Productivity & Quality Management
Production systems represent knowledge in the form of facts and rules, and there is almost always a sharp syntactic distinction between the two There are four common types of basic production systems: the batch system, the continuous system, the project system and Mass system. In the batch system, generalpurpose equipment and methods are used to produce small quantities of output (goods or services) with specifications that vary greatly from one batch to the next.
1. Batch System
Batch System is a computer software job scheduler that allocates network resources to batch jobs. It can schedule jobs to execute on networked, multi-platform UNIX environments.
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2. Project System
Both large scale projects, such as building a factory, and small-scale projects, such as organizing a trade fair, require precise planning of the many detailed activities involved. The project manager has the job of ensuring that the project is executed efficiently, on time, and within budget - which he or she achieves by ensuring that the required resources and funds are available as and when needed.
Productivity & Quality Management
Projects are generally part of the internal processes of a company. To be able to control all tasks in project execution, you need an organizational form that is specific to the project and which is shared by all departments involved. Before you can carry out a project in its entirety, the project goals must be precisely described and the project activities to be carried out must be structured. A clear, unambiguous project structure is the basis for successful project planning, monitoring, and control. You structure your project per the following points of view:
• By structures, using a work breakdown structure (WBS)
By process, using individual activities (work packages
Overhead cost projects Capital investment projects
Project managers usually distinguish between two types of project:
• • • Externally financed projects Customer projects Internally financed projects • •
3. Mass production
(Also called flow production, repetitive flow production, or series production) is the production of large amounts of standardized products on production lines. It was popularized by Henry Ford in the early 20th Century, notably in his Ford Model T. Mass production typically uses moving tracks or conveyor belts to move partially complete products to workers, who perform simple repetitive tasks to permit very high rates of production per worker, allowing the high-volume manufacture of inexpensive finished goods. Mass production is capital intensive, as it uses a high proportion of machinery in relation to workers. With fewer labors costs and a faster rate of production, capital is increased while expenditure is decreased. However the machinery that is needed to set up a mass production line is so expensive that there must be some assurance that the product is to be successful so the company can get a return on its investment. Machinery for mass production such as robots and machine presses has high installation costs as well.
Establishing a Mass Production System
Except for Toyota and Fuji Seimitsu, Japanese manufacturers had, since 1953, produced cars through tie-ups with overseas manufacturers, as we have seen with the Nissan Austin, the Isuzu Hillman, and the Hino Renault. But beginning in 1955, while Japanese manufacturers were acquiring the necessary technologies and starting to produce cars that were entirely domestically made, there were already moves to discontinue these tie-up arrangements. Nissan ceased production of Austin cars in 1959, and when Hino and Isuzu followed suit in 1965, the same year that passenger car imports were liberalized, the "era of technological tie-ups" finally came to an end.
Productivity & Quality Management
4. Continuous System
Continuous System Simulation describes systematically and methodically how mathematical models of dynamic systems, usually described by sets of either ordinary or partial differential equations possibly coupled with algebraic equations, can be simulated on a digital computer. Continuous System Simulation is written by engineers for engineers, introducing the partly symbolical and partly numerical algorithms that drive the process of simulation in terms that are familiar to simulation practitioners with an engineering background, and yet, the text is rigorous in its approach and comprehensive in its coverage, providing the reader with a thorough and detailed understanding of the mechanisms that govern the simulation of dynamical systems.
Multi-stage continuous system for production of heteropolysaccharides.
A multi-stage continuous system for producing heteropolysaccharides. The system comprises: a fermentation stage consisting of an outer enzyme/nutrient containing chamber in which a membrane microbial growth chamber is movably mounted, the growth chamber being arranged to continuously produce Xanthomonas campestris cells in the late exponential-early stationary phase of growth and transfer polymerizing exoenzymes and cell lysate therefrom into the surrounding medium of the enzyme/nutrient chamber and to retain the Xanthomonas campestris cells; and a polymerization state consisting of at least one module to receive the exo-enzymes and cell lysate from the fermentation stage to produce heteropolysaccharides.
The Toyota Production System (TPS) is the philosophy which organizes
manufacturing and logistics at Toyota, including the interaction with suppliers and customers. The TPS is a major part of the more generic "Lean manufacturing". It was largely created by the founder of Toyota, Sakichi Toyoda, his son Kiichiro Toyoda, and the engineer Taiichi Ohno; they drew heavily on the work of W. Edwards Deming and the writings of Henry Ford. When these men came to the United States to observe the assembly line and mass production that had made Ford rich, they were unimpressed. While shopping in a supermarket they observed the simple idea of an automatic drink resupplier; when the customer wants a drink, he takes one, and another replaces it. The main goals of the TPS are to design out overburden (muri), smooth production (mura) and eliminate waste (muda). There are 7 kinds of muda targeted in the TPS: • over-production • processing itself • motion (of operator or machine) • inventory (raw material) • waiting (of operator or machine) • correction (rework and scrap) • conveyance
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