INDEX Acknowledgement Synopsis Organizational culture Strong culture Vs Weak culture Conclusion Motivation Process of motivation Case study

on starbucks Corporation Conclusion Bibliography 2 3 4 7 8 8 9 10 11 12

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We extend our heartfelt gratitude to Mr. Vimal Shukla, without whose able guidance and support, this project would have only been a vision.

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SYNOPSIS The assignment is about organizational culture and motivation. Organizational culture of a company is decides its success or failure. There is no set culture, it is the goal of the company, what they to want to achieve from the establishment. An organisation matches up the person with its culture whether the person is suitable for the organisation and can help the organisation to stretch. Motivation is the key for success of employees and organisation. If an employee has been motivated in the right direction, the employee will lead to development of the organisation.

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ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
Organizational culture; comprises the attitudes, experiences, beliefs and values of an organization. It has been defined as "the specific collection of values and norms that are shared by people and groups in an organization and that control the way they interact with each other and with stakeholders outside the organization. Organizational values are beliefs and ideas about what kinds of goals members of an organization should pursue and ideas about the appropriate kinds or standards of behaviour organizational members should use to achieve these goals. From organizational values develop organizational norms, guidelines or expectations that prescribe appropriate kinds of behaviour by employees in particular situations and control the behaviour of organizational members towards one another". In every organization, with period of time some systems or patterns of values, symbols, rituals, myths and practise have evolved. These shared values determine as to how the managers see and how they respond to it. When confronted with a problem, the organization’s culture restricts the manager suggesting the correct way-“the way we do things here”- to conceptualize, define, analyze and solve the problem. For example, the General Manager of Clarks Awadh recognized the constraining role that culture was playing in his efforts to get his managers to be less authoritarian. He noted that organization’s culture would have to become more democratic if it was going to succeed in the marketplace. Senior management try to determine a corporate culture. To try to impose values and standards lay down by the management which reflects the objectives of the organization. There are extent and internal culture within the workforce. Work-groups within the organization have their own behavioural quirks and interactions which, to an extent, affect the whole system. For example, computer technicians will have expertise, language and behaviours gained independently of the organization, but their presence can influence the culture of the organization as a whole. Though currently there is no definite method for measuring an organization’s culture. Here is an example showing different organizational culture of two different companies.

Company A

Company B

1. Rules and regulation that employees 1. Fewer rules and of the A Dominant Culture expresses the core values that are shared by a majorityregulation to be have to follow. followed. 2. Closely supervised by manager. 2. Management takes its employees 3. Employees instructed to get only honest, hard working, trust worthy unusual problems to the supervisors. so loose supervision. 4. Management has no confidence in 3. Employees are allowed to solve honesty of employees. problems on their own but liberty to consult supervisor. 4. Complete faith on the employees.
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These are characteristics which help to define its culture. They are-

There are characteristics which help the company to choose its culture. 1. Individual Initiative The degree to of responsibility, freedom and independence an employee enjoys. 2. Innovation & Risk Taking A level till employees is encouraged to be aggressive, innovative and risk seeking. 3. Direction A clear objective and performance expectations of the company. 4. Control The rules and regulation and the amount of supervision to oversee and control employee behaviour. 5. Identity The member indentify as a part of the organization rather considering in a group. 6. Reward System Basis on which reward given to an employee. 7. Conflict Tolerance The degrees to which employees are encourage not to consider or think about the conflicts and criticise openly. 8. Communication Pattern How the organization communicates with their subordinates, seniors or colleagues. The organizational culture differs from company to company and country to country. So I am going to discuss about the organizational culture of different companies from India, U.S.A and China. India Oberoi hotels- The Company was founded by Rai Bhadur Mohan Singh Oberoi in 1934. He bought his first hotel by his mentor Mr. Clarke. The name of the hotel was Clarkes Hotel. VISION • Their aim is to excel at leadership in the hospitality industry by understanding its guests, designing and delivering products and services which will enable it to exceed their expectations. They will always demonstrate care for their customers through

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anticipation of their needs, attention to detail, distinctive excellence, warmth and concern. • • • • • • • • Guests They are committed in meeting and exceeding the guest satisfaction level Employees They provide growth, development and welfare to their employees. Distinctiveness All the employees will continue the Oberoi tradition of pioneering in the hospitality industry and striving for unsurpassed excellence in high potential locations all the way from the Middle East to Asia Pacific. The shareholder To create extraordinary hike of the share for their shareholder. MARRIOTS- Was founded by J. Willard Marriott in 1927 when he and his wife opened a root beer stand in Washington D.C. Later they expanded their business to chains of hotels and restaurants. CULTURE Marriott's culture is driven by its core values. Their culture influences the way they treat their associates, customers, and the community which impacts their successes. In the words of J.W. Marriott, Jr., "Culture is the life-thread and glue that links our past, present, and future." • They provide fair treatment of associates and provide training and advancement to all They provide the staff to make decision making at any level and which accepts changes. They are committed and responsive to their guests and stakeholders. They see a multi skilled work force which consists of team players who have pride of ownership, translating organizational vision into reality. They provide their people learning and skill improvement, and they are respected, heard, and encouraged to do their best. They are recognized as a best practice for training and developing its people. They see a multinational workforce which are exposed to different cultures, problems, situations and can use its experiences to enrich the local employees whether in India or overseas. They want their hotels to be established in strategic commercial and resort locations. They enhance the value of their customers and employees providing a user-friendly technology and making information accessible. They are conscious of the role in community, supporting social needs and providing employment within local community. They are committed to environment, by using natural products and recycling items. MISSION

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Marriott's reputation for superior customer service rises out of a long tradition that started with J. Willard Marriott's simple goal for Hot Shoppes to provide "Good Food and Good Service at a Fair Price" -"Do Whatever it Takes to Take Care of the Customer", take care of customer, they will take care of the company - Extraordinary attention paid to detail -Take pride in their physical surroundings -Use their creativity to find new ways to meet the needs of customers The company actively supports the community and encourages associate volunteerism through a variety of organizations At Marriott, the perpetuation of a company's culture has a proven positive financial impact.


SHANGRI-LA HOTELPhilosophy Hospitality from Caring People Vision To be the First Choice for Customers, Employees, Shareholders and Business Partners Mission Delight their Customers Each and Every Time Strong v/s. Weak Culture Strong culture is when staff responds to stimulus because of their alignment to organizational values. There is weak culture where there is little alignment with organizational values and control must be exercised through extensive procedures and bureaucracy. Where culture is strong—people perform because they believe it is the right thing to do— there is a risk of another phenomenon, Groupthink. "Groupthink” defined by Irving L. Janis. He defined it as "...a quick and easy way to refer to a mode of thinking that people engage when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in group, when members' strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternatives of action." This is a state where people, even if they have different ideas, not challenge the organizational thinking, and therefore it reduces innovative thoughts. In fact groupthink is very common, it happens all the time in a group. Members that are defiant are often seen as a negative influence by the rest of the group, because they bring conflict. Innovative organizations need individuals who are prepared to challenge the organisation. Culture is strong or weak or in between depends on factors such as the size of the organization, how long it has been around, how much turnover there has been among the employees, and the intensity with which the culture was originated. CONCLUSION

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Understanding the organizational culture preferences of new recruitment is required in order to achieve a person-organization fit. It is the key to reduce job turnover and maintaining a devoted workforce. In addition, because all organizations socialize new hires (formally or informally) to understand “the way things are done around here,” a knowledge of preferences that are changeable—and those that are not. They provide a culture that provides employees autonomy and freedom to hone their skills and prepare themselves for higher ranks. They take their employees through to changes and challenges which help them to be perfect in their skills. They take their employees for recreational activities. Mariott has been rated No.1 Company to work with. Every company has different culture. These organizations offer a good culture and environment to their employees and employees are satisfied with these companies. MOTIVATION WHAT IS MOTIVATION? It is a general tendency to believe that motivation is a personal trait. Some people have it and the others don’t. Some are lazy because they do not display an outward sign of motivation. Individuals differ in their basic motivational drives depends upon the areas of interest. The concept of motivation is based upon situation and the level varies between different individuals at different times. DEFINING MOTIVATION Inspiring people to work individually, or in groups in the way it produces great result. It depends on the will of a person to act. Motivation is leading people to where they want to be. It was assumed that motivation has to be injected from outside. But now people are motivated with different forces and at different power. It is a general term applied to entire classes of drives, desires, need, wishes and similar forces. An important part of management tasks. To motivate the manager or a person should have good communication skills, to set an example for the staff.

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In the initiation a person starts feeling laciness. A lot of needs aroused so urgently, that the person is in search to satisfy the urgency. It leads to tension, which helps the person to forget everything and try to achieve the need first. The tension creates drives and attitude in context to satisfaction is desired. A person is set to collect information. At the end it leads to choose the best alternative and action is taken accordingly. It releases the tension of the person.

Case Study Starbucks Corporation, the famous chain of retail coffee shops, benefits from roasting, selling special coffee beans and various kinds of coffee or tea drinks. They own about 4000 branches in the whole world. It has been one of the rapid growing corporations. The reasons Starbucks is worldwide popular is not only the coffee, but also its customer service and cosy environment. Starbucks establish comfortable surroundings for people to socialize with a fair
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price, which attracts all range of ages’ consumers to get into the stores. Besides, it is also noted for its satisfaction of employees. How they motivate their staff Motivation Motivation is the vital factor in the company’s business for production. They don’t consider their labours as working machine, so they cannot perform with same passion and enthusiasm. The classical management approaches, some reports find out that the ways to motivate employees are not only money. Nicholson reported that “workers had strong social needs which they tried to satisfy through membership of informal social groups at work place”. If managers provide a suitable working atmosphere considering each personal requirement and their sense of satisfaction instead of higher salary or bonus, workers were encouraged to be more hard-working and efficient. The success story of Starbucks lies in their employees not in their coffee. Their coffee has taste but employees took it to one level up. Equal treatment Their success lies in equality. The staff members are treated equally and all staff members are called partner. Managers and employees work with basic level staff. With the help of this they have maintained a well management system and closer and familiar atmosphere in the organization. Listen They have maintained a good channel of communication for employees. The managers make duty roaster according to the needs and problems of the employee. Interview is taken weekly to understand the employees need. They try to make changes accordingly and make the employee satisfied with the organization. Welfare measures To motivate their employees the company gives commodities discount, medical insurance and vacations. They give bonuses to the employee according to their working hours. Starbucks also allocate stock dividend to all employees with a free scrip issue. The employees can get benefits from the dividends of company. It helped to create and achieve the same goal; in other words, motivated to increase the sales to earn more profits. Starbucks considers its staff to be an important and it is followed to the core. Showing a respect to employees and well-developed environment lead Starbucks to produce the best working quality for customers and an increase in profits. Qualities in a manager to motivate the staff(1) Treat staff well: Subordinates have to be treated delicately. The manager has to be friendly as well as maintain a level of distance with his staff. The staffs take the manager as their leader. They expect maturity, rationality and understanding from their superiors. Simple things like calling people by their first name, chatting about their families for a while etc.

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Example- during peak time one of the waiters drops the main course of the guest. The manager should not shout on him. He should ask him about his problem if he is facing and at the last he should cheer up the waiter. (2) Think like a winner: Think like a winner even when all the odds seem against a manager. Manager should possess tools of a winner. Always remember that winning and losing rotate in a cycle. If manager has been losing for a long time then manager is very near the winning end. (3) Recognize the differences: All the employees in the organization vibrate to a different pace. A treatment that motivates one may de-motivation the other. Understanding the difference in temperament in between the individuals is important. 4) Set realistic goals: Set easy and achievable goals. Setting too high goals, it makes a task create a feeling of nonachievement, right from the beginning itself. The goals set should seem feasible to the staff. (5) Avoid De-motivation: Manager’s job is to motivate people. At rare cases punishing and penalizing should be done by the manager. This might affect the mind of the staff and will lead a downfall in productivity. Care should be taken, that punishment and penalties are used as a controlling technique and that they do not de-motivation. (6) Non-financial rewards: Monetary rewards have always been a high motivational capacity for employees. But nonmonetary rewards are equally helpful. Example- thank you note, a letter of appreciation or even few words of praise can help smoothen the creases between the different levels of management. Theory According to me the company follows these theoriesContribution of Robert Owen Owen’s owned a textile mill in Scotland and he used to treat his employees in a novel way. He said that people are like machines. A machine which is looked after properly, maintained and cared, performs efficiently, lasts for years and reliable. People or employees are the same and more efficient if the owner of the company takes care of the employees then they will take care of the company. Star bucks take care of the employees and the employees take care of them. They give their people discount, medical insurance etc. which helps the employees satisfied with their jobs. That is why they have achieved great heights. Abraham Maslow’s “Need Hierarchy Theory”: One of the most widely mentioned theories of motivation is the hierarchy of needs theory put forth by psychologist Abraham Maslow. Maslow saw human needs in the form of a hierarchy, ascending from the lowest to the highest, and he concluded that when one set of needs is satisfied, this kind of need ceases to be a motivator. As per his theory this needs are : (i) Physiological needs :
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These are important needs for sustaining the human life. Food, water, warmth, shelter, sleep, medicine and education are the basic physiological needs which fall in the primary list of need satisfaction. Maslow was of an opinion that until these needs were satisfied to a degree to maintain life, no other motivating factors can work. (ii) Security or Safety needs : These are the needs to be free of physical danger and of the fear of losing a job, property, food or shelter. It also includes protection against any emotional harm. (iii) Social needs : Since people are social beings, they need to belong and be accepted by others. People try to satisfy their need for affection, acceptance and friendship. (iv) Esteem needs : According to Maslow, once people begin to satisfy their need to belong, they tend to want to be held in esteem both by themselves and by others. This kind of need produces such satisfaction as power, prestige status and self-confidence. It includes both internal esteem factors like self-respect, autonomy and achievements and external esteem factors such as states, recognition and attention. (v) Need for self-actualization : Maslow regards this as the highest need in his hierarchy. It is the drive to become what one is capable of becoming, it includes growth, achieving one’s potential and self-fulfillment. It is to maximize one’s potential and to accomplish something.

(Source- http://www.laynetworks.com/Theories-of-Motivation.html) I chose these theories because they follow these principles with their employees. They provide them with medical insurance, plan duty roaster according to their needs. The company is with the employees at every level which makes the employees more devoted in their work. Maslaw’s need hierarchy theory holds good here. The existence needs of the employees are met, they move up the level of hierarchy. For an employee, who has joined the organization recently, satisfaction of social needs hold more
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significance than the contentment of esteem needs, for an employee who has been working with the organization for quite some time.

Conclusion According to the case of Starbucks, motivation is the key policy of company and this key factor helped to reach them at a height. They ask for suggestion from their employees. They follow a management for labours in which they included financial and emotional rewards. There priority is motivation and personal satisfaction towards their employees. They have followed a good relationship with their employees. They chose to stand with their employees and it is a right strategy which led company to a successful path to achieve its goals set by the organization.
Bibliography http://www.new-paradigm.co.uk/Culture.htm#Case%20Stduies http://findarticles.com/p/search/?qta=0&qt=case+studies%20on %20motivation&tb=art&qf=all&x=0&y=0 http://www.laynetworks.com/Theories-of-Motivation.html www.tutor2u.com http://tutor2u.net/business/gcse/people_motivation_theories.htm http://www.freeonlineresearchpapers.com/starbucks-case-study www.wikipedia.com www.britanica.com www.wikibooks.com www.marriots.com www.oberoihotels.com www.shangri-la.com

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