedule.
Roger:Is all the equipment installed?
Colin: Yes, we finished installation last week. We start testing the machines on
Monday next week.
Roger:How long will that take?
Colin: Well. We've scheduled three weeks so we should finish at the end
of the month.
Roger:Good. What else?
Colin: Well, the operator training already started. We kicked off on Wednesday
this week and the first course ends next Friday.
Roger:Oh yes, that was one of the things I wanted to mention. Fred Hyman,
the maintenance trainer should arrive at the weekend.
Colin: Fine, do you know what time?
Roger:No, but I expect he'll arrive at 12 on Saturday. I'll telex you as soon as I
know for certain.
Colin: OK. Anyway he'll have a week before he starts training. The first
maintenance course is due to begin a week from Monday.
Roger: When do you plan to finish the training programme?
Colin: Just a moment, I'll look at the planner . . . here it is. . . um, . . ., the
last course is in July that's the Supervisor course if all goes well,
that'll finish at the end of the month and they'll be ready to start work at
the beginning of August.

85

Roger: So you plan to start up in August?


Colin: Yes, if all the tests are OK, we have a provisional start-up date on 25th
August . . . for the first two weeks we'll be building up capacity slowly ...
hope to reach full capacity by September 8th.
Roger: Right, that's the other thing I wanted to mention. The client wants an
official opening date for the plant when do you suggest?
Colin: Well. I talked to some of the Saudis here in fact I talked to the Works
Manager a couple of days ago he reckoned the middle of September
will be fine.
Let me just look at my diary . . . about September 15th?
Roger: Sounds fine. Anything you need?
Colin: Um. I don't think so. Oh yes. Can you send some more copies of the
Operators' Manual Let's say about 20?
Roger: Of course. Ill send them off by airmail. They will be with you by
Monday.
Colin: Right, thanks Roger.
Roger: Youre welcome. Speak to you again soon,
Colin: Yes, Bye.
Roger: Bye.

WORD CHECK. Match the columns. Draw an arrow.

WORDS
A. To schedule

DEFINITIONS
1. to start

B. To be on schedule

2. to start (a process, factory, etc.)

C. To kick off

3. to arrive at the moment when the factory is


producing at full volume

D. To be due to

4. to plan into action at the right time

E. To start up

5. chart

F. To build up capacity

6. to increase production volume gradually

G. To reach full capacity

7. to plan activities in time

H. A planner

8. daily record of appointments, meetings, etc.

I. A diary

9. to be planned/scheduled to ...

During the telephone call, some of the following time expressions were used:
TIME RELATING TO NOW
Days:

86

2 days ago - yesterday - today - tomorrow - next Monday - a week from next
Monday
Weeks/Months
2 weeks ago - last week - this week - next week - in 2 weeks' time
A. Use the planner to complete these sentences.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.

Installation work finished ____________ week.


Testing will begin ___________ Monday ___________week.
Testing will finish __________________________________ time.
The first Operators Training Course began ___________________
Wednesday _____________ week.
It'll finish _______________ week.
The
first
Maintenance
Course
begins
a
week
_______________________.
The Supervisor's Course finishes ____________________________July.
The Plant will start up ______________________ 25th August.
We plan to reach full capacity _____________________ September 8th
(at the latest).
The plant will be officially opened _________________ September 15th.
B. Write out the following msn in full:
ATTN: Colin Kerridge, Project Leader
Icnfm F. Hyman arrives Riyadh Sat.
1200. He expects start training 17
June. Pls meet him airport. Sent 20
operators manuals ysdy. Will arr.
Beg. Nxt week.
Rgds
Roger Coleman

Attention: Colin Kerridge, Project Leader


I confirm _______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

87

Writing predictions based on the properties of materials16


When we know what the properties of a material are we can predict how
it will behave under different conditions. To make predictions of this type,
we use an if-sentence with will in the next sentence. Look at this
example:
If a material is flexible, it will bend easily.
Now write similar predictions for materials which have the properties
listed in column A. Mix and Match the columns.
A

elasticity
plasticity
toughness
corrosion-resistance
rigidity
wear-resistance
brittleness
hardness
flexibility
softness

B
will not bend easily
will resist abrasion, deformation and
indentation
will resist wear
will regain its original dimensions after the
forces which have caused deformation are
removed
will tend to fracture under impact loads
will bend easily
will not return to its original dimensions
after the forces producing strain are removed
will not fracture when indented or
scratched
will resist fracture when subjected to an
impact load
will resist corrosion

If a material is flexible, it will bend easily


________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
16

GLENDINNING, Eric H. English in Mechanical Engineering. 9 th ed. Oxford, Oxford University Press,
1991, 68p.

88

________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

Glossary

Time.

Test your knowledge on what is the work of

engineering consultants.

Read the text and then answer the questions.


The role of an engineering consultant17
The task of assessing the feasibility of a sophisticated project such as the
building of an industrial plant and of seeing it through completion is often
beyond the capacity of a developing country. In such a case, the country
usually turns to an engineering consultant for advice and guidance. Moreover,
when an external source of finance such as the World Bank is involved in the
project, the services of an engineering consultant become an essential part of
the deal.
The first task of an engineering consultant is to conduct a feasibility study. This
will include a site survey an examination of the physical characteristics of the
area, such as the firmness of the ground on which the plant will be built. For
this he will probably need the assistance of other specialists, such as surveyors
and geologists. He will also have to consider whether there will be a market for
the goods the plant will produce. Of equal importance is the question of
whether the operation is likely to be profitable. The consultants financial
projections will play an important role in determining if the whole project is
feasible or not.
If the consultant feels the project is basically viable, he will have to prepare a
preliminary design and specifications. He will be establishing at this stage the
fundamental engineering standards that companies wishing to bid for the
project will have to meet. These companies will be furnished with this
information. When the bids are submitted, the consultant will have to examine
them in minute detail. As important as his technical evaluation, of course, is
his assessment of the total cost of the project to the country concerned. It can
happen that, in spite of its technical viability, it is simply going to be too
expensive.
Once the contract has been awarded, a consultant (though not necessarily the
same one) will oversee the engineering and the construction work. His role can
also extend to arranging the training of people who will operate the plant, and
even to supervising the running of the plant for a certain period after it started

17

CARROLL; Walter, TURNER, Stephen, YOUNG, Dale.Bid for Power.Workbook. Japan, BBC English,
1984, R4.2.

89

operations. The consultants precise role varies according to the type of project
he is working on.
Now answer these comprehensive questions.
1. When a developing country is considering a major construction project,
in what circumstances will they employ an engineering consultant?
_________________________________________________________
2. What does the consultant have to do first?
_________________________________________________________
3. What financial factors does the consultant have to consider?
__________________________________________________________
4. Who will the consultant give his preliminary design and specifications to?
__________________________________________________________
5. What will he do when the bids come in?
__________________________________________________________
6. What sort of work do engineering consultants have to supervise after the
contract has been awarded?
__________________________________________________________

Prepare your own glossary on the subject. Use the underlined


words in the text.

_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

90

Lesson Eighteen
(18) Verbs + Prepositions
En Ingls hay muchos verbos que constan de dos partes: el verbo + una
preposicin o partcula adverbial.
Los verbos preposicionales constan de un verbo ms una preposicin. La
preposicin va detrs del objeto y en las oraciones interrogativas suelen
posicionarse al final.
I'm interested in this position.
What are you interested in?
Prepositional verbs are made of:
verb + preposition
Because a preposition always has an object, all prepositional verbs have direct
objects. Here are some examples of prepositional verbs:
prepositional
verbs

meaning

examples

believe in

have faith in the


existence of

look after

take care of

He is looking
after

the bullions.

argue about

discuss

Did you argue


about

money?

apply for

Write a letter or fill in a


form in order to ask
formally for

direct object
I believe in

Mr. Green is
applying for

the stock
market

a job.

*** Prepositional verbs cannot be separated.

91

Read the following table of prepositional verbs and then complete the

sentences below.

VERBS and PREPOSITIONS


Accuse of

bid for

look forward to

Agree with

bring up

look up

Apply to (somewhere)

care for

make up

Apply for (something)

carry out

pay for

apologize for

concerned with

prepare for

approve of

consist of

study for

argue with

depend on

talk about

argue about

find out

think about

ask about

give up

trust in

ask for

grow up

work for

belong to

interested in

worry about

look for

1. Gates never argues ________ his employees. He simply fires them.


2. The Senate didnt approve ________ the presidents new policy.
3. Im reading the paper because Im interested _________ this topic.
4. Laborum.com is a web page where people can apply _______ a job.
5. If you dont have money, you cannot belong ______ a golf club.
6. The system consists ________ a four-stroke petrol engine.
7. He works _______ the Chrysler Co.
8. Obama is worried ________ the worlds financial crisis.
9. The chairman is accused ________ stealing intellectual property.
10. All the senators agreed ________ the president.
11. All national Car Companies bid _______ the project.
12. The scientists carried _________ a new investigation on the disease.
13. Teenagers and university students depend ______ their parents money.
14. Students will prepare ________ the tests.

92

Prepositions with Nouns.


Now pay attention to this table of nouns + prepositions, and then
choose the best answer to complete the sentences below.

NOUNS and PREPOSITIONS


approval of
attitude to
awareness of
cause of
concern for
confusion about
damage to

decrease in
decrease of
difference between
fall in
grasp of
interest in
need for

participation in
reason for
relationship with
respect for
success in
understanding of

1. The decrease ________ demand caused a huge drop in their profits.


a. on

b. in

c. of

2. The crisis did a lot of damage _______ the worlds economy.


a. at

b. of

c. to

3. There was a decrease _______ 10% last year.


a. for

b. of

c. to

4. His attitude ______ his work is very negative.


a. for

b. of

c. to

5. Did they give you reasons _______ their decision ?


a. for

b. of

c. in

6. There has been a fall _______ prices.


a. of

b. in

c. at

7. What was the cause _______ the problem ?


a. for

b. in

c. of

8. He has a difficult relationship ______ them.


a. with

b. of

c. between

9. I cant tell the difference ________ them.


a. among

b. of

c. between

10.They were congratulated for their success _____sales profits.


a. on

b. at

c. in

93

In the following text, identify and underline all the prepositional verbs
A Turnkey Project18

In the building of an industrial plant, the actual work involved consists of three
main

components:

engineering,

procurement

and

construction.

The

engineering work is concerned with identifying the equipment and materials


needed,

producing

necessary

the

technical

specifications

and

drafting the design of the


plant. The procurement
aspect involves the task
of getting the equipment
and materials to the site
within
budget

the

time

established

and
for

the job. This will involve


locating suppliers when the equipment or materials in question are not
available from any of the components engaged in the work. The construction
work covers the preparation of the site and the actual erection of the plant, as
well as the provision of off-site parts and facilities.
One organization can carry out this work. Alternatively, different companies
working independently can handle the three components. If one company has
complete responsibility for the work - in other words, if the whole project just
involves one contract it can be regarded as a turnkey project. Such a
project will also include start-up assistance and operator training.

One

company takes responsibility for the work as the prime contractor, with
another (or others) working as the subcontractor(s). Such a situation will be a
joint venture, though the owner will not notice the split of responsibility.
A consortium can also bid for the project on a turnkey basis if the companies
involved have the capacity to handle all the work themselves. In such a case

18

CARROLL; Walter, TURNER, Stephen, YOUNG, Dale.Bid for Power.Workbook. Japan, BBC English,
1984, R5.1..

94

the participants will form an agreement among themselves (which the owner
will probably want to see). The company with the largest share in the project
will probably assume the dominant role and will be the one to negotiate with
the owner. The three components will be split among the several companies
concerned,

each

having

its

specifically defined
area

of

responsibility.
engineering
however,

The
work,
will

probably

be

co-

ordinated

by

one

company.
Moreover, it is in
the nature of such
work that the engineering and procurement people will have to co-operate
especially closely. It goes without saying, though, that co-operation among all
the companies working on a turnkey project is extremely important to the
success of the project as a whole.

Now answer the comprehensive questions.


1. What is involved in the building of an industrial plant?
__________________________________________________________
2. How many contracts are involved in a turnkey project?
__________________________________________________________
3. What other services are required in a turnkey project after the
completion of the construction of the plant?
__________________________________________________________
4. In a joint venture, what is the company that takes responsibility for the
work called?
__________________________________________________________

95

5. What is a consortium?
__________________________________________________________
6. Which of the companies in a consortium usually negotiates with the
owner?
__________________________________________________________

Glossary Time. Go back to the text, and find the meaning of the
following words in context. Use your dictionary to help you.

Procurement_____________________________________________________
Technical specifications ____________________________________________
Drafting ________________________________________________________
Budget _________________________________________________________
Suppliers _______________________________________________________
Engaged _______________________________________________________
Provision _______________________________________________________
Off-site parts ____________________________________________________
Facilities _______________________________________________________
Contract _______________________________________________________
Turnkey project __________________________________________________
Start-up assistance _______________________________________________
Operator training ________________________________________________
Prime contractor _________________________________________________
Sub-contractor __________________________________________________
Joint venture ____________________________________________________
Consortium _____________________________________________________
Turnkey basis ___________________________________________________
Agreement _____________________________________________________
Owner _________________________________________________________
Dominant role ___________________________________________________
Share __________________________________________________________
Success ________________________________________________________

96

Lesson Nineteen
(19) Jobs*

Everyone sees their life through


their job. To the doctor, the world
is a hospital. To truck drivers, its a
road system.
Alasdair Gray, Scottish writer

Look at these jobs. Who do you think should get the highest salary for
these jobs? Put the jobs in order, highest salary first.

Lawyer
Nurse
Football star
Accountant

Which of the following would you like (

1 a lot of telephone work


2 writing lots of reports
3 working with the same people
4 working with a lot of different
people
5 working on your own

Fashion model
Postal worker
Teacher
Police officer

Advertising
executive
Air traffic controller

) or not like (

) in a job?

6 sharing an office
7 using English at work
8 working flexible hours (including
weekends)
9 casual dress
10 uniforms

Which is more important to you, a high salary or a job you enjoy?


Discuss in pairs and write your conclusions.

_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

*Lesson adapted from: COTTON, David, FALVEY, David, KENT, Simon. Market Leader. Essex:
Pearson Education Limited, 2004, pp. 106, 110

97

Exercise 19.2.Complete the first part of this advertisement with the verbs
from the box. Use the words in brackets to help you.
improve

lead

increase

set up

train

develop

KARADA MODE PLC


EUROPEAN MANAGER 50K + CAR
Are you the person we are looking for?
THE ROLE
We are looking for a talented person for this position. In this exciting job
you will need to:
Lead (1) a team of 25 (be in charge of)
_________ (2) a new branch in Amsterdam (start)
_________ (3) new staff (teach)
_________ (4) sales in all markets (make more)
_________ (5) new products (create)
_________ (6) communication between our head office and local
branches (make better)

Exercise 19.3. Complete the second part of the advertisement with the verbs from
the box.
deal with

organise

plan

manage

THE PERSON
In your present job you:
_________ (1) a large department in the clothing industry (control)
_________ (2) budgets (think about the future)
_________ (3) sales conferences and trade exhibitions (arrange)
_________ (4) customers, suppliers and their problems (take action)

98

Exercise 19.4.What skills or abilities do you think you need for your future
jobs? Use the verbs from exercises A and B.
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

Present Perfect Tense


Exercise 19.5. Match the job interview questions 1 to 5 with
their answers a) to e).
1. How many jobs have you had
since leaving university?____
2. Why have you changed jobs
so often? ____
3. What have you done that
shows leadership?____
4. In what ways has your job
changed since you joined the
company?____
5. Have you ever worked with a
difficult person?____

a) I now have more responsibility


and work longer hours.
b) Well, I lead the sales team. Im
also chairperson of a local
business association.
c) I wanted to earn more money.
d) Well, the boss in my last
company wasnt easy to work
with.
e) Ive worked for six companies.

Exercise 19.6.Complete these interview questions using the present perfect


form of the verbs in brackets.
1 How have you changed

(you change) over the last five years?

2 What other jobs ________________________ (you apply for) recently?


3 What ________________________ (you read) recently?
4 What kind of people ________________________ (you work) with?
5 What sort of bosses ________________________ (you have)?
6 What ________________________ (you learn) from other jobs?
7 What sorts of problems ________________________ (you have) to deal
with?
8 What ________________________ (you do) that shows leadership?

99

Exercise 19.7. Reading Comprehension.


Look at the CV (curriculum vitae) and put the headings from the box in
the correct place.

Interests

Key skills

Education

references

Work

experience

B
1
2
3
4
5
6

Mark each statement true or false.

Cristina Kramer studied in Brazil.


She has worked for two different companies.
She arranged seminars when she worked for Brazil instruments.
She was manager in Brazil instruments.
She has sold software in Sao Paulo.
She is interested in keeping fit.

100

Past simple and present perfect

We use the past simple to talk about completed actions that happened in the past.

I worked in Tokyo in 1990. (I now work in another place.)


We use the present perfect to talk about actions that continue from the past to the present.

He has worked in Berlin since 2008. (He still works there.)

http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/410/grammar/ppvpast.htm

Exercise 19.9.
Use the past simple or the present perfect form of the verbs in brackets to
complete the text.
I think I ______________ (have) an interesting career. I ______________
(study) at Oxford University from 2001 to 2005. Then I ______________
(apply) for jobs abroad. I ______________ (work) in Hong Kong for a year,
and then I ______________ (go) to Japan in 2007.
I ______________ (do) a number of different jobs.I ______________ (sell)
computer software, I ______________ (teach) English, I ______________
(write) a couple of books, and I _____________ (run) my own business.

Tick the expressions you can use to complete this sentence.


The manager has been here ______________.
Before
Twice
Last year
Since 2 oclock
Two weeks ago
Often
For two hours
This afternoon
At 2 oclock
Recently

101

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112

Anexo (1)
False Cognates
1.

an abstract: resumen (y no abstracto).

2.

actual: real, efectivo (y no actual, que se dice current)

3.

actually: en realidad (y no actualmente, que se dice nowadays, at


present)

4.

to advertise: anunciar (y no advertir, que se dice to warn)

5.

advice: consejo (y no aviso, que se dice warning, notice)

6.

application form: formulario de solicitud (y no formulario de aplicacin)

7.

to apologise: pedir disculpas (y no apologa, que se dice defence)

8.

apt: propenso (y no apto, que se dice qualified, able)

9.

argument: discusin, pelea (y no argumento de un libro/una pelcula,


que se dice plot)

10.

arena: estadio, plaza de toros (y no arena, que se dice sand)

11.

arm: brazo (y no arma, que se dice gun)

12.

army: ejrcito (y no armada, que se dice navy)

13.

assessment: evaluacin (y no asesora, que se dice consultancy)

14.

to assist: ayudar (y no asistir a un lugar, que se dice to attend)

15.

to attain: lograr, conseguir (y no atar, que se dice to tie)

16.

attempt: intento (y no atentado, que se dice terrorist attack)

17.

attendance: asistencia (y no atencin, que se dice attention)

18.

avocado: palta (y no abogado, que se dice lawyer)

19.

balloon: globo (y no baln, que se dice ball)

20.

bank: banco - la institucin (y no banco de plaza, que se dice bench)

21.

bark: ladrar o ladrido (y no barco, que se dice boat o ship)

22.

billet: acuartelamiento, alojamiento militar (y no billete, que se dice


ticket o note)

23.

billion: mil millones (y no billn, que se dice trillion)

24.

body: cuerpo (y no boda, que se dice wedding)

25.

brave: valiente (y no bravo, que se dice fierce)

26.

camp: base militar o campamento (y no campo en general, que se dice


field)

113

27.

carpet: alfombra (y no carpeta, que se dice folder)

28.

cartoon: dibujos animados, tira cmica (y no cartn, que se dice


cardboard)

29.

casualty: vctima o herido (y no casualidad, que se dice coincidence)

30.

cellular: celular, relativo a la clula (y no telfono celular, que se dice


cell phone or mobile telephone)

31.

collar: cuello de las prendas de vestir (y no collar, que se dice necklace)

32.

to collapse: hundirse (y no colapsar, que se dice to bring to a standstill)

33.

college: facultad, colegio universitario (y no colegio, que se dice school)

34.

commodity: mercanca o materia prima (y no comodidad, que se dice


comfort)

35.

to complain: quejarse (y no complacer, que se dice to please)

36.

complexion: tez, tono de la piel (y no complexin, que se dice body


type)

37.

to compromise: ceder, transigir, poner en peligro (y no compromiso,


que se dice commitment, engagement o agreement)

38.

conductor: director de orquesta (y no conductor, que se dice driver)

39.

confident: seguro de s mismo (y no confidente, que se dice confidant)

40.

contest: concurso (y no contestar, que se dice to answer)

41.

council: consejo (y no conciliar, que se dice to reconcile)

42.

crane: gra (y no crneo, que se dice skull)

43.

curse: maldicin (y no curso, que se dice course)

44.

date: fecha (y no dato, que se dice a piece of information o data)

45.

deception: engao (y no decepcin, que se dice disappointment)

46.

derogatory: despectivo (la palabra despective no existe en ingls)

47.

desperate: desesperado (y no despertar, que se dice to wake up)

48.

dessert: postre (y no desierto, que se dice desert)

49.

dinner: cena (y no dinero, que se dice money)

50.

discrete: diferenciado (y no discreto, que se dice discreet)

51.

diversion: desviacin (y no diversin, alegra, que se dice fun)

52.

dramatic: drstico, espectacular

53.

economics: economa (y no econmicos, que se dice cheap)

114

54.

embarrassed: avergonzado/a (y no embarazada, que se dice pregnant)

55.

eventual: definitivo o posible (y no eventual, que se dice casual,


incidental)

56.

eventually: finalmente, tarde o temprano (y no eventualmente que se


dice by chance, possibly)

57.

exit: salida (y no xito, que se dice success)

58.

fabric: tela (y no fbrica, que se dice factory)

59.

facility: instalacin-sports facilities, instalaciones deportivas - (y no


facilidad, que se dice ease)

60.

figure: cifra o dgito en Business English.

61.

form: formulario (y no forma, que se dice shape)

62.

fume: vapor o gas (y no fumar, que se dice smoke)

63.

to grab: agarrar, asir (y no grabar, que se dice to record)

64.

gracious: corts (y no gracioso, que se dice funny)

65.

grocery: tienda de comestibles (y no grosera, que se dice rudeness o


rude word/expression)

66.

horn: cuerno (y no horno, que se dice oven)

67.

idiom: modismo, locucin (y no idioma, que se dice language)

68.

influenza: gripe (y no influencia, que se dice influence)

69.

ingenuity: ingenio (y no ingenuidad, que se dice naivety)

70.

inhabitant: habitante (y no inhabitado, que se dice uninhabited)

71.

to intend: tener la intencin de (y no intentar, que se dice to try)

72.

intoxicated: ebrio (y no intoxicado, que se dice with food poisoning)

73.

involve: involucrar (y no envolver, que se dice wrap)

74.

large: grande (y no largo, que se dice long)

75.

lecture: conferencia (y no lectura, que se dice reading)

76.

lentil: lenteja (y no lente, que se dice contact lens)

77.

library: biblioteca (y no librera, que se dice bookshop)

78.

luxury: lujo (y no lujuria, que se dice lust)

79.

mayor: alcalde (y no mayor, que se dice bigger)

80.

media: medios de comunicacin (y no media, que se dice sock)

81.

misery: tristeza (y no miseria, que se dice poverty)

115

82.

to molest: abusar sexualmente (y no molestar, que se dice to bother o


to annoy)

83.

notice: nota, anuncio (y no noticia, que se dice a piece of news)

84.

occurrence: aparicin (y no ocurrencia, que se dice absurd idea)

85.

office: oficina (y no oficio, que se dice trade o job)

86.

once: una vez (y no once, que se dice eleven)

87.

oration: discurso ceremonial (y no oracin, que se dice sentence o


prayer)

88.

ordinary: comn (y no ordinario, que se dice vulgar)

89.

pan: cacerola, cazuela (y no pan, que se dice bread)

90.

parade: desfile (y no parada, que se dice stopl)

91.

parents: padres (y no parientes, que se dice relatives)

92.

pie: pastel (y no pie, que se dice foot)

93.

place: lugar (y no plaza, que se dice square)

94.

pendant: colgante de un collar (y no pendiente, que se dice earring)

95.

policy: poltica (y no polica, que se dice police)

96.

politic: diplomtico, corts o prudente (y no poltico, que se dice


politician)

97.

preservative: conservante (y no preservativo, que se dice condom)

98.

prize: premio (y no precio, que se dice price)

99.

to quit: abandonar, dejar (y no quitar, que se dice to remove o to put


away)

100.

recollection: recuerdo (y no recoleccin, que se dice harvest o


collection)

101.

regular: de tamao normal (y no regular, que se dice bad, not so good)

102.

relatives: parientes (y no relativos, que se dice relative (adjective))

103.

rope: cuerda, soga (y no ropa, que se dice clothes)

104.

rude: maleducado, descorts (y no rudo, que se dice rough)

105.

to realize: darse cuenta (y no realizar, que se dice to make)

106.

to record: grabar (y no recordar, que se dice to remember)

107.

to remove: quitar, eliminar (y no remover, que se dice to stir)

116

108.

to resume: reanudar, continuar o reasumir (y no resumir, que se dice


to summarize o to sum up)

109.

salad: ensalada (y no salado, que se dice salty)

110.

sane: cuerdo (y no sano, que se dice healthy)

111.

scallop: ostin (y no escalopa, que se dice escalope)

112.

sensible: sensato (y no sensible, que se dice sensitive)

113.

sensitive: sensible (y no sensitivo, que se dice related to the senses)

114.

signature: firma (y no asignatura, que se dice subject)

115.

sin: pecado (y no sin, que se dice without)

116.

soap: jabn (y no sopa, que se dice soup)

117.

socket: enchufe o toma de corriente (y no soquete, que se dice ankle


sock)

118.

spade: pala (y no espada, que se dice sword)

119.

to stir: revolver un lquido (y no estirar, que se dice to stretch)

120.

stranger: desconocido o forastero (y no extranjero, que se dice


foreigner)

121.

success: xito (y no suceso, que se dice event)

122.

support: apoyar (y no soportar, que se dice to put up with)

123.

sympathetic: comprensivo (y no simptico, que se dice nice, likeable)

124.

sympathy: compasin, comprensin, psame (y no simpata, que se


dice friendliness, affection)

125.

target: objetivo (y no tarjeta, que se dice card)

126.

tax: impuesto (y no taxi, que se dice taxi o cab)

127.

terrific: fenomenal, genial (y no terrorfico, que se dice terrifying)

128.

to traduce: calumniar (y no traducir, que se dice to translate)

129.

trait: rasgo (y no trato, que se dice deal o treatment)

130.

to translate: traducir (y no trasladarse, que se dice to move)

131.

tramp: vagabundo (y no trampa, que se dice trap)

132.

ultimate: final (y no ltimo, que se dice last)

133.

utility: (en caso de lux, agua, etc.) sevicio (y no utilidad, que se dice
serviceability)

134.

zealous: entusiasta (y no celoso, que se dice jealous)

117

Anexo (2)
Irregular plurals
There are many types of irregular plural, but these are the most common:
Noun type

Ends with fe

Forming the
plural
Change fe to
ves

examples

knife - knives
life - lives
wife wives

Ends with -f

Change f ves

half - halves
wolf - wolves
loaf loaves
leaf - leaves
calf - calves

Ends with -o

Add -es

potato - potatoes
tomato - tomatoes
volcano - volcanoes

ALL KINDS

Change the
vowel
or
Change the
word
or
Add a different
ending

man - men
foot - feet
person - people
tooth - teeth
mouse mice
louse - lice

Singular and
plural
are the same

sheep
deer
fish (sometimes)
means
series
species
offspring
hundred
thousand
million (sometimes)

0 Plural

118

Foreign
(us)

Foreign
(is)

Foreign (ix)

Foreign (eau)

Foreign
(um)

Foreign (a)

Change US -> I

Change IS ->
ES

alumnus
cactus
focus
fungus
nucleus
radius
stimulus

alumni
cacti
foci
fungi
nuclei
radii
stimuli

axis axes
analysis analyses
basis bases
crisis crises
diagnosis diagnoses
oasis oases
paralysis paralyses
ellipsis ellipses
hypothesis hypotheses
synthesis syntheses
synopsis synopses
thesis - theses

Change IX ->
ICES

appendix appendices
index indices
matrix - matrices

Add + x/s

beau beaux
bureau- bureaus/bureaux
tableau
tableaux/tableaus

Change -> A

bacterium bacteria
curriculum curricula
datum data
medium media
stratum strata
aquarium aquaria
symposium - symposia

Change -> AE

antenna
formula
nebula
vertebra

antennae
formulae
nebulae
vertebrae

119

vita vitae
alga - algae

Foreign (on)

Change -> A

phenomenon- phenomena
criterion criteria
automaton - automata

Special cases

Add + en

ox oxen
brother brethren
child - children

120

Anexo (3)
List of Irregular English Verbs (the most frequent).

Present

Past

Past
Participle

1.

be

was, were

been

2.

beat

beat

beaten

3.

become

became

become

4.

begin

began

begun

5.

blow

blew

blown

6.

break

broke

broken

7.

bring

brought

brought

8.

build

built

built

9.

burst

burst

burst

10.

buy

bought

bought

11.

catch

caught

caught

12.

choose

chose

chosen

13.

come

came

come

14.

cost

cost

cost

15.

cut

cut

cut

16.

deal

dealt

dealt

17.

dig

dug

dug

18.

do

did

done

19.

draw

drew

drawn

20.

drink

drank

drunk

21.

drive

drove

driven

22.

eat

ate

eaten

23.

fall

fell

fallen

24.

feed

fed

fed

25.

feel

felt

felt

26.

fight

fought

fought

27.

find

found

found

28.

fly

flew

flown

29.

forbid

forbade

forbidden

30.

forget

forgot

forgotten

31.

forgive

forgave

forgiven

Meaning in Spanish

121

32.

freeze

froze

frozen

33.

get

got

got

34.

give

gave

given

35.

go

went

gone

36.

grow

grew

grown

37.

hang

hung

hung

38.

have

had

had

39.

hear

heard

heard

40.

hide

hid

hidden

41.

hit

hit

hit

42.

hold

held

held

43.

hurt

hurt

hurt

44.

keep

kept

kept

45.

know

knew

known

46.

lay

laid

laid

47.

lead

led

led

48.

leave

left

left

49.

lend

lent

lent

50.

let

let

let

51.

lie

lay

lain

52.

lose

lost

lost

53.

make

made

made

54.

mean

meant

meant

55.

meet

met

met

56.

mistake

mistook

mistaken

57.

pay

paid

paid

58.

put

put

put

59.

quit

quit

quit

60.

read

read

read

61.

ride

rode

ridden

62.

ring

rang

rung

63.

rise

rose

risen

64.

run

ran

run

65.

say

said

said

66.

see

saw

seen

67.

seek

sought

sought

122

68.

sell

sold

sold

69.

send

sent

sent

70.

set

set

set

71.

shake

shook

shaken

72.

shine

shone

shone

73.

shoot

shot

shot

74.

shut

shut

shut

75.

sing

sang

sung

76.

sink

sank

sunk

77.

sit

sat

sat

78.

sleep

slept

slept

79.

speak

spoke

spoken

80.

spend

spent

spent

81.

spring

sprang

sprung

82.

stand

stood

stood

83.

steal

stole

stolen

84.

stick

stuck

stuck

85.

swear

swore

sworn

86.

sweep

swept

swept

87.

swim

swam

swum

88.

swing

swung

swung

89.

take

took

taken

90.

teach

taught

taught

91.

tear

tore

torn

92.

tell

told

told

93.

think

thought

thought

94.

throw

threw

thrown

95.

understand

understood

understood

96.

upset

upset

upset

wake

woke
(waked)

woken
(waked)

98.

wear

wore

worn

99.

win

won

won

100.

write

wrote

written

97.

123

Anexo (4)
Signal words for all tenses

TENSES

FUTURE
WILL

FORMS

will +
infinitive

EXAMPLES

My friend hopes
he'll get a good
job.

am
is + verb +-ing
are
PRESENT
PROGRESSIVE

SIMPLE
PRESENT

He is
writing letters of
application now.

SIGNAL
WORDS

FUNCTIONS

I hope,
I expect,
I believe
soon,
in the next few
days, next ,
in the future,
tomorrow,
this evening, in
a year

The "will-future" gives


expression to ...
...an action that will
take place in the future

now, just, at
the moment,
right now, still,
just now
Listen!, Look!

The "present
progressive" gives
expression to an action
that is going on at the
moment

He is applying for at 3 p.m.


the job at 3 p.m. tomorrow
tommorrow.

every day,
He
always, often,
always reads the normally,
vacancies in the
usually,
newspapers.
regularly,
he
sometimes,
occasionally,
she + verb +-s
First he reads the seldom, on
vacancies in the
Sundays, at
it
newspapers, then weekends
he does his work. never,
normally,
seldom,
The moon goes
if sentences
round the earth

...to a spontaneous
decision and/or
...to an action that
can't be planned (e.g.
weather).

The "present
progressive" gives
expression to an action
that is planned to
happen at a certain
date in the future
The "simple present"
gives expression to ...
- a repeated action
that often,
sometimes ...happens,
but not to an action
that is happening at
the moment (see
"present progressive").
- to a list of facts.

- to an "eternal truth".

124

and the
earth goes
round the sun.

type I (If I talk,


)
First... the,
afterwards

PRESENT
PERFECT

PAST

have, has
+ -ed or
+ 3 rd
form

verb + ed or
2nd
form

this week, this


month, this
year,
today,
already, ever,
just, never, not
He has
yet, so far, till
been unemployed now, up to now
for half a year.
since, for..,
...ever...?
...yet?
not... yet.
already, just,
recently, lately

The "present perfect"


gives expression to an
action that started in
the past and goes on in
the present.

yesterday, 2
minutes ago, in
1990, the other
day,
last week,
last month,
last ....
ago
Before(conj.)....

The "simple past" gives


expression to an action
that started in the past
and finished in the
past

He worked as a
lorry driver.

125