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PHYSICS
1.

Physics and Measurement........................................................................................................................................................1

2.

Kinematics ....................................................................................................................................................................................3

3.

Laws of Motion ............................................................................................................................................................................9

4.

Work, Energy and Power........................................................................................................................................................14

5.

Rotational Motion......................................................................................................................................................................20

6.

Gravitation..................................................................................................................................................................................26

7.

Properties of Solids and Liquids ............................................................................................................................................30

8.

Thermodynamics.......................................................................................................................................................................37

9.

Kinetic Theory of Gases ..........................................................................................................................................................42

10. Oscillations and Waves...........................................................................................................................................................44


11. Electrostatics ..............................................................................................................................................................................54
12. Current Electricity......................................................................................................................................................................64
13. Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism ........................................................................................................................72
14. Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents ...........................................................................................................79
15. Electromagnetic W aves...........................................................................................................................................................86
16. Optics ..........................................................................................................................................................................................88
17. Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation....................................................................................................................................94
18. Atoms and Nuclei.....................................................................................................................................................................99
19. Electronic Devices..................................................................................................................................................................106
20. Experimental Skills................................................................................................................................................................... 111

CHEMISTRY
1.

Some Basic Concepts in Chemistry ........................................................................................................................................1

2.

States of Matter ...........................................................................................................................................................................3

3.

Atomic Structure ..........................................................................................................................................................................7

4.

Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure ..........................................................................................................................11

5.

Chemical Thermodynamics.....................................................................................................................................................16

6.

Solutions .....................................................................................................................................................................................22

7.

Equilibrium ..................................................................................................................................................................................28

8.

Redox Reactions and Electrochemistry................................................................................................................................35

9.

Chemical Kinetics.....................................................................................................................................................................41

10. Surface Chemistry....................................................................................................................................................................45


11. Nuclear Chemistry....................................................................................................................................................................47
12. Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties...................................................................................................49

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13. General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Metals ..................................................................................................53
14. Hydrogen....................................................................................................................................................................................55
15. sBlock Elements......................................................................................................................................................................57
16. pBlock Elements......................................................................................................................................................................59
17. d and fBlock Elements ..........................................................................................................................................................65
18. Coordination Compounds........................................................................................................................................................70
19. Environmental Chemistry .........................................................................................................................................................74
20. Purification and Characterisation of Organic Compounds .................................................................................................76
21. Some Basic Principles of Organic Chemistry ......................................................................................................................78
22. Hydrocarbons .............................................................................................................................................................................82
23. Organic Compounds Containing Halogens ...........................................................................................................................87
24. Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers................................................................................................................................................91
25. Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids...........................................................................................................................95
26. Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen............................................................................................................................99
27. Polymers ...................................................................................................................................................................................101
28. Biomolecules ............................................................................................................................................................................103
29. Chemistry in Everyday Life...................................................................................................................................................107
30. Principles Related to Practical Chemistry..........................................................................................................................109

MATHEMATICS
1.

Sets, Relations and Functions ..................................................................................................................................................1

2.

Complex Numbers......................................................................................................................................................................7

3.

Matrices and Determinants.....................................................................................................................................................12

4.

Quadratic Equations .................................................................................................................................................................19

5.

Permutations and Combinations .............................................................................................................................................24

6.

Mathematical Induction and its Application..........................................................................................................................28

7.

Binomial Theorem .....................................................................................................................................................................30

8.

Sequences and Series .............................................................................................................................................................34

9.

Differential Calculus ..................................................................................................................................................................40

10. Integral Calculus.......................................................................................................................................................................52


11. Differential Equations...............................................................................................................................................................63
12. Two Dimensional Geometry....................................................................................................................................................67
13. Three Dimensional Geometry .................................................................................................................................................82
14. Vector Algebra ...........................................................................................................................................................................90
15. Statistics.....................................................................................................................................................................................96
16. Probability .................................................................................................................................................................................100
17. Trigonometry ............................................................................................................................................................................105
18. Mathematical Logic .................................................................................................................................................................. 111

S Y L L A B U S
PHYSICS
SECTION A
Unit1:PhysicsandMeasurement
Physics,technologyandsociety,S.I.units,fundamentalandderivedunits,leastcount,accuracyandprecisionofmeasuring
instruments, errors in measurement.
Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.
Unit2:Kinematics
Frame ofreference, motionin astraightline:positiontime graph, speedandvelocity,uniform andnonuniform motion,
average speed and instantaneous velocity.
Uniformly accelerated motion, velocitytime, positiontime graphs, relations for uniformly accelerated motion.
Scalars andvectors, vector addition andsubtraction, zero vector, scalar and vector products, unit vector,resolution of
a vector, relative velocity, motion in a plane,projectile motion, uniform circular motion.
Unit3:LawsofMotion
Forceandinertia,Newtonsfirstlawofmotion,momentum,Newtonssecondlawofmotion,impulse,Newtonsthirdlaw
ofmotion, law of conservationof linearmomentumand its applications, equilibrium of concurrent forces.
Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction.
Dynamics of uniform circular motion: centripetal force and its applications.
Unit4:Work,EnergyandPower
Work done by a constant force and avariable force, kineticand potential energies,workenergy theorem, power.
Potential energyofaspring, conservation ofmechanical energy, conservativeandnonconservativeforces, elasticand
inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.
Unit5: RotationalMotion
Centreofmassofatwoparticlesystem,centreofmassofarigidbody,basicconceptsofrotationalmotion,momentof
a force,torque,angular momentum, conservationof angular momentum andits applications, moment ofinertia, radius
ofgyration, valuesof momentsof inertia forsimple geometrical objects, parallel andperpendicularaxestheoremsand
their applications.
Rigid body rotation, equations of rotational motion.
Unit6:Gravitation
The universal law of gravitation.
Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth.
Keplers laws of planetary motion.
Gravitational potential energy, gravitational potential.
Escape velocity, orbital velocity of a satellite, geostationary satellites.
Unit7:PropertiesofSolidsandLiquids
Elastic behaviour, stressstrain relationship, Hookes law, Youngs modulus, bulk modulus, modulus of rigidity.
Pressure due to a fluid column, Pascals law and its applications.
Viscosity, Stokess law, terminal velocity, streamline and turbulent flow, Reynolds number, Bernoullis principle and its
applications.
For latest information refer prospectus 2014

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Surfaceenergyandsurfacetension,angleofcontact,applicationofsurfacetensiondrops,bubblesandcapillaryrise.
Heat, temperature, thermal expansion, specificheat capacity,calorimetry, change of state, latent heat.
Heat transferconduction, convection and radiation, Newtons law of cooling.
Unit8:Thermodynamics
Thermalequilibrium,zerothlaw ofthermodynamics,conceptoftemperature,heat,workandinternalenergy,firstlaw of
thermodynamics.
Second law of thermodynamics, reversible and irreversible processes, Carnotengine and its efficiency.
Unit9:KineticTheoryofGases
Equation ofstate of aperfectgas,workdone on compressinga gas.
Kinetictheoryofgasesassumptions,conceptofpressure,kineticenergyandtemperature,rmsspeedofgasmolecules,
degrees of freedom, law of equipartition of energy, applications to specific heat capacities of gases, mean free path,
Avogadros number.
Unit10:OscillationsandWaves
Periodicmotionperiod,frequency,displacementasafunctionoftime,periodicfunctions,simpleharmonicmotion(S.H.M.)
anditsequation,phase,oscillationsofaspringrestoringforceandforceconstant,energyinS.H.M.kineticandpotential
energies,simplependulumderivationofexpressionforitstimeperiod,free,forcedanddampedoscillations,resonance.
Wavemotion,longitudinalandtransversewaves,speedofawave,displacementrelationforaprogressivewave,principle
ofsuperpositionofwaves,reflectionofwaves,standingwavesinstringsandorganpipes,fundamentalmodeandharmonics,
beats, Doppler effect in sound.
Unit11:Electrostatics
Electriccharges,conservationofcharge,Coulombslawforcesbetweentwopointcharges,forcesbetweenmultiplecharges,
superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.
Electricfield,electricfieldduetoapointcharge,electricfield lines,electricdipole,electricfieldduetoadipole,torque
ona dipole in a uniform electric field.
Electricflux,Gaussslawanditsapplicationstofindfieldduetoinfinitelylong,uniformlychargedstraightwire,uniformly
charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell.
Electric potential and its calculation for a point charge, electric dipole and system of charges, equipotential surfaces,
electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges in an electrostatic field.
Conductorsandinsulators,dielectricsandelectricpolarization,capacitor,combinationofcapacitorsinseriesandinparallel,
capacitanceofaparallelplatecapacitorwithandwithoutdielectricmediumbetweentheplates,energystoredinacapacitor.
Unit12:CurrentElectricity
Electric current, drift velocity, Ohms law, electrical resistance, resistances of different materials,
VIcharacteristicsofohmicandnonohmicconductors,electricalenergyandpower,electricalresistivity,colourcodefor
resistors, series and parallel combinations of resistors, temperature dependence of resistance.
Electriccellanditsinternalresistance,potentialdifferenceandemfofacell,combinationofcellsinseriesandinparallel.
Kirchhoffs laws and their applications, Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge.
Potentiometer principle and its applications.
Unit13:MagneticEffects ofCurrentandMagnetism
Biot Savart law andits application to current carrying circular loop.
Amperes law and its applications to infinitely long current carrying straight wire and solenoid.
Force on a moving charge in uniformmagneticand electric fields, cyclotron.
Force on a currentcarrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field, force between two parallel currentcarrying
conductorsdefinitionofampere,torqueexperiencedbyacurrentloopinuniformmagneticfield,movingcoilgalvanometer,
its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.

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Currentloopasamagneticdipoleanditsmagneticdipolemoment,barmagnetasanequivalentsolenoid,magneticfield
lines,earths magnetic field and magnetic elements, para, dia and ferromagnetic substances .
Magnetic susceptibility and permeability, hysteresis, electromagnets and permanent magnets.
Unit 14: ElectromagneticInduction andAlternating Currents
Electromagneticinduction,Faradayslaw,inducedemfandcurrent,Lenzslaw,Eddycurrents,selfandmutualinductance.
Alternating currents,peak and rms value of alternating current/ voltage, reactance andimpedance, LCR series circuit,
resonance, quality factor, power inAC circuits, wattless current.
ACgenerator andtransformer.
Unit15:ElectromagneticWaves
Electromagneticwavesandtheircharacteristics,transversenatureofelectromagneticwaves,electromagneticspectrum
(radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, Xrays,gamma rays).Applications ofelectromagnetic waves.
Unit16:Optics
Reflection and refraction of light at plane and spherical surfaces, mirror formula, total internal reflection and its
applications, deviation and dispersion of light by a prism, lens formula, magnification, power of a lens, combination of
thin lenses in contact, microscope and astronomical telescope (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.
WaveopticswavefrontandHuygensprinciple,lawsofreflectionandrefractionusingHuygensprinciple,interference,
Youngs double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light,
diffractiondueto asingleslit,width ofcentralmaximum,resolving powerofmicroscopesand astronomicaltelescopes,
polarisation, plane polarized light, Brewsters law, uses of plane polarized light and polaroids.
Unit17:DualNatureofMatterandRadiation
Dualnatureofradiation,photoelectriceffect,HertzandLenardsobservations,Einsteinsphotoelectricequation,particle
nature of light.
Matter waveswave nature of particle, de Broglie relation, DavissonGermer experiment.
Unit18:AtomsandNuclei
Alphaparticle scattering experiment, Rutherfords model ofatom, Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.
Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars, isotones, radioactivityalpha, beta and gamma
particles/raysandtheirproperties,radioactivedecaylaw,massenergyrelation,massdefect,bindingenergypernucleon
and its variation with mass number, nuclear fission and fusion.
Unit19:ElectronicDevices
Semiconductors,semiconductordiode IV characteristicsinforwardandreversebias,diodeasarectifier, IV characteristics
of LED, photodiode, solar cell. Zener diode, Zener diode as a voltage regulator, junction transistor, transistor action,
characteristics of atransistor, transistor as anamplifier(common emitter configuration) and oscillator,logic gates (OR,
AND,NOT,NANDandNOR), transistorasaswitch.
Unit 20: Communication Systems
Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation, need for modulation,
amplitude and frequency modulation, bandwidth of signals, bandwidth of transmission medium, basic elements of a
communication system (Block Diagram only).

SECTION B
Unit21:ExperimentalSkills
Familiarity with the basic approach and observations of the experiments and activities:
l Vernier callipersits useto measure internal andexternal diameter and depthof a vessel.
l Screw gaugeits use to determine thickness/diameter of thin sheet/wire.
l Simple Pendulumdissipation of energyby plotting agraph between square of amplitude and time.

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MetreScalemassof agivenobjectbyprinciple ofmoments.


Youngs modulus of elasticityof the material of a metallic wire.
Surfacetension of water by capillary rise and effect of detergents.
Coefficient of Viscosityof a given viscous liquid by measuring terminal velocity of a given spherical body.
Plotting a cooling curve for the relationshipbetween the temperature of a hot body and time.
Speed of sound in air at roomtemperature usinga resonance tube.
Specific heat capacity of a given (i) solid and (ii) liquidby method of mixtures.
Resistivityof the material ofa given wire using metre bridge.
Resistance of a given wire using Ohms law.
Potentiometer:
(i) Comparisonofemfoftwoprimarycells.
(ii) Determination of internal resistance of a cell.
Resistance and figureof merit of a galvanometer byhalfdeflection method.
Focal length of:
(i) Convex mirror (ii) Concave mirror and (iii) Convex lens using parallax method.
Plot ofangle ofdeviationvs angle of incidence for a triangular prism.
Refractive index of a glass slab using a travelling microscope.
Characteristic curvesof a pn junction diode in forward and reverse bias.
Characteristic curves ofa Zener diode and finding reverse break down voltage.
Characteristic curves of a transistor and finding current gain and voltage gain.
Identification of Diode, LED,Transistor, IC,Resistor,Capacitor from mixed collection of such items.
Using multimeter to:
(i) Identify base of a transistor
(ii) Distinguish between npn and pnp type transistor
(iii) See the unidirectional flow ofcurrent in case of a diode and an LED.
(iv) Check the correctness or otherwiseof a given electronic component(diode, transistor or IC).

CHEMISTRY
SECTION A(Physical Chemistry)
UNIT 1: SOME BASIC CONCEPTS IN CHEMISTRY
Matter and its nature, Daltons atomic theory, concept of atom, molecule, element and compound, physical quantities
and their measurements in chemistry, precision and accuracy, significant figures, S.I. units, dimensional analysis, Laws
of chemical combination, atomic and molecular masses, mole concept, molar mass, percentage composition, empirical
and molecular formulae, chemical equations and stoichiometry.
UNIT2:STATESOFMATTER
Classification of matter into solid, liquid and gaseous states.
GaseousStateMeasurablepropertiesofgases,GaslawsBoyleslaw,Charleslaw,Grahamslawofdiffusion,Avogadros
law,Daltonslawofpartialpressure,conceptofabsolutescaleoftemperature,Idealgasequation,kinetictheoryofgases
(only postulates), conceptof average,root meansquare andmost probablevelocities, realgases, deviationfrom Ideal
behaviour, compressibility factor, van der Waals equation.
LiquidState Properties ofliquidsvapour pressure,viscosityandsurfacetensionandeffectof temperatureonthem
(qualitative treatment only).
Solid State Classification of solids molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids
(elementary idea), Braggs Lawand its applications, unit cell and lattices, packing in solids (fcc,bcc and hcp lattices),
voids, calculations involving unit cell parameters, imperfection in solids, electrical, magnetic and dielectric properties.

ix

UNIT3:ATOMICSTRUCTURE
Thomson and Rutherford atomic models and their limitations, nature of electromagnetic radiation, photoelectric effect,
spectrumofhydrogenatom,Bohr modelof hydrogenatom itspostulates,derivation ofthe relationsforenergy ofthe
electronandradiiofthedifferentorbits,limitationsofBohrsmodel,dualnatureofmatter,deBrogliesrelationship,Heisenberg
uncertaintyprinciple,elementaryideasofquantummechanics,quantummechanicalmodelofatom,itsimportantfeatures,
concept of atomic orbitals as oneelectron wave functions, variation of Y and Y 2 with r for 1s and 2s orbitals, various
quantumnumbers(principal,angularmomentumandmagneticquantumnumbers)andtheirsignificance,shapesof s, p
and d orbitals,electron spinand spin quantum number,rules forfilling electrons inorbitals Aufbauprinciple, Paulis
exclusionprincipleandHundsrule,electronicconfigurationofelements,extrastabilityofhalffilledandcompletelyfilled
orbitals.
UNIT4:CHEMICALBONDINGANDMOLECULARSTRUCTURE
Kossel Lewis approach tochemical bond formation, concept of ionic and covalent bonds.
IonicBondingFormationofionicbonds, factorsaffectingtheformationofionicbonds, calculationoflatticeenthalpy.
Covalent Bonding concept of electronegativity, Fajans rule, dipole moment, Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion
(VSEPR)theory and shapes of simple molecules.
Quantummechanicalapproachtocovalentbonding valencebondtheoryitsimportantfeatures,conceptofhybridization
involving s, p and d orbitals, Resonance.
MolecularOrbitalTheoryitsimportantfeatures,LCAOs,typesofmolecularorbitals(bonding,antibonding),sigmaand
pibonds, molecular orbital electronic configurations of homonuclear diatomic molecules, concept of bond order, bond
length and bond energy.
Elementary idea of metallic bonding, hydrogen bonding and its applications.
UNIT5:CHEMICALTHERMODYNAMICS
Fundamentals of thermodynamics: system and surroundings, extensive and intensive properties, state functions, types
of processes.
FirstlawofthermodynamicsConceptofwork,heatinternalenergyandenthalpy,heatcapacity,molarheatcapacity,
Hessslawofconstantheatsummation,enthalpiesofbonddissociation,combustion,formation,atomization,sublimation,
phase transition, hydration, ionization and solution.
Second law of thermodynamics Spontaneity of processes, DS of theuniverse and DG of the systemas criteriafor
spontaneity, DG (standard Gibbs energy change) and equilibrium constant.
UNIT6:SOLUTIONS
Differentmethodsforexpressingconcentrationofsolutionmolality,molarity,molefraction,percentage(byvolumeand
massboth),vapourpressureofsolutionsandRaoultslawIdealandnonidealsolutions,vapourpressurecomposition
plots for ideal and nonideal solutions, colligative properties of dilute solutions relative lowering of vapour pressure,
depression of freezing point, elevation of boiling point and osmotic pressure, determination of molecular mass using
colligative properties, abnormal value ofmolar mass, vant Hoff factor and itssignificance.
UNIT7:EQUILIBRIUM
Meaning of equilibrium, concept of dynamic equilibrium.
Equilibria involving physical processes Solid liquid, liquid gas and solid gas equilibria, Henrys law, general
characteristics of equilibrium involving physical processes.
Equilibria involving chemical processes Law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constants
(KpandKc)andtheirsignificance,significanceof
DG and DGinchemicalequilibria,factorsaffectingequilibriumconcentration,

pressure, temperature, effect of catalyst, Le Chateliers principle.


IonicequilibriumWeakandstrongelectrolytes,ionizationofelectrolytes,variousconceptsofacidsandbases(Arrhenius,
Bronsted Lowry and Lewis) and their ionization, acid base equilibria (including multistage ionization) and ionization

constants, ionization of water, pH scale, common ion effect, hydrolysis of salts and pH of their solutions, solubility of
sparingly soluble salts and solubility products, buffer solutions. .
UNIT8:REDOXREACTIONSANDELECTROCHEMISTRY
Electronicconceptsofoxidationandreduction,redoxreactions,oxidationnumber,rulesforassigningoxidationnumber,
balancing of redox reactions.
Electrolytic and metallic conduction, conductance in electrolytic solutions, molar conductivities and their variation with
concentration: Kohlrauschs law and its applications.
Electrochemicalcellselectrolyticandgalvaniccells,differenttypesofelectrodes,electrodepotentialsincludingstandard
electrode potential, half cell and cell reactions, emf of a galvanic cell and its measurement, Nernst equation and its
applications, relationship between cell potential and Gibbs energy change, dry cell and lead accumulator, fuel cells.
UNIT9:CHEMICALKINETICS
Rate of a chemical reaction, factors affecting the rate of reactions concentration, temperature,pressure and catalyst,
elementary andcomplex reactions,order and molecularityof reactions,ratelaw, rateconstantand itsunits, differential
andintegralformsofzeroandfirstorderreactions,theircharacteristicsandhalflives,effectoftemperatureonrateof
reactions Arrheniustheory, activation energy and itscalculation, collision theory of bimolecular gaseous reactions(no
derivation).
UNIT10:SURFACECHEMISTRY
AdsorptionPhysisorptionandchemisorption andtheircharacteristics,factorsaffectingadsorption ofgasesonsolids,
Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms, adsorption from solutions.
Catalysis Homogeneousandheterogeneous,activityandselectivityofsolidcatalysts,enzymecatalysisanditsmechanism.
Colloidalstatedistinctionamongtruesolutions,colloidsandsuspensions,classificationofcolloidslyophilic,lyophobic,
multimolecular,macromolecularandassociatedcolloids(micelles),preparationandpropertiesofcolloidsTyndalleffect,
Brownian movement, electrophoresis, dialysis, coagulation and flocculation, emulsions and their characteristics.
SectionB(InorganicChemistry)
UNIT11:CLASSIFICATIONOFELEMENTSANDPERIODICITYINPROPERTIES
Modernperiodiclawandpresentformoftheperiodictable,s,p,dandfblockelements,periodictrendsinpropertiesof
elementsatomicandionicradii,ionizationenthalpy,electrongainenthalpy,valence,oxidationstatesandchemicalreactivity.
UNIT12:GENERALPRINCIPLESANDPROCESSESOFISOLATIONOFMETALS
Modes of occurrence of elements in nature, minerals, ores, steps involved in the extraction of metals concentration,
reduction(chemicalandelectrolytic methods)andrefiningwithspecialreferencetotheextractionofAl,Cu,ZnandFe,
thermodynamic and electrochemical principles involved in the extraction of metals.
UNIT13:HYDROGEN
Position of hydrogen in periodic table, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen, physical and chemical
properties of water and heavy water, structure, preparation, reactions and uses of hydrogen peroxide, classification of
hydrides ionic, covalent and interstitial, hydrogen as a fuel.
UNIT14: s BLOCKELEMENTS(ALKALIANDALKALINEEARTHMETALS)
Group1and2Elements
Generalintroduction,electronicconfigurationandgeneraltrendsinphysicalandchemicalpropertiesofelements,anomalous
properties of thefirst element of each group, diagonal relationships.
Preparationandpropertiesofsomeimportantcompounds sodiumcarbonate,sodiumhydroxideandsodiumhydrogen
carbonate,Industrialusesoflime,limestone,PlasterofParisandcement,BiologicalsignificanceofNa,K,MgandCa.
UNIT15: pBLOCKELEMENTS
Group13toGroup18Elements
GeneralIntroductionElectronicconfigurationandgeneraltrendsinphysicalandchemicalpropertiesofelementsacross
the periodsand downthe groups, unique behaviour of the firstelement in each group.

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Group13
Preparation,propertiesandusesofboronandaluminium,structure, propertiesandusesofborax,boricacid,diborane,
boron trifluoride, aluminium chloride and alums.
Group14
Tendencyforcatenation,structure,propertiesandusesofallotropesandoxidesofcarbon,silicontetrachloride,silicates,
zeolites and silicones.
Group15
Properties and uses of nitrogenand phosphorus, allotropic forms of phosphorus, preparation, properties, structureand
usesofammonia,nitricacid,phosphineandphosphorushalides,(PCl3,PCl5),structuresofoxidesandoxoacidsofnitrogen
and phosphorus.
Group16
Preparation,properties,structuresandusesofozone,allotropicformsofsulphur,preparation,properties,structuresand
uses of sulphuric acid (including its industrial preparation), Structures of oxoacids of sulphur.
Group17
Preparation,propertiesandusesofhydrochloricacid,trendsintheacidicnatureofhydrogenhalides,structuresofinterhalogen
compounds and oxides and oxoacids of halogens.
Group18
Occurrence and uses of noble gases, structures of fluorides and oxides of xenon.
UNIT16: dandfBLOCKELEMENTS
Transition Elements
Generalintroduction,electronicconfiguration,occurrenceandcharacteristics,generaltrendsinpropertiesofthefirstrow
transition elements physical properties, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, atomic radii, colour, catalytic behaviour,
magneticproperties,complexformation,interstitialcompounds,alloyformation,preparation,propertiesandusesofK2Cr2O7
and KMnO4.
Inner Transition Elements
Lanthanoids Electronic configuration, oxidation states and lanthanoid contraction.
Actinoids Electronic configuration and oxidation states.
UNIT17:COORDINATIONCOMPOUNDS
Introductiontocoordinationcompounds,Wernerstheory,ligands,coordinationnumber,denticity,chelation,IUPACnomenclature
of mononuclear coordination compounds, isomerism, bonding valence bond approach and basic ideas of crystal field
theory,colourandmagneticproperties,importanceofcoordinationcompounds(inqualitativeanalysis,extractionofmetals
and in biological systems).
UNIT18:ENVIRONMENTALCHEMISTRY
Environmental Pollution Atmospheric, water andsoil. Atmospheric pollution tropospheric andstratospheric.
Tropospheric pollutants Gaseous pollutants: oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur, hydrocarbons, their sources,
harmfuleffects and prevention, green house effect and global warming, acid rain.
Particulate pollutants Smoke, dust,smog, fumes, mist,their sources, harmful effects and prevention.
Stratosphericpollution Formation andbreakdown of ozone, depletionof ozonelayer itsmechanism andeffects.
WaterPollutionMajorpollutantssuchas,pathogens,organicwastesandchemicalpollutants,theirharmfuleffectsand
prevention.
SoilPollution Majorpollutantslikepesticides(insecticides,herbicidesandfungicides),theirharmfuleffectsandprevention.
Strategies to control environmental pollution.

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SECTIONC(OrganicChemistry)
UNIT19:PURIFICATIONANDCHARACTERISATIONOFORGANICCOMPOUNDS
Purification Crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction and chromatography principles and their
applications.
Qualitative analysis Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogens.
Quantitativeanalysis(Basicprinciplesonly)Estimationofcarbon,hydrogen,nitrogen,halogens,sulphur,phosphorus.
Calculations of empirical formulae and molecular formulae, numerical problems in organic quantitative analysis.
UNIT20:SOMEBASICPRINCIPLESOFORGANICCHEMISTRY
Tetravalencyofcarbon,shapesofsimplemoleculeshybridization(sandp),classificationoforganiccompoundsbased
on functional groups: and those containing halogens, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur, homologous series, Isomerism
structural and stereoisomerism.
Nomenclature (trivial and IUPAC)
CovalentbondfissionHomolyticandheterolytic:freeradicals,carbocationsandcarbanions,stabilityofcarbocations
and free radicals, electrophiles and nucleophiles.
Electronic displacement in a covalent bond Inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance andhyperconjugation.
Common types of organic reactions Substitution,addition, elimination and rearrangement.
UNIT21:HYDROCARBONS
Classification, isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature, general methods of preparation, properties and reactions.
Alkanes Conformations: Sawhorse and Newmanprojections (of ethane),mechanismof halogenation ofalkanes.
AlkenesGeometricalisomerism,mechanismofelectrophilicaddition:additionofhydrogen,halogens,water,hydrogen
halides (Markownikoffs and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, and polymerization.
Alkynes Acidic character, addition of hydrogen, halogens, water and hydrogen halides, polymerization.
Aromatichydrocarbons Nomenclature, benzene structure and aromaticity, mechanism ofelectrophilicsubstitution:
halogenation,nitration,FriedelCraftsalkylationandacylation,directiveinfluenceoffunctionalgroupinmonosubstituted
benzene.
UNIT22:ORGANICCOMPOUNDSCONTAININGHALOGENS
General methods of preparation, properties and reactions, nature ofCX bond, mechanisms of substitution reactions.
Uses/environmental effects of chloroform,iodoform, freonsand DDT.
UNIT23:ORGANICCOMPOUNDSCONTAININGOXYGEN
General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.
Alcohols Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, mechanism of dehydration.
Phenols Acidicnature,electrophilic substitutionreactions:halogenation,nitrationandsulphonation, ReimerTiemann
reaction.
Ethers Structure.
AldehydesandKetonesNatureofcarbonylgroup,nucleophilicadditionto>C Ogroup,relativereactivitiesofaldehydes
and ketones, important reactions such as nucleophilic addition reactions (addition of HCN, NH3 and its derivatives),
Grignardreagent,oxidation,reduction(WolffKishnerandClemmensen),acidityof ahydrogen,aldolcondensation,Cannizzaro
reaction, haloform reaction, chemical tests to distinguish between aldehydes and ketones.
Carboxylicacids Acidic strengthandfactorsaffectingit.
UNIT24:ORGANICCOMPOUNDSCONTAININGNITROGEN
General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.
Amines Nomenclature, classification, structure basic character and identification of primary, secondary and tertiary
amines and their basic character.
Diazonium Salts Importance in synthetic organic chemistry.

xiii

UNIT25:POLYMERS
General introduction and classification of polymers, general methods of polymerization addition and condensation,
copolymerization,naturalandsyntheticrubberandvulcanization,someimportantpolymerswithemphasisontheirmonomers
and uses polythene, nylon, polyester and bakelite.
UNIT26:BIOMOLECULES
General introduction and importance of biomolecules.
Carbohydrates Classification:aldosesandketoses,monosaccharides(glucoseandfructose),constituentmonosaccharides
of oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose).
Proteins Elementary Idea of a aminoacids, peptidebond, polypeptides,proteins primary,secondary, tertiaryand
quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins, enzymes.
Vitamins Classification and functions.
Nucleic acids Chemical constitution ofDNA and RNA, biologicalfunctionsof nucleic acids.
UNIT27:CHEMISTRYINEVERYDAYLIFE
ChemicalsinmedicinesAnalgesics,tranquilizers,antiseptics,disinfectants,antimicrobials,antifertilitydrugs,antibiotics,
antacids, antihistamins their meaning and common examples.
Chemicals in food Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents common examples.
Cleansing agents Soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
UNIT28:PRINCIPLESRELATEDTOPRACTICALCHEMISTRY
Detectionofextraelements(N,S,halogens)inorganiccompounds,detectionofthefollowingfunctionalgroups:hydroxyl
(alcoholic and phenolic), carbonyl (aldehyde and ketone), carboxyl and amino groups in organic compounds.
Chemistry involved in the preparation of the following:
Inorganic compounds Mohrs salt, potash alum.
Organic compounds Acetanilide, pnitroacetanilide, aniline yellow, iodoform.
ChemistryinvolvedinthetitrimetricexercisesAcids,basesandtheuseofindicators,oxalicacidvsKMnO4,Mohrssalt
vs KMnO4.
Chemical principles involved in the qualitative salt analysis:
CationsPb2+,Cu2+,AI3+,Fe3+,Zn2+,Ni2+,Ca2+,Ba2+,Mg2+,NH4+.
Anions CO32, S2, SO42, NO2, NO3, CI, Br, I (insoluble salts excluded).
Chemical principles involved in the following experiments:
1.Enthalpy of solution of CuSO4
2. Enthalpyof neutralization of strong acid andstrong base.
3. Preparation of lyophilic and lyophobic sols.
4.Kinetic studyof reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide atroomtemperature.

MATHEMATICS
UNIT1:SETS,RELATIONSANDFUNCTIONS
Setsandtheirrepresentation,union,intersectionandcomplementofsetsandtheiralgebraicproperties,powerset,relations,
types of relations, equivalence relations, functions, oneone, into and onto functions, composition of functions.
UNIT2:COMPLEXNUMBERSANDQUADRATICEQUATIONS
Complexnumbersasorderedpairsofreals,representationofcomplexnumbersintheforma+ibandtheirrepresentation
inaplane,Arganddiagram,algebraof complexnumbers,modulusand argument(oramplitude)ofacomplexnumber,
squarerootof acomplexnumber,triangleinequality,quadraticequationsin realandcomplexnumber systemandtheir
solutions, relation between roots and coefficients, nature of roots, formation of quadratic equations with given roots.

xiv

UNIT3:MATRICESANDDETERMINANTS
Matrices,algebraofmatrices,typesofmatrices,determinantsandmatricesofordertwoandthree.Propertiesofdeterminants,
evaluation of determinants, area of triangles using determinants. Adjoint and evaluation of inverse of a square matrix
usingdeterminantsandelementarytransformations,Testofconsistencyandsolutionofsimultaneouslinearequationsin
two or three variables using determinantsand matrices.
UNIT4:PERMUTATIONSANDCOMBINATIONS
Fundamentalprincipleofcounting,permutationasanarrangementandcombinationasselection,Meaningof P(n,r)and
C (n,r), simple applications.
UNIT 5: MATHEMATICALINDUCTION
Principle of Mathematical Induction and its simple applications.
UNIT6:BINOMIALTHEOREMANDITSSIMPLEAPPLICATIONS
Binomial theorem for a positive integral index, general term and middle term, properties of Binomial coefficients and
simple applications.
UNIT7:SEQUENCESANDSERIES
Arithmeticand Geometricprogressions,insertion ofarithmetic,geometricmeans betweentwogivennumbers.Relation
betweenA.M.andG.M. Sumupto ntermsof specialseries:

n, n , n ,.Arithmetic Geometric progression.

UNIT 8 : LIMITS, CONTINUITYAND DIFFERENTIABILITY


Realvaluedfunctions,algebraoffunctions, polynomials,rational,trigonometric,logarithmicandexponentialfunctions,
inversefunctions.Graphsofsimplefunctions.Limits,continuityanddifferentiability.Differentiationofthesum,difference,
product and quotient of two functions. Differentiation of trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, logarithmic, exponential,
compositeandimplicitfunctions,derivativesoforderuptotwo.RollesandLagrangesMeanvaluetheorems.Applications
of derivatives: Rate of change of quantities, monotonic increasing and decreasing functions, Maxima and minima of
functions of one variable, tangents and normals.
UNIT9:INTEGRALCALCULUS
Integralasanantiderivative.Fundamentalintegralsinvolvingalgebraic,trigonometric,exponentialandlogarithmicfunctions.
Integration by substitution, by parts and by partial fractions. Integration using trigonometric identities.
Evaluationofsimpleintegralsofthetype
( px + q )dx
( px + q )dx
dx
dx
dx
dx
dx
dx
x 2 a2 , x2 a2 , a2 - x 2 , a2 - x2 , ax2 + bx + c , ax 2 + bx + c , ax2 + bx + c, ax 2 + dx + c

a 2 x 2 dx and x 2 - a 2 dx

Integralaslimitofasum.Fundamentaltheoremofcalculus.Propertiesofdefiniteintegrals.Evaluationofdefiniteintegrals,
determining areas of the regions bounded by simple curves in standard form.
UNIT10:DIFFERENTIALEQUATIONS
Ordinarydifferentialequations,theirorderanddegree.Formationofdifferentialequations.Solutionofdifferentialequations
by the method ofseparation of variables,solution of homogeneousand linear differential equations of the type:
dy
+ p( x )y = q ( x)
dx
UNIT11:COORDINATEGEOMETRY
Cartesiansystemofrectangularcoordinatesinaplane,distanceformula,sectionformula,locusanditsequation,translation
of axes, slope of a line, parallel and perpendicular lines, intercepts of a line on the coordinate axes.
Straightlines Variousformsofequationsofaline,intersectionoflines,anglesbetweentwolines,conditionsforconcurrence
ofthreelines, distance ofa point from aline, equations ofinternaland externalbisectors of angles betweentwo lines,
coordinatesofcentroid,orthocentreandcircumcentreofatriangle,equationoffamilyoflinespassingthroughthepoint
of intersection of two lines.

xv

Circles,conicsections Standardformofequationofacircle,generalformoftheequationofacircle,itsradiusand
centre,equationofacirclewhentheendpointsofadiameteraregiven,pointsofintersectionofalineandacirclewith
the centre at the origin and condition for a line to be tangent to a circle, equation of the tangent. Sections of cones,
equationsofconicsections(parabola,ellipseandhyperbola)instandardforms,conditionfory=mx+ctobeatangent
and point(s) of tangency.
UNIT12:THREEDIMENSIONALGEOMETRY
Coordinatesofapointinspace,distancebetweentwopoints,sectionformula,directionratiosanddirectioncosines,angle
betweentwointersectinglines.Skewlines,theshortestdistancebetweenthemanditsequation.Equationsofalineand
a planein different forms, intersection of a line and a plane, coplanar lines.
UNIT13:VECTORALGEBRA
Vectorsandscalars,additionofvectors,componentsofavectorintwodimensionsandthreedimensionalspace,scalar
and vector products, scalar andvector tripleproduct.
UNIT14: STATISTICSANDPROBABILITY
MeasuresofDispersionCalculationofmean,median,modeofgroupedandungroupeddata.Calculationofstandard
deviation, variance and mean deviation for grouped and ungrouped data.
Probability Probabilityofanevent,additionandmultiplicationtheoremsofprobability,Bayestheorem,probabilitydistribution
of a random variate, Bernoulli trials and Binomial distribution.
UNIT15:TRIGONOMETRY
Trigonometricalidentitiesandequations.Trigonometricalfunctions.Inversetrigonometricalfunctionsandtheirproperties.
Heights and Distances.
UNIT16:MATHEMATICALREASONING
Statements,logicaloperationsand,or,implies,impliedby,ifandonlyif.Understandingoftautology,contradiction,converse
and contrapositive.

vvv

xvi

PHYSICS

PhysicsandMeasurement

PHYSICSAND
MEASUREMENT

CHAPTER

1
1.

Let[0]denotethedimensionalformulaofthepermittivity

ofvacuum.IfM=mass,L=length,T=timeandA=electric
current,then
(a) [0]=
[M1 L2 T1 A] (b) [0]= [M1 L3 T2 A]

(c) [0]=
[M1 L3 T4 A2] (d) [0]=
[M1 L2 T1 A2]

(2013)

6.

Outofthefollowingpairs,whichonedoesnothaveidentical
dimensions?
(a) moment ofinertia and momentof a force
(b) workandtorque
(c) angularmomentumandPlancksconstant
(d) impulseandmomentum
(2005)

2.

Resistance of a given wire is obtained by measuring the


currentflowinginitandthevoltagedifferenceappliedacross
it.Ifthepercentageerrorsinthemeasurementofthecurrent
and the voltage difference are 3% each, then error in the
valueofresistanceof the wire is
(a) zero
(b) 1%
(c) 3%
(d) 6%
(2012)

7.

Whichoneofthefollowingrepresentsthecorrectdimensions
of the coefficient of viscosity?
(a) ML1T2
(b) MLT1
1
1
(c) ML T
(d) ML2T2.
(2004)

8.

Thephysicalquantitiesnothaving samedimensions are


(a) torqueandwork
(b) momentumandPlanck'sconstant
(c) stressandYoung'smodulus
(d) speedand (m0e0)1/2.
(2003)

9.

Dimensions of

3.

4.

5.

Therespectivenumberofsignificantfiguresforthenumbers
23.023,0.0003and2.1 103 are
(a) 4,4,2
(b) 5,1,2
(c) 5,1,5
(d) 5,5, 2.
(2010)
ThedimensionofmagneticfieldinM,L,TandC(coulomb)
isgivenas
(a) MT2C1
(b) MLT1C1
2
2
(c) MT C
(d) MT1C1.
(2008)
WhichofthefollowingunitsdenotesthedimensionsML2/Q2,
whereQdenotes the electric charge?
(a) weber(Wb)
(b) Wb/m2
(c) henry(H)
(d) H/m2.
(2006)

1
, where symbols have their usual
m 0e0

meaning,are
(a) [L1T] (b) [L2T2]

(c) [L2T2]

(d) [LT1].
(2003)
10. Identifythepairwhose dimensionsareequal.
(a) torqueandwork
(b) stressand energy
(c) forceand stress
(d) forceand work.
(2002)

Answer Key

1.
7.

(c)
(c)

2.
8.

(d)
(b)

3.
9.

(b)
(c)

4. (d)
10. (a)

5.

(c)

6.

(a)

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

[henry] = [ML2 T2 A2]

1. (c) : AccordingtoCoulombslaw
F =

H = [MT -2 A -2]
m 2

1 q1q2
1 q1q2
\ 0 =
4p 0 r 2
4p Fr 2

[0] =

2
Obviously henry (H) has dimensions ML
.
2

[AT][AT]
=[M -1L-3T 4 A 2]
[MLT -2 ][L]2

2. (d) : R= V \
I

6.

(a) : Moment of inertia (I) = mr2


\
[I] = [ML2]
Moment of force (C) = r F
\
[C] = [r][F] = [L][MLT2] or [C] = [ML2 T2]
Momentofinertiaandmomentofaforcedonothaveidentical
dimensions.

7.

(c) : Viscous force F = 6phrv


[ F]
F
h=
\
or [h]= [ r ][ v ]
6prv
[MLT -2]
[h]=
or [h] = [ML1 T1].
or
[L][LT -1]

8.

(b) : [Momentum] = [MLT1]


[Planck's constant] = [ML2T1]
Momentum and Planck's constant do not have same
dimensions.

9.

(c) : Velocity of light in vacuum =

D R = D V + D I
R
V
I

ThepercentageerrorinRis
DR 100 = DV 100 + DI 100
=3%+3%=6%
R
V
I

3. (b):(i)Allthenonzerodigitsaresignificant.
(ii)Allthezerosbetweentwononzerodigitsaresignificant,
nomatterwherethedecimalpointis,ifatall.
(iii)If the number is less than 1, the zero(s) on the right of
decimalpointbuttotheleftofthefirstnonzerodigitare
notsignificant.
(iv)The power of 10 is irrelevant to the determination of
significantfigures.
Accordingtotheaboverules,
23.023has5significantfigures.
0.0003has1significantfigures.
2.1103 has2significantfigures.
r
r r
4. (d): Lorentz force =| F |=| qv B |
\

5.

[ B]=

-2
-2
[ F]
= MLT
= MLT =[MT1C1]
[ q ][v ] C LT -1 C LT-1

(c) : [ML2Q2] = [ML2 A2


[Wb] = [ML2 T2 A1]
Wb
2 1
2 = [M T A ]
m

T2]

or

1
[LT -1] =

m 0 e0

or

[L2 T -2] = 1
m
e
0 0

Dimensions of

1
= [L2 T -2]
m 0 e0

1
m 0 e0

10. (a) : Torque and work have the same dimensions.

Kinematics

CHAPTER

KINEMATICS

2
1.

2.

3.

i + 2 $j )m s,where
Aprojectileisgivenaninitialvelocityof ($
$
i is along the ground and $
j is along the vertical. If
g= 10m/s2,theequation of itstrajectory is
(a) 4y=2x25x2
(b) y=x 5x2
2
(c) y=2x5x
(d) 4y= 2x 5x2
(2013)
Aboycanthrowastoneuptoa maximumheightof10m.
Themaximumhorizontaldistancethattheboycanthrowthe
samestoneuptowill be
(d) 20 2 m
(a) 10m (b) 10 2 m (c) 20m
(2012)

7.

2 ^
2 ^
(a) v i + v j
R
R

8.

dv = -2.5 v,
wherevistheinstantaneous
dt

5.

Awaterfountainonthegroundsprinkleswaterallaroundit.
Ifthespeedofwatercomingoutofthefountainis v,thetotal
areaaroundthefountainthatgets wetis
v4
p v4
v2
v2
(a) p g
(b) p g 2
(c) 2 g 2
(d) p g 2
(2011)
Asmallparticleofmass m isprojectedatanangleqwiththe
xaxiswithaninitialvelocity v0 inthexyplaneasshownin
v0sinq
thefigure.Atatime t< g , theangularmomentumof
y
theparticle is
^
(a) 1 mgv0t 2cosq i
2

(b) - mgv0t 2 cosq ^j

v0

y
B

(b) 13ms2

9.

(c)

12ms2

(d)

7.2ms2

20

P (x,y)

(2010)

Aparticlehasaninitialvelocity 3$
i + 4$j andanacceleration
of 0.4$
i + 0.3$j .Itsspeedafter10sis
(a) 10units
(b) 7 2 units
(c) 7units
(d) 8.5units
(2009)

10. Abody isatrestatx= 0.At t= 0,itstartsmoving inthe


positive xdirectionwithaconstantacceleration.Atthesame
instant another body passes through x = 0 moving in the
positive xdirection with a constant speed. The position of
the first body is given byx1(t) after time t and that of the
secondbodybyx2 (t)afterthesametimeinterval.Whichof
thefollowinggraphscorrectlydescribes(x1 x2)asafunction
of time t?
(x1 x2)

(x1 x2)

^
(d) - 1 mg v0t 2cosqk
2
^ ^
^
where i , j andk areunitvectorsalong x, y and zaxis
respectively.
(2010)

(c) mgv0t cosqk^

6.

ApointP movesincounterclockwisedirectiononacircular
pathasshowninthefigure.Themovementof Pissuchthat
itsweepsoutalengths=t3 +5,wheresisinmetresandt
isinseconds.Theradiusofthepathis20m.Theacceleration
ofPwhent=2sisnearly
(a) 14ms2

speed.Thetimetakenbytheobject,tocometorest,wouldbe
(a) 1s
(b) 2s
(c) 4s
(d) 8s
(2011)
4.

2
2
^
^
(b) - v cos q i + v sinq j
R
R

2
2
2
2
^
^
^
^
(c) - v sin q i + v cosq j (d) - v cos q i - v sinq j
R
R
R
R
(2010)

Anobjectmovingwithaspeedof6.25ms1,isdecelerated
atarategivenby

r
Foraparticleinuniformcircularmotion,theacceleration a
at a point P(R, q) on the circle of radius R is (Here q is
measuredfromthexaxis)

^
^
r
Aparticleismovingwithvelocity v = K ( y i + x j ), where K
isaconstant.The generalequation for its pathis
(a) y2 = x2 +constant
(b) y=x2 + constant
2
(c) y = x+constant
(d) xy= constant
(2010)

(b)

(a)
O

(x1 x2)
(x1 x2)

(c)

(d)
O

(2008)

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

11. Thevelocityofaparticleisv=v0 +gt+ft2.Ifitspositionis


x=0att=0,thenitsdisplacementafterunittime(t=1)is
(a) v0 + g/2+f
(b) v0 + 2g+ 3f
(c) v0 + g/2+f/3
(d) v0 +g+ f
(2007)
12. Aparticlelocatedatx=0attimet=0,startsmovingalong
thepositive xdirectionwithavelocity v thatvariesas v = a x .
Thedisplacementof theparticlevarieswithtimeas
(a) t3
(b) t2
(c) t
(d) t1/2.
(2006)

(a) h/9metrefrom the ground


(b) 7h/9metrefrom the ground
(c) 8h/9metrefrom the ground
(2004)

(d) 17h/18metrefrom the ground.


r r r r
20. If A B = B A ,thenthe anglebetweenAand Bis

(a) p

(b) p/3

(c) p/2

(d) p/4.
(2004)

(d) 182m
(2005)

21. A projectile can have the same range R for two angles of
projection.If T1 and T2 bethetimeofflightsinthetwocases,
then the product of the two time of flights is directly
proportional to
(a) 1/R2
(b) 1/R
(c) R
(d) R2.
(2004)

14. Acar, startingfromrest,acceleratesatthe ratefthrougha


distances,then continues at constantspeed for time t and
then decelerates at the rate f/2 to come to rest. If the total
distancetraversedis15s,then
1 2
1 2
(b) s = f t
(a) s = f t
2
4
1 2
(2005)
(c) s=ft
(d) s = f t
6

22. Which of the following statements is false for a particle


movinginacirclewithaconstant angularspeed?
(a) The velocityvectoris tangent tothecircle.
(b) The accelerationvector is tangenttothe circle
(c) theaccelerationvectorpointstothecentreofthecircle
(d) the velocityand acceleration vectorsare perpendicular
to each other.
(2004)

13. A parachutist after bailing out falls 50 m without friction.


Whenparachuteopens,itdeceleratesat2m/s2.Hereachesthe
groundwithaspeedof3m/s.Atwhatheight,didhebailout?
(a) 293m (b) 111m

(c) 91m

15. The relation between timet and distancex is t = ax2 + bx


whereaand bareconstants. The acceleration is
(a)2av3
(b)2av2
(c)2av2
(d)2bv3
(2005)
16. A particle is moving eastwards with a velocity of
5m/s.In10sthevelocitychangesto5m/snorthwards.The
averageaccelerationinthis timeis
(a) zero
(b)
(c)
(d)

1
2
1
2

24. Acarmovingwitha speedof50km/hr,canbestoppedby


brakesafteratleast6m.Ifthesamecarismovingataspeed
of100km/hr,theminimumstoppingdistanceis
(a) 12m (b) 18m
(c) 24m
(d) 6m.
(2003)

ms2 towardsnorthwest
ms2 towardsnortheast

1
ms2 towardsnorth
2

23. Aballisthrownfromapointwithaspeedv0 atanangleof


projection q.Fromthesamepointandatthesameinstanta
personstartsrunningwithaconstantspeedv0/2tocatchthe
ball.Willthepersonbeableto catchtheball?Ifyes,what
should bethe angle of projection?
(a) yes,60
(b) yes,30
(c) no
(d) yes,45.
(2004)

(2005)

17. A projectile can have the same rangeR for two angles of
projection.Ift1 andt2 bethetimeofflightsinthetwocases,
thentheproductofthetwotimeofflightsisproportionalto
(a) 1/R
(b)R
(c) R2
(d) 1/R2.
(2005)
18. Anautomobiletravellingwithaspeedof60km/h,canbrake
to stopwithin adistanceof20 m.Ifthecar is goingtwice
asfast,i.e.120km/h,thestoppingdistancewill be
(a) 20m (b) 40m
(c) 60m
(d) 80m.
(2004)
19. Aballisreleasedfromthetopofatowerofheighthmetre.
IttakesTsecondtoreach the ground.Whatis theposition
of the ballin T/3 second?

25. Aboyplayingontheroofofa10mhighbuildingthrowsa
ball with a speed of 10 m/s at an angle of 30 with the
horizontal.Howfarfromthethrowingpointwilltheballbe
at the height of 10 m from the ground ? [g = 10 m/s2,
sin30=1/2,cos30=
(a) 5.20m
(c)2.60m

3 / 2 ]
(b) 4.33m
(d) 8.66m.

(2003)

26. Thecoordinatesofamovingparticleatanytime taregiven


byx= at3 andy= bt3.Thespeedofthe particleat timet
isgivenby
(a) 3t a 2 + b2

(b) 3t 2 a 2 + b2

(c) t 2 a 2 + b2

(d)

a 2 + b2 .

(2003)

Kinematics

27. FromabuildingtwoballsA andBarethrownsuchthatAis


thrownupwardsand B downwards(bothvertically).If vAand
vB aretheirrespectivevelocitiesonreachingtheground,then
(a) vB >vA
(b) vA =vB
(c) vA >vB
(d) theirvelocitiesdepend ontheir masses.
(2002)
28. Speedsoftwoidenticalcarsare u and4u ataspecificinstant.
Ifthesamedecelerationisappliedonboththecars,theratio
oftherespectivedistancesinwhichthetwocarsarestopped
fromthatinstant is

(a) 1:1

(b) 1:4

(c) 1:8

29. If a bodylooseshalfofitsvelocityonpenetrating 3 cm in
awoodenblock,thenhowmuchwillitpenetratemorebefore
comingto rest?
(a) 1cm
(b) 2cm
(c) 3cm
(d) 4cm.
(2002)
30. Twoforcesaresuchthatthesumoftheirmagnitudesis18N
and their resultant is 12 N which is perpendicular to the
smallerforce.Then the magnitudesofthe forces are
(a) 12N,6N
(b) 13N,5N
(c) 10N,8N
(d) 16N,2N.
(2002)

Answer Key

1.
7.
13.
19.
25.

(c)
(d)
(a)
(c)
(d)

2.
8.
14.
20.
26.

(c)
(a)
(*)
(a)
(b)

3.
9.
15.
21.
27.

(b)
(b)
(a)
(c)
(b)

(d) 1:16.
(2002)

4.
10.
16.
22.
28.

(b)
(c)
(b)
(b)
(d)

5.
11.
17.
23.
29.

(d)
(c)
(b)
(a)
(a)

6.
12.
18.
24.
30.

(a)
(b)
(d)
(c)
(b)

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

1. (c): Given : u = $
i + 2$j
r
As u = u x $i + u y $j
\ ux =1anduy =2
Alsox=uxt

1
and y = u yt - gt 2
2

\ x=t
1
10 t 2 = 2t -5t 2
2
Equationof trajectory is
y=2x5x2

and y = 2t -

2. (c):Let u be the velocity of projection of the stone.


Themaximumheightaboycanthrow astone is
u2
Hmax =
=10 m
...(i)
2g
Themaximumhorizontaldistancetheboycanthrowthesame
stoneis
u2
Rmax =
= 20 m
(Using(i))
g
1
dv = -2.5 v
dv = -2.5dt
3. (b):
or
dt
v
Onintegrating,withinlimit(v1 =6.25ms1 tov2 =0)
\

v2 = 0
-1/ 2

dy Kx x
=
=
dx Ky y

v1= 6.25 m s

ydy = xdx
y2 = x2 +constant
y

t
0

2 [v1/ 2]6.25 = -(2.5)t t =

-2 (6.25)1/2
= 2 s
-2.5

v 2 sin 90 v2
=
g
g
4
p
v
2
Area = p ( Rmax) = 2
g
5. (d):Thepositionvectoroftheparticle fromthe originat
anytimetis
r
^
^
1
r = v0 cos qt i + (v0sin qt - gt 2) j
2
r
r dr
\ Velocityvector, v =
dt
r d
^
^
1
v=
(v cos qt i + (v0sin qt - gt 2) j)
dt 0
2
^
^
= v0 cos q i + (v0sin q - gt ) j
The angularmomentum of theparticle aboutthe originis
r r
r
L = r mv
r
r r
L = m (r v )

7. (d):

acosq
P( R, q)
q
a asinq
q

4. (b): Rmax =

^
^
1
= m (v0 cos qt i + (v0sin qt - gt 2) j)

2
^
^
(v0 cos q i + (v0sin q - gt ) j )
^

= m (v02 cos q sin qt - v0gt 2cos q)k


^
1
+ (v02 sin q cos qt - gt 2v0cos q)( - k )

...(i)
...(ii)

...(iii)

Integratingbothsidesoftheaboveequation,we get

dv = -2.5 dt

- 1

^
^

= m v02 sin q cos qt k - v0gt 2cosq k


^
^
1
- v02 sin q cos qt k + v0gt 2cosq k

2
^
^
1
1
2
2
= m - v0gt cosq k = - mgv0t cosqk
2

2
r
^
^
6. (a):Here, v = K ( y i + x j )
r
^
^
v = Ky i + Kx j
r dx ^ dy ^
Q v =
i+
j
dt
dt
Equatingequations(i)and(ii),weget
dx = Ky dy =Kx
dt
dt
dy dy dt
\
=

dx dt dx

Fora particleinuniformcircular motion,


2
Acceleration, a= v towardsthe centre
R
Fromfigure,
^
^
r
^
^
v2
v2
a = - a cos q i - a sinq j = - cos q i - sinq j
R
R
8. (a):s= t3 +3
\ v = ds = d (t 3 + 3) =3t2
dt dt
dv = d (3t 2) = 6t
Tangential acceleration, at =
dt

dt

Att=2s,
v=3(2)2 =12m/s, at =6(2)=12m/s2
Centripetal acceleration,
2
(12)2 144
ac = v =
=
= 7.2 m/s2
R
20
20
Net acceleration,
a = (ac ) 2 + (at)2 = (7.2)2 + (12) 2 14 m/s2

9. (b): v= u+ at
r
v = (3$i + 4 $j ) + (0.4$i + 0.3 $j ) 10

Kinematics

r
v = (3 + 4)$
i + (4 + 3)$
j
r
| v | = 49 + 49 = 98 = 7 2 units
(Thisvalueisabout9.9unitscloseto10units.If(a)isgiven
thatisalsonotwrong).
10. (c):Asu=0,v1 =at,v2 =constantfortheotherparticle.
Initiallybotharezero.Relativevelocityofparticle1w.r.t.
2isvelocityof1velocityof2.Atfirstthevelocityoffirst
particleislessthanthatof2.Thenthedistancetravelledby
particle1increasesas
x1 =(1/2) at12.Fortheseconditisproportionalto t.Therefore
itisaparabolaaftercrossing xaxisagain.Curve(c)satisfies
this.
11. (c):Given:velocityv=v0 + gt+ ft2
\ v =

dx
dt

or x = ( v0 + gt + ft 2)dt
0

gt 2 ft3
+
+C
2
3
whereCisthe constantof integration
Given:x=0,t= 0. \ C=0
x = v0t +

or x = v0t +

gt 2 ft3
+
2
3

Att=1sec

ft1
s
=
12 s 2 ft1t
t
or t1 = 6

or s =

2
ft2
1 2 1 t
ft1 = f =
2
2 6
72

ft2
72
None of the given options provide this answer.

or s =

16. (b) : Velocity in eastward direction =5i


velocity in northward direction =5
j

g f
\ x = v0 + + .
2 3

12. (b) : v = a x
dx
dx
= adt
or dt = a x or
x
dx
= a dt or 2 x1 / 2 = at
or
x

j
5
a
45

a 2
or x = 2 t

or displacement is proportional to t2.

-5i

+5 i

............ (i)
........... (ii)

r 5 j - 5i
Acceleration a =
10

or

r
r 1
1
1
1
a = j - i or | a |= + -
2
2
2 2

r 1
| a |=
ms-2 towards northwest.
2
17. (b):Rangeissameforanglesofprojection qand(90 q)
2usin (90 - q)
2 usinq
t1 =
and t2 =
\
g
g

or

\
\

4 u 2 sin q cos q 2 u 2sin 2 q 2R


=
= g
g
g
g 2

t1 t2 is proportional to R.
t1t2 =

18. (d) : Let a be the retardation for both the vehicles


For automobile, v2 = u2 2 as
\
u12 2as1 = 0
u12 = 2as1
2
Similarly for car, u2 = 2as2
2

........... (iii)

13. (a) : Initially, the parachutist falls under gravity


\ u2 = 2ah = 2 9.8 50 = 980 m2s2
He reaches the ground with speed
= 3 m/s, a = 2ms2
2
2
\ (3) = u 2 2 h1
or 9 = 980 4 h1
971
or h1 = 4 or h1 = 242.75 m
\ Total height = 50 + 242.75
= 292.75 = 293 m.
14. (*) : For first part of journey, s = s1,
1
s1 = f t12 = s
2
v = f t1
For second part of journey,
s2 = vt
or s2 = f t1 t
For the third part of journey,

........... (v)

15. (a) : t = ax2 + bx


Differentiate the equation with respect to t
dx
dx
\
1 = 2ax +b
dt
dt
dx
or
1 = 2 axv + bv
as = v
dt
1
v
=
or
2ax +b
dv = -2a ( dx / dt) = -2av v2
or
dt (2ax +b)2
or
Acceleration = 2av3.

or dx = vdt
0

1 f
4f t12
(2t1)2 or s3 = 1

2 2
2
2
or s3 = 2s1 = 2s............ (iv)
s1 + s2 + s3 = 15s
or s + ft1t + 2s = 15s
or f t1t = 12s
From (i) and (v),
s3 =

s2 120 2 s2
u2
u = s 60 = 20

1
1

or

s2 = 80 m.

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

19. (c) : Equation of motion : s = ut +

1 2
gt
2

1
h = 0+ gT 2
2
or
2h = gT2
After T/3 sec,

2
gT2
1 T
g =
2
18
3
or
18 s = gT2
From (i) and (ii),
18 s = 2h
h
or
s = m from top.
9
h 8h
\
Height from ground = h - = m.
9 9
r r r r
20. (a) : A B = B A
AB sin q n = AB sin( -q)n
or
or
sinq = sinq
or
2 sinq = 0
or
q = 0, p, 2p.....
\
q = p.

..... (i)

s = 0+

....... (ii)

21. (c):Rangeissameforanglesofprojection qand(90 q)


2usin (90 -q)
T1 = 2usinq andT2 =
\
g
g
\
\

4 u2sin q cosq 2 u 2sin 2 q 2R


=
= g
g
g
g 2

T1 T2 is proportional to R.

T1T2 =

22. (b) : The acceleration vector acts along the radius of the
circle. The given statement is false.
23. (a): Thepersonwillcatchtheballifhisspeedandhorizontal
speed of the ball are same
v
1
= v0cos q = 0 cos q = = cos60 \ q = 60.
2
2
km 50 1000 125 m
=
=
24. (c) : For first case, u1 = 50
hour
60 60
9 sec
2
2
u
\
Acceleration a= - 1 = - 125 1 = -16 m/sec2
2 s1
9 2 6
For second case, u2 = 100 km = 100 1000 = 250 m
hour
60 60
9 sec
2
2
- u -1 250 1
s2 = 2 =
= 24 m
\
2a
2 9 16
or
s2 = 24 m.
25. (d) : Height of building = 10 m
The ball projected from the roof of building will be back
toroofheightof10maftercoveringthemaximumhorizontal
range.
2
Maximum horizontal range ( R) = u sin 2q
g
(10)2 sin 60
R=
= 10 0.866 or R = 8.66 m.
or
10

26. (b) : Q x = at3


dx
= 3at 2 v x = 3at2
\
dt
Again y = bt3
dy
v y = 3b t2 \ v2 = vx2 + vy2
\
dt
or
v2 = (3at2)2 + (3bt2)2 = (3t2)2 (a2 + b2)
or
v = 3t 2 a2 + b2.
27. (b) : Ball A projected upwards with velocity u falls back
tobuildingtopwithvelocity udownwards.Itcompletesits
journey to ground under gravity.
\
vA2 = u2 + 2gh
..............(i)
Ball Bstartswithdownwardsvelocity uandreachesground
after travelling a vertical distance h
\
vB2 = u2 + 2gh
............(ii)
From (i) and (ii)
vA = vB.
28. (d): Botharegiventhesamedecelerationsimultaneously
and both finally stop.
Formula relevant to motion : u2 = 2 as
2

u
For first car, s1 =
2a
(4 u)2 16u2
=
For second car, s2 =
2a
2a
s1 1
=
\
s2 16 .

29. (a) : For first part of penetration, by equation of motion,


2

u = u 2 2 a (3)

2
or
3u2 = 24a u2 = 8a
For latter part of penetration,

........... (i)

u
0 = 2ax
2
or
u2 = 8ax
From (i) and (ii)
8ax = 8a x = 1 cm.

........... (ii)

30. (b) : Resultant R isperpendicular to smallerforce Q and


(P + Q) = 18 N
\
P2 = Q2 + R2 by right angled triangle

Q
90

or
or

(P2 Q2) = R2
(P + Q)(P Q) = R2

or
(18)(P Q) = (12)2
or
(P Q) = 8
Hence P = 13 N and Q = 5 N.

[QP + Q = 18]

LawsofMotion

CHAPTER

LAWSOFMOTION

3
1.

2.

Twocarsofmassesm1 andm2 aremovingincirclesofradii


r1 andr2,respectively.Theirspeedsaresuchthattheymake
complete circles in the same time t. The ratio of their
centripetalacceleration is
(a) m1 :m2
(b) r1 : r2
(c) 1:1
(d) m1r1 : m2r2
(2012)
Aparticleofmassmisatrestattheoriginattimet=0.It
is subjected to a force F(t) = Foebt in the x direction. Its
speedv(t)isdepicted by which of the following curves?

(b)

v( t)

(c)

(d)

v(t)

Fo
mb
v(t)

(2012)
3.

6.

v(t)

Fo
mb

7.

Twofixedfrictionlessinclinedplanesmakinganangle30
and60withtheverticalareshowninthefigure.Twoblocks
AandBareplacedon the two planes.What istherelative
verticalaccelerationofA withrespecttoB?
A

Aplayercaughtacricketballofmass150gmovingatarate
of20m/s.Ifthecatchingprocessiscompletedin0.1s,the
forceoftheblowexertedbytheballonthehandoftheplayer
isequalto
(a) 300N (b) 150N (c) 3N
(d) 30 N.
(2006)

9.

Consider a car moving on a straight road with a speed of


100m/s. The distance at which car can be stopped is
[mk =0.5]
(a) 100m (b) 400m (c) 800m
(d) 1000m
(2005)

30

4.9ms2 inverticaldirection

(a)
(b) 4.9ms2 inhorizontal direction
(c) 9.8ms2 inverticaldirection
(d) zero
4.

(2010)

The figure shows the position time (xt) graph of one


dimensionalmotionofabodyofmass0.4kg.Themagnitude
of eachimpulse is
2
x (m)
0

8
6
t(s)

10

12 14

16

AblockofmassmisconnectedtoanotherblockofmassM
byaspring(massless)ofspringconstantk.The blocksare
keptonasmoothhorizontalplane.Initiallytheblocksareat
restandthespringis unstretched. Thena constant forceF
startsactingontheblockofmassMtopullit.Findtheforce
oftheblockofmass m.
MF
mF
(a) ( m +M )
(b) M
mF
( M +m )F
(c)
(2007)
(d) ( m +M )
m
Aballofmass0.2kgisthrownverticallyupwardsbyapplying
aforcebyhand.Ifthehandmoves0.2mwhichapplyingthe
force and the ball goes upto 2 m height further, find the
magnitudeoftheforce.Considerg =10m/s2
(a) 22N
(b) 4N
(c) 16N
(d) 20 N.
(2006)

8.
B

60

(d) 1.6Ns
(2010)

5. Abodyofmass m =3.513 kgis movingalong the xaxis


withaspeedof5.00ms1.Themagnitudeofitsmomentum
isrecorded as
(a) 17.57kgms1
(b) 17.6kgms1
1
(c) 17.565kgms
(d) 17.56kgms1.
(2008)

Fo
mb

Fob
m

(a)

(a) 0.2Ns (b) 0.4Ns (c) 0.8Ns

ma cosa

10. Ablockiskeptonafrictionless
inclined surface with angle of ma
inclination a.Theinclineisgiven
anacceleration a tokeeptheblock
stationary.Thenaisequal to
(a) g
(b) gtana
(c) g/tana
(d) g coseca

mg sin a
a

(2005)

10

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

11. Aparticleofmass0.3kgissubjectedtoaforce F = kxwith


k = 15 N/m. What will be its initial acceleration if it is
releasedfromapoint20cm awayfromtheorigin?
(a) 5m/s2 (b) 10m/s2 (c) 3m/s2
(d) 15m/s2
(2005)
12. Abulletfiredintoafixed targetloseshalfitsvelocityafter
penetrating3cm.Howmuchfurtheritwillpenetratebefore
comingtorestassumingthatitfacesconstantresistanceto
motion?
(a) 1.5cm (b) 1.0cm (c) 3.0cm
(d) 2.0cm
(2005)
13. The upper half of an inclined plane with inclination f is
perfectlysmoothwhilethelowerhalfisrough.Abodystarting
fromrestatthetopwillagaincometorestatthebottomif
the coefficientof friction for the lower half is given by
(a) 2tanf (b) tanf
(c) 2sinf
(d)2cosf
(2005)
14. Asmoothblockisreleasedatrestona45o inclineandthen
slidesadistance d.Thetimetakentoslideis n timesasmuch
to slide on rough incline than on a smooth incline. The
coefficient of friction is
1
1
(b) m s = 1- 2
(a) m s = 1- 2
n
n
(c) m k = 1-

1
n 2

(d) m k = 1-

1
n 2

(2005)

15. Anannularringwithinnerandouterradii R1 and R2isrolling


withoutslippingwithauniformangularspeed.Theratioof
the forces experienced by the two particles situated on the
innerandouterpartsof thering, F1/F2 is
2
R1
R1
R2
(a) 1
(b)
(c) R
(d)
R2
1
R2
(2005)
16. Ablockrestsonaroughinclinedplanemakinganangleof
30 with the horizontal. The coefficient of static friction
betweentheblockandtheplaneis0.8.Ifthefrictionalforce
ontheblockis10N,the mass oftheblock(inkg)is
(takeg = 10 m/s2)
(a) 2.0
(b) 4.0
(c) 1.6
(d) 2.5
(2004)
17. Twomasses m1 =5kgand m2=4.8kgtied
to a string are hanging over a light
frictionlesspulley.Whatistheacceleration
of the masseswhen lift free tomove?
(g=9.8m/s2)
(a) 0.2m/s2
(b) 9.8m/s2
(c) 5m/s2
(d) 4.8m/s2.

18. A machinegunfires a bullet ofmass 40g with a velocity


1200ms1.Themanholdingitcanexertamaximumforce
of 144 N on the gun. How many bullets can he fire per
second atthemost?
(a) one
(b) four
(c) two
(d) three.
(2004)
19. Arocketwithaliftoffmass3.5104 kgisblastedupwards
withaninitialaccelerationof10m/s2.Thentheinitialthrust
of theblastis
(a) 3.5105 N
(b) 7.0105 N
5
(c) 14.010 N
(d) 1.75105 N.
(2003)
20. Alightspringbalancehangsfromthehookoftheotherlight
spring balance and a block of mass M kg hangs from the
formerone.Thenthetruestatementaboutthescalereadingis
(a) boththescalesreadMkgeach
(b) thescaleoftheloweronereadsMkgand oftheupper
one zero
(c) thereadingofthetwoscalescanbeanythingbutthesum
ofthereadingwillbe M kg
(d) boththescalesreadM/2kg.
(2003)
21. A blockof mass M is pulledalong a horizontal frictionless
surfacebyaropeofmassm.IfaforcePisappliedatthefree
endoftherope,theforceexertedbytheropeontheblockis
Pm
Pm
(a) M +m
(b) M -m
(c) P

PM
(d) M +m .

(2003)

22. A marble block of mass 2 kg lying on ice when given a


velocity of 6 m/s is stopped by friction in 10 s. Then the
coefficient of friction is
(a) 0.02
(b) 0.03
(c) 0.06
(d) 0.01.
(2003)
23. Ahorizontalforceof10Nisnecessaryto
justholdablock stationaryagainsta
wall. The coefficient of friction between 10 N
theblockandthewallis0.2.Theweight
of the blockis
(a) 20N
(b) 50N
(c) 100N
(d) 2N.
(2003)

m1
m2

(2004)

24. Aspringbalanceisattachedtotheceilingofalift.Aman
hangshisbagon thespringand thespringreads49N,
whentheliftisstationary.Iftheliftmovesdownwardwith
anaccelerationof5m/s2,thereadingofthespringbalance
willbe
(a) 24N
(b) 74N
(c) 15N
(d) 49N.
(2003)

11

LawsofMotion

Withwhatvalueofmaximumsafeacceleration(inms2)can
aman of60kg climbontherope?

25. Threeforcesstartactingsimultaneouslyonaparticlemoving
r
withvelocity v .Theseforcesarerepresentedinmagnitude
anddirectionbythethreesidesofatriangle ABC (asshown).
The particle will now move with velocity
C
r
(a) lessthan v
r
(b) greaterthan v
r
(c) | v | in the direction of the largest
A
B
force BC
r
(d) v ,remaining unchanged.
(2003)
26. Threeidenticalblocks ofmassesm=2kgaredrawnbya
force F = 10.2 N with an acceleration of 0.6 ms2 on a
frictionless surface, then what is the tension (in N) in the
stringbetweentheblocksBand C?
C

(a) 9.2

(b) 7.8

(c) 4

(d) 9.8
(2002)

27. A light string passing over a smooth light pulley connects


twoblocksofmasses m1and m2(vertically).Iftheacceleration
ofthesystemisg/8,then theratioofthe massesis
(a) 8:1
(b) 9:7
(c) 4:3
(d) 5:3.
(2002)
28. Oneendofa masslessrope, whichpasses overa massless
andfrictionlesspulleyPistiedtoahookCwhiletheother
endisfree.Maximumtensionthattheropecanbearis960N.

(a) 16

(b) 6

(c) 4

(d) 8.
(2002)

29. Whenforces F1, F2, F3 are acting on a particle of mass m


such that F2 and F3 are mutually perpendicular, then the
particleremains stationary.If the forceF1 isnow removed
then theaccelerationofthe particle is
(a) F1/m
(b) F2F3/mF1

(c) (F2 F3)/m


(d) F2/m.
(2002)

30. Aliftismovingdownwithaccelerationa.Amaninthelift
drops a ball inside the lift. The acceleration of the ball as
observedbythemanintheliftandamanstandingstationary
on the groundarerespectively
(a) g, g
(b) ga,ga
(c) g a,g
(d) a, g.
(2002)
31. Theminimumvelocity(inms1)withwhichacardrivermust
traverseaflatcurveofradius150mandcoefficientoffriction
0.6toavoidskiddingis
(a) 60
(b) 30
(c) 15
(d) 25.
(2002)

Answer Key

1.
7.
13.
19.
25.
31.

(b)
(d)
(a)
(a)
(d)
(b)

2.
8.
14.
20.
26.

(b)
(d)
(c)
(a)
(b)

3.
9.
15.
21.
27.

(a)
(d)
(b)
(d)
(b)

4.
10.
16.
22.
28.

(c)
(b)
(a)
(c)
(b)

5.
11.
17.
23.
29.

(a)
(b)
(a)
(d)
(a)

6.
12.
18.
24.
30.

(d)
(b)
(d)
(a)
(c)

12

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

1. (b): Centripetalacceleration,ac = w2r


2p
Q w =
T
As T1 =T2 w1 = w2
Q

ac1 r1
=
ac2 r2

2. (b): F(t)= Foebt


(Given)
ma= Foebt
F
a = o e- bt
m
F
dv Fo - bt
= e or dv = o e - btdt
dt
m
m
Integratingbothsides,we get
v

5.

(a):Momentumismv.
m=3.513kg v=5.00m/s
\
mv=17.57ms1
Because thevalueswillbeaccurateuptosecond decimel
placeonly,17.565=17.57.

6.

(d):Accelerationofthesystem a =
Forceonblockofmass m = ma =

7.

\
8.

Fo - bt
F
F
dv = m e dt v = o e = o [1 - e- bt]
m -b 0 mb
0
0

3. (a):Theaccelerationofthebodydownthe smoothinclined
planeisa=gsinq
Itisalongtheinclinedplane.
where qistheangle of inclination
\ The vertical component of accelerationa is
a(alongvertical) =(gsinq)sinq=gsin2q
ForblockA
aA(alongvertical) = gsin260
ForblockB
aB(alongvertical) = gsin230
The relativeverticalaccelerationofAwithrespecttoBis
aAB(alongvertical) = aA(alongvertical) aB(along vertical)
=gsin260gsin230
3 2 1 2

= g
2
2
g
= =4.9 m s -2 in vertical direction.
2
4. (c):Here,massofthe body,m= 0.4 kg
Sincepositiontime(xt)graphisastraightline,somotionis
uniform.Becauseofimpulsedirectionofvelocitychangesas
canbeseenfromthe slopes of the graph.
Fromgraph,
(2 - 0)
Initial velocity, u =
= 1 m s-1
(2 -0)
(0 - 2)
Finalvelocity, v =
= - 1 m s-1
(4 -2)
Initialmomentum,pi = mu=0.41=0.4Ns
Finalmomentum,pf = mv=0.4 (1)=0.4Ns
Impulse=Changeinmomentum=pf pi
=0.4(0.4)Ns=0.8Ns
|Impulse|=0.8Ns

FS = mgh F =

( ) ( )

mgh 0.2 10 2
=
= 20 N.
s
0.2

(d) : Force time = Impulse = Change of momentum


\

9.

mF
.
m +M

(d) : Work done by hand = Potential energy of the ball

- bt t

F
m +M

Force =

Impulse 3
=
=30 N .
time
0.1

(d) : Retardation due to friction = mg


v2 = u2 + 2as
Q
\
0 = (100)2 2(mg)s or 2 mgs = 100 100
or

s=

100 100
= 1000 m.
2 0.5 10

10. (b) : The incline is given an acceleration a.Acceleration


of theblock isto theright. Pseudoacceleration a acts on
block to the left.Equate resolved partsof a and g along
incline.
\
macos a = mgsina or a = gtana.
11. (b) : F = kx
F = -15 20 = -3 N
100
Initial acceleration is over come by retarding force.
or
m (acceleration a) = 3
3
3
a = =
=10 ms -2.
or
m 0.3

or

12. (b) : Forfirst part of penetration, by equation of motion,


2

u = ( u )2 - 2 f (3)
2

or
3u2 = 24 f
For latter part of penetration,

.... (i)

or

or

u
0 = - 2fx
2
u2 = 8fx
From (i) and (ii)
3 (8 fx) = 24 f
x = 1 cm.

......... (ii)

13. (a): Forupperhalfsmoothincline,componentofg down


the incline = gsinf

13

LawsofMotion

v2 = 2(gsinf)

m k g cos f

l
2

g sin f
For lower half rough
incline,
frictional
f
retardation = mkgcosf
\
Resultant acceleration =gsinf mkgcosf

l
2
\
0 = v + 2 (gsinf mkgcosf)
2

g cosf

0 = 2(gsinf)

or
or
or

0 = sinf + sinf mkcosf


mkcosf = 2sinf
mk = 2tanf.

or
\

g sin q

mkg cos q

q
g

g cosq

1
1
( g sin q)t 2 = ( g sin q - mk g cos q)n 2t 2
2
2

or
sinq = n2 (sinq mkcosq)
Putting q = 45
or
sin45 = n2 (sin45 mkcos45)

or

1
.
n 2
15. (b) : Centripetal force on particle = mRw2
m k = 1 -

F1 mR1w2 R1
=
=
F2 mR2w2 R2 .

16. (a) : For equilibrium of block,


f = mgsinq
\
10= m 10 sin30
or
m = 2 kg.

23. (d): Weight of the block is balanced by force of friction


\Weight of the block = mR = 0.2 10 = 2 N.
24. (a) : When lift is standing, W1 = mg
When the lift descends with acceleration a,
W2 = m(g a)
W2 m ( g - a) 9.8 - 5 4.8
=
=
=
\
W1
mg
9.8
9.8
W2 = W1

26. (b) : Q Force = mass acceleration


\
F TAB = ma
and TAB TBC = ma
\
TBC = F 2 ma
or
TBC = 10.2 (2 2 0.6)
or
TBC = 7.8 N.

1 = n 2 (1 - m )
k
2
2

or

22. (c) : Frictional force provides the retarding force


\
m mg = ma
a u / t 6 /10
m= =
=
=0.06 .
or
g
g
10

or

d=

P
( M + m )
Force on block
a =

4.8 49 4.8
=
= 24 N.
9.8
9.8
25. (d): Bytriangleofforces,theparticlewillbeinequilibrium
underthethreeforces.Obviouslytheresultantforceonthe
particlewillbezero.Consequentlytheaccelerationwillbe
zero.
r
Hence the particle velocity remains unchanged at v
.

1
( g sin q - m kg cos q)( nt )2
2

Force applied
Total mass

MP
= Mass of block a = ( M +m ) .

14. (c) : Component of g down the plane = gsinq


\
For smooth plane,
1
d = ( g sin q)t 2
........ (i)
2
For rough plane,
Frictional retardation up the plane = mk (gcosq)
R

20. (a) : Both the scales read M kg each.


21. (d) : Acceleration of block ( a )=

l
l
+ 2g(sinf mkcosf)
2
2

or

19. (a) : Initial thrust = (Lift off mass) acceleration


= (3.5 104) (10) = 3.5 105 N.

R
mgsin q
q

f
q

sq
mg mg co

a ( m1 - m2) (5 - 4.8) 0.2


17. (a) : g = ( m + m ) = (5 +4.8) = 9.8
1
2
0.2 9.8 0.2
or
a = g
=
=0.2 ms -2.
9.8
9.8
18. (d) : Suppose he can fire n bullets per second
\
Force = Change in momentum per second
144 = n 40 (1200)
1000
144 1000
n=
or
40 1200
or
n = 3.

a ( m1 - m2)
27. (b) : g = ( m + m )
1
2
m1 9
1 ( m1 - m2)
=
= .
\
8 ( m1 +m2) or m2 7

28. (b) : T 60g = 60a


or
960 (60 10) = 60a
or
60a = 360
or
a = 6 ms2.
29. (a) : F2 and F3 have a resultant equivalent to F1
F
\
Acceleration = 1 .
m
30. (c): Forobserver inthe lift,acceleration =(g a)
For observer standing outside, acceleration = g.
31. (b) : For no skidding along curved track,
v = mRg
\

v = 0.6 150 10 = 30

m
.
s

14

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

CHAPTER

4
1.

2.

3.

4.

WORK,ENERGY
ANDPOWER
collisionisnegligibleandthecollisionwiththeplateistotally
elastic.Thenthevelocityasafunctionoftimeandtheheight
as functionoftime willbe

This questionhas StatementI and StatementII. Ofthe four


choices given after the Statements, choose the one that best
describesthetwoStatements.
Statement1:Apointparticleofmassmmovingwithspeed
v collides with stationary point particle of mass M. If the
maximumenergylosspossible isgivenas
1

m
h mv 2 then h=
2
M +m
Statement2: Maximumenergylossoccurswhentheparticles
getstucktogetheras a resultofthe collision.
(a) StatementIisfalse,StatementIIistrue.
(b) StatementIistrue,StatementIIistrue,StatementIIisa
correct explanation of StatementI.
(c) StatementI is true, StatementII is true, StatementII is
nota correctexplanation of statementI.
(d) StatementIistrue,StatementIIisfalse.
(2013)
Thisquestionhas Statement 1 and Statement 2. Ofthefour
choices given after the statements, choose the one that best
describesthetwostatements.
Iftwosprings S1and S2 offorceconstants k1and k2,respectively,
arestretchedbythesameforce,itisfoundthatmoreworkis
doneonspringS1 thanonspringS2.

Statement1:Ifstretchedbythesameamount,workdoneon
S1,willbemore thanthatonS2.
Statement2:k1 <k2.
(a) Statement1istrue, Statement2isfalse.
(b) Statement1istrue,Statement2istrue,Statement2isthe
correctexplanation of Statement 1.
(c) Statement1istrue,Statement2istrue,Statement2isnot
the correct explanation of Statement 1.
(d) Statement1isfalse, Statement2istrue.
(2012)

y
h

(a)
t

O
v

+v1

h
t

(b) O

v1
v

+v1

(c)

h
t

O t1 2t 3t1 4t
1
1
v1

y
h

(d) t1

2t1 3t1 4t1

(2009)
t

5.

Ablockofmass0.50kgismovingwithaspeedof2.00ms1 on
asmoothsurface.Itstrikesanothermassof1.00kgandthenthey
movetogetherasasinglebody.Theenergylossduringthecollision
is
(a) 0.34J (b) 0.16J (c) 1.00J
(d) 0.67J.
(2008)

6.

An athleteintheolympicgamescoversadistanceof100m
in10s.Hiskineticenergycanbeestimatedtobeintherange
(a) 2,000J5,000J
(b) 200J500J
(c) 2105 J3105 J (d) 20,000J50,000J. (2008)

Statement1:Twoparticlesmovinginthesamedirectiondo
notlosealltheir energy in a completely inelastic collision.
Statement2:Principleofconservationofmomentumholds 7.
trueforallkinds of collisions.
(a) Statement1is true, Statement2isfalse.
(b) Statement1istrue,Statement2istrueStatement2isthe
correct explanation of Statement1.
(c) Statement1 is true, Statement2 is true Statement2 is 8.
not the correct explanation of Statement1.
(d) Statement1is false, Statement2istrue.
(2010)
Considerarubberballfreelyfallingfromaheighth=4.9m
onto a horizontal elastic plate.Assume that the duration of

v
v1

Aparticleisprojectedat 60tothehorizontalwithakinetic
energyK.Thekineticenergyat the highestpoint is
(a) K/2
(b) K
(c) zero
(d) K/4
(2007)
A2kgblockslidesonahorizontalfloorwithaspeedof4m/s.
It strikes a uncompressed spring, and compresses it till the
block is motionless. The kinetic friction force is 15 N and
springconstantis10,000N/m.Thespringcompressesby
(a) 8.5cm (b) 5.5cm (c) 2.5cm
(d) 11.0cm
(2007)

15

Work,EnergyandPower

9.

Thepotentialenergyofa1kgparticlefreetomovealongthe
xaxisisgivenby
2
4
V ( x ) = x - x J.
2
4
The total mechanical energy of the particle 2 J. Then, the
maximumspeed(inm/s)is
(a) 2

(b) 3/ 2

(c)

(d) 1/ 2 .
(2006)

10. Aparticleofmass100gisthrown verticallyupwardswith


a speed of 5 m/s. The work done by the force of gravity
duringthetimethe particlegoesupis
(a) 0.5J
(b) 0.5J (c) 1.25J
(d) 1.25J.
(2006)
11. A bomb ofmass 16 kg at rest explodes into two piecesof
massesof4kgand12kg.Thevelocityofthe12kgmassis
4ms1.Thekineticenergyof theother mass is
(a) 96J
(b) 144J
(c) 288J
(d) 192J.
(2006)
12. A mass of M kg is suspended by a weightless string. The
horizontalforcethatisrequiredtodisplaceituntilthestring
makinganangleof45with theinitialverticaldirectionis
(a) Mg ( 2 -1)

(b) Mg ( 2 +1)

(c) Mg 2

(d)

Mg
.
2

(2006)

13. A bodyof mass m is accelerated uniformly from restto a


speed v inatime T.Theinstantaneouspowerdeliveredtothe
bodyasa function of time isgiven by
1 mv2
1 mv2 2
t
t
(b)
(a)
2 T2
2 T2
mv2
mv2 2
t
t
(c)
(d)
(2005)
2
T
T 2
14. A massmmoveswitha
velocity v and collides
v/ 3
inelasticallywithanother
aftercollision
identical mass. After
collision the first mass
m
moveswithvelocityina m
directionperpendicularto beforecollision
the initial direction of
motion.Findthespeed ofthe 2nd massafter collision
2
v
v
(b)
(c) v
(d) 3v
(a)
3
3
(2005)
15. The block of mass M
movingonthefrictionless
horizontalsurfacecollides
M
with the spring of spring
constant K andcompresses
it by length L. The
maximummomentumof the block aftercollision is

(a) zero

(b)

ML2
K

(c)

MK L

(d)

KL2
2M
(2005)

16. Asphericalballofmass20kgisstationaryatthetopofahill
ofheight100m.Itrollsdownasmoothsurfacetotheground,
thenclimbsupanotherhillofheight30mandfinallyrolls
down to a horizontal base at a height of 20 m above the
ground.Thevelocityattainedby theballis
(a) 10m/s (b) 34m/s (c) 40m/s
(d) 20m/s
(2005)
17. A bodyof mass m,acceleratesuniformlyfromresttov1 in
timet1.Theinstantaneouspowerdeliveredtothebodyasa
functionoftimet is
(a)

mv1t
t1

(b)

mv12t
t12

mv1t2
mv12t
.
(2004)
(d)
t1
t1
r
18. Aforce F = (5i + 3
j + 2k)N isappliedoveraparticlewhich
r
displacesitfromitsorigintothepoint r = (2i -
j )m.The

(c)

work done on the particle in joule is


(a) 7
(b) +7
(c) +10

(d) +13.
(2004)

19. Auniformchainoflength2miskeptonatablesuchthata
lengthof60cmhangsfreelyfromtheedgeofthetable.The
total mass ofthe chain is 4 kg. What is thework done in
pullingthe entirechainonthe table?
(a) 7.2J
(b) 3.6J
(c) 120J
(d) 1200J.
(2004)
20. A particle is acted upon by a force of constant magnitude
whichisalwaysperpendiculartothevelocityoftheparticle,
themotion oftheparticletakes placeinaplane. Itfollows
that
(a) itsvelocityisconstant
(b) itsaccelerationisconstant
(c) itskineticenergy isconstant
(d) itmovesinastraightline.
(2004)
21. Aparticlemovesinastraightlinewithretardationproportional
to its displacement. Its loss of kinetic energy for any
displacement x is proportional to
(a) x2
(b) ex
(c) x
(d) logex.
(2004)
22. Aspringofspringconstant5103 N/misstretchedinitially
by5cmfromtheunstretchedposition.Thentheworkrequired
to stretch it further by another 5 cm is
(a) 12.50Nm
(b) 18.75Nm
(c) 25.00Nm
(d) 6.25Nm.
(2003)
23. Abodyismovedalongastraightlinebyamachinedelivering
a constant power.Thedistancemovedbythe body intime
t is proportional to
(a) t3/4
(b) t3/2
(c) t1/4
(d) t1/2.
(2003)

16

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

24. Consider the following two statements.


A. Linear momentum of a system of particles is zero.
B. Kinetic energy of a system of particles is zero.
Then
(a) AdoesnotimplyBandBdoesnotimplyA
(b) AimpliesBbutBdoesnotimplyA
(c) AdoesnotimplyBbut Bimplies A
(d) AimpliesBandBimplies A.
(2003)
25. A spring of force constant 800 N/m has an extension of
5 cm.The work done in extending it from5 cm to15 cm
is
(a) 16J
(b) 8J
(c) 32J
(d) 24J.
(2002)

26. Ifmassenergyequivalenceistakenintoaccount,whenwater
is cooled to form ice, the mass of water should
(a) increase
(b) remainunchanged
(c) decrease
(d) firstincreasethendecrease.
(2002)
27. AballwhosekineticenergyisE,isprojectedatanangleof
45 to the horizontal. The kinetic energy of the ball at the
highest point of its flight will be
(a) E
(b) E / 2
(c) E/2
(d) zero.
(2002)

Answer Key

1.
7.
13.
19.
25.

(a)
(d)
(c)
(b)
(b)

2.
8.
14.
20.
26.

(d)
(b)
(a)
(c)
(c)

3.
9.
15.
21.
27.

(b)
(b)
(c)
(a)
(c)

4.
10.
16.
22.

(c)
(c)
(b)
(b)

5.
11.
17.
23.

(d)
(c)
(b)
(b)

6.
12.
18.
24.

(a)
(a)
(b)
(c)

17

Work,EnergyandPower

1. (a) :Lossofenergyismaximumwhencollisionisinelastic.

Assuminganatheletehasabout50to100kg,his kinetic

Maximumenergyloss= 1 mM u2
2 ( M +m )
\ f = mM
( M +m)

energywouldhave been

1 2
mv .
2 av
v

Hence,Statement1 isfalse, Statement2 is true.


2.

(d) :Forthesameforce,F=k1x1 = k2x2


Workdoneonspring S1 is
( k x )2 F2
1
W1 = k1x12 = 1 1 =
2
2 k1
2k1
Workdoneonspring S2 is
2
(k x )2
W2 = 1k 2 x22 = 2 2 = F
2
2k 2
2k2
W1 k2
\
=
W2 k1
AsW1 >W2 \ k2 > k1 ork1 <k2
Statement2istrue.
Forthesame extension,x1 = x2 = x
Workdoneonspring S1 is
W1 = 1 k1 x12 = 1k1x 2
2
2

v/2

...(i)
t

(Using(i))

For100kg,(1/2)100100=5000J.
Itcouldbe intherange 2000to5000J.
(Using(i))

7.

...(ii)

8.

(Using(ii))

(Using(ii)

Ask1 <k2 \ W1 < W2


Statement1isfalse.
3. (b)
4. (c): v=u+gt.Astheballisdropped,v=gtwhencoming
down.vincreases,makescollision,thevalueofv becomes
+ve,decreases,comestozeroandincreases.Thechangefrom
+v tov isalmostinstantaneous.Usingvesignswhencoming
down,(c)iscorrect.
1 2
Further h = gt isa parabola.Therefore (c).
2
5. (d): Bythe law of conservationof momentum
mu=(M+m)v
1.00
0.502.00=(1+0.50) v, 1.50 =v
InitialK.E.=(1/2)0.50(2.00)2 =1.00J.
2
Final K.E. = 1 1.50 1.00 2 = 1.00 = 0.33
2
3.00
(1.50)

6.

\
Lossofenergy= 1.00 0.33=0.67 J.
(a): v =v / 2 isaverage velocity
s=100m,t=10s.
\ (v/2)= 10m/s.
vaverage =(v/2)=10m/s.

(d):ThekineticenergyofaparticleisK
At highest point velocity has its horizontal component.
Therefore kinetic energy of a particle at highest point is
K
KH =Kcos2q =Kcos260= 4.
(b):Letthespringbecompressedbyx
Initialkineticenergyofthemass=potentialenergyof the
spring+workdonedue tofriction
1
1
2 4 2 = 10000 x 2 +15x
2
2
or
5000x2 +15x16=0
or
x=0.055m=5.5cm.

Workdoneonspring S2 is
W2 = 1 k2 x22 = 1k 2x 2
2
2
W1 k1
\
=
W2 k2

time

(1/2)mva2 v =(1/2)50100=2500J.

9.

(b) : Total energyET = 2 J. It is fixed.


For maximum speed, kinetic energy is maximum
The potential energy should therefore be minimum.
Q V ( x )=

x 4 x2
4
2

dV 4 x 3 2x 3
=
= x - x = x ( x2 -1)
dx
4
2
dV = 0
For V to be minimum,
dx
\
x(x2 1) = 0, or
x = 0, 1
At x = 0, V(x) = 0

or

At
\

x = 1, V ( x ) = - 1 J
4
(Kinetic energy)max = ET Vmin

or

1
9
(Kinetic energy)max = 2 - = J
4 4

or

1 m v 2 =9
m
2
4

or

vm2 = 9 2 = 9 2 = 9
m 4 1 4 2

vm =

3
m/s.
2

18

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

10. (c): Kineticenergyatprojectionpointisconvertedintopotential


energyof theparticle during rise. Potential energy measures
the workdone against the force of gravity during rise.
1 2
\
( work done) = Kinetic energy = 2mv
or
( work done)

Since p2 = 2ME
\

2
p = 2ME = 2M KL = MK L .
2

16. (b) : mgh =

1 100 2 5 5

( 5) = 2 10 = 1.25 J
2 1000
Work done by force of gravity = 1.25 J

1 2 7
= 2 mv 5

11. (c) : Linear momentum is conserved


\
0 = m1v1 + m2v2 = (12 4) + (4 v2)
or
4v2 = 48 v2 = 12 m/s
1
2
\
Kinetic energy of mass m2 = m2 v2
2
1
= 4 (12) 2 =288 J.
2
12. (a): Workdoneindisplacementisequaltogaininpotential
energy of mass

l cos45

45 l

100m
30m 20m

1 2 7
mv = mg 80
2
5

or

v2 = 2 10 80

or

v = 34 m/s.

17. (b) : Acceleration a =


\

lsin45

1mv21+ k2

2
2
R

5
5
= 1600
7
7

v1
t1

v1
velocity (v) = 0+ at = t t
1
Power P = Force velocity = mav

2
v v t mv t
P = m 1 1 = 21 .
t1 t1 t1
r r
18. (b) : Work done = F r
or
work done = (5i + 3 j + 2k) (2i
j )
or
work done = 10 3 = 7 J.

or

Mg

Work done = F l sin 45 = Fl


2
Gain in potential energy = Mg(l lcos45)

= Mgl 1- 1
2

Fl Mgl( 2 - 1)
=
\
2
2
or
F = Mg ( 2 1).

19. (b) : The centre of mass of the hanging part is at 0.3 m


from table
1.4m

0.6m

13. (c) : Power = Force velocity


= (ma) (v)= (ma) (at) = ma2t
2

or

v
mv
Power = m (t )= 2 t
T
T

14. (a): Let v1=speedofsecondmassaftercollisionMomentum


is conserved
Along Xaxis, mv1cosq
= mv
.......(i)

mv
=
Along Yaxis, mv1sinq
....... (ii)

3
From (i) and (ii)
2
2 mv
2
2
(
mv
)
+
\
(mv1cosq) + (mv1sinq) =
3

2 2
m 2 v12 = 4m v
or
3
2
v1 = v .
or
3
15. (c) : Elastic energy stored in spring = 1KL2
2
\
kinetic energy of block E = 1KL2
2

mass of hanging part = 4 0.6 = 1.2 kg


2
\
W = mgh
= 1.2 10 0.3
=3.6J.
20. (c): Noworkisdonewhenaforceofconstantmagnitude
alwaysactsatrightanglestothevelocityofaparticlewhen
the motion of the particle takes place in a plane.
Hence kinetic energy of the particle remains constant.
21. (a) : Given : Retardation displacement
dv
=kx
or
dt
dv dx = kx
dx dt
or

or
dv(v) = kx dx
v2

or

vdv = k x dx
v1

19

Work,EnergyandPower

v 22
v2 k x 2
- 1 =
2
2
2
mv22 mv12 mkx 2
=
or
2
2
2
mk 2
( K 2 K1)=
x
or
2
or Loss of kinetic energy is proportional to x2.

or

22. (b) : Force constant of spring (k) = F/x


or
F = kx
\
dW= kxdx
or

or

0.1
k
2
2
dW = kx dx = 2 (0.1) - (0.05)
0.05
k
= [0.01 -0.0025]
2
(5 103)
Workdone =
(0.0075) =18.75 N m.
2

Work Force distance


= Force velocity
23. (b) : Power = Time =
Time
\
Force velocity = constant (K)
or
(ma)(at) = K
1/ 2

K
a =
mt
Q s = 1at 2
2

or

1/ 2

1/ 2

1 K
s =
2 mt

1 K
t 2 = t3/ 2
2 m

or

s is proportional to t3/2.

24. (c): A system of particles implies that one is discussing


total momentum and total energy.
u
1(a)

1(b)

1(a)explodes

Total momentum = 0

( )

1
2
But total kinetic energy = 2 2 mu
But if total kinetic energy = 0, velocities are zero.
Here A is true, but B is not true.
A does not imply B, but B implies A.
x2

0.15

x1
0.15

0.05

25. (b) : W = Fdx = kx dx


\

or

800 20.15
W = 800xdx =
x
2 0.05
0.05
= 400 (0.15)2 (0.05) 2

W = 8 J.

26. (c): Whenwateriscooledtoformice,itsthermalenergy


decreases.Bymassenergyequivalent,massshoulddecrease.
1 2
27. (c) : Kinetic energy point of projection ( E )= 2 mu
At highest point velocity = u cosq
\
Kinetic energy at highest point
1
= m (u cos q)2
2
1 2
E
= mu cos2 45 = .
2
2

20

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

CHAPTER

5
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

ROTATIONALMOTION

Ahoopofradius r andmass m rotatingwithanangularvelocity


w0 isplacedonaroughhorizontalsurface.Theinitialvelocity
ofthecentreofthehoopiszero.Whatwillbethevelocityof
the centre ofthehoop when itceases to slip?
rw0
rw0
rw0
(a) rw0
(b)
(c)
(d)
4
3
2
(2013)

xask(x/L)n where ncanbezerooranypositivenumber.Ifthe


positionxCM ofthecentreofmassoftherodisplottedagainst
n, which of the following graphs best approximates the
dependence of xCM on n?

A pulley of radius 2 m is rotated about its axis by a force


F =(20t 5t2)newton(where t ismeasuredinseconds) applied
tangentially.Ifthemomentofinertiaofthepulleyaboutitsaxis
of rotation is10 kg m2, the number of rotations made by the
pulleybefore itsdirection ofmotion if reversed, is
(a) lessthan3
(b) morethan3butlessthan6
(c) morethan6butlessthan9
(d) morethan9
(2011)

(a)

7.
Amassmhangswiththehelpofastringwrappedarounda
pulley onafrictionless bearing.The pulley has mass m and
radius R.Assuming pulley to be a perfect uniform circular
disc,theaccelerationofthemassm,ifthestringdoesnotslip
on thepulley, is
g
3
2
(b) g
(c) g
(d)
(a) g
2
3
3
(2011) 8.
Athinhorizontalcirculardiscisrotatingaboutaverticalaxis
passingthroughitscentre.Aninsectisatrestatapointnear
therimofthedisc.Theinsectnowmovesalongadiameterof
thedisctoreachitsotherend.Duringthejourneyoftheinsect,
theangularspeedof thedisc
(a) remainsunchanged
(b) continuously decreases
(c) continuously increases
(d) firstincreasesand thendecreases
(2011)
9.
Athinuniformrodoflengthlandmassmisswingingfreely
aboutahorizontalaxispassingthroughitsend.Itsmaximum
angular speed is w. Its centre of mass rises to a maximum
height of
1 lw
1l2w2
1l2w2
1l2w2
(a) 3 g
(b) 6 g
(c) 2 g
(d) 6 g
(2009) 10.

Considera uniform square plate of side a andmass m. The


momentofinertiaofthisplateaboutanaxisperpendicularto
itsplaneandpassingthroughoneofitscornersis

AthinrodoflengthLislyingalongthexaxiswithitsends
atx=0andx =L.Itslineardensity(mass/length)varieswith

xCM

xCM
L
L
2
O

(c)

(b)
n

L
L
2
O

xCM

xCM

L
2

L
L
2

(d)

(2008)

(a)

2 2
5 2
ma (b)
ma
3
6

(c)

1
ma2
12

(d)

7
ma2
12
(2008)

ForthegivenuniformsquarelaminaABCD,whosecentreis
O,
(a) I AC = 2I EF
(b)

2I AC = I EF

(c) I AD =3I EF
(d) IAC = IEF

(2007)
Angularmomentumoftheparticlerotatingwithacentralforce
isconstantdueto
(a) constant torque
(b) constant force
(c) constantlinearmomentum
(d) zero torque
(2007)
A round uniform body of radius R, mass M and moment of
inertia I rollsdown(withoutslipping)aninclinedplanemaking
anangle qwiththehorizontal.Thenitsaccelerationis

21

RotationalMotion

(a)

gsinq
1 -MR 2 /I

(b)

gsinq
1 +I /MR 2

(c)

gsinq
1 +MR 2 /I

(d)

gsinq
1 -I /MR 2

(2007)

11. AcirculardiscofradiusRisremovedfromabiggercircular
discofradius2Rsuchthat thecircumferencesofthediscs
coincide.Thecentreofmassofthenewdiscis a/Rfromthe
centre ofthebigger disc.The value of a is
(a) 1/4
(b) 1/3
(c) 1/2
(d) 1/6.
(2007)
12. Fourpointmasses,eachofvalue m,areplacedatthecorners
of a squareABCD of side l.The momentof inertia ofthis
systemaboutanaxisthroughAandparalleltoBD is
(a) ml2
(b) 2ml2
(c) 3ml2
(d) 3ml2.
(2006)
13. AthincircularringofmassmandradiusRisrotatingabout
itsaxiswithaconstantangularvelocity w.Twoobjectseach
of mass M are attached gently to the opposite ends of a
diameterofthe ring.Thering now rotates withan angular
velocity w =
w m
w(m +2 M)
(a) ( m +2 M )
(b)
m
w( m - 2 M)
wm
(c) (m +2 M )
(2006)
(d) (m +M ).
14. A force of -Fk acts on O, the origin of the coordinate
system.Thetorque aboutthepoint(1, 1) is
z
(a) - F (i -
j )
(b) F (i -
j )
(c) - F (i +
j )
(d) F (i +
j ).

(2006)

15. Consideratwoparticlesystemwithparticleshavingmasses
m1 andm2.Ifthefirstparticleispushedtowardsthecentre

of massthrough a distanced, by what distance shouldthe


secondparticlebe moved,soasto keepthe centreofmass
at the sameposition?
m2
m1
m1
(a) d
(b) m d
(c) m +m d (d) m d .
1
2
1
2
(2006)
l
16. A T shapedobjectwithdimensions
B
shown inthefigure,is lyingon a A
r
smoothfloor.Aforce F isapplied
atthepointPparalleltoAB,such
P
r
that the object has only the
2 l
F
translational motion without
rotation.Findthelocationof P with
C
respecttoC.
4
3
3
(a) l
(b) l
(c) l
(d) l
3
4
2
(2005)

17. A body A of mass M while falling vertically downwards


1
undergravitybreaksintotwopartsabodyBofmass M
3
2
andbodyC ofmass M .Thecenterof massof bodiesB
3
and C takentogethershiftscomparedtothatofbody A towards
(a) bodyC
(b) bodyB
(c) dependsonheightofbreaking
(d) doesnot shift
(2005)
18. Themomentofinertiaofauniformsemicirculardiscofmass
Mandradiusraboutalineperpendiculartotheplaneofthe
discthroughthecenteris
1 2
1 2
2 2
Mr
(a) Mr2
(b)
(c) Mr
(d) Mr
2
4
5
(2005)
19. Onesolidsphere Aandanotherhollowsphere Bareofsame
mass and same outer radii. Their moment of inertia about
theirdiametersarerespectivelyIA andIB suchthat
(a) IA =IB
(b) IA >IB
(c) IA <IB
(d) IA/IB = dA/dB
wheredA anddB aretheirdensities.
(2004)
20. Asolidsphereisrotatinginfreespace.Iftheradiusof the
sphere is increased keeping mass same which one of the
following will not be affected?
(a) moment of inertia
(b) angularmomentum
(c) angularvelocity
(d) rotational kinetic energy.
(2004)
r

21. Let F be therforce acting on a particle having position


r
vectorr and T bethetorqueofthisforceabouttheorigin.
Then
r
r r
r
r r
(a) rr T = 0andF T 0 (b) rr T 0andF T = 0
r
r r
r
r r
r
(c) rr T 0andF T 0 (d) r T = 0 and F T = 0
(2003)
22. A particle performinguniformcircularmotion has angular
momentum L. If its angular frequency is doubled and its
kineticenergyhalved,thenthe new angularmomentumis
(a) L/4
(b) 2L
(c) 4L
(d) L/2.
(2003)
23. AcirculardiscXofradiusRismadefromanironplate of
thicknesst,andanotherdiscYofradius4Rismadefroman
iron plate of thickness t/4. Then the relation between the
momentofinertiaIX andIY is
(a) IY =32IX
(b) IY =16IX
(c) IY =IX
(d) IY =64IX.
(2003)
24. A particle of mass m
movesalongline PC with
velocity v asshown.What
istheangularmomentum
ofthe particleabout P?
(a) mvL
(b) mvl

C
L
P
l

(c) mvr

(d) zero.
(2002)

22

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

25. MomentofinertiaofacircularwireofmassMandradiusR
aboutitsdiameteris
(a) MR2/2
(b) MR2
2
(c) 2MR
(d) MR2/4.
(2002)
26. Asolidsphere,ahollowsphereandaringarereleasedfrom
topofaninclinedplane(frictionless)sothattheyslidedown
theplane.Thenmaximumaccelerationdowntheplaneisfor
(norolling)
(a) solidsphere
(b) hollow sphere
(c) ring
(d) allsame.
(2002)

27. Initial angular velocity ofa circulardisc ofmass M is w1.


Thentwosmallspheresofmass m areattachedgentlytotwo
diametricallyoppositepointsontheedgeofthedisc.What
is the finalangularvelocityofthedisc?
M + m w
M + m w
(b)
(a)
1
1
M
m
M
M
w .
(d)
(2002)
(c) M +4m w1
M +2m 1

(
(

)
)

(
(

)
)

28. Twoidenticalparticlesmovetowardseachotherwithvelocity
2v andv respectively.Thevelocity ofcentre of mass is
(a) v
(b) v/3
(c) v/2
(d) zero.
(2002)

Answer Key

1.
7.
13.
19.
25.

(d)
(a)
(a)
(c)
(a)

2.
8.
14.
20.
26.

(b)
(d)
(d)
(b)
(d)

3.
9.
15.
21.
27.

(c)
(d)
(d)
(d)
(c)

4.
10.
16.
22.
28.

(d)
(b)
(a)
(a)
(c)

5.
11.
17.
23.

(d)
(*)
(d)
(d)

6.
12.
18.
24.

(b)
(d)
(b)
(d)

23

RotationalMotion

a =

1. (d):

t
I

...(ii)

Here, t = T R
and I = 1mR 2

According to law of conservation at point of contact,


mr2w0=mvr+ mr2w

( )

=mvr+mr2 v
r
mr2w0=mvr+mvr
mr2w0=2mvr
rw
or v= 0
2

or a = FR
Q a = t
I
I
Here,F=(20t5t2), R = 2m, I =10 kg m2

or

4. (d)
5. (d) : The uniformrodoflength l andmass m is swinging
aboutan axispassingthrough theend.
Whenthecentreofmassisraisedthrough
h,theincreaseinpotentialenergyis mgh.
q
Thisisequaltothe kinetic energy
h

dw = (4t -t 2)dt
dt

= 1 I w 2.
2

dw=(4t t2)dt

mgh =

6.

(b): xC.M =

2t
t
Onintegration, q =
-
3 12
At,t=6s, q=36rad

l2 w 2
\ h=
.
6g

dxx

dx

2pn=36

Ln x

Ln x

t
d q = 2t - dt
3
2

( )

1 l
m
w2.
2
3
L

dq
t3
= 2t2 dt
3
3

2h
2

Onintegrating, w = 2t 2 - t
3
Att=6s, w=0
w=

(Using(i))

(Q a = Ra)

ma = mg- ma
2
2g
\ a =
3

(20t - 5t 2) 2
10

a=(4t t2)

(Using(ii))

mg- mRa
2
Therefore, a=
m

2. (b) : Torque exerted on pulley t = FR

\ a=

(Forcircular disc)

2
mRa
\ T =
2

xC.M =

n+1

0
L

dx

dx

n+ 2 ( n+ 1)
= L n+1
n+ 2 L

n = 36 < 6
2p

xC.M =

3. (c): The free body diagram of pulley and mass

L( n+ 1)
(n +2)

Thevariationofthecentreofmasswith x is given by
R

dx = L (n + 2)1 - (n+ 1) =
L

2
dn
(
n
+
2)
(
n
+
2)2

mg

Iftherodhasthesamedensityasat x =0 i.e., n =0,therefore


uniform,thecentreofmasswouldhavebeenatL/2.Asthe
densityincreaseswithlength,thecentreofmassshiftstowards
the right.Therefore it canonly be (b).

mg T= ma
mg
mg - T
\ a=
...(i)
m
Asperquestion,pulley to be consider asa circulardisc.
\ Angular accelerationof disc

7.

(a): Forarectangularsheetmomentofinertiapassingthrough
O,perpendiculartothe plateis

24

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER
2
2
I 0 = M a + b
12

a
O

Ma2.
forsquareplateitis
6
a 2 + a 2 = a . \ r 2 = a2
4
4
2
2

r
C

I o + Md 2 = Ma + Ma = 4Ma
6
2
6
2
2
I = Ma
3

8.

or

2
2
a 2 + b 2 M ( a + a )
2a2
=
= M
12
12
12

M (2 a 2 )
M (2 a2) Ma2
+
=
.
12
12
3
By perpendicularaxes theorem,

9.

or

Iz Ma2
=
2
6
2
I
Bythesametheorem I EF = z = Ma
2
6
\
IAC =IEF.

2l
2 ml 2
+ m

2
2
2
2
I = 2 ml + 4ml
2
2
I=

(d):Centralforcespassesthroughaxisofrotationsotorque
is zero.
If no external torque is acting on a particle, the angular
momentumofaparticleisconstant.

10. (b): AccelerationofauniformbodyofradiusRandmassM


and moment of inertia I rolls down (without slipping) an
inclinedplanemakinganangle q withthehorizontalisgiven
by
gsinq
1+ I 2 .
MR

11. (*):(M+m)=M= p(2R)2s


where s=massperunitarea
m= sR2s,M=3pR2s
2

C
l /2
l

w =

mw .
m +2M
r r

14. (d) : Torque t = r F


r
r
F = - Fk, r = i
j

i
j
k
r r
\ r F = 1 -1 0
0 0 - F
j ( - F ) = F (i +
= iF
j ).

15. (d):Letm2 bemovedby xsoastokeepthecentreofmass


at the same position
\
m1d + m2 (x) = 0
m
x = 1 d.
or
m1d = m2x
or
m2
16. (a):Itisacaseoftranslationmotionwithoutrotation.The
force should act at the centre of mass

2R

M
O x

O m
R

3pR s x + pR s R
=0
M

Becauseforthefulldisc,thecentreofmassisatthecentre O.
R
x = -

= aR.
3
\ | a |=

6ml2
=3 ml 2.
2

I AC + I BD = I z I AC =

a=

13. (a) : Angular momentum is conserved


\
L1 = L2
\
mR2 w= (mR2 +2MR2) w=R2 (m+2M) w

I z =

I=

(d):Byperpendicular axestheorem,
I EF = M

45 l

or

I about Bparallel tothe axisthrough Ois


2

axis

1 l
\ AO
=
2 2
l
AO =
or
2
I = ID + IB + IC

a /2 B

A
a/2

r=

12. (d) : AO cos 45 = l


2

-1
3 .

ThecentreofmassisatR/3totheleftonthediameterofthe
originaldisc.
The question should be at a distance aR and not
a/R.
Noneofthe option is correct.

Ycm =

( m 2l ) + (2 m l) 4l
= .
m +2 m
3

17. (d):ThecentreofmassofbodiesBand Ctakentogether


doesnot shiftas noexternalforceis appliedhorizontally.
18. (b) : I =

(Mass of semicircular disc) r2


2
2

or

I = Mr .
2

19. (c): For solid sphere, I A = 2MR 2


5
2 2
For hollow sphere, I B = 3MR
IA 2 MR2
3
3
=

=
\
IB
5
2MR 2 5
or

IA < IB.

25

RotationalMotion

20. (b):Freespaceimpliesthatnoexternaltorqueisoperating
onthesphere.Internalchangesareresponsibleforincrease
inradiusofsphere.Herethelawofconservationofangular
momentum applies to the system.
r r r
21. (d) : Q T = r F
r r r r r
\
r T = r ( r F ) = 0
r r r r r
AlsoF T = F ( r F ) = 0.
22. (a) :Angularmomentum L = Iw
1 2
Rotational kinetic energy ( K )= I w
2
L Iw 2 2
2K
=
= L=
\
K
w
w
I w2
or

L1 K1 w2
=

= 2 2 = 4
L2 K 2 w1

L
L2 = 1 = L .
4 4

I X =

Similarly, IY =
or

IY

( pR t s )R pR st
MR
=
=
2
2
2
2

(Mass)(4 R )
p(4 R) t
=
s 16R 2
2
2
4

= 32pR4ts

IX pR 4st
1
=

= 1
IY
2
32pR 4st 64

IY = 64 IX.

24. (d) : The particle moves with linear velocityv along line
PC.The line of motion is through P.
Hence angular momentum is zero.
25. (a) : A circular wire behaves like a ring
2

M.I.about its diameter = MR .


2
26. (d) : The bodies slide along inclined plane. They do not
roll.Acceleration for each body down the plane = gsinq.
It is the same for each body.
27. (c) : Angular momentum of the system is conserved

2
23. (d) : Mass of disc X = ( pR t )s where s = density
2

1
1
MR 2 w1 = 2mR 2 w + MR 2w
2
2

or

Mw1 = (4m + M)w

or

w=

28. (c) : vc =
or

Mw1
.
M +4m
m1v1 + m2 v2
m1 +m2

vc =

m (2v ) + m ( - v) v
= .
m+m
2

26

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

CHAPTER

GRAVITATION

6
1.

Whatistheminimumenergyrequiredtolaunchasatelliteof 6.
massmfromthesurfaceofaplanetofmassMandradiusR
ina circularorbitat analtitude of2R?
(a)

GmM
3R

(b)

5GmM
2GmM
(c)
6R
3R

(d)

GmM
2R

(2013)

2.

3.

7.
Themassofaspaceshipis1000kg.Itistobelaunchedfrom
the earthssurfaceout intofree space.Thevalue ofgandR
(radiusof earth) are 10 m/s2 and 6400 km respectively.The
required energyfor this workwill be
(a) 6.4108 Joules
(b) 6.4109 Joules
8.
10
(c) 6.410 Joules
(d) 6.41011 Joules (2012)
Twobodiesofmasses m and4m areplacedatadistance r.The
gravitationalpotentialatapointonthelinejoiningthemwhere
the gravitationalfield is zero is
(a) zero

4.

5.

4Gm
(b) -
r

6Gm
(c) -
r

9Gm
(d) -
r
(2011)

9.
The heightat whichthe accelerationdue to gravity becomes
g/9(whereg=the accelerationdueto gravity onthesurface
of the earth)intermsofR, theradius of theearth is
R
(a) 2R
(b)
(c) R/2
(d) 2R
2
(2009) 10.

Aplanetinadistantsolarsystemis10timesmore massive
thantheearthanditsradiusis10timessmaller.Giventhatthe
escapevelocityfromtheearthis11kms1,theescapevelocity
fromthesurfaceof the planetwouldbe
(a) 0.11kms1
(b) 1.1kms1
1
(c) 11kms
(d) 110kms1
(2008)
Averagedensity oftheearth
(a) is directlyproportionalto g
(b) is inverselyproportional tog
(c) doesnotdependon g
(d) is a complex functionofg

(2005)

A particle of mass 10gis kept onthesurface of a uniform


sphereofmass100kgandradius10cm.Findtheworktobe
doneagainstthegravitationalforcebetweenthemtotakethe
particlefarawayfromthe sphere.
(youmaytakeG=6.67 1011 Nm2/kg2)
(a) 6.67 109 J
(b) 6.67 1010 J
10
(c) 13.34 10 J
(d) 3.33 1010 J
(2005)
Thechangeinthevalueofgat aheight habovethesurface
oftheearthisthesameasata depthdbelow the surface of
earth.Whenbothdandharemuchsmallerthantheradiusof
earth, thenwhichof thefollowing iscorrect?
(a) d=2h
(b) d=h
(c) d=h/2
(d) d=3h/2
(2005)
Supposethegravitationalforcevariesinverselyasthe nthpower
ofdistance.Thenthetimeperiodofaplanetincircularorbit
ofradiusRaround thesun willbeproportional to

Directions:Thefollowingquestioncontainsstatement1and
statement2.Ofthefour choices given, choosethe one that
n-2
( n+1) (b) R( n2-1) (c) Rn
bestdescribesthetwostatements.
(a)
(d) ( 2 ) .
R 2
R
(a) Statement1is true,statement2isfalse.
(2004)
(b) Statement1is false,statement2istrue.
(c) Statement1is true,statement2is truestatement2isa 11. If g istheaccelerationduetogravityontheearthssurface,the
gaininthepotentialenergyofanobjectofmass m raisedfrom
correct explanation for statement1.
thesurfaceoftheearthtoaheightequaltotheradiusRofthe
(d) Statement1 is true, statement2 is true
earthis
statement2 is not a correct explanation for
1
1
statement1.
mgR (c) mgR
(a) 2 mgR (b)
(d) mgR.
2
4
Statement1: ForamassM keptatthecentreofacubeofside
(2004)
a, theflux ofgravitational field passing through itssides is
12. The time period of an earth satellite in circular orbit is
4pGM.
independent of
Statement2:Ifthedirectionofafieldduetoapointsource
(a) themassofthesatellite
isradialanditsdependenceonthedistancerfromthesource
(b) radius ofitsorbit
2
isgivenas1/r ,itsfluxthroughaclosedsurfacedependsonly
(c) boththemassandradiusoftheorbit
onthestrength ofthesourceenclosedbythe surfaceand not
(d) neitherthemassofthesatellitenortheradiusofitsorbit.
onthesizeor shapeof the surface.
(2008)
(2004)

27

Gravitation

13. Asatelliteofmass mrevolvesaroundtheearthofradiusR


ataheightxfromitssurface.Ifgistheaccelerationdueto
gravityon thesurface of the earth, the orbital speedof the
satelliteis
gR
(a) gx
(b)
R -x

16. Thetimeperiodofasatelliteofearthis5hour.Iftheseparation
betweentheearthandthesatelliteisincreasedto4timesthe
previousvalue,the new time periodwillbecome
(a) 10hour
(b) 80hour
(c) 40hour
(d) 20hour.
(2003)

(2004)

17. The escapevelocityofa bodydependsuponmass as


(a) m0
(b) m1
(c) m2
(d) m3.
(2002)

14. Theescape velocity for a body projected vertically upwards


fromthesurfaceofearthis11km/s.Ifthebodyisprojected
atanangleof45withthevertical,theescapevelocitywillbe

18. Thekineticenergyneededtoprojectabodyofmassmfrom
theearthsurface(radius R)toinfinityis
(a) mgR/2
(b) 2mgR
(c) mgR
(d) mgR/4.
(2002)

(c)

2 1/ 2

gR
(d) R + x

gR2
R + x

(a) 11 2 km/s

(b) 22km/s

(c) 11km/s

(d) 11 / 2 m/s.

(2003)

15. TwosphericalbodiesofmassMand5MandradiiRand2R
respectivelyarereleasedinfreespacewithinitialseparation
betweentheircentresequalto12R.Iftheyattracteachother
duetogravitationalforceonly,thenthedistancecoveredby
the smallerbodyjustbefore collision is
(a) 2.5R
(b) 4.5R
(c) 7.5R
(d) 1.5R.
(2003)

19. Energyrequiredtomoveabodyofmassmfromanorbitof
radius2Rto3Ris
(a) GMm/12R2
(b) GMm/3R2
(c) GMm/8R
(d) GMm/6R.
(2002)
20. IfsuddenlythegravitationalforceofattractionbetweenEarth
anda satellite revolving aroundit becomeszero, then the
satellitewill
(a) continuetomovein its orbitwithsamevelocity
(b) movetangentiallytotheoriginalorbitinthesamevelocity
(c) becomestationaryinitsorbit
(d) movetowardstheearth.
(2002)

Answer Key

1.
7.
13.
19.

(b)
(a)
(d)
(d)

2.
8.
14.
20.

(c)
(b)
(c)
(b)

3. (d)
9. (a)
15. (c)

4. (a)
10. (a)
16. (c)

5. (c)
11. (b)
17. (a)

6. (d)
12. (a)
18. (c)

28

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

1. (b) :Energyof the satellite onthe surface of the planetis


Ei = KE + PE = 0+ - GMm = - GMm
R
R

5.

(c) : Let A be the Gaussian surface enclosing a spherical


charge Q.
r
B
Q
E 4pr 2 =
A
e0
Q+
r
Q
r
E =
2
4 pe0.r
r
Q
Flux f = E 4pr 2 =
e0
EverylinepassingthroughA, has
B
A
topass through B,whether B is a
cube or any surface. It is only for
M
Gaussiansurface,thelinesoffield
r
should be normal. Assuming the
massisapointmass.
r
g,gravitational field = - GM
r 2
4pr 2 GM = 4 pGM.
r
Flux f g =| g 4pr 2 | =
r 2
Here B isacube.Asexplainedearlier,whateverbetheshape,
allthelinespassingthrough A arepassingthrough B, although
allthelinesarenotnormal.
Statement2iscorrectbecausewhentheshapeoftheearth
isspherical,areaoftheGaussiansurfaceis4pr2.Thisensures
inversesquare law.

6.

(d): vescape =

Ifvisthevelocityofthesatelliteatadistance2Rfromthe
surfaceof the planet, then total energy of the satellite is
1
GMm
E f = mv2 + 2
( R + 2 R)

1
GM
GMm
m
2 ( R + 2 R )
3R

1 GMm GMm
GMm
=2 3R
3R
6R
\ Minimumenergyrequired tolaunch thesatellite is
DE = E f - Ei = - GMm - -GMm
6R
R
GMm
GMm
5
GMm
=+
=
6R
R
6R
=

2. (c): Energyrequired =
= gR 2

GMm
R

(Q g= GM
R )

m
R

=mgR
=1000106400103
=64109 J= 6.41010 J
3. (d) : Letx be the distanceof the point P fromthe mass m
where gravitational field is zero.

ve =11kms1
Massoftheplanet=10 Me,Radiusoftheplanet=R/10.
\ ve = 2GM 10 = 10 11 =110 km s-1
R /10
7.

2
Gm G (4 m)
x
=
or
= 1
( r - x )
4
x2
(r - x )2
or x = r
3
Gravitationalpotential ata point Pis
Gm G (4m)
=x
(r - x )
G (4m)
Gm
=r
r - r
3
3
3G (4m)
Gm
= -9
= - 3Gm -
r
r
2r

() (

Mass of earth
Volume of earth
M
3M
r=
=
(4 / 3) pR 3 4pR 3

(a) : Density =

... (i)

GM
R 2
r
3M
R2
3
3

=
r=
g
\ g =
3 GM
4
p
RG or
4pRG
4pR
\ Average density is directly proportional to g.

...(i)

g =

(Using (i))

4. (a): The acceleration due to gravity at a height h from


M
the groundisgivenas g/9.
GM = GM 1
r2
R 2 9
r
\ r=3R
Theheightabovetheground
is2R.

2GM for the earth


R

8.

(b) : Gravitational forceF =


\ dW = FdR =

Gm1m2
R 2

G m1m2
dR
R 2

Gm1m2
dR
1
\ dW = Gm1m2 2 = Gm1m2 - R =

R
R
0
R R

(6.67 10 11 ) (100) (10 10 3)


10 10 2
10
= 6.67 10 J.

\ Workdone =

... (ii)

29

Gravitation

9.

2h

(a) : At height, g h = g 1- R where h << R

2hg
2hg
or g gh =
or D gh =
R
R
d

At depth, g d = g 1- R where d << R

dg
or g gd =
R
dg
or D gd =
R
From (i) and (ii), when Dgh = D gd

... (i)

.... (ii)

2hg dg
or d = 2h.
=
R
R
10. (a) : For motion of a planet in circular orbit,
Centripetal force = Gravitational force
2
\ mRw =

GM
or w =
R n+1

GMm
R n

2R

1
GMm 1
= GMm - =
x R
2R
\ Gain in P.E.

\ mRw =
or w =

GM e
R

x2

x1

2R

9R

Weknowthat x1 + x 2 = 9R
x1 +

x1
= 9R
5

\ x 1 =

45R
= 7.5R
6

Thereforethe two spheres collide when thesmaller sphere


coveredthedistanceof7.5R.
3

3
T1 1
T1
r1 1
1
\ T = r = 4 = 64 or T = 8

2
2
2


or T2 = 8T1 = 8 5 = 40 hour.

2GMe
R
Escape velocity does not depend on mass of body which
escapes or it depends on m0.

17. (a) : Escape velocity = 2gR =

GMe
( re + h )3
3

( r + h)
\ T = 2p = 2p e
w
GM e
\ T is independent of mass (m) of satellite.

13. (d): For a satellite


centripetal force = Gravitational force
mv02
GMm
\ ( R + x) =
( R +x )2
gR2
GM
2
=
or v0 =
( R + x ) ( R + x )

G 5M
(12 R -x )2
GM
Accelerationofbiggerbody, a 2( x)=
(12 R -x )2

Accelerationofsmallerbody, a1( x)=

GM
Q g = R 2 .

whereR = re + h

R 2

(12 R -x)

16. (c) : According to Kepler's law T 2 r 3

12. (a) : For a satellite


Centripetal force = Gravitational force
GmMe

Thegravitational force, F ( x)= GM 5M2

1
1
a ( x )t 2 and x 2 = a 2( x)t 2
2 1
2
x
a ( x)
1 = 1
= 5 x1 = 5x 2
x2
a 2( x)

at x from centre of earth.


11. (b) : Force on object = GMm
x 2
\ Work done = GMm
dx
x 2
2R
dx
\ Work done = GMm 2
R x
\ Potential energy gained

15. (c):Letthespherescollideaftertimet,whenthesmaller
sphere covered distance x1 and bigger sphere covered
distancex2.
Thegravitationalforceactingbetweentwospheresdepends
onthedistancewhichisavariablequantity.

x1 =

( n2+1 ) .

GM 1
1
= mR 2 = mgR
2
R 2

14. (c):Theescapevelocityofabodydoesnotdependonthe
angle of projection from earth.
It is 11 km/sec.

Fromequationofmotion,

( n2+1)

n+1
T = 2 p = 2p R = 2p R
w
GM
GM

\ T is proportional to R

gR2
.
R + x

or v0 =

GM
Q g = R 2

18. (c):Escapevelocity ve = 2gR


\ Kinetic energy
= 1 mve2 = 1m 2gR =mgR .
2
2
19. (d) : Energy = (P.E.)3R (P.E.)2R
= - GmM - - GmM = +GmM .
3R
2R

6R
20. (b): The centripetalandcentrifugalforces disappear, the
satellite has the tangential velocityand it will move in a
straight line.
Compare Lorentzian force on charges in the cyclotron.

30

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

1.

2.

Assume that a drop of liquid evaporates by decrease in its


surface energy, so that its temperature remains unchanged.
Whatshouldbetheminimumradiusofthedropforthistobe
possible?ThesurfacetensionisT,density ofliquidis rand
Lisitslatentheat ofvaporization.
2T
rL
T
T
(a) rL
(c)
(d) rL
(b)
T
rL
(2013) 5.
A uniform cylinder of length L and mass M having cross
sectionalareaAissuspended,withitslengthvertical,froma
fixedpointbyamasslessspring,suchthatitishalfsubmerged
inaliquidofdensitysatequilibriumposition.Theextension
x0 ofthespringwhenitisinequilibriumis
Mg
Mg
1+ LAs
(a)
(b)
k
k
M
Mg
Mg
LA
s
1-
1- LAs
(c)
(d)
(2013)
k
M
k
2M

(
(

3.

)
)

Ifapieceofmetalisheatedtotemperature q andthenallowed
tocoolinaroomwhichisattemperature q0,thegraphbetween
thetemperatureTof themetal and timetwillbeclosedto
6.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

log(
e q q0)

log(
e q q0)

(b)

(2012)

Awoodenwheelofradius R ismadeoftwo
semicircularparts(seefigure).Thetwoparts
areheldtogetherbyaringmadeofametal
R
stripofcrosssectionalareaSandlengthL.
L isslightlylessthan2pR.Tofittheringon
thewheel,itisheatedsothatitstemperature
risesby DT anditjuststepsoverthewheel.
As it cools down to surrounding temperature, it presses the
semicircularpartstogether.Ifthecoefficientoflinearexpansion
ofthemetalis a,anditsYoungsmodulusisY,theforcethat
onepartofthewheelappliesontheotherpartis
(a) SYaDT
(b) pSYaDT
(c) 2SYaDT
(d) 2pSYaDT
(2012)
Athinliquidfilmformedbetweena
Ushapedwireandalightslidersupports
a weight of 1.5 102 N (see figure).
Thelengthoftheslideris30cmandits
weight negligible. The surface tension
of theliquidfilm is
(a) 0.1Nm1
(b) 0.05Nm1
(c) 0.025Nm1
(d) 0.0125Nm1

FILM

(2012)

Waterisflowingcontinuouslyfromataphaving an internal
diameter8103 m.Thewatervelocityasitleavesthetapis
0.4 m s1. The diameter of the water stream at a distance
2101 m belowthetapiscloseto
(a) 5.0103 m
(b) 7.5103 m
3
(c) 9.610 m
(d) 3.6103 m
(2011)

8.

Work done in increasing the size of a soap bubble from a


radius of 3 cm to 5 cm is nearly (Surface tension of soap
solution=0.03N m1)
(a) 4pmJ (b) 0.2pmJ (c) 2pmJ
(d) 0.4pmJ
(2011)

A liquidin a beaker has temperature q(t) attimet and q0 is


temperatureofsurroundings,then according toNewtonslaw
ofcoolingthecorrectgraphbetweenloge(q q0)andtis

(a)

(d)

7.
(2013)
4.

(c)

log(
e q q0)

log(
e q q0)

PROPERTIESOFSOLIDS
ANDLIQUIDS

CHAPTER

31

PropertiesofSolidsandLiquids

9.

Thepotentialenergyfunctionfortheforcebetweentwoatoms
in a diatomic molecule is approximately given by
U ( x) = a12 - b6 , whereaandbareconstantsandxisthe
x
x
distancebetweentheatoms.Ifthedissociationenergyofthe
moleculeis D=[U(x= ) Uatequilibrium], D is
2
(a) b
6a

(b)

b2
2a

2
(c) b
12a

2
(d) b
4a
(2010)

10. Aballismadeofamaterialofdensity r where roil< r < rwater


with roil and rwater representingthedensitiesofoilandwater,
respectively.Theoilandwater areimmiscible.Iftheabove
ballisinequilibriuminamixtureofthisoilandwater,which
ofthefollowingpicturesrepresentsitsequilibriumposition?
Oil

(a)

Water

(a)

(b)

(c)

Water

(b)

Oil

(d)
Water

Oil

(c)

(d)

Oil

Water

(2008)
(2010)

11. Twowiresaremadeofthesamematerialandhavethesame
volume.Howeverwire1hascrosssectionalareaA andwire
2hascrosssectionalarea3A.Ifthelengthofwire1increases
by Dx on applying force F, how much force is needed to
stretchwire2bythesame amount?
(a) F
(b) 4F
(c) 6F
(d) 9F
(2009)
12. Alongmetallicbariscarryingheatfromoneof itsendsto
theotherendundersteadystate.Thevariationoftemperature
q alongthelength x ofthebarfromitshotendisbestdescribed
by which of the following figures?
q

(a)

14. AsphericalsolidballofvolumeVismadeofamaterial of
density r1.Itisfallingthroughaliquidofdensity r2 (r2< r1).
Assumethattheliquidappliesaviscousforceontheballthat
isproportionaltothesquareofitsspeedv,i.e.,Fviscous =kv2
(k>0).Theterminalspeedofthe ballis
(a)

Vg(r1 - r2)
k

(b)

Vg(r1 - r2)
k

(c)

Vgr1
k

(d)

Vgr1
k

(2008)

15. Ajarisfilledwithtwononmixingliquids1and2having
densities r1and r2respectively.Asolidball,madeofamaterial
ofdensity r3,isdroppedinthejar.Itcomestoequilibrium

inthepositionshowninthefigure.Whichofthefollowing
istrue for r1, r2 and r3?

(a) r1 < r3 < r2

(b)
x

r3

(b) r3 < r1 < r2


(c) r1 > r3 > r2

(d) r1 < r2 < r3

(c)

(d)
x

(2009)
13. Acapillarytube(A)isdippedinwater.Anotheridenticaltube
(B)isdippedinasoapwatersolution.Whichofthefollowing
showsthe relative nature of the liquid columns in the two
tubes?

(2008)

16. Oneendofathermallyinsulatedrodiskeptatatemperature
T1 andtheotheratT2.Therodiscomposedoftwosections
of lengths l1 and l2 and thermal conductivities K1 and K2
respectively. The temperature at the interface of the two
sectionsis
T1

l1

K1

l2

K2

T2

32

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

(a)

( K1l1T1 + K 2 l2T2)
( K1l1 +K 2 l2)

(b)

( K 2 l2T1 + K1l1T2)
( K1l1 +K 2 l2)

(c)

( K 2 l1T1 + K1l2T2)
( K 2 l1 + K1l2)

(d)

( K1l2T1 + K 2 l1T2)
( K1l2 + K 2 l1) (2007)

17. AwireelongatesbylmmwhenaloadWishangedfromit.
If the wiregoesovera pulleyand twoweightsWeachare
hung at the two ends, the elongation of the wire will be
(inmm)
(a) l/2
(b) l
(c) 2l
(d) zero.
(2006)
18. Iftheterminalspeedofasphereofgold (density=19.5kg/m3)
is0.2m/sinaviscous liquid(density =1.5 kg/m3) findthe
terminalspeedofasphereofsilver(density10.5kg/m3)ofthe
samesizeinthesameliquid
(a) 0.2m/s
(b) 0.4m/s
(c) 0.133m/s
(d) 0.1m/s.
(2006)
19. Assuming the sun to be a spherical body of radius R at a
temperatureof T K,evaluatethetotalradiantpower,incident
onearth,ata distancerfromthesun.
(a)

R 2 sT4
2
r

(c)

pr02 R 2sT4
2
r

(b)

(d)

4pr02 R 2 sT4
r

r02 R 2sT4
2
4pr

where r0 istheradiusoftheearthand sisStefan'sconstant.


(2006)

23. Iftwosoapbubblesofdifferentradiiareconnectedbyatube,
(a) airflowsfrom thebiggerbubbletothesmallerbubble
tillthesizesbecomeequal
(b) airflowsfrom thebiggerbubbletothesmallerbubble
tillthesizesareinterchanged
(c) airflowsfromthesmallerbubbletothebigger
(d) there isnoflow ofair.
(2004)
24. Sphericalballsofradius R are fallingina viscous fluid of
viscosity h with a velocity v. The retarding viscous force
actingonthespherical ballis
(a) directlyproportionaltoRbutinverselyproportionaltov
(b) directlyproportional tobothradius R andvelocityv
(c) inverselyproportional tobothradius R and velocity v
(d) inverselyproportional toR but directlyproportional to
velocityv.
(2004)
25. Awirefixedattheupperendstretchesbylength l byapplying
aforceF.Theworkdone instretchingis
(a) F/2l
(b) Fl
(c) 2Fl
(d) Fl/2.
(2004)
26. The temperature of the two outer surfaces of a composite
slab,consistingoftwomaterialshavingcoefficientsofthermal
conductivityKand2Kandthicknessxand4x,respectively
areT2 andT1 (T2 >T1).Therateofheattransferthroughthe
A(T2 - T1)K f
,with f equal to
slab,inasteadystateis
x

20. IfSisstressandY isYoungsmodulusofmaterialofawire,


theenergy storedin thewire perunitvolumeis
S2
(a) 2Y/S
(b) S/2Y
(c) 2S2Y
(d)
2Y
(2005)
21. A 20cmlongcapillary tube is dipped in water.Thewater
risesupto8cm.Iftheentirearrangementisputinafreely
fallingelevatorthe length ofwater columnin the capillary
tubewillbe
(a) 4cm
(b) 20 cm (c) 8cm
(d) 10cm
(2005)
22. Thefigureshowsasystemoftwoconcentricspheresofradii
r1 and r2 andkeptattemperatures T1 and T2,respectively.The
radial rateof flow of heat in a substance between the two
concentric spheres is proportional to
(a)

r1r2
( r2 -r1)

(b) (r2 r1)


(c)

r1
r2

T1
T2

( r2 -r1)
r1r2

r2
(d) ln
r1

(2005)

T2

(a) 1
(c) 2/3

4 x

2K

(b) 1/2
(d) 1/3.

T1

(2004)

27. Aradiationofenergy E fallsnormallyonaperfectlyreflecting


surface.Themomentumtransferredtothe surface is
(a) E/c
(b) 2E/c
(c) Ec
(d) E/c2.
(2004)
28. IfthetemperatureofthesunweretoincreasefromTto2T
and its radius from R to 2R, then the ratio of the radiant
energyreceivedonearthtowhatitwaspreviously will be
(a) 4
(b) 16
(c) 32
(d) 64.
(2004)
29. Awiresuspendedverticallyfromoneofitsendsisstretched
byattachingaweightof200Ntothelowerend.Theweight
stretchesthewireby1mm.Thentheelasticenergystoredin
thewireis
(a) 0.2J
(b) 10J
(c) 20J
(d) 0.1J.
(2003)

33

PropertiesofSolidsandLiquids

30. AccordingtoNewton'slawofcooling,therateofcoolingof
abodyisproportionalto(Dq)n,where Dqisthedifferenceof
thetemperatureof the body and the surroundings,andnis
equal to
(a) two
(b) three
(c) four
(d) one.
(2003)
31. The earth radiates in the infrared region of the spectrum.
Thewavelengthofthemaximumintensityofthespectrumis
correctly given by
(a) RayleighJeanslaw
(b) Planck'slawofradiation
(c) Stefan'slawof radiation
(d) Wien'slaw.
(2003)
32. A cylinder of height 20 m is completely filled with water.
Thevelocityofeffluxofwater(inms1)throughasmallhole

onthe sidewallofthe cylindernearitsbottom is


(a) 10
(b) 20
(c) 25.5
(d) 5.
(2002)
33. Twospheresofthesamematerialhaveradii1mand4mand
temperatures4000Kand 2000 Krespectively.The ratioof
theenergyradiatedpersecondbythefirstspheretothatby
thesecond is
(a) 1:1
(b) 16:1 (c) 4:1
(d) 1:9.
(2002)
34. Whichofthefollowingismoreclose toa black body?
(a) blackboardpaint
(b) green leaves
(c) blackholes
(d) redroses.
(2002)

Answer Key

1.
7.
13.
19.
25.
31.

(a)
(d)
(d)
(c)
(d)
(d)

2.
8.
14.
20.
26.
32.

(d)
(d)
(b)
(d)
(d)
(b)

3.
9.
15.
21.
27.
33.

(d)
(d)
(a)
(b)
(b)
(a)

4.
10.
16.
22.
28.
34.

(d)
(c)
(d)
(a)
(d)
(a)

5.
11.
17.
23.
29.

(c)
(d)
(b)
(c)
(d)

6.
12.
18.
24.
30.

(c)
(b)
(d)
(b)
(d)

34

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

According to equation of motion,

1. (a)
2. (d):Let k be the spring constant of
springanditgetsextendedbylength
x0 inequilibriumposition.
Inequilibrium,
kx0 + FB = Mg

v2 = v12 +2gh = (0.4)2 + 2 10 0.2

2ms1
\ According to equation of continuity
a1v1 = a2v2

L
Ag = Mg
2
sLAg
Mg 2
x0 =
k

kx0 + s

DL = aDT
L

0.4 = p

( d2 ) 2
2

8. (d) : Here,surfacetension, S=0.03Nm1


r1 =3cm=3102 m, r2 =5cm=5102 m
Sincebubble hastwosurfaces,
Initialsurfacearea ofthe bubble
=24pr12 =24p (3102)2
=72p 104 m2
Finalsurfacearea ofthe bubble
=24pr22 =24p(5102)2 =200p104 m2
Increase in surfaceenergy
=200p 104 72p104 =128p104
\ Workdone= S increase insurfaceenergy
=0.03128 p104 =3.84p 104
=4p104 J=0.4p mJ
9. (d): U = a - b
x12 x 6

The thermalstressdeveloped is
T
D L
=Y
= Y aDT
S
L
T
T
or T= SYaDT
FromFBDofone part of the wheel,
or F= 2T
Where,Fistheforcethatonepartofthewheelapplieson
the other part.
\ F= 2SYaDT
6. (c) :The force due to the surface tension will balancethe
weight.
F=w
F =2TL
2TL=w

w
T =
2L

Substitutingthegiven values,we get


1.5 10 -2 N
T=
= 0.025 Nm-1
2 30 10 -2 m
7. (d) : Here,d1 =8 103 m
v1 =0.4ms1
h=0.2m

d2 =3.6103 m

Mg
1- sLA
k
2M
3. (d) :According to Newtons law of cooling the option (d)
representsthecorrectgraph.
4. (d) :AccordingtoNewtonslawofcooling
dq
dq
= - k(q - q0) or q - q = - kdt
dt
0
dq
Integratingbothsides,weget q - q = - kdt
0
loge(q q0)=kt+C
where Cisaconstantofintegration.
So,thegraphbetweenloge(q q0)andt isastraightlinewith
anegativeslope.Option(d)representsthecorrectgraph.
5. (c) :Increaseinlength, DL= LaDT
F
=

8 10-3
2

d a
b
-
Force,F = - dU = dx x12 x6
dx

-12a 6b
12 a 6b
= - 13 + 7 = 13 - 7
x

x
x
x

AtequilibriumF=0
\ 1213a - 6b
=0 or x6 = 2a
b
x
x 7
a
b
Uat equilibrium =
-
2
2a
2a
b
b

( ) ( )

2
2
2
2
2
= ab2 - b = b - b = - b
2a 4a 2a
4a
4a
U(x= )=0

D=[U(x= ) Uat equilibrium]

( )

b 2 b2
= 0- =

4 a 4a

35

PropertiesofSolidsandLiquids

10. (c) : As roil < rw ater, so oil should be over the water.As
r> roil,sotheballwillsink intheoil but r< rwater soit
willfloatinthe water.
Hence option (c) is correct.
11. (d) : Forthe same material,Youngs modulus is the same
anditisgiventhatthevolumeisthesameandtheareaof
crosssectionforthe wire l1 is A andthat of l2 is 3A.
V= V1 = V2
V= A l1 =3A l2 l2 = l1/3
Y=

D l
F / A
F1 = YA 1
Dl /l
l1

D l
F2 =Y 3A 2
l2

Given Dl1 = Dl2 = Dx (for the same extension)


\ F2 = Y 3 A

( )

Dx
YADx
= 9
=9 F1 or 9 F.
l1 / 3
l1

12. (b): Heat flow can be compared to charges flowing in a


conductor.
dQ
Currentisthesame.
q1
q2
dt
Thepotentialdifference V1 V
V2
rl V1 current V
atanypoint=IResistance = I
A
Potentialdifferenceis lbutnegative.
As lincreases, potentialdecreases
q q
max,V max
(temperature decreases) but it is a
straightlinefunction.
qmin,Vmin
Potentialdifferenceisproportional
to resistance (thermal as well as
x
electric).
13. (d) : The force acting upwards
2prT ; hpr2rg,theforceactingdownor
T h withoutmakingfinercorrections.Soap
reducesthe surface tension of water.The
heightofliquidsupported decreases.But
itisalsoawettingagent.Thereforethemeniscuswillnot
be convexas in mercury.Therefore (d).
14. (b): Theforcesactingonthesolid
Vr2g
ballwhenitisfallingthrougha
viscousforce
liquidaremgdownwards,thrust
byArchimedesprincipleupwards
and the forcedue to the force
offrictionalsoactingupwards.
The viscous force rapidly
increaseswithvelocity,attaining
amaximumwhentheballreaches
the terminal velocity. Then the mg=V r1g
accelerationiszero.mgVr2g

kv2 = mawhereV is volume,v istheterminal velocity.


When the ball is moving with terminal velocity
2
a=0.Therefore Vr1g
Vr2g

kv = 0.
v=

Vg(r1 - r 2)
.
k

15. (a) : The liquid 1 is over liquid 2.


Therefore r1 < r2.If r3 hadbeengreater
than r2, itwill not bepartially inside
butanywhereinsideliquid2if r3 = r2
oritwouldhavesunktotallyif r3 had
beengreaterthan r2.
\
r1 < r3 < r2.

r3

16. (d) : Let T be the


l1
temperature of the
K1
interface.
Since two section of rod
T1
are in series, rate offlow
ofheatinthemwillbeequal
\

l2
K2
T2

K1 A [T1 - T ] K 2 A [T T2]
=
l1
l2

or
or

K1l
T2)
2(T
1 T)= K2l
1(T

T(K1l2 +K2l1)=K1l2T1 + K2l1T2

or

T =

K1 l2 T1 + K 2 l1 T2
.
K1 l2 +K 2 l1

17. (b) : Y = Force L = WL


Al
Al

WL
\
AY
Duetopulleyarrangement,thelength
ofwireisL/2oneachsideandsothe
elongationwillbe l/2.Forbothsides,
elongation = l.

L
2

l =

L
W W

18. (d) : Terminal velocity = v


viscous force upwards = weight of sphere downwards
4
6 phrv = pr 3 (r s )g
3
For gold and silver spheres falling in viscous liquid,
vg r g s 19.5 1.5 18 2
=
=
=
=
\
vs r s s 10.5 1.5 9 1
vg 0.2
vs =
=
=0.1 m/s.
or
2
2

or

19. (c) : Energy radiated by sun, according to Stefan's law,


E = sT4 (area 4pR2) (time)
This energyisspreadaround suninspace, in a sphere of
radius r. Earth (E) in space receives part of this energy.
R
r

Sun

Earth

4
2
Energy
= sT 4 pR2 time
Area of envelope
4pr

4 2
Energy incident per unit area on earth = sT R 2 time
r

36

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

\
\

2 4
Power incident per unit area on earth = R s2T
r

2
4
2 R sT
p
r

Power incident on earth = 0


r 2

20. (d) : Energy stored per unit volume


=

1
stress strain
2

Stress stress
S2
=
.
2Y
2Y

21. (b) : In a freely falling elevator g = 0


Water will rise to the full length i.e., 20 cm to tube.
22. (a) : For conduction from inner sphere to outer one,
dQ = - KA dT (time dt)
dr
dQ
dT
= - K (4 pr2)
or
dt
dr
\

Radial rate of flow Q = -4pKr2 dT


dr
r2

KA(T2 - T )t
x
(2 K ) A(T - T1)t
From second surface, Q2 =
(4 x )
At steady state,
KA(T2 - T )t 2 KA(T - T1)t
Q1 = Q2
=
x
4x
or
2(T2 T) = (T T1)
2T + T
T = 2 1
or
3
2T + T
KA
Q1 =
T - 2 1 t
\
x 2
3

26. (d): From first surface, Q1 =

or
or

27. (b) : Initial momentum = E/c


Final momentum= E/c
\

T2

dr
= -4pK dT
r 2
T1

or

r - r
Q 1 2 = 4pK [T2 - T1]
r1r2

or

4 pK (T1 - T2 )r1r2
Q =
( r2 - r1)

r1r2
Q is proportional to r - r .
2 1

r1

24. (b) : Retarding viscous force = 6phRv


obviously option (b) holds goods.

or

....... (i)

Workdone = Fl .
2

29. (d) : Elastic energy per unit volume


1
= stress strain
2
\
Elastic energy
1
= stress strain volume
2
1 F DL
=
( AL)
2 A L
1
1
= F DL = 200 10 3 =0.1 J .
2
2
30. (d): AccordingtoNewton'slawofcooling,rateofcooling
is proportional to Dq.
\
(Dq)n = (Dq) or n = 1.

33. (a) : Energy radiated


E = sT4 (area 4pR2) time e

YAl
Workdone =
2L
From (i) and (ii)

E2 s (2T )4 4 p (2 R )2 t
=
= 16 4
E1
sT 4 (4 pR )2 t
E2
=64.
E1

31. (d): Wien's law


32. (b) : v = 2 gh = 2 10 20 = 20 m/s.

YA l
YAl2
dW = L l dl = 2L
0

or

E E 2E
-- =
c c
c
2E
.
Momentum transferred to surface =
c

Change of momentum =

28. (d) : According to Stefan's law,


Radiant energyE = (sT4) area time

4T
23. (c) : Pressure inside the bubble = P0 +
r
Smallerthe radius,greaterwillbe thepressure.Airflows
from higher pressure to lower pressure. Hence air flows
from the smaller bubble to the bigger.

25. (d): Young's modulus Y = FL


Al
YAl
F =
\
L
YAl ( dl)
or
dW = F dl =
L

A(T2 - T1 )K
KA T2 - T1

f = x 3 1
x

1
f = .
3

....... (ii)

E1 (4000)4 (1)2 1 4pse 1


=
=
E2 (2000) 4 (4)2 1 4pse 1.

34. (a):Agoodabsorberisagoodemitterbutblackholesdo
not emit all radiations.

37

Thermodynamics

CHAPTER

THERMODYNAMICS

8
1.

Theabove pvdiagramrepresents
the thermodynamic cycle of an
engine, operating with an ideal
monoatomic gas. The amount of
heat,extractedfromthesourceina
singlecycleis
(a) 4p0v0
(b) p0v0
13
11
pv
(c)
(d) 2 p0v0
2 0 0

( )

2.

3.

4.

( )

100gof water isheatedfrom30Cto 50C. Ignoring the


slightexpansionofthewater,thechangeinitsinternalenergy
is(specificheatofwateris4184Jkg1 K1)
(a) 4.2kJ (b) 8.4kJ (c) 84kJ
(d) 2.1kJ
(2011)

7.

AdiatomicidealgasisusedinaCarnotengineastheworking
substance.Ifduringtheadiabaticexpansionpartofthecycle
thevolumeofthegasincreasesfromV to32V,theefficiency
oftheengineis
(a) 0.25
(b) 0.5
(c) 0.75
(d) 0.99
(2010)

(2013)

ACarnotengine,whoseefficiencyis40%,takesinheatfrom
asourcemaintainedatatemperatureof500K.Itisdesired
to have an engine of efficiency 60%. Then, the intake
temperatureforthesameexhaust(sink)temperaturemustbe
(a) 1200K
(b) 750K
(c) 600K
(d) efficiencyofCarnotenginecannotbemadelargerthan50%
(2012)

Directions:Questionnumbers8,9and10are basedon the


followingparagraph.
TwomolesofheliumgasaretakenoverthecycleABCDA,
asshownintheP Tdiagram.
5
210

C
2P0
Heliumgasgoesthroughacycle
ABCDA (consistingoftwoisochoric
P0
andtwoisobariclines)asshownin
A
D
figure. Efficiency of this cycle is
nearly(Assumethegastobeclose
V0
2V0
toidealgas)
(a) 9.1%
(b) 10.5% (c) 12.5%
(d) 15.4%
(2012)

Threeperfectgasesatabsolutetemperatures T1,T2 and T3 are


mixed.The massesof moleculesarem1,m2 andm3 andthe
numberofmoleculesare n1, n2 and n3 respectively.Assuming
nolossofenergy,thefinaltemperatureofthemixtureis
n1T1 + n2T2 + n3T3
(T + T +T )
(a) 1 2 3
(b)
n1 + n2 +n3
3
(c)

n1T12 + n2T22 + n3T32


n1T1 + n2T2 +n3T3

(d)

n12T12 + n22T22 + n32T32


n1T1 + n2T2 +n3T3

(2011)
5.

6.

ACarnotengineoperatingbetweentemperaturesT1 andT2
1
. WhenT2 isloweredby62K,itsefficiency
6
1
increasesto . ThenT1 andT2 are,respectively
3

hasefficiency

(a) 372Kand310K
(c) 330Kand268K

(b) 372Kand330K
(d) 310Kand248K (2011)

P(Pa)

5
110

500K

300K

8.

Assumingthegasto beidealthe workdoneon thegas in


takingitfromAtoBis
(a) 200R (b) 300R
(c) 400R
(d) 500R

9.

TheworkdoneonthegasintakingitfromDtoAis
(a) 414R (b) +414R (c) 690R
(d) +690R

10. ThenetworkdoneonthegasinthecycleABCDAis
(a) zero
(b) 276R
(c) 1076R
(d) 1904R
(2009)
11. Aninsulatedcontainerofgashastwochambersseparatedby
aninsulatingpartition.OneofthechambershasvolumeV1
andcontainsidealgasatpressure P1 andtemperature T1.The
otherchamberhasvolume V2andcontainsidealgasatpressure
P2 andtemperature T2. Ifthe partition isremoved without
doinganyworkonthegas,thefinalequilibriumtemperature
ofthegasinthecontainerwillbe
T1T2 ( PV
1 1 + PV
2 2)
T T ( PV + PV )
(a) PV T +P V T
(b) 1 2 1 1 2 2
1 1 1
2 2 2
PV
1 1T2 +PV
2 2T1
(c)

PV
1 1T1 + PV
2 2T
2
PV
1 1 +PV
2 2

(d)

PV
1 1T2 + PV
2 2T
1
PV
1 1 +PV
2 2
(2004, 2008)

38

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

12. A Carnot engine, having an efficiency of h = 1/10 as heat


engine, is used as a refrigerator. If the work done on the
system is 10 J, the amount of energy absorbed from the
reservoiratlowertemperatureis
(a) 100J (b) 99J
(c) 90J
(d) 1J
(2007)
13. Whenasystemistakenfromstate a
i tostate falongthepathiaf,itis
foundthatQ =50caland W =20
cal.Along the path ibf Q = 36 i
cal.Walongthepathibfis
(a) 14cal (b) 6cal
(c) 16 cal

(d) 66cal
(2007)

14. The workof146kJ isperformed inorder tocompress one


kilo mole of gas adiabatically and in this process the
temperature of the gas increases by 7C. The gas is
(R=8.3Jmol1 K1)
(a) monoatomic
(b) diatomic
(c) triatomic
(d) amixtureofmonoatomicanddiatomic.
(2006)
15. AsystemgoesfromAtoBvia
twoprocessesIandIIasshown P
II
in figure. If DU1 and DU2 are
thechangesininternalenergies
A
B
in the processes I and II
I
respectively,then
V
(a) DU2 > DU1
(b) DU2 < DU2
(c) DU1 = DU2
(d) relationbetween DU1 and DU2 cannotbe determined
(2005)
16. The temperatureentropy
diagram of a reversible
enginecycleisgiveninthe
figure.Itsefficiencyis
(a) 1/3
(b) 2/3
(c) 1/2
(d) 1/4

T
2T0

(c) Itisnotapplicabletoanycyclicprocess
(d) It is a restatement of the principle of conservation of
energy
(2005)
18. Which of the following statements is correct for any
thermodynamicsystem?
(a) Theinternalenergychangesinallprocesses.
(b) Internalenergyand entropyarestatefunctions.
(c) Thechangeinentropycanneverbezero.
(d) Theworkdoneinanadiabaticprocessisalwayszero.
(2004)
19. ACarnotenginetakes3106 calofheatfromareservoirat
627C,andgivesittoasinkat27C.Theworkdonebythe
engineis
(a) 4.2106 J
(b) 8.4106 J
(c) 16.8106 J
(d) zero.
(2003)
20. Whichofthefollowingparametersdoesnotcharacterizethe
thermodynamicstateofmatter?
(a) temperature
(b) pressure
(c) work
(d) volume.
(2003)
21. Duringanadiabaticprocess,thepressureofagasisfoundto
beproportionaltothecubeofitsabsolutetemperature.The
ratioCP/CV forthegasis
(a) 4/3
(b) 2
(c) 5/3
(d) 3/2.
(2003)
22. "Heatcannotbyitselfflowfromabodyatlowertemperatureto
abodyathighertemperature"isastatementorconsequenceof
(a) secondlawofthermodynamics
(b) conservationofmomentum
(c) conservationofmass
(d) firstlawofthermodynamics.
(2003)
23. EvenCarnotenginecannotgive100%efficiencybecausewe
cannot
(a) preventradiation
(b) findideal sources
(c) reachabsolutezerotemperature
(d) eliminatefriction.
(2002)

(2005)

24. Whichstatementisincorrect?
(a) allreversiblecycleshavesameefficiency
(b) reversiblecyclehasmoreefficiencythananirreversible
one
(c) Carnotcycleisareversibleone
(d) Carnotcyclehasthemaximumefficiencyinall cycles.
(2002)

17. Whichofthefollowingisincorrectregardingthefirstlawof
thermodynamics?
(a) Itintroducestheconceptoftheinternalenergy
(b) Itintroducestheconceptof entropy

25. Heatgiventoabodywhichraisesitstemperatureby1Cis
(a) waterequivalent
(b) thermalcapacity
(c) specificheat
(d) temperaturegradient.
(2002)

T0

S
S0

2 S0

AnswerKey

1.
7.
13.
19.
25.

(c)
(c)
(b)
(b)
(b)

2.
8.
14.
20.

(b)
(c)
(b)
(c)

3.
9.
15.
21.

(d)
(b)
(c)
(d)

4.
10.
16.
22.

(b)
(b)
(a)
(a)

5.
11.
17.
23.

(a)
(b)
(b,c)
(c)

6.
12.
18.
24.

(b)
(c)
(b)
(a)

39

Thermodynamics

1. (c): Heatisextractedfromthe
sourceinpathDAandAB.
Alongpath DA,volumeisconstant.
Hence,
DQDA =nCvDT=nCv(TA TD)
Accordingtoidealgasequation
pv
pv = nRT or T =
nR

Alongthepath AB,heatsuppliedtothegasatconstantvolume,
D

Foramonoatomicgas, Cv = 3R
2
p v 3
3 2p v
\ DQDA = n R 0 0 - 0 0 = p0v0
2 nR
nR 2
AlongthepathAB,pressureisconstant.Hence
DQAB =nCpDT=nCp(TB TA)

( )

Formonoatomicgas, C p =

\ CV = 3 R and C P = 5R
2
2

5R
2

2p0 v0 10
5 2 p 2v
\ DQAB = n R 0 0 =
p v
2 nR
nR 2 0 0
\ Theamountofheatextractedfromthesourceinasingle
cycleis

\ D Q AB = nCVD T = n

Alongthepath BC,heatsuppliedtothegasatconstantpressure,
\ D QBC = nC PDT = n

= 3 p0v0 + 10 p0 v0 = 13 p0v0
2
2
2

2. (b) :EfficiencyofCarnotengine,
T
h = 1- 2
T1
where T1 is the temperature of the source and T2 is the
temperatureofthesink.
For1st case
h=40%,T1 =500K
T
T
40
\
= 1- 2 2 = 1- 40 = 3
100
500
500
100 5
T2 = 3 500 =300 K
5

For2nd case
h=60%,T2 =300K
\

60
300
300
60 2
= 1= 1=

100
T1
T1
100 5
T1 =

5
300 =750 K
2

3. (d) :Incaseofacyclicprocess,workdoneisequaltothearea
under the cycle and is taken to be positive if the cycle is
clockwise.
\ Workdonebythegas
W=AreaoftherectangleABCD= P0V0
Heliumgasisamonoatomicgas.

5
5
R D T = (2 P0 ) DV =5PV
0 0
2
2

AlongthepathCDandDA,heat isrejectedbythegas
Work done by the gas
Efficiency, h =
100
Heat supplied to the gas
=

PV
200
0 0
100 =
=15.4%
13
3PV +5PV
0 0
0 0
2

4. (b): Thefinaltemperatureofthemixtureis

( )

DQ= DQDA + DQAB

3
3
3
R DT = V0 D P = P0V0
2
2
2

Tmixture =

T1n1 + n2T2 + n3T3


n1 + n2 +n3

5. (a): TheefficiencyofCarnotengine,
T
h = 1- 2

T1
T
1

\
= 1 - 2
Given,h = 1
6
T1
6

T2 5
=
T1 6

T1 =

6T2
5

...(i)

Asperquestion,when T2isloweredby62 K,thenitsefficiency


becomes
\

1
3

1 = 1- T2 - 62
3
T1
T2 - 62
1
= 1-
T1
3
T2 - 62 2
=
6T
3
2
5

5(T2 - 62) 2
=
6T2
3
5T2 310=4T2 T2 =310K
Fromequation(i),
T1 =

6 310
=372 K
5

6. (b): DQ= msDT


Here,m=100g=100103 kg
s=4184Jkg1 K1 and DT=(5030)=20C
\ DQ=100103 418420=8.4103 J

(Using(i))

40

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

As DQ= DU+ DW
\ Changeininternalenergy
(... DW=0)

DU= DQ=8.4103 J =8.4kJ


7. (c):Foranadiabaticprocess
TV g1 =constant
\ T1V1g -1 =T2V2g -1
g - 1

V
T1 = T2 2
V1

\ n1 =

( )
32V
V

=T2(32)g - 1

7
Fordiatomicgas, g =
5

\ T1 =

7 - 1
T2 (32) 5 =T2(32)2/5

=T2(25)2/5 = 4T2
T2
= 1- 1
T1
4

( )

h = 3 = 0.75
4

8.

P(inpascal)
A
(c) :2105

1105 D

PV
PV
T PV + T P V
1 1
+ 2 2 = 2 1 1 1 2 2
RT1 RT2
RT1T2

T1n1 + T2 n2
1 1 + P2V2)
, T = T1T2 ( PV
n1 +n2
T2 PV
1 1 +T1P2V2

12. (c):ForCarnotengineefficiency h =

QH - QL
QL

Coefficientofperformanceofarefrigerator b =

1- h
h

1- 1
10 =9
b=
1/10
Q
(whereWistheworkdone)
Also b = L
W
or QL = bW=910=90J.
T

300K

( n1 + n2)=
T =

Efficiencyoftheengine, h = 1 -

PV
1 1 ,n = P2V2
R1T1 2 RT2

Finalstate=(n1 +n2)RT

g - 1

=T2

11. (b): Asthis is asimple mixing of gas, even if adiabatic


conditionsaresatisfied,PV=nRTforadiabaticaswellas
isothermal changes. The total number of molecules is
conserved.

500K

PathAB,Pisthesame, DTis200K.
PV=nRTforallprocess
\ PDV=nRDT=2R200=400R.
WorkdoneonthegasfromAtoB=400R.
9. (b): DtoA,temperatureremainsthesame.
V
\ Workdonebythegas = W = nRT ln 2
V1
P1
= nRT ln
P2
W=600R(0.693)= 415.8R.
Thisistheworkdoneby thegas
\ Workdoneonthegas=+415.8R.
Nearestto(b).

10. (b): Totalworkdoneonthegaswhentakingfrom A to B =400R,


fromCtoDisequalandopposite.
Theycanceleachother.
FortakingfromDtoA,work doneon thegas =+414R.
Workdoneonthe gas in taking it fromBto C, pressure is
decreased,temperatureremainthesame,volumeincreases.
WBC +WDA =2ln2(500R300R).
WBC +DA =(2ln2)(200R)
=400R 0.693=277R.
\ WorkdonealongABandCDcanceleachotherbecause
pressurechangesbuttemperatureisthesame.
Networkdoneonthegasof2molesofheliumthroughthe
wholenetwork=277Rpercycleornearesttotheanswer(b).

13. (b):Accordingtofirstlawofthermodynamicsforthepath
iaf,
Qiaf = DUiaf +Wiaf
or DUiaf =Qiaf Wiaf
=5020=30cal
Forthepathibf,
a
f
Qibf = DUibf +Wibf
Since DUiaf = DUibf , change in
internal energy are path i
b
independent.
Qibf = DUiaf +Wibf
\ Wibf =Qibf DUiaf =3630=6cal.
14. (b): According to first law of thermodynamics
DQ = DU + DW
For an adiabatic process, DQ = 0
\ 0 = DU + DW
or DU = DW
or nCV DT = DW
3

- ( -146) 10
or CV = -DW =
n DT
(1 103) 7
1
1
= 20.8 J mol K
Fordiatomic gas,
5
5
CV = R = 8.3 = 20.8 J mol -1 K-1
2
2
Hence the gas is diatomic.

15. (c) : DU1 = DU2, because the change in internal energy


depends only upon the initial and final states A and B.

41

Thermodynamics

Q2
16. (a): Efficiency h = 1- Q
1

Q2 = T0 (2S0 S0) = T0 S0
Q1 = T0 S0 +

T0 S0 3
= T0 S 0
2
2

T0 S0 2
2 1
\ h = 1 - 3T S = 1 - 3 = 3.
0 0

17. (b,c): Statements (b)and (c)are incorrectregarding the


first lawof thermodynamics.
18. (b) : Internal energy and entropy are state functions.
19. (b): Efficiency = 1 -

T2
300
1 2
= 1= 1- =
T1
900
3 3

Heat energy =3 106 cal = 3 106 4.2 J


\ Workdone by engine = (Heat energy) (efficiency)
2
6
= (3 10 4.2) 3 J
= 8.4 106 J.

20. (c) : The work does not characterize the thermodynamic


state of matter.
21. (d) : In an adiabatic process, T g =(constant)P g -1
or Tg/g1 = (constant) P
Given T3 = (constant) P
g

\ g - 1 = 33 g - 3= g
or 2g = 3 g = 3/2
5
N.B For monoatomic gas, g = 3 =1.67
7
For diatomic gas, g = 5 =1.4
when g =1.5,thegasmustbeasuitablemixtureofmonoatomic
and diatomic gases
\ g = 3/2.

22. (a) : Second law of thermodynamics.


23. (c) : We cannotreach absolute zero temperature.
24. (a): All reversible cycles do not have same efficiency.
25. (b) : Thermal capacity.

42

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

CHAPTER

KINETICTHEORYOFGASES

9
1.

2.

3.

4.

Athermallyinsulatedvesselcontainsanidealgasofmolecular
massMandratioofspecificheats g.Itismovingwithspeed
vandissuddenlybroughttorest.Assumingnoheat islost
to thesurroundings,itstemperatureincreases by
( g - 1)
( g - 1) 2
2
(a) 2( g +1)R Mv K
(b) 2gR Mv K
( g -1) 2
gMv2
Mv K
(c)
(d)
(2011)
K
2R
2R

7
(c) T f = T0
3

Tworigidboxescontainingdifferentidealgasesareplacedon
atable.Box A containsonemoleofnitrogenattemperature T0,
while Box B contains one mole of helium at temperature
(7/3) T0.Theboxesarethenputintothermalcontactwitheach
other and heat flows between them until the gases reach a
commonfinaltemperature.(Ignoretheheatcapacityofboxes).
Then,thefinaltemperatureofthegases,Tf,intermsofT0 is
5
3
(b) T f = T0
(a) T f = T0
2
7

A gaseousmixtureconsistsof16gofheliumand 16 g of
oxygen.The ratioCP/CV ofthe mixture is
(a) 1.4
(b) 1.54
(c) 1.59
(d) 1.62
(2005)

6.

Onemoleofidealmonoatomicgas(g=5/3)is mixedwith
onemoleofdiatomicgas(g =7/5).Whatis g forthemixture?
gdenotestheratio ofspecificheat atconstantpressure, to
thatatconstantvolume.
(a) 3/2
(b) 23/15
(c) 35/23
(d) 4/3.
(2004)

7.

1moleofagaswith g=7/5ismixedwith1moleofagas
with g=5/3,thenthevalueofgfortheresultingmixtureis
(a) 7/5
(b) 2/5
(c) 24/16
(d) 12/7.
(2002)

8.

At what temperature is the r.m.s. velocity of a hydrogen


moleculeequal tothat ofan oxygenmoleculeat47C?
(a) 80K
(b) 73K (c) 3K
(d) 20 K.
(2002)

9.

Cooking gas containers are kept in a lorry moving with


uniformspeed.Thetemperatureofthegasmoleculesinside
will
(a) increase
(b) decrease
(c) remainsame
(d) decreaseforsome, whileincreaseforothers.
(2002)

Answer Key

1.
7.

(d)
(c)

2.
8.

(b)
(d)

3.
9.

(b)
(c)

(2006)

5.

Onekgofadiatomicgasisat apressureof8 104 N/m2.


Thedensityofthegasis4kg/m3.Whatistheenergyofthe
gasdueto its thermal motion?
(a) 3104 J
(b) 5 104 J
(c) 6104 J
(d) 7 104 J
(2009)
If CP and CV denote the specific heats of nitrogen perunit
massatconstantpressureandconstantvolumerespectively,
then
(a) CP CV =28R
(b) CP CV = R/28
(c) CP CV =R/14
(d) CP CV =R
(2007)

3
(d) T f = T0 .
2

4.

(d)

5.

(d)

6.

(a)

43

KineticTheoryofGases

1 2
1. (d): Kineticenergy of vessel = mv
2
Increaseininternalenergy
DU = nCVDT
wherenisthenumber ofmolesof the gas invessel.
Asthevesselisstoppedsuddenly,itskienticenergyisusedto
increasethetemperatureof the gas

or DT =

CP =

n1CP1 + n2CP2
n1 +n2

f
where C P = + 1 R
2

(Q n= Mm)

Mv2( g - 1)
K
2R

6.

2
3 5
or g - 1 = 2 + 2 = 4 g m - 1 = 0.5
m
\ gm = 1.5 = 3/2.

7.

(c) : For mixture of gases


n1 + n2
n
n
= 1 + 2
g m - 1 g1 - 1 g 2 - 1
1+ 1
1
1
=
+
g m - 1 7
5
-1
-1
5
3
2 = 5 + 3
g m -1 2 2

( ) ( )

(b):Molarheatcapacity=Molarmassspecific
heatcapacity
So,themolarheatcapacitiesatconstantpressureandconstant
volumewillbe28CP and28CV respectively

2
8
or g -1 = 2
m

or C P - CV = R .
28

(d) : DU = 0
3
7
5
\ 1 2 R (T f - T0 ) + 1 2 R T f - 3T0 = 0

or 5Tf 5T0 + 3Tf 7T0 = 0


or 8Tf = 12T0

(4 52 R ) + ( 12 72R) = 47= 1.62.


(4 32 R ) + ( 12 52R) 29

(a) : For mixture of gases,

\ U = 5 8 10 4 1 = 5 104 J
2
4

\ 28CP 28CV =R

CP
=
CV

n1 + n2
n
n
= 1 + 2 or 1 + 1 = 1 + 1
g m - 1 g1 - 1 g 2 -1
g m - 1 5 - 1 7 -1
3
5

(Q C = (g R- 1))

2. (b): Thethermalenergyorinternalenergyis U = 5mRT for


2
diatomic gases. (5 is the degrees of freedom as the gas is
diatomic)
ButPV= mRT
1 kg
mass
1
V=
=
= m3
density 4 kg/m3 4
P=8104 N/m2.

5.

f
where CV = R
2

1 2
mv = DU
2

1 2 m
mv =
C DT
2
M V
Mv2
DT =
2CV

4.

n1CV1 + n2CV2
n1 +n2

For helium, f = 3, n1 = 4
For oxygen, f = 5, n2 = 1/2

1 2
mv = nCVD T
2

3.

CV =

or 8gm 8 = 4
or 8gm = 12
12 24
or g m = 8 =16
8.

(d) : vrms =

or T f = 3T0.
2

\ ( vrm s )O 2

16
=4
(d) : For 16 g of helium, n1 =
4
16 1
=
For 16 g of oxygen, n2 =
32 2
For mixture of gases,

or
9.

RT
M
=( vrms )H2

273 + 47 T
=
T = 20 K .
32
2

(c): Itistherelative velocitiesbetween moleculesthatis


important. Root mean square velocitiesare different from
lateraltranslation.

44

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

CHAPTER

OSCILLATIONSANDWAVES

10
1.

Theamplitudeofadampedoscillatordecreasesto0.9times
itsoriginalmagnitudein5s.Inanother10sitwilldecrease
to atimesitsoriginalmagnitudewhere aequals
(a) 0.6
(b) 0.7
(c) 0.81
(d) 0.729

6.

(2013)
2.

An ideal gas enclosed in a vertical cylindrical container


supportsafreelymovingpistonofmassM.Thepistonand
the cylinder have equal cross sectional area A. When the
pistonisinequilibrium,thevolumeofthegasisV0 andits
pressure is P0. The piston is slightly displaced from the
equilibriumpositionandreleased.Assumingthatthesystem
iscompletelyisolatedfromitssurrounding,thepistonexecutes
a simpleharmonicmotionwith frequency
1 AgP0
1 MV0
(a) 2p AgP
(b) 2p V M
0
0
1 V0 MP0
(c) 2p A2g

4.

1
b

(c)

2
b

7.

(c)

(d)

0.693
b

A cylindrical tube, open at both ends, has a fundamental


frequency,finair.Thetubeisdippedverticallyinwaterso
thathalfofitisinwater.Thefundamentalfrequencyofthe
aircolumnisnow
f
3f
(a)
(b)
(c) 2f
(d) f
2
4
(2012)

p
4

(d)

p
6

A mass M, attached to a horizontal spring,executes SHM


witha amplitudeA1.When the mass Mpasses through its
meanpositionthenasmallermass m isplaced over it and
bothofthemmovetogetherwithamplitudeA2.Theratioof
A1
A is
2

(2013)

(2012)
5.

p
3

(a)

M
M +m

(c)

( MM+m )

(b)

M +m
M

(d)

( MM+m)

1/ 2

2
1 A gP0
(d)
2p MV0

Ifasimplependulumhassignificantamplitude(uptoafactor
of 1/e of original) only in the period between t = 0 s to
t = t s,then t maybecalledtheaveragelifeofthependulum.
Whenthesphericalbobofthependulumsuffersaretardation
(duetoviscousdrag)proportional toitsvelocity, withbas
the constantof proportionality, the average life time of the
pendulumis(assumingdampingissmall)inseconds
(b)

(b)

(2011)

A sonometer wire of length 1.5 m is made of steel. The


tensionin itproduces an elastic strain of 1%.What is the
fundamental frequency of steel if density and elasticity of
steelare7.7103 kg/m3 and2.21011 N/m2 respectively?
(a) 770Hz
(b) 188.5 Hz
(c) 178.2 Hz
(d) 200.5 Hz
(2013)

(a) b

p
2

(a)

8.
3.

Twoparticlesareexecutingsimpleharmonicmotion of the
sameamplitude A andfrequency walongthe xaxis.Their
meanpositionisseparatedbydistanceX0 (X0 > A). If the
maximum separation between them is (X0 + A), the phase
difference between their motion is

1/ 2

(2011)

Thetransverse displacement y(x,t)ofa waveon astring is


given by
2

y ( x, t )=e - ( ax + bt
Thisrepresentsa

+ 2 ab xt)

(a) wavemovingin+xdirectionwith speed


(b) wavemovinginxdirectionwith speed

a
b
b
a

(c) standingwaveof frequency b


1
(d) standingwaveof frequency
b
9.

(2011)

The equation of a wave on a string oflinear mass density


0.04kgm1 isgivenby
t
x
.
y = 0.02 (m) sin 2p

0.04(s) 0.50(m)

Thetensioninthestringis
(a) 6.25N (b) 4.0N
(c) 12.5N
(d) 0.5N
(2010)

10. If x, v and adenote the displacement,thevelocity and the


accelerationofaparticleexecutingsimpleharmonicmotion
oftimeperiod T,then,whichofthefollowingdoesnotchange
withtime?
(a) a2T2 +4p2v2
(b) aT/x
(c) aT+2pv
(d) aT/v
(2009)

45

OscillationsandWaves

11. Three sound waves of equal amplitudes have frequencies


(u 1), u,(u +1).Theysuperposetogivebeats.Thenumber
of beatsproduced persecond will be
(a) 4
(b) 3
(c) 2
(d) 1
(2009)
12. Amotorcyclestartsfromrestandacceleratesalongastraight
pathat2m/s2.Atthestartingpointofthemotorcyclethere
is a stationary electric siren. How far has the motor cycle
gonewhenthedriverhearsthefrequencyofthesirenat94%
ofits valuewhen themotor cyclewas atrest?
(Speedofsound= 330ms1).
(a) 49m (b) 98m
(c) 147m
(d) 196m
(2009)
13. Awavetravellingalongthe xaxisisdescribedbytheequation
y(x,t)=0.005cos(ax bt).Ifthewavelengthandthetime
periodofthewaveare0.08mand2.0s,respectively,then
aand binappropriateunitsare
p
(a) a = 12.50 p, b =
(b) a = 25.00 p, b = p
2.0
0.08
2.0
0.04
1.0
, b=
, b=
(d) a =
(c) a =
p
p
p
p
(2008)
14. Thespeedofsoundinoxygen(O2)ata
certaintemperature

is460ms1.Thespeedofsoundinhelium(He)atthesame
temperaturewillbe(assumebothgasestobeideal)
(a) 330ms1
(b) 460ms1
(c) 500ms1
(d) 650ms1.
(2008)
15. Apointmassoscillatesalongthe xaxisaccordingtothelaw
x= x0 cos (wt p/4). If the acceleration of the particle is
writtenasa= Acos(wt+ d),then
(a) A=x0w2, d= 3p/4
(b) A=x0, d= p/4
(c) A=x0w2, d= p/4
(d) A=x0w2, d= p/4
(2007)
16. The displacement of an object attached to a spring and
executing simple harmonic motion is given by
x=2102 cos ptmetre.Thetimeatwhichthemaximum
speedfirstoccurs is
(a) 0.25s (b) 0.5s
(c) 0.75s
(d) 0.125s
(2007)
17. Aparticleofmassmexecutessimpleharmonicmotionwith
amplitude a andfrequency u.Theaveragekineticenergyduring
itsmotionfromthe position of equilibriumtothe endis
(a) 2p2 ma2 u2
(b) p2ma2u2
1 2 2
(c) 4m a u
(d) 4p2ma2u2
(2007)
m
18. Two springs, of force
k1
k2
constants k1 and k2 are
connected to a mass m as
shown. The frequency of
oscillationofthemassisf.Ifbothk1 andk2 aremadefour
times their original values, the frequency of oscillation
becomes
(a) 2f
(b) f/2
(c) f/4
(d) 4f
(2007)

19. A sound absorber attenuates the sound level by


20 dB.The intensitydecreases byafactor of
(a) 100
(b) 1000
(c) 10000
(d) 10
(2007)
20. Acoin isplacedona horizontalplatformwhichundergoes
verticalsimpleharmonicmotionofangularfrequency w.The
amplitudeofoscillationisgraduallyincreased.Thecoinwill
leavecontactwith theplatformforthe firsttime
(a) at the highestposition oftheplatform
(b) at the meanpositionoftheplatform
g
(c) foran amplitudeof 2
w
2
g
(d) foran amplitudeof 2 .
(2006)
w
21. The maximum velocity of a particle, executing simple
harmonicmotionwithanamplitude7mm,is4.4m/s.The
periodof oscillation is
(a) 100s (b) 0.01s (c) 10s
(d) 0.1s.
(2006)
22. Startingfromtheorigin,abodyoscillatessimpleharmonically
witha periodof2s.Afterwhattimewillitskineticenergy
by 75% of thetotal energy?
1 s
1s
1
1
(a)
(b)
(c) s
(d) s .
12
6
4
3
(2006)
23. Astringisstretchedbetweenfixedpointsseparatedby75cm.
It is observed to have resonant frequencies of 420 Hz and
315 Hz. There are no other resonant frequencies between
thesetwo. Then,thelowestresonantfrequencyforthisstringis
(a) 10.5Hz
(b) 105Hz
(c) 1.05Hz
(d) 1050Hz.
(2006)
24. A whistle producing sound waves of frequencies 9500 Hz
and above is approaching a stationary person with speed
vms1.Thevelocityofsoundinairis300ms1.Iftheperson
can hear frequencies upto a maximum of 10000 Hz, the
maximumvalueofvuptowhichhecan hearthewhistleis
(a) 30ms1
(b) 15 2 ms -1
-1
(c) 15 / 2 ms
(d) 15ms1.
(2006)
25. The bob of a simple pendulum is a spherical hollow ball
filled with water. A plugged hole near the bottom of the
oscillatingbobgetssuddenlyunplugged.Duringobservation,
tillwateriscomingout,thetimeperiodofoscillationwould
(a) remainunchanged
(b) increasetowardsasaturationvalue
(c) firstincrease and thendecreasetothe originalvalue
(d) firstdecrease and thenincreasetothe originalvalue
(2005)
26. Ifasimpleharmonicmotionisrepresentedby
itstimeperiodis
(a) 2pa
(b) 2p a

(c) 2p/a

d 2x
dt 2

+ ax=0,

(d) 2p / a
(2005)

46

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

27. Two simple harmonic motions are represented


p

bytheequations y1 = 0.1sin 100pt + andy2 =0.1cospt.


3

Thephasedifferenceofthevelocityofparticle1withrespect
to the velocity of particle 2is
(a) p/3
(b) p/6
(c) p/6
(d) p/3.
(2005)

28. The functionsin2(wt) represents


(a) asimpleharmonicmotionwithaperiod 2p/w
(b) asimpleharmonicmotion withaperiod p/w
(c) aperiodic,butnotsimpleharmonicmotionwithaperiod
2p/w
(d) aperiodic,butnotsimpleharmonicmotionwithaperiod
p/w
(2005)
29. An observer moves towards a stationary source of sound,
withavelocityonefifthofthevelocityofsound.Whatisthe
percentage increase in the apparent frequency?
(a) 5%
(b) 20%
(c) zero
(d) 0.5%
(2005)
30. When two tuning forks (fork 1 and fork 2) are sounded
simultaneously, 4 beats per second are heard. Now, some
tapeisattachedontheprongofthefork2.Whenthetuning
forksaresoundedagain,6beatspersecondareheard.ifthe
frequency of fork 1 is 200 Hz, then what was the original
frequency of fork 2?
(a) 196Hz (b) 204 Hz (c) 200 Hz
(d) 202Hz
(2005)
31. Inforcedoscillationofaparticletheamplitudeismaximum
forafrequency w1 oftheforce,whiletheenergyismaximum
for a frequency w2 of the force, then
(a) w1 = w2
(b) w1 > w2
(c) w1 < w2 when damping is small and w1 > w2 when
dampingislarge
(d) w1 < w2
(2004)
32. Aparticleofmass m isattachedtoaspring(ofspringconstant
k)andhasanaturalangularfrequency w0.Anexternalforce

F (t)proportionaltocoswt (w w0)isappliedtotheoscillator.
Thetimedisplacementoftheoscillatorwillbeproportionalto
m
1
(b) m(w 2 - w2)
(a) w 2 - w2
0
0
1
m
(c) m(w 2 + w2)
(d) w 2 + w2 .
(2004)
0
0
33. The total energy of a particle, executing simple harmonic
motion is
(a) x
(b) x2
(c) independentof x
(d) x1/2
wherexisthe displacementfrom themean position.
(2004)
34. Aparticle attheendof a spring executes simple harmonic
motionwithaperiodt1,whilethecorrespondingperiodfor

anotherspringist2.Iftheperiodofoscillationwiththetwo

springsinseriesisT,then
(a) T= t1 + t2
(b) T2 = t12 + t22
1
1
1
2
(c) T = t1 + t2
(d) T2 = t12
(2004)
+t2 .
35. Thedisplacement y ofaparticleinamediumcanbeexpressed
as:
y=106sin(100t+20x+ p/4)m,wheretisinsecondandx
in meter.Thespeedof thewave is
(a) 2000m/s
(b) 5m/s
(c) 20m/s
(d) 5pm/s.
(2004)
36. The bob of a simple pendulum executes simple harmonic
motioninwaterwithaperiod t,whiletheperiodofoscillation
ofthebobis t0 inair.Neglectingfrictionalforceofwaterand
giventhatthedensityofthebobis(4/3)1000kg/m3.What
relationshipbetweent and t0 istrue?
(a) t= t0
(b) t= t0/2 (c) t=2t0
(d) t= 4t0.
(2003)
37. A body executes simple harmonic motion. The potential
energy(P.E.),thekineticenergy(K.E.)andtotalenergy(T.E.)
are measured as function of displacement x.Which of the
followingstatementistrue?
(a) K.E.ismaximumwhenx=0
(b) T.E.iszerowhenx=0
(c) K.E.ismaximumwhenxismaximum
(d) P.E.ismaximumwhenx=0.
(2003)
38. Thelengthofasimplependulumexecutingsimpleharmonic
motionisincreasedby21%.Thepercentageincreaseinthe
timeperiodof the pendulumofincreased length is
(a) 11%
(b) 21%
(c) 42%
(d) 10%.
(2003)
39. TwoparticlesAand Bofequalmassesaresuspendedfrom
two massless springs of spring constants k1 and k2,
respectively.Ifthemaximumvelocities,duringoscillations,
areequal, theratioofamplitudesofAandBis
(a)

k1 /k2 (b) k2/k1

(c)

k2 /k1

(d) k1/k2.
(2003)

40. Amass M issuspendedfromaspringofnegligiblemass.The


spring is pulleda little andthen releasedsothat the mass
executesSHMoftimeperiodT.Ifthemassisincreasedby
m,thetimeperiodbecomes5T/3.Thenthe ratioofm/M is
(a) 3/5
(b) 25/9
(c) 16/9
(d) 5/3.
(2003)
41. Atuningforkofknownfrequency256Hzmakes5beatsper
secondwiththevibratingstringofapiano.Thebeatfrequency
decreasesto2beatspersecondwhenthetensioninthepiano
stringisslightlyincreased.Thefrequencyofthepianostring
beforeincreasingthetensionwas
(a) (256+2)Hz
(b) (2562)Hz
(c) (2565)Hz
(d) (256+5)Hz.
(2003)

47

OscillationsandWaves

42. Ametalwireoflinearmassdensityof9.8g/misstretched
with a tension of 10 kgwt between two rigid supports
1metreapart.Thewirepassesatitsmiddlepointbetweenthe
poles of a permanent magnet, and it vibrates in resonance
when carrying an alternating current of frequency u. The
frequency uof the alternating source is
(a) 50 Hz (b) 100 Hz (c) 200 Hz
(d) 25 Hz.
(2003)
43. Thedisplacementofaparticlevariesaccordingtotherelation
x=4(cospt+sinpt).The amplitudeof the particleis
(a) 4
(b) 4
(c) 4 2
(d) 8.
(2003)
44. Thedisplacementyofawavetravellinginthexdirectionis
given by
y = 10-4sin 600t - 2 x +p metre,
3
wherexisexpressedinmetreandtinsecond.Thespeedof
thewavemotion,inms1 is
(a) 300
(b) 600
(c) 1200
(d) 200.
(2003)

45. Achildswingingonaswinginsittingposition,standsup,
thenthetimeperiodofthe swingwill
(a) increase
(b) decrease
(c) reamainssame
(d) increasesifthe childislonganddecreases ifthechild
isshort.
(2002)
46. Inasimpleharmonicoscillator, atthemeanposition
(a) kineticenergyisminimum,potentialenergyismaximum
(b) bothkineticandpotential energies are maximum
(c) kineticenergyismaximum,potentialenergyisminimum
(d) bothkineticandpotential energiesareminimum.
(2002)

47. Ifaspringhastimeperiod T,andiscutintonequal parts,


thenthetimeperiodofeachpartwill be
(a) T n

(b) T / n

(c) nT

(d) T.
(2002)

48. Whentemperatureincreases,thefrequencyofa tuningfork


(a) increases
(b) decreases
(c) remainssame
(d) increasesordecreasesdependingonthematerial.
(2002)
49. Length of a string tied to two rigid supports is 40 cm.
Maximumlength (wavelength incm) ofa stationary wave
produced onit is
(a) 20
(b) 80
(c) 40
(d) 120.
(2002)
50. Awave y = a sin(wt kx)onastringmeetswithanotherwave
producinganodeatx =0.Thentheequationoftheunknown
waveis
(a) y=asin(wt+kx)
(b) y=asin(wt+kx)
(c) y=asin(wtkx)
(d) y=asin(wtkx).
(2002)
51. Atuningforkarrangement(pair)produces4beats/secwith
oneforkoffrequency288cps.Alittlewaxisplacedonthe
unknownforkanditthenproduces2beats/sec.Thefrequency
of the unknown forkis
(a) 286cps
(b) 292cps
(c) 294cps
(d) 288cps.
(2002)
52. Tube A hasbothendsopenwhiletube Bhasoneendclosed,
otherwise they are identical. The ratio of fundamental
frequencyoftubeAand B is
(a) 1:2
(b) 1:4
(c) 2:1
(d) 4:1.
(2002)

Answer Key

1.
7.
13.
19.
25.
31.
37.
43.
49.

(d)
(d)
(b)
(a)
(c)
(a)
(a)
(c)
(b)

2.
8.
14.
20.
26.
32.
38.
44.
50.

(d)
(b)
(*)
(c)
(d)
(b)
(d)
(a)
(b)

3.
9.
15.
21.
27.
33.
39.
45.
51.

(c)
(a)
(a)
(b)
(c)
(c)
(c)
(b)
(b)

4.
10.
16.
22.
28.
34.
40.
46.
52.

(c)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(d)
(b)
(c)
(c)
(c)

5.
11.
17.
23.
29.
35.
41.
47.

(d)
(a)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(c)
(b)

6.
12.
18.
24.
30.
36.
42.
48.

(b)
(b)
(a)
(d)
(a)
(c)
(a)
(b)

48

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

1. (d) :Theamplitudeofadampedoscillatoratagiveninstant
oftimetisgivenby
A =A0ebt/2m
where A0 isitsamplitudeintheabsenceofdamping,bisthe
dampingconstant.
Asperquestion
After5s(i.e.t=5s)itsamplitudebecomes
0.9A0 =A0eb(5)/2m =A0e5b/2m
0.9=e5b/2m
...(i)
After10moresecond(i.e.t=15s),itsamplitudebecomes
aA0 =A0eb(15)/2m =A0e15b/2m
a=(e5b/2m)3 =(0.9)3
(Using(i))
=0.729

d 2x = - w2x
dt 2
Weget
w 2 =

gP0 A2
gP0A2
or w =
MV0
MV0

Frequency,u =

2
w
1 gP0A
=
2p 2p MV0

3. (c) :Fundamentalfrequency ofvibration ofwire is


u=

1 T
2L m

where L is the length of the wire, T is the tension in the


wireand m isthe massperlengthofthe wire
As m = rA
where risthedensityofthematerialofthewireand Ais
the areaof crosssection ofthe wire.

2. (d) :

\ u = 1 T
2L rA

FBDofpistonatequilibrium

Here tension isdue toelasticity ofwire


DL
\ T = YA
L

PatmA+Mg=P0A
(i)
FBDofpistonwhenpistonispusheddownadistance x

AsY = Stress = TL

Strain ADL

1 Y DL
Hence, u = 2L rL

Here, Y=2.21011 N/m2, r=7.7103 kg/m3


DL = 0.01, L =1.5 m
L

Substitutingthegivenvalues,we get
u=

( P0 + dP) A - ( PatmA + Mg )=M

d 2x
dt 2

(ii)

As the system is completely isolated from its surrounding


thereforethechangeisadiabatic.
Foranadiabaticprocess
PVg =constant
\ VgdP +Vg1PdV=0
gPdV
or dP= -
V
gP0( Ax)
(...dV =Ax)
V0
Using(i)and(iii)in(ii),weget
2
2
gP A2
gP A2
M d 2x = - 0 x or d 2x = - 0
V0
MV0
dt
dt
ComparingitwithstandardequationofSHM,
\ dP= -

2.2 1011 0.01


1
2 1.5
7.7 103

(iii)

103
3

2
Hz = 178.2 Hz
7

4.(c)
5. (d):Whenthetubeoflengthlisopenat
bothends,
\

f = v
2l

...(i)

where v isthe speedofsoundinair.


Whenthetubeisdippedverticallyinwater
andhalfofitisinwater,itbehavesclosed l
pipe length
\ f =

l
,
2

v
v
=
= f (Using(i))
2l
l
4
2

( )

2
l
2

49

OscillationsandWaves

6. (b)

2p
( 0.04
)
2p
( 0.05
)

0.04
M
...(i)
k
Whena massmisplacedon massM,thenewsystemisof
mass=(M+ m)attached tothespring.Newtimeperiodof
oscillation

7. (d): T1 = 2p

(m + M)
...(ii)
k
Considerv1 isthevelocityofmassMpassingthroughmean
positionandv2 velocityofmass
(m+M)passingthroughmeanposition.
Using,lawofconservationoflinearmomentum
Mv1 =(m +M)v2
M(A1w1)=(m+M)(A2w2)
(... v1 =A1w1 andv2 =A2w2)
T2 = 2p

or
=

A1 (m + M) w 2
=
A2
M
w1

( m M+ M) TT (Q w = 2Tp andw = 2Tp )

T=

10. (b): Forasimpleharmonicmotion,


acceleration,a=w2xwhere wisaconstant =
2

11. (a): The given sources of sound produce frequencies,


(u 1), uand(u+1).
Fortwosourcesof frequencies u1 and u2,
y1 =A cos2pu1t
y2 =A cos2pu2t
Superposing,one gets

(Using(i)and(ii))
2

+ bt 2 + 2 ab xt)
2

=e - ( a x + bt)
Comparingequation(i) withstandardequation
y(x,t)=f(ax+ bt)
Asthereispositivesignbetweenxandtterms,hencewave
travelinx direction.
Coefficient of t
b
Wave speed=
Coefficient of x = a

9. (a):Here,linearmassdensity m = 0.04kg m1
The given equation of a wave is

t
x
y = 0.02sin 2p

0.04 0.50
Compareitwiththestandard waveequation
y=Asin(wt kx)
weget,
w = 2p rad s -1 k = 2p rad m-1
0.04
0.5

Wave velocity, v=

w (2 p / 0.04)
=
m s-1
k
(2p/ 0.5)

Alsov = T
m

...(i)
...(ii)

whereTisthetensioninthestringand misthelinearmass
density
Equatingequations (i)and(ii), weget
w=
k

( u -2 u )t cos 2p( u +2u )t.


1

u1 + u2
andthiswave
2
u - u2
ismodulatedbyawaveoffrequency 1
(ratherthe
2
difference of frequencies/2).
Theintensitywaxesandwanes.Foracosinecurve(orsine
curve),the numberofbeats= u1 ~ u2.

Theresultantfrequencyobtainedis

A1
m + M
=
A2
M

8. (b): y ( x, t )= e - ( ax

\ aT isaconstant.
x

y = 2 A cos 2p

2p .
T

a = - 4p2 x aT = -4p .
x
T
T
TheperiodofoscillationTisaconstant.

1
2

= 6.25 N

2
T or T = mw
2
m
k

Frequencies
Mean
Beats
u+1and u
(u +0.5)Hz
1
uand u1
u 0.5
1
(u +1)and(u 1)
u
2
Totalnumberofbeats=4.
Oneshoulddetectthreefrequencies, u, u+0.5and u0.5
andeachfrequencywillshow2beats,1beatand1beatper
second, respectively.
Totalnumberofbeats=4
12. (b) : Thesourceisatrest,theobserverismovingawayfrom
the source.
(v
- vobs)
\ f = f sound
vsound
f

vsound = vsound -vobs


f
f

vsound - vsound = -vobs


f
f
vsound
- 1 = - vobs
f

330(0.941)=vobs
vobs =3300.06=19.80ms1.
2

2
2
(19.80)
\ s= v - u =
= 98 m.
2a
2 2
13. (b) : The wave travelling along the xaxis is given by
y(x,t)=0.005cos(ax bt).

50

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

1 2 2 2
ma w sin wt
2
Averagekineticenergy<K>
1
= < ma 2 w2 sin2 wt >
2

2p
Therefore a = k = . As l =0.08 m.
l
2
p
p
\ a=
=
a = p 100.00 = 25.00 p.
0.08 0.04
4
2
p
w=b
=b p
2.0
\ a=25.00 p, b= p
14. (*):v=

gP
=
r

1
m w 2 a 2 < sin2 w t >
2
1
1
=
m w 2 a 2
2
2

gRT
M

1 2
ma (2 pu)2
4
= p2 ma2 u2.
=

gforO2 =1+2/5= 1.4


g forHe=1+2/3 =5/3
v2 g He 32
=

460
v1 4 g O2

5
1
32
= 460
5 =1420m/s.
3 4
7
*ThevalueofthespeedofsoundinHeshouldhavebeen
965 m/s and that of O2,
about 320 m/s. The value ofthe
velocitygivenforO2 is quitehigh. Option notgiven.

15. (a):Given: x = x0cos wt - p


4

Accelerationa= Acos(wt+ d)
Velocity v = dx
dt

v = - x0wsin wt - p
4

dv
Acceleration a=
dt
p
p
2

= - x0 w cos wt - = x0w 2cos p + ( wt - )

4
4
= x0w2coswt + 3p

4
Compare(iv)with(ii),weget
3p
A = x0w2, d = .
4
16. (b):Given:displacementx= 2 102 cos pt

...(i)
...(ii)

...(iv)

Velocityv = dx = -2 10-2p sinpt


dt
Forthefirsttimewhenv=vmax ,sin pt=1
p
p
sin pt =sin
pt =
or
or
2
2
1
t = s =0.5 s.
or
2
17. (b) : For a particle to execute simple harmonic motion its
displacementatanytimetisgiven by
x(t)=a(cos wt+ f)
where, a = amplitude, w = angular frequency,
f=phaseconstant.
Letuschoose f=0
\
x(t)=acoswt
Velocityofa particle v = dx = - a w sinwt
dt
Kineticenergyofa particleis K = 1mv2
2

1
2

[Q w = 2 pu ]

18. (a) : In the given figure two


springs are connected in
parallel.Thereforetheeffective
springconstantisgivenby
keff =k1 +k2
Frequency of oscillation,

1 keff
1 k1 + k2
=
2p m
2p m
Ask1 andk2 areincreasedfourtimes
New frequency,
1 4( k1 + k2)
= 2f
2p
m

k1

f =

f=

...(iii)

Q < sin2q > =

k2

...(i)

(using(i).

I
I
19. (a): L1 = 10 log 1 L2 = 10 log 2
I 0
I 0
I1
I2
\ L1 - L2 = 10 log I - 10 log I
0
0
I
or D L= 10log I1 or 20 dB = 10 log 1
I
I 2
2
I
I
or 102 = 1
or I 2 = 1 .
I 2
100

20. (c) : In vertical simple harmonic motion, maximum


acceleration(aw2)andsothemaximumforce(maw2)will
beatextremepositions.Athighestposition,forcewillbe
towards mean position and so it will be downwards.At
lowestposition,forcewillbetowardsmeanpositionand
soitwillbeupwards.Thisisoppositetoweightdirection
ofthe coin.The coinwillleave contactwilltheplatform
forthefirsttimewhenm(aw2) mgatthelowestposition
of the platform.
2p
21. (b) : Maximum velocity vm = a w = a T

-3
2 pa
22 (7 10 )
T =
= 2
\
vm
7
4.4
2
= 10 sec = 0.01 sec.

22. (b) : During simple harmonic motion,


1 2 1
2
Kinetic energy = 2 mv = 2m ( a w cos wt )
Total energy E = 1ma 2 w2
2

51

OscillationsandWaves

or
or
\
or

75
( E )
100
1
75 1 2 2
ma 2 w2 cos2 wt =
ma w
2
100 2
3
cos2 wt = 3 cos wt =
= cosp
4
2
6
p
wt =
6
p
p
2p
1
t =
=
=
= sec.
6 w 6(2 p / T ) 6 2 p 6
(Kinetic energy) =

23. (b) : Let the successive loops formed be p and


(p + 1) for frequencies 315 Hz and 420 Hz
p T pv
\ u = 2l m = 2l
pv
( p + 1)v
=315 Hz and
= 420Hz
\
2l
2l
( p + 1)v pv
= 420 -315
or
2l
2l
v
1 v
= 105
= 105Hz
or
2l
2l
p = 1 for fundamental mode of vibration of string.
\ Lowest resonant frequency = 105 Hz.
vs
u
24. (d) : u = v -v
s
where vs is the velocity of sound in air.
10000
300
=
9500 300-v
(300 - v ) = 285 v = 15 m /s.

25. (c):Forapendulum, T = 2p l wherelismeasuredupto


g
centre of gravity. The centre of gravity of system is at
centreofsphere when holeisplugged. Whenunplugged,
water drains out. Centre of gravity goes on descending.
Whenthebobbecomesempty,centreofgravityisrestored
to centre.
\
Length of pendulum first increases, then
decreases to original value.
\
T would first increase and then decrease to
the original value.
26. (d) : Standard differential equation of SHM is
d 2x + w2x =0
dt 2
2
Given equation is d 2x + ax = 0
dt
\
w2 = a
or
w= a

2 p 2p
=
.
w
a
d
p

27. (c) : v1 = dt ( y1) = (0.1 100 p ) cos 100pt+ 3

d
v2 = ( y2) = ( -0.1 p ) sinpt
dt

= (0.1 p ) cos pt + p
2

p p
p
D f = - = - .
3 2
6

2
28. (d) : y = sin wt =

1 - cos2 wt 1 cos2wt
= -
2
2
2

It is a periodic motion but it is not SHM


\
Angularspeed =2w
\

Period T =

2p p
2p
=
=
angular speed 2 w w

Hence option (d) represents the answer.


29. (b) : By Doppler's effect
u v s + vO
=
(where vs is the velocity of sound)
u
vs
=

v + (v/ 5) 6
=
v
5

\ Fractional increase = u - u = u - 1 = 6 - 1 = 1
u
5 5
u
100
\ Percentage increase =
=20%.
5
30. (a) : Let the two frequencies be u1 and u2
u2 may be either 204Hz or 196Hz.
+4Hz

204Hz
(u2)

4Hz

196Hz
(u2)

200Hz
(u1)

As mass of second fork increases, u2 decreases.


If u2 = 204Hz, a decrease in u2 decreases beats/sec. But
this is not given in question
If u2 = 196Hz, a decrease in u2 increased beats/sec.
This is given in the question when beats increase to 6
\ Original frequency of second fork = 196Hz.
31. (a) : In case of forced oscillations
(i) The amplitude is maximum at resonance
\ Natural frequency = Frequency of force = w1
(ii)The energy is maximum at resonance
\Natural frequency = Frequency of force = w2
\
From (i) and (ii),
w1 = w2 .
32. (b) : In case of forced oscillations,
x = asin(wt + f) where a =
\

F0 /m

w02 - w2
1
x is proportional to m( w2 - w2) .
0

T=

33. (c) : Under simple harmonic motion, total energy


=

1 2 2
ma w
2

Total energy is independent of x.

52

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

34. (b): When springs are in series, k = k1k2


k1 +k 2
For first spring, t1 = 2p m
k1
For second spring t2 = 2p m
k2
2
2
k + k
4
p
m
4
p
m
2
2
t1 + t2 =
+
= 4p 2m 1 2
\
k1
k2
k1k2
2

or
or

m ( k1 + k2)
t12 + t22 = 2p
k1k 2

t12 + t22 =T 2.

k
m
(vm)A = (vm)B

a1

or

k1
k
a
k
= a2 2 1 = 2 .
m
m
a2
k1

40. (c) : Initially, T = 2 p M /k


5T
M + m
Finally, 3 = 2p
k
5
M
M + m
2p
= 2p
\
3
k
k
or

35. (b) : Given wave equation :


y = 10-6sin 100t + 20 x + p m
4

Standard equation : y = a sin (wt + kx + f)


Compare the two
\ w = 100 and k = 20
w = 100 2pn = nl = v= 5
\
k 20 2p /l
\ v = 5 m/s.

vm = a

25 M
M + m
=
9 k
k

9 m + 9 M = 25 M
m 16
= .
or
M
9
41. (c) : The possible frequencies of piano are
(256 + 5)Hz and (256 5)Hz.
or

+5Hz
256Hz
5Hz

36. (c) : t0 = 2 p l /g
......... (i)
Due to upthrust of water on the top, its apparent weight
decreases
upthrust = weight of liquid displaced
\ Effective weight = mg (Vsg) = Vrg Vsg
Vrg = Vg(r s), where s is density of water
r-s
g = g

or
r
lr
t = 2 p l / g = 2p
.......(ii)
\
g (r - s)
\

or

4 1000 / 3 = 2
4000-1000
3

t = t0 2 = 2t0.

37. (a): Kinetic energy is maximum at x = 0.


38. (d) : Let the lengths of pendulum be (100l) and (121l)
T = 121 = 11
\
T
100 10
T T 11 - 10 1
=
=
\
Fractional change =
T
10
10
\
Percentage change = 10%.
39. (c) : Maximum velocity under simple harmonic motion
vm = aw
\

vm =

251Hz

1 T
For piano string, u = 2l m
When tension T increases, u increases
(i) If261Hzincreases,beats/secincrease. Thisisnotgiven
in the question.
(ii) If 251Hz increases due to tension, beats per second
decrease.This is given in the question.
Hence frequency of piano = (256 5)Hz.

42. (a):Atresonance,frequencyofvibrationofwirebecome
equal to frequency of a.c.
1 T
For vibration of wire, u = 2l m

lr
g
r
t =
=
t0
g (r - s ) l
r-s
=

261Hz

1 k
2 pa
1
= (2 pa ) = (2 pa)

T
T

2p m

1
10 9.8
100
=
= 50 Hz.
\ u = 2 1
2
9.8 10 -3

43. (c) : x = 4(cospt + sinpt)


1

1
= 4 2 cos pt + sinp t
2
2

p
p

or x = 4 2 sin 4 cos pt + cos 4sinpt

= 4 2 sin pt +
4

Hence amplitude =4 2 .
44. (a) : Given wave equation :
y = 10 -4sin 600t - 2 x + p m
3

Standardwave equation: y = asin(wt kx + f)


Compare them
Angular speed = w = 600 sec1
Propagation constant = k = 2 m1

53

OscillationsandWaves

w
2pu
=
= ul = velocity
k 2 p /l
w 600=300 m/sec
.
\ velocity = =
k
2

45. (b) : Time period will decrease.


Whenthechildstands up,the centreof gravityisshifted
upwards and so length of swing decreases. T = 2 p l / g .
46. (c) : In a simple harmonic oscillator, kinetic energy is
maximumandpotentialenergyisminimumatmeanposition.

Y = asin(wt kx) asin(wt + kx)


At x = 0, Y = a sinwt asinwt = zero
This option holds good
Option (c) gives Y = 2asin(wt kx)
At x = 0, Y is not zero
Option (d) gives Y = 0
Hence only option (b) holds good.
51. (b) : The wax decreases the frequency of unknown fork.
The possible unknown frequencies are (288 + 4)cps and
(288 4)cps.

47. (b): For a spring, T = 2p m


k
For each piece, spring constant = nk
\
\

T = 2 p m 1 = T .
k
n
n

l max
= 40 l max = 80 cm.
2
50. (b) : Consider option (a)
Stationary wave :
Y = asin(wt + kx) + asin(wt kx)
when x = 0, Y is not zero. The option is not acceptable.
Consider option (b)
Stationary wave :

292cps

288cps

T = 2p m
nk

48. (b) : When temperature increases, l increases


Hence frequency decreases.
49. (b) :

+4cps

4cps

284cps

Waxreduces284cpsandsobeatsshouldincreases.Itisnot
giveninthequestion.Thisfrequencyisruledout.Waxreduced
292cps and so beats should decrease. It is given that the
beats decrease to 2 from 4.
Hence unknown fork has frequency 292cps.
52. (c) : In tube A, lA = 2l
AN
AN
In tube B, lB = 4l
v
v
\ u A = l = 2l
A
N

v
v
u B =
=
l B 4l
u A 2
\ u = 1.
B

AN
lA
=l
2

N
lB
=l
4

54

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

CHAPTER

ELECTROSTATICS

1.

TwocapacitorsC1 andC2 arechargedto120Vand200V


respectively.Itisfoundthatbyconnectingthemtogetherthe
potential oneachonecan be made zero.Then
(a) 9C1 =4C2
(b) 5C1 = 3C2
(c) 3C1 =5C2
(d) 3C1 + 5C2 =0
(2013)

2.

Twocharges,eachequaltoq,arekeptatx=aandx=a
q
on the xaxis.A particle of mass m and charge q0 = is
2
placedattheorigin.Ifcharge q0isgivenasmalldisplacement
(y<<a)alongtheyaxis,thenetforceactingontheparticle
is proportional to
1
1
(a) - y
(b) y
(c) y
(d) y
(2013)

3.

Aninsulatingsolidsphereofradius R hasauniformlypositive
chargedensity r.Asaresultofthisuniformchargedistribution
thereisafinitevalueofelectricpotentialatthecentreofthe
sphere,atthesurfaceofthesphereandalsoatapointoutside
the sphere.The electricpotential atinfinityiszero.
Statement1: Whenacharge q istakenfromthecentretothe
qr
surfaceofthesphere,itspotential energychangesby 3e .
0
Statement2:Theelectricfieldatadistancer(r< R)from
rr
the centreofthesphereis 3e .
0
(a) Statement 1 is true, Statement 2 is false.
(b) Statement 1 is false, Statement 2 is true.
(c) Statement 1 is true, Statement 2 is true, Statement 2
is the correct explanation of Statement 1.
(d) Statement 1is true, Statement2,is true;Statement 2
is not the correct explanation of Statement 1.
(2012)

A chargeQisuniformly distributed over a long rodAB of


lengthLasshowninthefigure.Theelectricpotentialatthe
pointOlyingatadistanceLfromtheendAis
6.
Qln 2
(a) 4p L
0
3Q
(c) 4p L
0

4.

Qln 2
(b) 8p L
0
Q
(d) 4p L ln 2
0

Acharge Qisuniformlydistributedoverthesurfaceofnon
conductingdiscofradiusR.The discrotates aboutan axis
perpendiculartoitsplaneandpassingthroughitscentrewith
anangularvelocity w.Asaresultofthisrotationamagnetic
field ofinduction B isobtained at thecentre of thedisc.If
wekeepboththeamountofchargeplacedonthediscandits
angularvelocitytobeconstantandvarytheradiusofthedisc
thenthevariationofthemagneticinductionatthecentreof
the discwillberepresented bythe figure
(a) B

(c) B
R

ThisquestionhasStatement1andStatement2.Ofthefour
choicesgivenafterthe statements,choosetheonethatbest
describesthetwostatements.

20
15
10
5
Timetinseconds

Thefigureshowsanexperimentalplotfordischargingofa
capacitorinanRC circuit.Thetimeconstanttofthiscircuit
liesbetween
(a) 0and50sec
(b) 50secand 100 sec
(c) 100secand 150sec (d) 150secand 200 sec
(2012)
InauniformlychargedsphereoftotalchargeQand radius
R,theelectricfield E isplottedasafunctionofdistancefrom
thecentre.Thegraphwhichwouldcorrespondtotheabove
willbe

(2012)

(d) B

25

0 50 100 150 200 250 300

7.

(b) B
R

5.

(2013)

Potential difference
Vinvolts

11

(b)

(a)
R

R r

55

Electrostatics

14. TwopointsP andQaremaintainedatthepotentialsof10V


and4Vrespectively.Theworkdoneinmoving100electrons
fromPto Q is
(a) 9.601017 J
(b) 9.601017 J
16
(c) 2.2410 J
(d) 2.241016 J
(2009)

(c)

(d)
R r

(2012)
8.

9.

Two identical charged spheres suspended from a common


pointbytwomasslessstringsoflength l areinitiallyadistance
d(d << l)apartbecauseoftheirmutualrepulsion.Thecharge
beginstoleakfromboththespheresataconstantrate.Asa
resultthechargesapproacheachotherwithavelocity v.Then
as afunctionofdistance xbetween them
(a) v x1/2 (b) v x1 (c) v x1/2
(d) v x
(2011)
Theelectrostaticpotentialinsideachargedspherical ballis
givenby f=ar2 +bwhereristhedistancefromthecentre
a,bareconstants.Thenthechargedensityinsidetheballis
(a) 24pae0r (b) 6ae0r (c) 24pae0
(d) 6ae0
(2011)

10. Two identicalcharged spheres are suspended by strings of


equal lengths.The strings makean angle of 30witheach
other.Whensuspendedinaliquidofdensity0.8gcm3,the
angle remains the same. If density of the material of the
sphereis1.6gcm3,the dielectricconstantofthe liquidis
(a) 1
(b) 4
(c) 3
(d) 2
(2010)
11. Lettherebeasphericallysymmetricchargedistributionwith
5 r
chargedensityvaryingas r(r)= r0 -
uptor=R,and
4 R
r(r)=0forr>R,where risthedistancefromtheorigin.The
electricfieldatadistance r(r<R)fromtheoriginisgivenby
r0r 5 r
4pr0r 5 r
(a) 3e 4 - R
(b) 3e 3 - R
0
0

(c)

( )
r r 5 r
4e ( 3 R )
0

16. ThisquestioncontainsStatement1andStatement2.Ofthe
fourchoicesgivenafterthestatements,choosetheonethat
bestdescribesthetwostatements.
Statement1:ForachargedparticlemovingfrompointPto
point Q,the network done byan electrostatic field on the
particle is independent of the path connecting point P to
point Q.
Statement2:Thenetworkdonebyaconservativeforceon
an objectmovingalong a closedloopiszero.
(a) Statement1istrue,Statement2isfalse
(b) Statement1istrue,Statement2istrueStatement2is
the correctexplanation of Statement1.
(c) Statement1istrue,Statement2istrueStatement2is
not the correct explanation of Statement1.
(d) Statement1isfalse,Statement2istrue.
(2009)
17. A thin spherical shell of radius R has charge Q spread
uniformly over its surface.Which of the following graphs
most closely represents the electric field E(r) produced by
theshellintherange0 r< ,whereristhedistancefrom
thecentre of the shell?

(d)

)
4r r 5 r
3e ( 4 R )

Q
r be the charge density distribution for a
pR 4
solidsphereofradius RandtotalchargeQ.For apointp
insidethesphereatdistance r1 fromthecentreofthesphere,
the magnitudeofelectricfieldis
Q
Qr12
Qr12
(a) 0
(b) 4pe r 2 (c)
(d)
3pe0R 4
0 1
4pe0R 4
(2009)

15. Let P( r )=

(2010)

^
j
12. Athinsemicircular ringof
radius r has a positive
charge q distributed
uniformly over it. The net
r
O
field E at thecentreOis
^
^
q
q
j
(b)
(a) 2p 2 e r 2 j
2
2
4
p
e
r
0
0
^
^
q
q
(c) - 2 2 j
(d) - 2 2 j
4p e0r
2p e0r

E(r)

E(r)

(a)

(b)
O

E(r)

^
i

13. A charge Q is placed at each of the opposite corners of a


square.Acharge qisplacedateachoftheothertwocorners.
Ifthe netelectricalforceonQ iszero, thenthe Q/q equals
1
(a) -2 2 (b) 1
(c) 1
(d) -
2
(2009)

E(r)

(c)

(2008)

(d)
O

(2010)

18. A parallel platecapacitor with air between the plates has a


capacitanceof9pF.Theseparationbetweenitsplatesis d.The
space between the plates is now filled with two dielectrics.
Oneofthedielectricshasdielectricconstant k1=3andthickness
d/3 while the other one has dielectric constant k2 = 6 and
thickness2d/3.Capacitanceofthecapacitoris now
(a) 20.25pF
(b) 1.8pF
(c) 45pF
(d) 40.5pF.
(2008)

56

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

19. A parallel plate condenser with a dielectric of dielectric


constant K betweentheplateshasacapacity C andischarged
toapotential Vvolt.The dielectric slab isslowly removed
frombetween the plates and then reinserted. The network
donebythesystem inthis process is
1
(a) zero
(b) 2 (K1)CV2
CV 2( K -1)
(c)
(d) (K1)CV2
(2007)
K
20. The potential at a point x (measured in hm) due to some
chargessituatedonthexaxisisgiven by
V(x)=20/(x2 4)volt
TheelectricfieldEat x= 4 mmis given by
(a) (10/9)volt/mmand inthe +vex direction
(b) (5/3)volt/mmand inthe vex direction
(c) (5/3)volt/mmand inthe +vex direction
(d) (10/9)volt/mminthe vexdirection
(2007)
21. Charges are placed on
r the vertices of a
squareasshown.Let E betheelectricfield
and V the potential at the centre. If the
chargesonAandBareinterchangedwith
thoseon
r DandCrespectively, then
(a) Echanges,Vremainsunchanged
r
(b) E remainsunchanged,Vchanges
r
(c) both E andVchange
r
(d) EandVremainunchanged

D
q

C
q

(2007)

22. A battery isused to charge a parallel plate capacitor tillthe


potential difference between the plates becomes equal tothe
electromotiveforceofthebattery.Theratiooftheenergystored
inthecapacitorandthe workdone bythebatterywillbe
(a) 1/2
(b) 1
(c) 2
(d) 1/4
(2007)
23. An electric charge 103 mC is placed at the origin
(0,0)ofXYcoordinatesystem.Twopoints AandBare
2, 2 and (2,0) respectively. The potential
situated at
differencebetween thepoints AandBwill be
(a) 4.5volt (b) 9 volt (c) zero
(d) 2 volt
(2007)

24. TwosphericalconductorsAandBofradii1mmand2mm
areseparatedbyadistanceof5cmandareuniformlycharged.
If the spheres are connected by a conducting wire then in
equilibriumcondition,theratioofthemagnitudeoftheelectric
fieldsatthesurface ofspheresAandBis
(a) 1:4
(b) 4:1
(c) 1:2
(d) 2:1.
(2006)
25. Two insulating plates are
both uniformaly charged in
suchawaythatthepotential
difference between them is
V2 V1 =20V.(i.e.plate2
isatahigherpotential).The

Y
0.1m

X
1

plates are separated by d = 0.1 m and can be treated as


infinitelylarge.Anelectronisreleasedfromrestontheinner
surface of plate 1.What is its speed when it hits plate 2?
(e=1.61019 C, me =9.111031 kg)
(a) 321019 m/s
(b) 2.65106 m/s
12
(c) 7.0210 m/s
(d) 1.87106 m/s. (2006)
26. Aelectricdipoleisplacedatanangleof30toanonuniform
electric field.The dipole will experience
(a) a torqueonly
(b) a translationalforce onlyinthedirection of the field
(c) a translational force only in a direction normal to the
direction of the field
(d) atorqueaswellasatranslationalforce.
(2006)
27. Afullychargedcapacitorhasacapacitance C.Itisdischarged
throughasmallcoilofresistancewireembeddedinathermally
insulatedblockofspecificheatcapacity sandmassm.Ifthe
temperature of the block is raised by DT, the potential
difference Vacross the capacitance is
msDT
2msDT
(b)
(a)
C
C
(c)

2mC DT
s

(d)

mC DT
s

(2005)

28. Aparallelplatecapacitorismadebystacking n equallyspaced


plates connected alternatively. If the capacitance between
anytwoadjacentplatesisC thentheresultantcapacitanceis
(a) C
(b) nC
(c) (n1)C
(d) (n+1)C
(2005)
29. TwothinwireringseachhavingaradiusRareplacedata
distancedapartwiththeiraxescoinciding.The charges on
thetworingsare+Q andQ.Thepotentialdifferencebetween
thecentersofthetworingsis

Q 1
1

(a) zero
(b) 4pe R

0
R 2 + d 2
QR

(c)

4pe0d

Q 1
1

(d) 2pe R 2
2
0
R + d

(2005)

30. Twopointcharges+8q and2q arelocatedat x =0and x =L


respectively.Thelocationofa point onthex axis atwhich
thenetelectricfieldduetothesetwopointchargesiszerois
(a) 8L
(b) 4L
(c) 2L
(d) L/4
(2005)
31. A charged ball B hangs from a silk
+
threadS,whichmakesanangle q with
+
+
alargechargedconductingsheetP,as
P +
showninthefigure.Thesurfacecharge
+ q
density s ofthesheetisproportionalto
+
S
(a) sinq
+
(b) tanq
+
+
(c) cosq
B
(d) cotq
(2005)

57

Electrostatics

32. FourchargesequaltoQareplacedatthefourcornersofa
square and a charge q is at its centre. If the system is in
equilibriumthe valueofqis
Q
Q
(a) - (1 +2 2)
(b) (1 +2 2)
4
4
Q
(c) - (1 +2 2)
2

(d)

Q
(1 +2 2).
2

(2004)

33. Achargedparticleq isshottowardsanotherchargedparticle


Q which is fixed, with a speed v. It approaches Q upto a
closestdistancerandthenreturns.Ifqweregivenaspeed
2v, the closest distances of approach would be
(a) r
(b) 2r
(c) r/2
(d) r/4.
(2004)
34. Two spherical conductors B and C having equal radii and
carryingequalchargesinthemrepeleachotherwithaforce
F when kept apart at some distance. A third spherical
conductorhavingsameradiusasthatofBbutunchargedis
brought in contact with B, then brought in contact with C
and finally removed away from both. The new force of
repulsion between B and C is
(a) F/4
(b) 3F/4 (c) F/8
(d) 3F/8.
(2004)
35. Three charges q1, +q2 and q3 are placed as shown in the
figure.The xcomponentoftheforceonq1 isproportionalto
(a)
(b)
(c)

q2 q3
- 2cosq
a

q2 q3
+ sinq
b 2 a 2

q2 q3
+ 2cosq
a

2Q
2q
(b) 4pe R - 4pe R
0
0

2Q
q
(c) 4 pe R + 4pe R
0
0

(d)

(q + Q)2
.
4pe0 R

38. Asheetofaluminiumfoilofnegligiblethicknessisintroduced
between the plates of a capacitor. The capacitance of the
capacitor
(a) decreases
(b) remainsunchanged
(c) becomes infinite
(d) increases.
(2003)
39. Iftheelectricfluxenteringandleavinganenclosed surface
respectivelyis f1 and f2,theelectricchargeinsidethesurface

willbe
(a) (f2 f1)e0
(b) (f1 + f2)/e
0
(c) (f2 f1)/e0
(d) (f1 + f2)e0.
(2003)
40. Capacitance(inF)ofasphericalconductorwithradius1mis
(a) 1.11010
(b) 106
9
(c) 910
(d) 103.
(2002)
41. Ifa chargeqis placedatthecentre oftheline joining two
equalchargesQsuchthatthesystemisinequilibriumthen
the valueofq is
(a) Q/2
(b) Q/2
(c) Q/4
(d) Q/4.
(2002)

(a) CV

(b)

b
+q2 x

q1

b2

q2 q3
(d) 2 - 2sinq
b a

(2003)

36. Theworkdoneinplacingachargeof81018 coulombon


a condenserofcapacity 100 microfarad is
(a) 161032 joule
(b) 3.1 1026 joule
10
(c) 4 10 joule
(d) 32 1032 joule. (2003)
37. AthinsphericalconductingshellofradiusRhasacharge q.
Another charge Q is placed at the centre of the shell.The
electrostaticpotentialatapointPatadistanceR/2fromthe
centre oftheshell is

1nCV2
(c) CV2
2

E
43. Achargedparticle q isplaced
at the centre O of cube ofD
O
length L (ABCDEFGH).
q
Another same charge q is
H
placedat adistanceLfrom
O. Then the electric flux A
throughABCDis
(a) q/4pe0L
(b) zero
(c) q/2pe0L
(d) q/3pe0L.

(c)
(b)
(a)
(a)
(b)
(b)
(c)
(*)

2.
8.
14.
20.
26.
32.
38.
44.

(b)
(a)
(d)
(a)
(d)
(b)
(b)
(a)

3.
9.
15.
21.
27.
33.
39.

(a)
(d)
(c)
(a)
(b)
(d)
(a)

1
2
(d) 2nCV .
(2002)
F
C
q
G
B

(2002)

44. Onmovingachargeof20coulombby2cm,2Jofworkis
done,then the potentialdifferencebetweenthe points is
(a) 0.1V (b) 8V
(c) 2V
(d) 0.5V.
(2002)

Answer Key

1.
7.
13.
19.
25.
31.
37.
43.

(2003)

42. Ifthereare n capacitorsinparallelconnectedto V voltsource,


thentheenergystored isequalto

q3

b2

2Q
(a) 4pe R
0

4.
10.
16.
22.
28.
34.
40.

(d)
(d)
(c)
(a)
(c)
(d)
(a)

5.
11.
17.
23.
29.
35.
41.

(b)
(c)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(b)
(d)

6.
12.
18.
24.
30.
36.
42.

(c)
(d)
(d)
(d)
(c)
(d)
(b)

58

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

1. (c) :For potential to be made zero, after connection


120C1 =200C2
6C1 =10C2
3C1 =5C2
2. (b):The situationis asshown in thefigure.

( )

q
Whenaparticleofmassmandcharge q0 =
placedisat
2
the originisgivenasmall displacement alongthe yaxis,
thenthe situationisshown inthe figure.

Potentialat O due tothe rodis


2L
1 Q dx
V = dV =
4
p
L
0 Lx
Qln2
2L
1 Q
=
[ln x]L =
4 p0 L
4p 0 L
4. (d):Consideraelementaryringof
radiusrandthicknessdrofadiscas
showninfigure.
Charge onthe ring,
Q
2Qr
dq =
(2prdr )= 2 dr
pR 2
R
Currentdue to rotationofcharge on ringis

dr

dqw Qrw dr
=
2p
pR 2
Magneticfieldatthe centre due tothe ringelement
m I m Qrw dr m Qw dr
dB= 0 = 0 2 = 0 2
2r
2 pR r
2pR
Magneticfieldat the centre due to the whole disc
I =

B = dB =

By symmetry,the componentsof forces on the particle of


chargeq0 duetochargesatAandB alongxaxiswillcancel
eachotherwherealong yaxis willadd up.
\ The net forceacting on the particle is
qq0
y
Fnet = 2 Fcos q = 2 1
2
2
4p 0
( y + a 2)

y 2 + a2

( )

q
q
y
2
Qq = q (Given)
2
=

4p 0 ( y 2 + a2)2 ( y 2 + a 2) 0 2
q 2y
1
=
2
4p 0 ( y + a 2 )3/2
Asy<<a
q 2y
\ Fnet = 1
4p 0 a 3 or Fnet y

3. (a) :

Considerasmallelementoflengthdxatadistance x fromO.
Q
dx
L
Potentialat O due to the element is
Charge onthe element, dQ =

dV =

1 dQ
1 Q
=
dx
4p 0 x
4p0 Lx

m 0Qw R
m Qw R m Qw
dr = 0 2 = 0
2
2pR
2pR 0
2pR

Since, Qand ware constants


\

B 1
R

Hencevariationof B with R shouldbearectangularhyperbola


asrepresentedinoption(d).
5. (b):Potentialat the centre ofthe sphere,
R2r
VC =
2e0
Potentialat the surface ofthe sphere,
R2r
VS = 1
3 e0
Whenachargeqistakenfromthecentretothesurface,the
change inpotentialenergyis
R 2r 1 R 2r
R 2rq
DU = (VC - VS)q =
q = 1

2e0 3 e0
6 e0
Statement1isfalse.
Statement2istrue.
6. (c) :Duringdischargingofacapacitor
V = V0et/t
where t isthetime constantof RC circuit.
At t = t,
V
V = 0 =0.37V0
e
Fromthe graph,t =0, V0 =25V
\ V=0.3725V=9.25V
Thisvoltageoccursattimeliesbetween100secand 500
sec.Hence,timeconstant tofthiscircuitliesbetween100
secand150sec.

59

Electrostatics

7. (b):For uniformly charged sphere


1 Qr
E=
(For r < R)
4pe0 R 3
1 Q
E=
(For r = R)
4pe0 R 2
1 Q
4pe0 r 2

30

E=

10. (d):

R r

(For r > R)

Thevariationof E withdistance r fromthecentreisasshown


adjacent figure.
8. (a):Figureshowsequilibriumpositionsofthetwosphere.
O
l q q l
T cosq
q

Tsinq
B

mg

x
2

d
mg

\ Tcosq= mg
2
1 q
4pe0 d 2
q2
1
\ tanq =
4pe0 d 2mg
Whenchargebeginstoleakfromboththespheresataconstant
rate, then
q2
1
tanq =
4pe 0 x 2 mg
1q2
x
x
=
Q tanq =
2l 4pe 0x 2mg
2l
2
x q
or
2
2l x
or q2 x3 q x3/2
dq 3 1/2 dx
x
dt 2
dt

and T sinq = F =

or v x -1/ 2 Q

dq
= constant
dt

mg

mg

Initially,the forcesactingoneachballare
(i)Tension T
(ii)Weight mg
(iii) Electrostatic force of repulsion F
Foritsequilibriumalongvertical,
Tcosq= mg
...(i)
andalonghorizontal,
Tsinq=F
...(ii)
Dividingequation(ii)by(i),we get
tanq = F
...(iii)
mg
Whentheballsaresuspendedinaliquidofdensity sand
dielectric constant K, the electrostatic force will become
(1/K)times, i.e.F =(F/K)while weight
mg= mg Upthrust
= mg Vsg
[AsUpthrust= Vsg]
s
m
mg = mg 1- As V =

r
r

Forequilibriumofballs,
F
tanq = F =
mg Kmg [1 - (s / r)]

...(iv)

Accordingtogivenproblem, q = q
Fromequations(iv)and(iii),we get
K=

K=

1
1- s
r

( )
r
1.6
=
= 2
(r - s) (1.6 -0.8)

11. (c):Considerathinsphericalshellofradius x andthickness


dx asshowninthe figure.

9. (d): f= ar2 + b
- df
= -2ar
dr
AccordingtoGausss theorem,
r r qinside
E dS =

e 0
q
or - 2ar 4pr 2 = inside
e0
3
qinside = 8e0apr

Chargedensityinsidethe ballis
q
rinside = inside
4pr 3
3
-8e 0a pr3
\ rinside =
4pr 3
3
rinside = -6ae0
Electric field, E =

dx
x

...(i)

Gaussiansurface
r

(Using(i))
Volume ofthe shell, dV =4px2dx
LetusdrawaGaussiansurfaceofradiusr(r<R)asshown
in the figure above.
Totalcharge enclosedinside the Gaussiansurface is
r

Qin = rdV = r0
0

( 54 - Rx)4px dx
2

3
r
= 4pr0 5x 2 - x dx
R
0 4

60

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

14. (d) : +10V...............................4V


P
Q
Workdone inmoving100e from P to Q,
(Workdoneinmoving100negativechargesfromthepositive
to thenegative potential).
W=(100e)(VQ VP)

=(1001.61019)(14V)=2.241016 J.

5
5
x4
r4
= 4pr0 x3 = 4pr0 r3
12
12
4R
4R 0
4pr0 5 3 r 4
5
r4
r - =pr0 r3 -
3
4 3
R
R
AccordingtoGaussslaw
Q
E 4pr 2 = in
e0
pr
r4
0 5 3
E 4pr 2 =
r
e 0 3
R
=

E =

pr0r3 5 r
4pr 2e0 3 R

E =

r0r 5 r
4e0 3 R

15. (c): Ifthe charge density, r= Q4 r,


pR
Theelectric fieldatthe pointp distant r1 fromthe centre,
accordingtoGaussstheoremis
Q
E4pr12 = chargeenclosed/e0
E 4pr12 =

12. (d): Linearcharge density, l =

E 4 pr12 =

q
pr

Considerasmallelement AB
^
j
oflength dl subtending an
angledqatthecentreOas
Adl
shownin the figure.
B
dqr
\ Chargeontheelement,
dEcosq q
dq = ldl
^
i
q O
dl
= lrdq Q dq =
dE
dEsinq
r
TheelectricfieldatthecentreOduetothechargeelementis

dE =

1 dq l rdq
=
4pe 0 r 2 4pe0r 2

ResolvedE intotwo rectangular components


Bysymmetry, dE cos q = 0
The net electric field at O is
p
r p
^
lrdq sin q( - j
^
)
E = dE sin q( - j ) =
2
0 4pe0r
0
p
qr sinqdq ^
q
=-
j
Q l =
2
3
pr
0 4p e 0r
p
q
q sinqdq ^
^
=-
j = [ - cos q]0p j
2
2
4p 2 e0r 2
0 4p e0r
q
^
=j
2 p 2 e0r2

13. (a): Theforceofrepulsion byQis


+
q
Q
cancelled by the resultant attracting
A
forceduetoq andq atAandB.
Force of repulsion,
B
2
+
q
Q2
1
1 Q
Q
F =
=
2
2
2
4pe 0 (a +a ) 4pe 0 2a
Total force of attraction along the diagonal
(takingcosq components)
Qq 2
Qq 1
Qq
1
1
=

+
=

4pe0 a2 2 a 2 2
4pe 0 a 2

Q 2 Qq 2

= 2
2a 2
a

1
rdV
e0

Q2

= -2 2 (a).
Qq -

E =

r1

r
1 1 Qr
4pr 2dr
e 0 0 pR 4

Qr12
.
4pe0R 4

16. (c): Workdone =potential difference charge


=(VB VA) q,
VA andVB onlydependontheinitialandfinalpositionsand
notonthepath.Electrostaticforceisaconservativeforce.
Iftheloopiscompleted,VA VA =0.
Nonetworkisdoneastheinitialand
final potentialsarethe same.
Both the statements are true but A
B
statement2 is not the reason for
statement1.
17. (b) : The electric field for a E
uniformly charged spherical
shell is given in the figure.
Insidetheshell,thefieldiszero
anditismaximumatthesurface
O
andthendecreases
A
B
1/r2.
R
Q
E =
outsideshellandzeroinside.
4pe 0r 2
e 0A
= 9 10-12F
d
e kA
With dielectric,C = 0
d
e0A 3
C1 =
=9C
d / 3
e A 6
C2 = 0
=9C
2d / 3

18. (d): C =

\ Ctotal =

C1C2
C1 +C2 astheyare inseries.

= 9C 9C = 9 C or 9 9 10-12 F
18C
2
2
Ctotal =40.5pF.

C
r

k1 =3 k2 =6

d/3 2d/3

61

Electrostatics

19. (a): Thepotential energyof acharged capacitor

24. (d) : When the spherical conductors are connected by a


conducting wire, charge is redistributed and the spheres
attain acommon potential V.

q
2C
whereUi istheinitialpotentialenergy.
Ifadielectric slabis slowlyintroduced, theenergy
Ui =

q2
=
2KC
Onceistakenout,againtheenergyincreasestotheoldvalue.
Thereforeafteritistakenout,thepotentialenergycomeback
tothe oldvalue.Totalwork done= zero.

20. (a):Given:Potential V ( x)=

20
x -4

E=

40 4
160 10
=
=
V/m m.
2 144
9
[16 -4]

21. (a): Unitpositivechargewillberepelled q


byA and B and attracted by q and q A
downwards in the same direction. If they
areexchanged,thedirectionofthefieldwill
beopposite.Inthecaseofpotential,asitis D
a scalar, they cancel each other whatever q
maybe theirposition.
\ Field isaffected butnotthe potential.

q
B

C
q

r
r2 = 2i + 0
j
r
or
| r2 | = r2 = 2

1 q
1 103 10-6
=
4pe0 r2 4pe0
2

VA VB =0.

= V
RA

or
or

2 e DV
2 1.6 10-19 20
=
m
9.11 10-31
v = 2.65 106 m/s.
v=

27. (b) : Energy of capacitor = Heat energy of block


1 2
CV = ms DT
\
2
2ms D T
V =
.
or
C

Q
1 Q - 1
4 pe0 R 4pe0 R 2 +d 2
Q
1 ( -Q )
1
VB =
+
4 pe0 R
4pe0 R 2 +d 2
B

2 2
R + d

R
2 , 2)

PotentialatpointBis

2
4pe0RA

E A RB 2
=
= .
E B R A 1

A
r1

(4 pe0R A)V

V
RB

1 10 -3 10-6
= 4 pe
2
0

VB =

(0,0)
r2

1q
4pe0 r1

Similarly EB =

= 2

PotentialatpointAis
VA =

4 pe0 R A2

29. (d) : VA =

23. (c): rr1 = 2 i + 2j


2

1 C AV

28. (c) : n plates connected alternately give rise to


(n 1) capacitors connected in parallel
\
Resultant capacitance = (n 1)C.

Energystoredinthecapacitor U = 1CE 2
2
1CE2
U = 2
\
= 1.
W CE 2
2

EA =

26. (d): Inanonuniformelectricfield,thedipolewillexperience


a torque as well as a translational force.

22. (a):LetEbe emfof the battery


WorkdonebythebatteryW=CE2

( 2 ) + ( 2 )

or

1 QA
2
4pe0 R A

25. (b): Anelectrononplate1haselectrostaticpotentialenergy.


When it moves,potential energy is converted into kinetic
energy.
\ Kinetic energy = Electrostatic potential energy
1 2
mv = e DV
or
2

PositivesignindicateEis+vexdirection.

r
| r1 | = r1 =

Intensity EA =

Electricfield E = - dV = - d 20 = 40x
dx
dx x 2 - 4 ( x 2 - 4)2
Atx=4 mm
\

+Q

(2,0)

V A - VB =

1 Q 2
2

2
4pe0 R R + d 2

Q 1
1
2pe0 R R 2 + d 2 .

30. (c) : Resultant intensity = 0


O

2q

+8q

62

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

kqQ
1
2
Finally, 2 m (2 v) = r
1
\
From (i) and (ii)
1 = r1 r = r.
1
4 r
4

8q
1
1 2q
= 0
4 pe0 ( L +d )2 4pe0 d 2

or
or
\

(L + d)2 = 4d2
d = L
Distance from origin = 2L.

2
1 q
34. (d) : Initially, F = 4pe 2
0 d

31. (b) : Tsinq = sq/e0


Tcosq

qs
e0

mg

T cosq = mg
\
\

sq
e0mg
s is proportional to tanq.
tanq =

\
=

1 q 3q 3
= F .
4pe0d 2 2 4 8

F2
a

F1

3q
= Charge of third conductor
4
New force between B and C
C=

32. (b) : Considerthe four forces F1, F2, F3 and F4 acting on


charge (Q) placed at A.
F3
45

...........(i)

whenthethirdequalconductortouchesB,thechargeofB
is shared equally between them
q
\
Charge on B = =charge on third conductor.
.
2
q
Now this third conductor with charge touches C, their
2
q

total charge q + 2 isequally shared between them.

\
Charge on

q
Tsinq

............(ii)

D
Q

F4
q

C
Q

- q1q2

35. (b) : Force on (q1) due to q2 =


\

F1 =

q1q2
4pe0b 2

4pe0b 2

along (q1q2)

Force on (q1) due to ( - q3)=


q1q3
F2 = 4pe a 2 as shown

( - q1 )( - q3)
4pe0a 2

F2 makes an angle of (90 q) with (q1q2)


y

Distance CA = 2 a
q3

2a a
=
2
2
Forequilibrium,consider forcesalongDA and equate the
resultant to zero
1 Q Q
1 Q Q
+
cos 45
\
4 pe0 ( DA)2 4pe0 (CA )2

Distance EA =

1 Q q
cos 45 = 0
4pe0 ( EA)2

or

Q
Q
q
+
1 - 2 1 =0
2 a / 2 2
a 2 2a2

or

Q 1 + 1 = q 2
2
2

or

q=

Q 2 2 + 1 Q
= (1 + 2 2 ).
2 2 2 4

33. (d) : Energy is conserved in the phenomenon


1 2 kqQ
Initially, mv =
..........(i)
2
r

F1
q1

(90q)

q2

F2

Resolved part of F2 along q1q2


= F2 cos (90 q)
=

q1q3sinq

4pe0a 2

along (q1q2)

Total force on (q1)


q q
q q sinq
= 1 2 2 + 1 3 2 along xaxis
4pe0a
4 pe 0 b

q2 q3

xcomponent of force 2 + 2 sinq .


a
b

36. (d) : Energy of condenser


=

2
-18 2
1 Q
1 (8 10 )
=
= 32 10-32 J
2 C
2 (100 10 -6)

63

Electrostatics

37. (c): Potentialatanyinternalpointofchargedshell =

q
4pe0R

1 2Q
Potential at P due to Q at centre = 4pe R
0
\
Total potential point
q
2Q
1
=
+
=
( q + 2Q).
4 pe 0 R 4pe 0 R 4pe0R

38. (b):Aluminiumis agood conductor. Itssheetintroduced


betweentheplatesofacapacitorisofnegligiblethickness.
The capacity remains unchanged.
e A
With air as dielectric, C = 0
d
e A
e A
= 0 = C.
With space partially filled, C = 0
( d -t ) d
39. (a) : According to Gauss theorem,
( f2 - f1 ) =

Q
Q = ( f2 - f1 )e0 .
e0

The fluxentersthe enclosureifone hasa negative charge


(q2)andflux goes outif onehas a +ve charge (+q1).As
one doesnotknow whether f1 > f2, f2 > f1, Q= q1 ~ q2
40. (a) : C = 4 pe0R =

1
= 1.1 10-10 F.
9
9 10

41. (d): When the system ofthree charges is in equilibrium,


Qq
4 pe 0 d

Q Q
4 pe0(2 d )2

= 0

or

Q
q = - .
4

42. (b) : Total capacity = nC


1
2
\
Energy = nCV
2
43. (*) : Electric flux through ABCD = zero for the charge
placedoutsidetheboxasthechargedenclosediszero.But
q
for the charge inside the cube, it is e through all the
0
q
surfaces. For one surface, it is 6e . (Option not given).
0

44. (a) : W = QV
\

V =

W 2
=
= 0.1 volt.
Q 20

64

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

CHAPTER

12
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

CURRENTELECTRICITY

Thesupplyvoltagetoaroomis120V.Theresistanceofthe
leadwiresis6 W.A60Wbulbisalreadyswitchedon.What
is the decrease of voltage across the bulb, when a 240W
heaterisswitched oninparallelto thebulb?
(a) 10.04Volt
(b) zero Volt
(c) 2.9Volt
(d) 13.3Volt
(2013)
Twoelectricbulbsmarked25W220Vand100W220Vare
connectedin series to a 440 V supply.Which of thebulbs
will fuse?
(a) 100W
(b) 25W
(c) neither
(d) both
(2012)

55 W

20cm

7.

If a wireisstretchedto makeit 0.1%longer, itsresistance


will
(a) increaseby0.05%
(b) increaseby0.2%
(c) decreaseby0.2%
(d) decreaseby 0.05%(2011)
Two conductors have the same resistance at 0C but their
temperature coefficients of resistance are a1 and a2. The
respectivetemperaturecoefficientsoftheirseriesandparallel
combinationsare nearly
a + a 2 a1 + a2
a + a 2
(a) 1
,
(b) 1
,a1 + a2
2
2
2
a1a 2
a + a 2
(d) a1 + a 2, a + a (2010)
(c) a1 + a2, 1
2
1
2
ThisquestioncontainsStatement1andStatement2.Ofthe
fourchoicesgivenafterthestatements, choosetheonethat
bestdescribesthetwo statements.
Statement1: The temperature dependence of resistance is
usually given as R = R0(1 + aDt). The resistance of a wire
changesfrom100 W to150 W whenitstemperatureisincreased
from27Cto227C.Thisimpliesthat a=2.5103/C
Statement2:R =R0(1+ aDt)isvalidonlywhenthechange
inthetemperature DTissmalland DR= (RR0)<<R0.
(a) Statement1is true,Statement2isfalse
(b) Statement1istrue,Statement2is trueStatement2is
the correctexplanation of Statement1.
(c) Statement1istrue,Statement2is trueStatement2is
not the correct explanation of Statement1.
(d) Statement1is false, Statement2istrue.
(2009)
Shown in the figure below is a meterbridge set up with
nulldeflectioninthegalvanometer.Thevalueoftheunknown
resistanceRis

(a) 55 W
(b) 13.75 W
(c) 220 W
(d) 110 W.
(2008)
A 5 V battery with internal resistance 2 W and
2Vbatterywithinternalresistance1 Wareconnectedtoa
10 Wresistorasshowninthefigure.Thecurrentinthe10
Wresistoris
P2

5V
2 W

2V
1 W

10 W

P1

(b) 0.27AP2 to P1
(d) 0.03AP2 to P1.

(a) 0.27AP1 toP2


(c) 0.03AP1 toP2

(2008)

Directions:Questions8and9arebasedonthefollowingparagraph.
Considerablockofconductingmaterialofresistivity rshownin
the figure.Current I enters at Aand leaves from D. We apply
superpositionprincipletofindvoltage DVdevelopedbetweenB
and C.The calculationisdone inthefollowingsteps:
(i) TakecurrentIenteringfromA andassumeittospreadover
ahemisphericalsurfaceintheblock.
(ii) Calculatefield E(r) atdistance r from Abyusing Ohms
lawE= rj,wherej isthecurrentperunitarea at r.
(iii) Fromthe rdependenceof E(r),obtainthepotentialV(r)atr.
(iv) Repeat(i),(ii)and(iii)forcurrent I leaving D andsuperpose
resultsfor Aand D.
DV

8.

a
C

DV measuredbetweenBandC is

65

CurrentElectricity

rI
(a) 2 p(a -b )
rI
rI
(c) a - ( a +b )

9.

rI
rI
(b) pa - p( a +b )
rI
rI
(d) 2pa - 2p(a +b)

(2008)

Forcurrententeringat A, theelectric field at adistancer


from Ais
rI
rI
(a)
(b)
4pr 2
8pr 2
rI
rI
(c) 2
(d)
(2008)
r
2pr 2

10. Theresistanceofawireis5ohmat50Cand6ohmat100C.
Theresistanceofthewire at0Cwill be
(a) 3ohm
(b) 2ohm
(c) 1ohm
(d) 4ohm
(2007)
11. Amaterial B hastwicethespecificresistanceof A.Acircular
wiremadeof Bhastwicethediameterofawiremadeof A.
Thenforthetwowirestohavethesameresistance,theratio
lB/lA oftheirrespective lengthsmustbe
(a) 2
(b) 1
(c) 1/2
(d) 1/4.
(2006)
12. Theresistanceofabulbfilamentis100 Watatemperature
of100C.Ifitstemperaturecoefficientofresistancebe0.005
perC,itsresistancewillbecome200 Watatemperatureof
(a) 200C
(b) 300C
(c) 400C
(d) 500C.
(2006)
13. The current I drawn from the 5 volt source will be
10 W

(b) conservation of charge, conservation of momentum


(c) conservation of energy, conservation of charge
(d) conservation of momentum, conservation of charge.
(2006)
16. An electric bulb is rated 220 volt 100 watt. The power
consumed by it when operated on 110 volt will be
(a) 50watt
(b) 75watt
(c) 40watt
(d) 25watt.
(2006)
17. A thermocouple is made from two metals, antimony and
bismuth. If one junction of the couple is kept hot and the
other is kept cold then, an electric current will
(a) flow from antimony to bismuth at the cold junction
(b) flow from antimony to bismuth at the hot junction
(c) flow from bismuth to antimony at the cold junction
(d) not flow through the thermocouple.
(2006)
18. In a potentiometer experiment thebalancing with a cell is
at length240cm.Onshuntingthecellwitharesistanceof
2 W, the balancing length becomes 120 cm. The internal
resistance of the cell is
(a) 4 W
(b) 2 W
(c) 1 W
(d) 0.5 W
(2005)
19. Two sources of equal emf are connected to an external
resistanceR.Theinternalresistancesofthetwosourcesare
R1 and R2 (R2 > R1). If the potential difference across the
source having internal resistance R2 is zero, then
(a) R=

R1R2
R1 +R2

(c) R = R2
5 W

10 W

20 W

(b) R=

( R1 + R2)
( R2 -R1)

R1R2
R2 -R1

(d) R = R2 R1

(2005)

20. Inthecircuit,thegalvanometerGshowszero deflection. If


thebatteriesAandBhavenegligibleinternalresistance,the
value of the resistor R will be

10 W

500 W

5V

(a) 0.17A
(c) 0.5A

(b) 0.33A
(d) 0.67A.

(2006)

14. InaWheatstonesbridge,threeresistance P,Q and R connected


inthethreearmsandthefourtharmisformedbytworesistance
S1 andS2 connected inparallel.The conditionforbridgeto
be balanced will be
P
R
(a) Q = S +S
1
2

P
2R
(b) Q = S +S
1
2

P R ( S1 + S2)
(c) Q = S S
1 2

P R ( S1 + S2)
(d) Q = 2S S
.
1 2

(2006)

15. The Kirchhoffs first law (i = 0) and second law


( iR = E ), wherethesymbolshavetheirusualmeanings,
are respectively based on
(a) conservation of charge, conservation of energy

12V B

(a) 500 W
(c) 200 W

(b) 1000 W
(d) 100 W

2V

(2005)

21. Anenergysourcewillsupplyaconstantcurrentintotheload
if its internal resistance is
(a) zero
(b) nonzero but less than the resistance of the load
(c) equal to the resistance of the load
(d) very large as compared to the load resistance
(2005)
22. Theresistanceofhottungstenfilamentisabout10timesthe
cold resistance.What will be the resistance of 100W and
200V lamp when not in use?

66

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

(a) 400 W
(c) 40 W

(b) 200 W
(d) 20 W

(2005)

23. Two voltameters, one of copper and another of silver, are


joinedinparallel.Whena totalchargeqflowsthroughthe
voltmeters, equal amount of metals are deposited. If the
electrochemicalequivalentsof copperand silverarez1 and
z2 respectively the charge which flows through the silver
voltameter is
z1
z2
(a) qz
(b) q z
2
1
q
q
(c)
(d)
z
z
(2005)
1+ 1
1+ 2
z2
z1
24. A heatercoiliscutintotwo equal parts and only onepart
is now usedinthe heater.The heatgenerated will nowbe
(a) one fourth
(b) halved
(c) doubled
(d) four times
(2005)
25. The thermistors are usually made of
(a) metals with low temperature coefficient of resistivity
(b) metals with high temperature coefficient of resistivity
(c) metal oxides with high temperature coefficient of
resistivity
(d) semiconducting materials having low temperature
coefficient of resistivity.
(2004)
26. In a metre bridge experiment null point is obtained at
20 cmfromoneendofthewirewhenresistance X isbalanced
againstanotherresistanceY.IfX < Y,thenwhere willbe
the new position of the null point from the same end, if
one decides to balance a resistance of 4X against Y?
(a) 50 cm
(b) 80 cm
(c) 40 cm
(d) 70 cm.
(2004)
27. Anelectriccurrentispassedthroughacircuitcontainingtwo
wiresofthesamematerial,connectedinparallel.Ifthelengths
and radiiof thewires are in the ratio of 4/3 and 2/3, then
the ratio of the currents passing through the wire will be
(a) 3
(b) 1/3
(c) 8/9
(d) 2.
(2004)
28. The resistanceoftheseries combination of two resistances
isS.Whentheyarejoined inparallelthe totalresistanceis
P. IfS = nP, then the minimum possible value of n is
(a) 4
(b) 3
(c) 2
(d) 1.
(2004)
29. The total current supplied to the circuit by the battery is
(a) 1A
2 W
(b) 2A
6V
(c) 4A
6 W
3 W
(d) 6A.
(2004)
30. Theelectrochemicalequivalent
of
a
metal
is

1.5 W

3.3107 kgpercoulomb.Themassofthemetalliberated
atthecathodewhena3Acurrentispassedfor2secondwill
be
(a) 19.8 107 kg
(b) 9.9 107 kg
7
(c) 6.6 10 kg
(d) 1.1107 kg.
(2004)
31. Thethermoemfofathermocouplevarieswiththetemperature
qofthehotjunctionasE=aq+bq2 involtwheretheratio
a/b is 700C. If the cold junction is kept at 0C, then the
neutral temperature is
(a) 700C
(b) 350C
(c) 1400C
(d) noneutraltemperatureispossibleforthisthermocouple.
(2004)
32. Timetakenbya836Wheatertoheatonelitreofwaterfrom
10C to 40C is
(a) 50s
(b) 100s (c) 150s (d) 200 s.
(2004)
33. Thelengthofagivencylindricalwireisincreasedby100%.
Due to the consequent decrease in diameter the change in
the resistance of the wire will be
(a) 200%
(b) 100%
(c) 50%
(d) 300%.
(2003)
34. A3voltbatterywithnegligibleinternalresistanceisconnected
inacircuitasshowninthefigure.
I
ThecurrentI,inthecircuitwill
be
3 W
3V
3 W
(a) 1A
(b)
3W
1.5A
(c) 2A
(d) (1/3)
A
(2003)
35. Thelengthofawireofapotentiometeris100 cm,and the
e.m.f.ofitsstandardcellisE volt.Itisemployedtomeasure
thee.m.f.ofabatterywhoseinternalresistanceis0.5 W. If
thebalancepointisobtainedatl=30cmfromthepositive
end, the e.m.f. of the battery is
30E
(a) 100.5

30E
(b) 100 -0.5

30E
(c) 100 -0.5i ,whereiis the currentinthepotentiometer
wire.
30E
(d) 100.
(2003)
36. A220volt, 1000wattbulbisconnectedacross a 110 volt
mains supply. The power consumed will be
(a) 750watt
(b) 500watt
(c) 250watt
(d) 1000watt.
(2003)
37. The negative Znpoleofa Daniellcell,sending a constant
currentthroughacircuit,decreasesinmassby0.13gin30
minutes.IftheelectrochemicalequivalentofZnandCuare
32.5and 31.5respectively, the increase in the mass of the

67

CurrentElectricity

positive Cu pole in this time is


(a) 0.180 g
(b) 0.141 g
(c) 0.126 g
(d) 0.242 g.

(2003)

38. Thethermoe.m.f. ofathermocouple is 25 mV/Catroom


temperature.Agalvanometerof40ohmresistance,capable
ofdetectingcurrentaslowas105 A,is connectedwiththe
thermocouple.The smallesttemperature difference that can
be detected by this system is
(a) 16C
(b) 12C
(c) 8C
(d) 20C.
(2003)
39. Themassofaproductliberatedonanodeinanelectrochemical
cell depends on
(a) (It)1/2 (b) It
(c) I/t
(d) I2t.
(wheretisthetimeperiodforwhichthecurrentispassed).
(2002)

40. If qi istheinversiontemperature, qnistheneutraltemperature,


qc is the temperature of the cold junction, then
(a) qi + qc = qn
(b) qi - qc = 2qn
qi + qc
= qn
(c)
(d) qc - qi = 2qn .
(2002)
2
41. Awire whenconnected to220V mains supply has power
dissipation P1. Now the wire is cut into two equal pieces
whichare connected inparallel tothesame supply. Power
dissipation in this case is P2. Then P2 : P1 is
(a) 1
(b) 4
(c) 2
(d) 3.
(2002)
42. If in the circuit, power
R
dissipationis150W,then
R is
2 W
(a) 2 W
(b) 6 W
15V
(c) 5 W
(d) 4 W.
(2002)

Answer Key

1.
7.
13.
19.
25.
31.
37.

(a)
(d)
(c)
(d)
(c)
(d)
(c)

2.
8.
14.
20.
26.
32.
38.

(b)
(d)
(c)
(d)
(a)
(c)
(a)

3.
9.
15.
21.
27.
33.
39.

(b)
(d)
(a)
(a)
(b)
(d)
(b)

4.
10.
16.
22.
28.
34.
40.

(a)
(d)
(d)
(c)
(a)
(b)
(c)

5.
11.
17.
23.
29.
35.
41.

(a)
(a)
(a)
(d)
(c)
(c)
(b)

6.
12.
18.
24.
30.
36.
42.

(c)
(c)
(b)
(c)
(a)
(c)
(b)

68

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

1. (a) : As P= V
R
Here,thesupplyvoltageistakenasrated
voltage.
\ Resistance of bulb
120 V 120 V
RB =
= 240W
60 W
120 V 120 V
= 60W
240 W
Voltage acrossbulb before heater is switched on,
120 V 240W
V1 =
= 117.07 V
240 W + 6W

Resistanceof heater, RH =

Asbulbandheaterareconnectedinparallel.Theirequivalent
resistanceis
(240 W)(60 W)
Req =
= 48W
240 W + 60W
\ Voltageacross bulb afterheater is switched on
V2 =

Potentialdifference across100W bulb


(220)2
= IR2 = 2
=88 V
11
100

Thusthebulb25W willbe fused,because itcantolerate


only220Vwhile the voltage acrossitis352V.
3. (b) : Resistance of wire
rl
R=
A
Onstretching,volume(V)remainsconstant.

2. (b): 25W220V

100W220V

440V

(Rated voltage)2
Rated power

\ Resistanceof25W220Vbulb is
(220)2
W
25
Resistanceof100W220Vbulb is
R1 =

(220)2
W
100
When these two bulbs are connected in series, the total
resistanceis
R2 =

(220)2
Rs = R1 + R2 = (220)2 1 + 1 =
W
25 100
20
Current, I =

440
2
= A
(220)2 / 20 11

Potential difference across 25 W bulb

...(i)

V
So V = Al or A=

l
rl2
(Using(i))
\ R=
V
Takinglogarithmonbothsidesanddifferentiatingweget,
DR = 2D l
R
l

120 V 48W
= 106. 66 V
48 W + 6W

Decrease inthe voltage acrossthebulb is


DV =V1 V2 =10.41V ; 10.04V
V

As R =

(220)2
= IR1 = 2
=352 V
11
25

or

(Q V and r are constants)

D R % = 2D l%
R
l

Hence,whenwireisstretchedby0.1%itsresistancewill
increaseby0.2%.
4. (a): Let R0 be the resistanceofbothconductors at 0C.
Let R1 and R2 betheirresistanceat tC.Then
R1 = R0(1+ a1t)
R2 = R0(1+ a2t)
Let R s is the resistance of the series combination of two
conductorsat tC. Then
Rs = R1 + R2
Rs0 (1+ ast)= R0(1+ a1t)+ R0(1+ a2t)
where, R s0 = R0 + R0 =2R0
\ 2R0(1+ ast)=2R0 + R0t(a1 + a2)
2R0 +2R0ast=2R0 + R0t(a1 + a2)
a + a 2
\ a s = 1
2
Let R p istheresistanceoftheparallelcombinationoftwo
conductorsat tC. Then
R R
Rp = 1 2
R1 + R2
R (1 + a1t ) R0 (1 + a 2t)
R p 0(1 + a pt)= 0
R0 (1 + a1t ) + R0 (1 + a2t )
R0 R0
R
= 0
where, Rp0 =
R0 + R0 2

69

CurrentElectricity

R0
R 2 (1 + a1t )(1 + a 2t)
(1 + a pt)= 0
2
2 R0 + R0 (a1 + a2)t

R0
R 2 (1 + a1t + a 2t + a1a 2t2)
(1 + a pt)= 0
2
R0 (2 + (a1 + a2)t )
(1 + a1t + a 2t + a1a 2t2)
1
(1 + a pt)=
2
(2 + (a1 + a2)t )

8.

As a1 and a2 aresmallquantities
\ a1a2 isnegligible

+21(x y)+10 y =0
+x11y=2
...(ii)
2x 22y=4
...(iii)=(ii) 2
(i)(iii)gives32y =1
y = 1 A =0.03 A from P2 to P1.
32
(d): Currentisspreadoveranarea2pr2.The current I is
asurface current.
A
a

1 + (a1 + a 2)t
1 + (a1 + a 2)t
\ 1 (1 + a pt)=
=
2
2 + (a1 + a2)t
(a + a 2)t
2 1+ 1

Currentdensity, j =

-1

(a + a 2)t
= 1[1 + (a1 + a 2)t ] 1+ 1

2
2

Resistance=

1
(a + a 2)t
[1 + (a1 + a 2)t ] 1- 1

2
2
[By binomial expansion]

DV =

DV =

(a1 + a 2)
t
2
a + a 2
a p = 1
2
5. (a): Fromthestatement given, a =2.5 103/C.
a pt =

- Edr

Itistruethat a issmall.But(150100) W or50 W isnot


verymuchlessthan 100 W i.e., R R0 << R0 isnottrue.
R

- I r a 1
- Ir 1 a
dr =

2
2p
2p r a + b
a + b r

Ir 1
- 1 .
2p a a + b

Ir
2pr 2
10. (d):Given:R50 =5 W, R100 =6 W
Rt =R0(1+ at)
whereRt =resistanceofawireattC, R0 =resistance ofa
wireat0C, a =temperature coefficientofresistance.

9.

Theresistanceofawirechangefrom100 W to150 W when


the temperature is increasedfrom 27C to227C.

(d):j r= E. \ E =

\ R50 = R0 [1+ a50]


andR100 = R0 [1+ a100]
or R50 R0 = R0a(50)

...(i)

R100 R0 = R0a(100)

...(ii)

Divide(i)by(ii),weget
20cm

80cm

5- R0
1
=
6 -R0
2

ThisisaWheatstonebridge.
If rl istheresistanceper unitlength(incm)

P2

xy

Q R A = RB

B
2V

2 W

10 W

11. (a) : Resistance of a wire R =

5V

P1

xy

1 W

4r Al A
pD A2

4r B lB
2
pDB

lB r A DB
or l = r D
A
B A

Applying Kirchhoffs law for the loops


AP2P1CA and P2BDP1P2, one gets
10y2x+5=0
2x+10y=5

or 102R0 =6 R0

or R0 =4 W.

20rl 80rl
=
or R= 80 55= 220 W.
55
R
20

(d):

I
2pr 2

a + b

\ 1 (1 + a pt ) = 1 1 + 1 (a1 + a 2)t

2
2 2

7.

As(a1 + a2)2 isnegligible

(c):

rl
rr
=
area 2pr 2

VB - VC = DV =

( a + a 2 )t
(a + a 2)2 t2
= 1 1 - 1
+ (a1 + a 2)t - 1

2
2
2

6.

E=Ir/2pr2.

55 W

...(i)

r 2D A
4 2
= A
= 2 = 1
2r A DA

rl
rl 4
=
2
pr
pD 2

70

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

12. (c): Given : R100 = 100 W


a = 0.005C1
Rt = 200 W
\ R100 = R0[1 + 0.005 (100)]
or 100 = R0[1
+ 0.005 100]

Rt = R0[1 + 0.005t]
200 = R0[1 + 0.005t]
Divide (i) by (ii), we get
100 = [1 + 0.005 100]
200
[1 +0.005t ]
1 + 0.005t = 2 + 1
or t = 400C.

2E
R1 + R2 + R
Q E IR2 = 0
\ E = IR2

19. (d) : I =

.......(i)
.......(ii)

13. (c): TheequivalentcircuitisabalancedWheatstone'sbridge.


Hence no current flows through arm BD.
B
AB and BC are in series
\ RABC = 5 + 10 = 15 W
5 W
10 W
AD and DC are in series
\ RADC = 10 + 20 = 30 W
A
C
10 W
ABC and ADC are in parallel
( R ABC )( RADC )
10 W
20 W
\ Req = ( R
ABC +R ADC )
D
I
or Req = 15 30 = 15 30 = 10W
15 + 30
45
E
5
=
=0.5 A.
\ Current I =
Req 10

5V

14. (c): For balanced Wheatstone's bridge, P = R


Q S
S1 S2
Q S =
S1 + S 2 ( Q S1 and S2 are in parallel)
R ( S1 + S2)
\ P =
.
Q
S1 S2

15. (a):Kirchhoff'sfirstlaw[Si=0]isbasedonconservation
of charge
Kirchhoff'ssecondlaw(S iR = S E)isbasedonconservation
of energy.
16. (d) : Resistance of the bulb
V2 (220)2
( R) =
=
= 484W
P
100
(110)2
Power across 110 volt=
484
110 110
Power =
=25 W .
\
484

17. (a) :AntimonyBismuth couple is ABC couple. It means


that current flows from A to B at cold junction.
18. (b) : The internal resistance of a cell is given by
l

l1 - l2
r = R 1 - 1 =R

l
l2
2

240 - 120 = 2 W.
\ r = 2
120

or E =

(Given)
E R1

E R2

2ER2
R1 + R2 +R

or R1 + R2 + R = 2R2
or R = R2 R1.

20. (d) : For zero deflection in galvanometer,


I1 = I2
12
2
or 500+R = R .
12R = 1000+ 2R R = 100 W
21. (a): If internal resistance is zero, the energy source will
supply a constant current.
2

V2 (200)
=
= 400W
P
100
400
= 40W .
Resistance when not in use =
10

22. (c) : Resistance of hot tungsten =

23. (d) : The voltameters are joined in parallel.


Mass deposited = z1q1 = z2q2
\

q1 z2 q1 + q2 z1 + z2
=
=
q2 z1
q2
z1

z
q
= 1+ 2
q2
z1

q
.
z2

+
1

z1

24. (c) : Resistance of full coil = R


Resistance of each half piece = R/2

or

q2 =

H2 V 2t
R 2
=

=
H1 R/ 2 V 2t 1

\
H2 = 2H1
Heat generated will now be doubled.
25. (c) : Thermistors are made of metal oxides with high
temperature coefficient of resistivity.
26. (a) : For meter bridge experiment,
R1 l1
l1
= =
R2 l2 (100 l1)
X = 20 = 20 = 1
Y 100 -20 80 4
In the second case,
4X
l
4
l
=
=
l = 50 cm .
Y
(100 - l ) 4 100- l
In the first case,

27. (b) : Potential difference is same when the wires are put
in parallel
rl
V = I1R1 = I1 12
pr1
Again V = I 2 R2 = I2

rl2
pr22

71

CurrentElectricity

I rl
I rl
I
l r
\ 1 2 1 = 2 2 2 1 = 2 1
I 2 l1 r2
pr1
pr2

2l
\ Thenewresistance R2 = r l 2 = r
= 4R
2
p r
p r
2
\Changeinresistance = R - R = 3R

I1 3 2 2 3 4 1
or I = 4 3 = 4 9 = 3.

2

28. (a) : In series combination, S = (R1 + R2)


In parallel combination, P =

R1 R2
( R1 + R2)

R R
\ (R1 + R2)2 = nR1R2
\ ( R1 + R2) = n 1 2
( R1 + R2)
For minimum value, R1 = R2 = R
\ (R + R)2 = n(R R) 4R2 = nR2
or n = 4.

29. (c) : The equivalent circuits are shown below :


1.5 W

1.5 W

1.5 W

6V

3 W

35. (c): Potential gradient along wire = E volt


100 cm
E volt
\ K =100 cm
For battery V = E ir, where E is emf of battery.
or K30=Eir,wherecurrentiisdrawnfrombattery

1.5 W

6V

I = 6 =4 A.
1.5
30. (a) : m = Z i t
or
m = (3.3 107) (3) (2) = 19.8 107 kg.
31. (d) : E = aq + bq2
dE
= a + 2bq
\
d q

a
1
= - (700) = -350C
2b
2
Neutral temperature is calculated to be 350C
Since temperature of cold junction is 0C, no neutral
temperature is possible for this thermocouple.
qn = -

32. (c) : Electrical energy is converted into heat energy


\
836 t = 1000 1 (40 10) (4.18)
[Q 4.18 J = 1cal]

or

V2 (110) 110 110


=
=
=250 W.
R
48.4
48.4
37. (c) : According to Faraday's laws of electrolysis,
=

mZn ZZn
=
mCu Z Cu when i and t are same

dE
= 0
At neutral temperature (qn),

d q
or
0 = a + 2bqn

or

E 30
= E + 0.5i or E = 30E -0.5i
100
100

2
V2 (220)
=
= 48.4 W .
36. (c) : Resistance of bulb =
P
1000
Required power

6V

(3 + 3) 3 18
=
= 2W
(3 + 3) + 3 9

\ CurrentI = V = 3 =1.5 A.
R 2

or
2 W
3 W

3R 100% = 300%
.
R

34. (b):Equivalent resistance =

Q S = nP

6 W

\%change=

1000 30 4.18
t=
=150 sec.
836

33. (d): Letthelength of the wirebel,radius of thewireber


\ Resistance R = r l2 r=resistivityofthewire
pr
100
Nowlisincreasedby100% \ l = l + 100l = 2l

Aslengthisincreased,itsradiusisgoingtobedecreasedin
suchawaythatthevolumeofthecylinderremainsconstant.
r2 l
r2 l
r2
2
pr 2 l = pr 2 l r = l = 2l = 2

0.13 32.5
=

mCu 31.5

mCu = 0.13 31.5= 0.126 g


32.5

38. (a) : Let the smallest temperature be qC


\
Thermo emf = (25 106) q volt
Potential difference across galvanometer =
IR = 105 40 = 4 104 volt
\
(25 106)q = 4 104
4 10-4
q=
= 16 C.
\
25 10 -6
39. (b) : According to Faraday's laws, m It.
40. (c) : qc + qi = 2 qn

qi + qc
= qn .
2

V2
41. (b) : P1 =
R
when connected in parallel,
( R / 2) ( R/ 2) R
Req =
=
R R
4 \
+
2 2
P2
= 4.
\
P1

2
2
P2 = V = 4 V = 4P1
R / 4
R

42. (b) : Power = V


R
\

150=

(15)2 (15)2 225 225


=
+
R = 6W .
+
R
2
R
2

72

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

CHAPTER

13
1.

MAGNETICEFFECTSOF
CURRENTANDMAGNETISM

Ametallicrodoflengthlis
tiedtoastringoflength2l and
made to rotate with angular
speed w on a horizontal table
withoneendofthestringfixed.
If thereisaverticalmagnetic
fieldBintheregion,thee.m.f.inducedacrosstheendsof
therodis
2
2
(a) 5Bwl
(b) 2Bwl
2
2

2.

3.

4.

2
(c) 3Bwl
2

(a) ra =rp <rd


(c) ra =rd >rp

Twoshortbarmagnetsoflength 1cmeach havemagnetic


moments1.20Am2and1.00Am2respectively.Theyareplaced
onahorizontaltableparalleltoeachotherwiththeirNpoles
pointingtowardstheSouth.Theyhaveacommonmagnetic
equatorandareseparatedbyadistanceof20.0cm.Thevalue
of the resultant horizontal magnetic induction at the mid
pointOofthe line joiningtheir centres is close to
(Horizontal component of earths magnetic induction is
3.6105 Wb/m2)
(a) 5.80104 Wb/m2
(b) 3.6105 Wb/m2
4
2
(c) 2.5610 Wb/m
(d) 3.50104 Wb/m2
(2013)
Proton,deuteronandalphaparticleofthesamekineticenergy
are moving in circular trajectories in a constant magnetic
field. The radii of proton, deuteron and alpha particle are
respectively rp, rd and ra.Whichoneofthefollowingrelation
is correct?

(2012)

5.

A coil is suspended in a uniform magnetic field, with the


planeofthecoilparalleltothemagneticlinesofforce.When
acurrentispassedthroughthecoilitstartsoscillatingitis
very difficult to stop. But if an aluminium plate is placed
neartothecoil,itstops.Thisisdueto
(a) inductionofelectrical charge onthe plate.
(b) shieldingofmagneticlinesof forceasaluminiumis a
paramagneticmaterial.
(c) electromagneticinductioninthealuminiumplategiving
risetoelectromagneticdamping.
(d) developmentofaircurrent when theplate is placed.
(2012)

6.

Acurrent I flowsinaninfinitelylongwirewithcrosssection
intheformofasemicircularringofradius R.Themagnitude
ofthe magneticinductionalongits axisis
m 0I
m 0I
m I
m I
(a) 2
(b)
(c) 0
(d) 0
2pR
4pR
p R
2p2R
(2011)

7.

Twolongparallelwiresareatadistance2d apart.Theycarry
steadyequalcurrentsflowingoutoftheplaneofthe paper
asshown.Thevariationofthemagneticfield B alongtheline
XXisgivenby

2
(d) 4Bwl
2
(2013)

ThisquestionhasStatementIandStatementII.Ofthefour
choicesgivenaftertheStatements,choosetheonethatbest
describesthetwoStatements.
StatementI:Highertherange, greateristheresistanceof
ammeter.
StatementII:Toincreasetherangeofammeter,additional
shuntneedstobeused acrossit.
(a) StatementIisfalse,StatementIIistrue.
(b) StatementIistrue,StatementIIistrue,StatementIIis
the correct explanation of StatementI.
(c) StatementIistrue,StatementIIistrue,StatementIIis
notthe correct explanation of StatementI.
(d) StatementIistrue,StatementIIisfalse.
(2013)

(b) ra >rd >rp


(d) ra =rp =rd

(a) X

X
d

(b) X

X
d

d
B

(c) X

X
d

(d) X

X
d

(2010)

73

MagneticEffectsofCurrentandMagnetism

Directions:Questionnumbers8and9arebasedonthefollowing
paragraph.
AcurrentloopABCDisheldfixedon
B
the plane ofthepaper as shown in the
A
a
figure.ThearcsBC (radius= b)andDA
I
(radius=a)ofthelooparejoinedby I1 O 30
twostraightwires AB and CD.A steady
b
D
currentI isflowingintheloop.Angle
C
madebyABandCDattheoriginOis
30.Anotherstraight thin wire withsteady current I1 flowing
out of the plane of the paperis kept attheorigin.
(2009)
8.

9.

Themagnitudeofthemagneticfield(B)duetoloopABCD
attheorigin(O)is
m I (b -a)
(a) zero
(b) 0
24 ab
m 0I b - a
m 0I
p
2(b - a ) + (a + b)
(c)
(d)

4p ab
4p
3
Duetothe presence of thecurrent I1 at the origin
(a) the forceson ABandDCare zero
(b) the forceson ADandBCare zero
(c) the magnitude of the net force on the loop is givenby
I1I
p
m 2(b - a ) + ( a + b)

4p 0
3
(d) the magnitude of the net force on the loop is givenby
m 0 II1
(b -a).
24ab

10. Ahorizontaloverheadpowerlineisataheightof4mfrom
thegroundandcarriesacurrentof100Afromeasttowest.
The magnetic field directlybelow iton the groundis
(m0 =4p107 TmA1)
(a) 2.5107 Tnorthward
(b) 2.5107 Tsouthward
(c) 5106 Tnorthward
(d) 5106 Tsouthward.
(2008)
11. Relativepermittivityand permeabilityofamaterialare er
and mr,respectively.Whichofthefollowingvaluesofthese
quantitiesareallowedforadiamagnetic mateiral?
(a) er =1.5, mr =1.5
(b) er =0.5, mr = 1.5
(c) er =1.5, mr =0.5
(d) er =0.5, mr = 0.5
(2008)
12. TwoidenticalconductingwiresAOBandCODareplacedat
rightanglestoeachother.ThewireAOBcarriesanelectric
currentI1 and COD carriesacurrent I2.Themagneticfieldon
a point lying at a distance d from O, in a direction
perpendiculartotheplaneofthewiresAOBandCOD,will
begivenby
1

m 0
( I 2 + I22)
(a)
2pd 1

(c)

1
m 0 2
( I1 + I22)2
2pd

m I + I 2
(b) 0 1 2
2p d

(d)

m0
( I + I )
2pd 1 2

(2007)

13. A charged particle moves through a magnetic field


perpendiculartoitsdirection.Then
(a) kineticenergychangesbutthemomentumisconstant
(b) themomentumchangesbutthekineticenergyisconstant
(c) both momentumand kinetic energy ofthe particle are
notconstant
(d) both,momentumandkineticenergyof theparticle are
constant
(2007)
14. Achargedparticlewithcharge qentersaregionofconstant,
r
r
uniform and mutually orthogonal
fieldsE
r
r andBwith a
r
velocity v perpendiculartoboth E and B,andcomes out
r
withoutanychangeinmagnitude ordirectionof v
.Then
r
r
r
r
r
r
2
2
(a) v = B E /E
(b) v = E B /B
r r
r r
(c) vr = B E /B 2
(d) vr = E B /E 2
(2007)
15. A current I flows along the length of an infinitely long,
straight,thinwalledpipe.Then
(a) themagneticfieldatallpointsinsidethepipeisthesame,
butnotzero
(b) themagneticfieldiszeroonlyontheaxis of thepipe
(c) themagneticfieldisdifferentat differentpointsinside
thepipe
(d) themagneticfieldatanypointinsidethepipe iszero
(2007)
16. Alongstraightwireofradius a carriesasteadycurrent i.The
currentisuniformlydistributedacrossitscrosssection.The
ratioofthemagneticfieldata/2and 2ais
(a) 1/2
(b) 1/4
(c) 4
(d) 1
(2007)
17. Alongsolenoidhas200turnspercmandcarriesacurrent
i.Themagneticfieldat its centreis6.28102 weber/m2.
Anotherlongsolenoidhas100turnspercmanditcarries
a current i/3.The value of the magnetic field at its centre
is
(a) 1.05 104 Wb/m2 (b) 1.05 102 Wb/m2
(c) 1.05 105 Wb/m2 (d) 1.05103 Wb/m2. (2006)
18. Inaregion,steadyanduniformelectricandmagneticfields
are present.These two fields are parallel to each other. A
chargedparticleisreleasedfromrestinthisregion.Thepath
of the particle will be a
(a) circle
(b) helix
(c) straightline
(d) ellipse.
(2006)
19. Needles N1, N2 and N3 are made of a ferromagnetic, a
paramagnetic and a diamagnetic substance respectively.A
magnet when brought close to them will
(a) attract all three of them
(b) attract N1 and N2 strongly but repel N3
(c) attract N1 strongly, N2 weakly and repel N3 weakly
(d) attract N1 strongly, but repel N2 and N3 weakly.
(2006)
20. A uniform electric field and a uniform magnetic field are
acting along the same direction in a certain region. If an
electron is projected along the direction of the fields with
a certain velocity then

74

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

(a) it will turn towards right of direction of motion


(b) it will turn towards left of direction of motion
(c) its velocity will decrease
(d) its velocity will increase
(2005)
21. A charged particle of mass m and charge q travels on a
circularpathofradiusrthatisperpendiculartoamagnetic
field B. The time taken by the particle to complete one
revolution is
2pm
2pqB
(b)
(a)
qB
m
2pmq
(2005)
(c)
(d) 2pmq
B
qB
22. Two concentric coils each of radius equal to
2p cm are placed at right angles to each other.
3ampereand4amperearethecurrentsflowingineachcoil
respectively.Themagneticinductioninweber/m2atthecenter
of the coils will be (m0 = 4p 107 Wb/Am)
(a) 5 105
(b) 7 105
(c) 12 105
(d) 105
(2005)
23. A moving coil galvanometer has 150 equal divisions. Its
currentsensitivityis10divisionspermilliampereandvoltage
sensitivity is 2 divisions per millivolt. In order that each
division reads 1 volt, the resistance in ohms needed to be
connected in series with the coil will be
(a) 99995
(b) 9995
(c) 103
(d) 105
(2005)
24. Twothinlong,parallelwires,separatedbyadistance d carry
a current ofi A in the same direction. They will
(a) attract each other with a force of
(b) repel each other with a force of

(2pd 2)
m 0i2

28. Alongwirecarriesasteadycurrent.Itisbentintoacircle
of one turn andthe magneticfield atthe centre of the coil
is B. It is then bent into a circular loop of n turns. The
magnetic field at the centre of the coil will be
(a) nB
(b) n2B
(c) 2nB
(d) 2n2B.
(2004)
29. Acurrent i ampereflowsalonganinfinitelylongstraightthin
walledtube,thenthemagneticinductionatanypointinside
the tube is
(a) infinite
(b) zero
m 0 2i
2i tesla
tesla
(c)
.
(2004)
(d)
r
4p r
30. Thematerialssuitableformakingelectromagnetsshouldhave
(a) high retentivity and high coercivity
(b) low retentivity and low coercivity
(c) high retentivity and low coercivity
(d) low retentivity and high coercivity.
(2004)
31. The length ofa magnetislargecompared toits width and
breadth. The time period of its oscillation in a vibration
magnetometeris2s.Themagnetiscutalongitslengthinto
threeequalpartsandthreepartsarethenplacedoneachother
with their like poles together. The time period of this
combination will be
2
2
(d)
(a) 2s
(b)
s
(c) (2 3)s
s
3
3

(2pd 2)

(2004)

m0i2
(2pd )

32. An ammeterreadsupto1ampere.Itsinternalresistance is
0.81 ohm. To increase the range to 10A the value of the
required shunt is
(a) 0.03 W
(b) 0.3 W
(c) 0.9 W
(d) 0.09 W.
(2003)

(c) attract each other with a force of


(d) repel each other with a force of

m 0i2

27. Themagneticfieldduetoacurrentcarryingcircularloopof
radius3cmatapointontheaxisatadistanceof4cmfrom
the centreis54 mT.Whatwillbe itsvalueatthe centre of
the loop?
(a) 250 mT
(b) 150 mT
(c) 125 mT
(d) 75 mT.
(2004)

m0i2
(2pd )

(2005)

25. Amagneticneedleiskeptinanonuniformmagneticfield.
It experiences
(a) a force and a torque
(b) a force but not a torque
(c) a torque but not a force
(d) neither a force nor a torque
(2005)
26. Twolongconductors,separatedbyadistancedcarrycurrent
I1 andI2 inthesamedirection.Theyexert aforceFoneach
other.Nowthecurrentinoneofthemisincreasedtotwotimes
anditsdirectionisreversed.Thedistanceisalsoincreasedto
3d. The new value of the force between them is
(a) 2F
(b) F/3
(c) 2F/3 (d) F/3.
(2004)

33. Aparticleofcharge161018coulombmovingwithvelocity
10ms1 alongthe xaxisentersa regionwhere a magnetic
fieldofinductionBisalongtheyaxis,andanelectricfield
of magnitude 104 V/m is along the negative zaxis. If the
charged particle continues moving along the xaxis, the
magnitude of B is
(a) 103 Wb/m2
(b) 105 Wb/m2
16
2
(c) 10 Wb/m
(d) 103 Wb/m2.
(2003)
r
34. AparticleofmassMandchargeQmovingwithvelocity v
describesacircularpathofradius R whensubjectedtoauniform
transverse magneticfield ofinduction B.Thework done by
the field when the particle completes one full circle is

75

MagneticEffectsofCurrentandMagnetism

Mv2
(a)
2pR
R
(c) BQ2pR

(2003)

(b) zero
(d) BQv2pR.

(2003)

35. Athinrectangularmagnetsuspendedfreelyhas aperiodof


oscillationequalto T.Nowitisbrokenintotwoequalhalves
(each having half of the original length) and one piece is
made to oscillate freely in the same field. If its period of
T
oscillation is T , the ratio
is
T
1
1
1
(a)
(b)
(c) 2
(d) .
2 2
2
4
(2003)
36. Curie temperature is the temperature above which
(a) a ferromagnetic material becomes paramagnetic
(b) a paramagnetic material becomes diamagnetic
(c) a ferromagnetic material becomes diamagnetic
(d) aparamagnetic material becomes ferromagnetic. (2003)
37. The magnetic lines of force inside a bar magnet
(a) are from northpole to southpole of the magnet
(b) do not exist
(c) dependupontheareaofcrosssectionofthebarmagnet
(d) are from southpole to northpole of the magnet.
(2003)
38. Amagneticneedlelyingparalleltoamagneticfieldrequires
Wunitsof worktoturn it through 60. The torque needed
to maintain the needle in this position will be
3 W
(a) 3W (b) W
(c)
(d)2W.
2

( )

39. Thetimeperiodofachargedparticleundergoingacircular
motion in a uniform magnetic field is independent of its
(a) speed
(b) mass
(c) charge
(d) magneticinduction. (2002)
40. Ifa currentispassedthroughaspringthenthe springwill
(a) expand
(b) compress
(c) remainssame
(d) none of these.
(2002)
41. If an electron and a proton having same momenta enter
perpendicular to a magnetic field, then
(a) curvedpathofelectronandprotonwillbesame(ignoring
the sense of revolution)
(b) they will move undeflected
(c) curvedpathofelectronismore curvedthan thatof the
proton
(d) path of proton is more curved.
(2002)
42. If ina circularcoil Aof radius R,current I is flowing and
inanothercoilBofradius2R a current2Iisflowing,then
theratioofthemagneticfields, BA andBB,producedbythem
will be
(a) 1
(b) 2
(c) 1/2
(d) 4.
(2002)
43. If an ammeter isto beusedin place of a voltmeter, the we
must connect with the ammeter a
(a) low resistance in parallel
(b) high resistance in parallel
(c) high resistance in series
(d) low resistance in series.
(2002)

Answer Key

1.
7.
13.
19.
25.
31.
37.
43.

(a)
(b)
(b,c)
(c)
(a)
(b)
(d)
(c)

2.
8.
14.
20.
26.
32.
38.

(a)
(b)
(b)
(c)
(c)
(d)
(a)

3.
9.
15.
21.
27.
33.
39.

(c)
(b)
(d)
(b)
(a)
(a)
(a)

4.
10.
16.
22.
28.
34.
40.

(a)
(d)
(d)
(a)
(b)
(b)
(b)

5.
11.
17.
23.
29.
35.
41.

(c)
(c)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(a)

6.
12.
18.
24.
30.
36.
42.

(a)
(c)
(c)
(c)
(b)
(a)
(a)

76

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

m : 2m : 4m = 1: 2 :1
e
e
2e
ra = rp <rd

1. (a) :

Consider a element of length dx at a distance x from the


fixed endof the string.
e.m.f.inducedin the element is
de= B(wx)dx
Hence,the e.m.f.induced across the ends ofthe rodis
3l

3l
x 2
Bw
e = Bw xdx = Bw =
[(3l )2 - (2l )2]
2 2l
2
2l

5Bw l 2
2

5.

(c)

6.

(a)

They do not contribute to the


a
magneticinductionatO.Thefield
I
I1
30
O
duetoDAispositiveoroutofthe
b
D
paper and that due to BC is into
C
the paperornegative.
The totalmagnetic fieldduetoloop ABCD at O is
B= BAB + BBC + BCD + BDA

3. (c) :Thesituationisas
shownin the figure.

B= 0 -

m 0 M 1 m 0 M2
m
+
+ BH = 03 ( M 1 + M 2)+ BH
4p r 3
4p r 3
4pr
Substitutingthegiven values,we get

8. (b) : OisalongthelineCDandAB.

2. (a)

As the point O lies on


broadsidepositionwith
respect to both the
magnets. Therefore,
The netmagneticfield at point O is
Bnet = B1 + B2 + BH

7. (b)

B=

m0 I p
m I p
+ 0+ 0
4pb 6
4 pa 6

m 0I
(b -a), outof the paper orpositive.
24ab

9. (b) : Thestraightwireisperpendiculartothesegmentsand
thefieldsareparallel.Therewillbenoforce.Duetoparts
AB and CD, theirfields are equal and opposite and their
effectsalso cancel each other.

Bnet =

10.*(d):

-7

Bnet =

4p 10
[1.2 + 1] + 3.6 10-5
4p (10 10 -2 )3

-7
= 10-3 2.2 + 3.6 10-5
10
=2.2104 +0.36104 =2.56 104 Wb/m2.
4. (a) :Theradiusofthecircularpathofachargedparticlein
the magnetic field isgiven by
r= mv
Bq
Kinetic energyof a charged particle,

K = 1mv 2 or v = 2K
2
m

m 2K
2Km
=
qB m
qB
As KandBareconstants
\ r=

\ r

m
q

rp : rd : ra =

mp md ma
:
:
qp
qd qa

r
ByAmperestheorem, B 2pd = m 0i
r m i
4p 10 -7 100A = 50 10 -7T
B= 0 =
2p 4 m
2pd

B =5106 Tsouthwards.
* Itisassumedthatthisisadirectcurrent.Ifitisa.c,the
currentatthegiveninstantisinthegivendirection.
11. (c) : The values of relative permeability of diamagnetic
materials are slightly less than 1 and er is quite high.
Accordingtothe table given,onetakes
er =1.5and mr =0.5.Thenthe choice(c)iscorrect.
12. (c): Thefieldatthesamepointatthesamedistancefromthe
mutuallyperpendicularwirescarryingcurrentwillbehaving
thesamemagnitudebutinperpendiculardirections.
m 0 2
( I + I22 )1/ 2 .
\ B = B12 +B22 \ B =
2pd 1
13. (b,c):DuetoLorentzianforce,F=qvB,
When a charged particle enters a field with its velocity
perpendiculartothemagneticfield,themotioniscircular

77

MagneticEffectsofCurrentandMagnetism

mv2
. v constantly changes its direction (but
r
not the magnitude). Therefore its tangential momentum
changes its direction but its energy remains the same

with qvB =

1I w 2 = constant .
2
Therefore the answer is (b).
Ifangularmomentumistaken,Iwisaconstant.

As

1 2
Iw isalsoconstant,(c)istheanswer.
.
2

*Thequestionscouldhavebeenmorespecific,whetherby
momentumitismeanttangentialmomentumorangular
momentum.
r
r
14. (b): When E and B areperpendicularandvelocityhasno
changesthenqE = qvB i.e.,v = E .The two forcesoppose
B
r r
r E B
r r
v
=
eachotherifvisalong E B i.e.,
B 2
r
r
As E and B areperpendiculartoeachother
r r
E B = EB sin 90 = E
B
B2
B 2
For historic and standard experiments like Thomsons e/m
value,ifv isgiven only as E/B, it would have been better
fromthepedagogicview,althoughtheanswerisnumerically
correct.
15. (d):Magneticfieldisshieldedandnocurrentisinsidethe
pipetoapplyAmpreslaw.(Comparetoelectricfieldinside
ahollowsphere).
16. (d) : Uniform current is flowing. Current enclosed in the
1st ampreanpathis
\

I pr12

Ir12

pR 2
R 2
m current m 0 Ir12 m 0 Ir1
B = 0
=
=
path
2 pr1R 2 2pR 2

Magneticinduction atadistance r2 =
\

m 0 I
2p r2

a
B1 r1r2 2 2a
= 2 =
=1.
B2 R
a 2

17. (b) : In first case, B1 = m0n1I


1
In second case, B2 = m0n
2I
2
B2 n2 I2 100 i/ 3 1
=
=

=
\
B1 n1 I1 200 i
6
\

B2 =

B1 6.28 10-2
=
= 1.05 102 Wb/m2.
6
6

18. (c) : Magnetic field exerts a force


=Bevsinq = Bevsin0 = 0
Electric field exerts force along a straight line.
The path of charged particle will be a straight line.
19. (c):Magnet willattractN1 strongly,N2 weakly andrepel
N3 weakly.

20. (c): Magnetic field applied parallel to motionof electron


exertsno force onitas q =0and force = Bevsinq = zero
Electric field opposes motion of electron which carries a
negative charge
\
velocity of electron decreases.
2 p 2pr
21. (b) : T = w = v
centripetal force = magnetic force
Q
mv2 = qvB v = qBr
\
r
m
From (i) and (ii)
2 pr m 2pm
T =
=
.
\
qBr
qB

...........(i)

.........(ii)

22. (a) : Magnetic induction at centre of one coil B1 =


Similarly B2 =

m 0 i1
2r

m 0i2
2r

2
2
m 02 2 2
m i m i
B 2 = B12 + B22 = 0 1 + 0 2 = 2 ( i1 + i2 )
2 r 2r 4r

B=

or

B = 5 105 Wb/m2.

-7
m 0 2 2 = 4 p 10
(3)2 + (4)2
i1 +i2
2 (2 p 10 -2)
2r

150
23. (b) : Vmax = 2 =75 m V
150
I max =
= 15 mA= I g
10
Resistance of galvanometer G = 75/15 = 5 W
For conversion into a voltmeter, a high resistance should
be connected in series with the galvanometer
V = I g( G + R ) =

or

5+ R =

(5 + R)
15
(5 + R ) 150 = 15
1000
1000

150 1000
= 10000 \
15

R =9995 W.

m 0i 2L
.
2pd
N.B. The options do not mention L, perhaps by slip.

24. (c) : Force of attraction between wires =

25. (a) : Aforceanda torque actonamagneticneedle kept


in a nonuniform magnetic field.
26. (c): Initially, F =
Finally, F =
\
\

m0 I1 I2
l
2p d

m 0 ( -2 I1 )( I2)
l
2p
3d

F -m 0 2I1 I 2l 2 pd
2
=

=F
2 p 3d
m 0 I1 I 2l
3
F = 2F/3.

27. (a) : Field along axis of coil B =


At the centre of coil, B =

m 0i
2R

m0iR2
2( R 2 + x 2 )3/ 2

78

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

\
or

2
2 3/2
( R 2 + x2 )3 / 2
B m 0i 2( R + x )
=

=
B 2R
m 0iR 2
R 3
2
2 3/ 2
B ( R2 + x2 )3/ 2 = 54 [(3) + (4) ] = 54 125
3
3
27
(3)
R
B = 250 mT.

B =

28. (b) : Initially, r1 = radius of coil = l/2p


m i 2m ip
B= 0 = 0
\
2 r1
2l
l
Finally, r2 = radius of coil =
2pn
m 0i n nm 0i 2 pn 2m0in2p
=
=
2 r2
2l
2l

B =

2
B 2m 0in p
2l
=

= n2
B
2l
2m 0ip

B= n2 B.

Again az = 0 as the particle traverse through the region


undeflected
\

Ez = vx By or By =

Ez 10 4
Wb
=
=103 2 .
vx 10
m

34. (b) : Workdone by the field = zero.


35. (b): For anoscillating magnet, T = 2p I
MB
where I = ml2/12, M = xl, x = pole strength
Whenthemagnetisdividedinto2equalparts,themagnetic
dipole moment
x l M
M = Pole strength length =
=
.....(i)
2
2
2
Mass (length)
I =
12
( m / 2)( l/ 2)2 ml 2
I
=
=
=
.....(ii)
12
12 8 8

29. (b) : Magnetic field will be zero inside the straight thin
walled tube according to ampere's theorem.

\Time period T = 2p

30. (b): Materialsoflowretentivityandlowcoercivity aresuitable


for making electromagnets.

T = I M = I M
T
M I
I M

T = 1 2 = 1.
T
8 1 2

31. (b): For a vibrating magnet, T = 2p I


MB
where I = ml2/12, M = xl, x = pole strength of magnet
2

m l
3 ml 2 I
I =
=
=
(For threepieces together)

3 3 12 9 12 9
M = ( x ) l 3= xl = M
(For three pieces together)
3

T = 2 p

T =

I = 2p I/ 9 = 1 2p I = T
M B
MB 3
MB 3

T 2
= sec.
3 3

1 0.81 0.81
=
= 0.09W in parallel.
10 -1
9
33. (a):Particletravels alongxaxis. Hence vy = vz=0
Field of induction B is along yaxis. Bx = Bz = 0
Electric field is along the negative zaxis.
Ex = Ey = 0
r
r r r
\
Net force on particle F = q ( E + v B )
Resolve the motion along the three coordinate axis
F
q
a x = x = ( E x + v y Bz -v z By)
\
m m
S=

ay =

Fy q
= ( E + v z Bx -v x Bz)
m m y

Fz q
= ( E + v x B y -v y Bx)
m m z
Since Ex = Ey = 0, vy= vz = 0, Bx = Bz = 0
q
\
ax = ay = 0, a z = ( - Ez +vx By)
m

.........(iii)

36. (a): Aferromagneticmaterialbecomesparamagneticabove


Curie temperature.
37. (d) : The magnetic lines of force inside a bar magnet are
from south pole to north pole of magnet.
38. (a) : W = MB (cos q2 cos q1)
MB
= MB (cos 60 cos 0) = 2
\
MB = 2W
............(i)
Torque = MB sin 60 = (2W) sin 60
=

Ig
I gG
S
32. (d) : S + G = I S = I - I
g

I
M B

2W 3
= 3 W .
2

39. (a) : mRw2 = BqRw w =

Bq
T = 2pm
m
Bq

T is independent of speed.
40. (b):Thespringwillcompress.Itwillbe
onaccountofforceofattractionbetween
two adjacent turns carrying currents in
the same direction.
2
p
41. (a) : Bqv = mv r = mv =
r
Bq Bq
r will be same for electron and proton as p, B and q are
of same magnitude.

m 0 2pI m 0 I
=
4p R
2 R
B A I A RB 1 2
=

=
= 1
BB I B RA 2 1

42. (a) : B =

az =

43. (c):Highresistanceinserieswithagalvanometerconverts
it into a voltmeter.

79

ElectromagneticInductionandAlternatingCurrent

CHAPTER

14
1.

ELECTROMAGNETICINDUCTION
ANDALTERNATINGCURRENTS

InanLCRcircuitasshownbelowboth
switchesareopeninitially.Nowswitch
S1 isclosed,S2 keptopen.(qischarge
on the capacitor and t = RC is
capacitivetimeconstant).Whichofthe
following statement is correct?
(a) Att=

6.

t,
q= CV(1 e1)
2

(b) Workdonebythebatteryishalfoftheenergydissipated
intheresistor
(c) Att= t, q= CV/2
(d) Att=2t,q= CV(1 e2)
(2013)
2.

3.

4.

Acircularloopofradius0.3cmliesparalleltoamuchbigger
circularloopofradius20 cm.Thecentreofthe smallloop
isontheaxisofthebiggerloop.Thedistancebetweentheir
centres is 15 cm. If a current of 2.0 A flows through the
smallerloop,then the fluxlinked withbigger loopis
(a) 6.6109 weber
(b) 9.11011 weber
11
(c) 610 weber
(d) 3.31011 weber
(2013)
A boat is moving due east in a region where the earths
magneticfieldis5.0105NA1m1duenorthandhorizontal.
Theboatcarriesaverticalaerial2mlong.Ifthespeedofthe
boatis1.50ms1,themagnitudeoftheinducedemfinthe
wireofaerialis
(a) 1mV (b) 0.75mV (c) 0.50mV (d) 0.15mV
(2011)

5.

Blv ,I = Blv
(a) I1 = I 2 =
6R

(b)

p
LC
4

(c) 2p LC

(d)

3R

3R

(2010)
7.

LetCbethecapacitanceofacapacitordischargingthrough
aresistorR.Suppose t1 isthetimetakenfortheenergystored
inthecapacitortoreducetohalfitsinitialvalueandt2 isthe
time taken for the chargeto reduce to onefourth its initial
value.Then theratiot1/t2 will be
(a) 2

(b) 1

(c)

1
2

(d)

1
4

(2010)
8.

In thecircuitshownbelow, the
key K is closed at t = 0. The
currentthroughthebatteryis
(a) V ( R1 + R2) at t = 0 and V att =
R1R2
R2
(b)

VR1R2
2
1

2
2

at t = 0 and

R + R

V
L

R1
R2

V
att =
R2

(c) V at t = 0 and V ( R1 + R2) att =


R2
R1R2

LC
(2011)

Aresistor R and2 mFcapacitorinseriesisconnectedthrough


a switch to 200V direct supply.Across the capacitor is a
neonbulbthat lightsupat120V.CalculatethevalueofR
tomakethebulblightup5saftertheswitchhasbeenclosed.
(log102.5=0.4)
(a) 1.3104 W
(b) 1.7105 W
6
(c) 2.710 W
(d) 3.3107 W
(2011)

Blv ,I = 2Blv
(b) I1 = - I 2 =

3R

Blv ,I = 2Blv
Blv
(c) I1 = I 2 =
(d) I1 = I 2 = I =

Afullychargedcapacitor C withinitialcharge q0isconnected


toacoilofselfinductanceLatt=0.Thetimeatwhichthe
energyisstoredequallybetweentheelectricandthemagnetic
fields is
(a) p LC

P
l
Arectangularloophasa
sliding connector PQ of
lengthlandresistanceR W R W
R W v
R W
and it is moving with a
I
I2
speed v as shown. The
I1
Q
setupisplacedinauniform
magneticfield goinginto theplane ofthe paper.The three
currentsI1,I
2 andIare

(d) V at t = 0 and
R2
9.

VR1R2
R12 + R22

att =

(2010)

In aseries LCRcircuit R =200 Wandthevoltage and the


frequencyofthemainsupplyis220Vand50Hzrespectively.
Ontakingoutthecapacitancefromthecircuitthecurrentlags
behindthevoltageby30.Ontakingouttheinductorfrom
the circuit the current leadsthe voltageby 30.The power
dissipatedintheLCRcircuitis
(a) 242W (b) 305W (c) 210W
(d) zero W
(2010)

80

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

10. Aninductorofinductance L=400


mH and resistors of resistances
R1 =2 W and R2 =2 W areconnected
toabatteryofemf12Vasshown
inthefigure.Theinternalresistance
of the battery is negligible. The
switch S is closed at t = 0. The
potentialdropacross L asafunction
of time is
(a) 6e5t V

(b)

E
R1

R2

12 -3t
e V
t

(c) 6 (1 -e - t/0.2)V
(d) 12e5t V
(2009)
11. Twocoaxialsolenoidsaremadebywindingthininsulatedwire
overapipeofcrosssectionalarea A=10cm2 andlength=
20cm.Ifoneofthesolenoidshas300turnsandtheother400
turns,theirmutualinductanceis(m0 =4p107 TmA1)
(a) 2.4p104 H
(b) 2.4p 105 H
4
(c) 4.8p10 H
(d) 4.8p 105 H.
(2008)
12. Anidealcoilof10Hisconnectedinserieswitharesistance
of5 Wandabatteryof5V.2secondaftertheconnectionis
made,thecurrentflowinginampereinthecircuitis
(a) (1e1) (b) (1 e) (c) e
(d) e1
(2007)
13. In an a.c.circuit the voltage applied is E = E0 sin wt. The
p

resultingcurrentinthecircuitis I = I0sin wt - 2 . Thepower

consumptioninthe circuit isgivenby


E0 I0
(a) P = 2E0 I 0
(b) P =
2
E
(c) P=zero
(d) P = 0 I0
(2007)
2
14. Aninductor(L=100mH),aresistor
L
(R=100 W)andabattery(E=100
V)areinitiallyconnectedinseriesas
R
showninthefigure.Afteralongtime
A
B
thebatteryisdisconnectedaftershort
E
circuiting the points A and B. The
currentinthecircuit1msaftertheshortcircuitis
(a) 1A
(b) (1/e)A (c) eA
(d) 0.1A.
(2006)
15. The flux linked with a coil at any instant t is given by
f =10t2 50t+250.Theinducedemfatt =3sis
(a) 190V (b) 190V (c) 10V
(d) 10V.
(2006)
16. InanACgenerator,acoilwithNturns,allofthesamearea
A andtotalresistance R,rotateswithfrequency w inamagnetic
fieldB.Themaximumvalueofemfgeneratedinthecoilis
(a) NABw (b) NABRw (c) NAB
(d) NABR
(2006)
17. InaseriesresonantLCRcircuit,thevoltageacrossRis100
voltsandR=1kWwithC=2 mF.Theresonantfrequency
wis200rad/s.Atresonance thevoltage acrossLis
(a) 4103 V
(b) 2.5102 V
(c) 40V
(d) 250V.
(2006)

18. The phasedifferencebetweenthe alternatingcurrent and


emfis p/2.Whichofthefollowingcannotbetheconstituent
of the circuit?
(a) LC
(b) Lalone (c) C alone
(d) R, L
(2005)
19. Acircuithasaresistanceof12ohmandanimpedanceof15
ohm.Thepowerfactorofthecircuit willbe
(a) 1.25
(b) 0.125
(c) 0.8
(d) 0.4
(2005)
20. Theselfinductanceofthemotorofanelectricfanis10H.
Inordertoimpartmaximumpowerat50Hz,itshouldbe
connected to a capacitance of
(a) 1 mF
(b) 2 mF
(c) 4 mF
(d) 8 mF
(2005)
21. Acoilofinductance300mHandresistance2 W isconnected
toasourceofvoltage2V.Thecurrentreacheshalfofits
steadystate valuein
(a) 0.15s (b) 0.3s
(c) 0.05s
(d) 0.1s
(2005)
22. Oneconducting U tube canslide inside another as shown
in figure, maintaining
electrical
contacts

A
B
between the tubes. The

magnetic field B is
perpendiculartotheplane

ofthefigure.Ifeachtube
D
C
movestowardstheother

ataconstantspeed v,then
theemfinduced inthecircuitintermsofB, landv where
l is the width of each tube, will be
(a) zero
(b) 2Blv
(c) Blv
(d) Blv
(2005)
23. A metal conductor of length 1 m rotatesvertically about
one ofitsendsatangularvelocity5radianpersecond.If
the horizontal component of earths magnetic field is
0.2 104 T, then the e.m.f. developed between the two
endsofthe conductoris
(a) 5 mV (b) 50 mV (c) 5mV
(d) 50mV.
(2004)
24. InaLCRcircuitcapacitanceischangedfromCto2C.For
theresonantfrequencytoremainunchanged,theinductance
shouldbe changedfromL to
(a) 4L
(b) 2L
(c) L/2
(d) L/4.
(2004)
25. InauniformmagneticfieldofinductionBawireintheform
ofasemicircleofradiusr rotatesaboutthediameterofthe
circle with angular frequency w. The axis of rotation is
perpendiculartothefield.Ifthetotalresistanceofthecircuit
is Rthemean powergeneratedperperiodofrotation is
2
( B pr2w)2
(a) Bpr w
(b)
8R
2R
2
(
B
p
rw2 )2
( Bprw)
(d)
(c)
.
(2004)
8R
2R

81

ElectromagneticInductionandAlternatingCurrent

26. AcoilhavingnturnsandresistanceR Wisconnectedwith


a galvanometer of resistance 4R W. This combination is
moved in time t seconds from a magnetic field W1 weber
to W2 weber. The induced current in the circuit is
W - W1
(a) - 2
5Rnt

n(W - W1)
(b) - 2
5Rt

(W - W1)
(c) - 2
Rnt

n(W - W1)
(d) - 2
.
Rt

(2004)

27. Alternating current cannot be measured by D.C. ammeter


because
(a) A.C.cannot pass through D.C. ammeter
(b) A.C. changes direction
(c) average value of current for complete cycle is zero
(d) D.C.ammeterwillgetdamaged.
(2004)
28. InanLCRseriesa.c.circuit,thevoltageacross eachofthe
components,L,CandRis50V.ThevoltageacrosstheLC
combination will be
(a) 50V
(b) 50 2V
(c) 100V
(d) 0V (zero).
(2004)
29. The coreof any transformer is laminated so as to
(a) reduce the energy loss due to eddy currents
(b) makeit light weight
(c) make itrobust & strong
(d) increase the secondary voltage.
(2003)
30. In an oscillating LC circuit the maximum charge on the
capacitorisQ.Thechargeonthecapacitorwhentheenergy
isstoredequallybetween theelectric andmagneticfieldis
(a) Q/2
(b) Q/ 3 (c) Q/ 2
(d) Q.
(2003)
31. Whenthecurrentchangesfrom+2Ato2Ain0.05second,
ane.m.f.of8Visinducedinacoil.Thecoefficientofself
induction of the coil is

(a) 0.2H

(b) 0.4H

(c) 0.8H

32. Two coils are placed close to each other. The mutual
inductance of the pair of coils depends upon
(a) theratesatwhichcurrentsarechanginginthetwocoils
(b) relative position and orientation of the two coils
(c) the materials of the wires of the coils
(d) the currents in the two coils.
(2003)
33. Aconductingsquareloopofside
+ + + + ++
LandresistanceRmovesinits
+ + + + ++
+ + + + ++
planewithauniformvelocityv
+ + + + ++
v
perpendiculartooneofitssides.
+ + + + ++
Amagneticinduction B constant
+ + + + ++
+ + + + ++
in time and space, pointing
+ + + + ++
perpendicularandintotheplane
L
at the loop exists everywhere
withhalftheloopoutsidethefield,asshowninfigure.The
induced emf is
(a) zero
(b) RvB
(c) vBL/R
(d) vBL.
(2002)
34. Inatransformer,numberofturnsintheprimarycoilare140
andthatinthesecondarycoilare280.Ifcurrentinprimary
coil is 4A, then that in the secondary coil is
(a) 4A
(b) 2A
(c) 6A
(d) 10A.
(2002)
35. ThepowerfactorofanACcircuithavingresistance(R)and
inductance(L)connectedinseriesandanangularvelocity
w is
(a) R/wL
(b) R/(R2 + w2L2)1/2
(c) wL/R
(d) R/(R2 w2L2)1/2. (2002)
36. The inductance between A and D is
(a) 3.66 H
(b) 9 H
D
(c) 0.66 H
A 3H
3H
3H
(d) 1 H.
(2002)

Answer Key

1.
7.
13.
19.
25.
31.

(d)
(d)
(c)
(c)
(b)
(d)

2.
8.
14.
20.
26.
32.

(b)
(c)
(b)
(a)
(b)
(c)

3.
9.
15.
21.
27.
33.

(d)
(a)
(c)
(d)
(c)
(d)

(d) 0.1 H.
(2003)

4.
10.
16.
22.
28.
34.

(b)
(d)
(a)
(a)
(d)
(b)

5.
11.
17.
23.
29.
35.

(c)
(a)
(d)
(b)
(a)
(b)

6.
12.
18.
24.
30.
36.

(c)
(a)
(d)
(c)
(c)
(d)

82

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

1. (d):

As switch S1 is closed and switch S2 is kept open. Now,


capacitorischargingthrougharesistorR.
Chargeonacapacitorat anytime t is
q= q0(1
et/t)

q= CV(1 et/t)
[As q0 = CV]
t
At t =
2
q = CV (1 - e - t /2 t ) = CV (1 -e -1/ 2)

4. (b) : Charge onthe capacitoratanyinstant t is


q= q0coswt
Equalsharingofenergymeans
1
Energy of a capacitor= Total energy
2
2
2
1 q 1 1 q0 q = q0
=
2 C 2 2 C
2
Fromequation(i)
q0
= q0 coswt
2
1
coswt =
2
p
-1 1
w t = cos
=
2 4

( )

At t= t
q = CV (1 - e - t / t ) = CV (1 -e -1)

t=

At t=2t,
q = CV (1 - e

p
p
=
LC
4w 4

Q w =

1
LC

2mF

R
-2 t / t

...(i)

-2

) = CV (1 -e )

5. (c):
2. (b):

200V

Incasechargingofcapacitorthroughthe resistance is
V = V0(1 -e - t /RC)

As fielddue tocurrentloop 1 at an axial point


m 0 I1R2
\ B1 =
2(d 2 + R 2 )3/2
Fluxlinkedwithsmallerloop 2 due toB1 is
m 0 I1R2
f 2 = B1 A2 =
pr2
2(d 2 + R 2 )3/2
Thecoefficientofmutualinductancebetweentheloopsis
f
m 0R 2 pr2
M = 2 =
I1 2( d 2 + R 2 )3/ 2
Fluxlinkedwithbiggerloop1 is
m 0 R 2 pr 2I2
f1 = MI2 =
2(d 2 + R 2 )3/2
Substitutingthegiven values,we get
4 p 10 -7 (20 10 -2 )2 p (0.3 10 -2 )2 2
f1 =
2[(15 10 -2 ) 2 + (20 10 -2 )2 ]3/ 2
f1 =9.11011 weber
3. (d) : Here, BH =5.0 105 NA1 m1
l=2mand v =1.5 ms1
Inducedemf, e= BHvl =5 105 1.50 2
=15 105 V =0.15 mV

Here, V=120V, V0 =200V, R=?


C=2 mFand t =5s.
-6

\ 120 = 200(1 -e -5/ R 2 10 )


- 6
or e -5/ R 2 10 = 80
200

Takingthe naturallogarithmonbothsides,we get


-5
= ln(0.4) = - 0.916
R 2 10-6
R=2.7106 W
6. (c): Emfinducedacross PQ is e = Blv.
The equivalentcircuitdiagramisasshownin the figure.
L

O
e = Blv

I1

I
Q

R
I2
N

ApplyingKirchhoffs firstlawat junction Q, we get


I= I1 + I2
...(i)
ApplyingKirchhoffssecondlawfortheclosedloop PLMQP,
weget

83

ElectromagneticInductionandAlternatingCurrent

I1R IR+ e= 0

8. (c):

I1R + IR = Blv

...(ii)

Again,applyingKirchhoffssecondlawfortheclosedloop
PONQP, weget
I2R IR+ e= 0
I2R + IR = Blv

...(iii)

Addingequations(ii)and(iii), weget

t=0
R1
R2

At time t = 0, the inductor acts as an open circuit. The


correspondingequivalentcircuitdiagramisasshowninthe
figure (i).
V

2IR+ I1R+ I2R= 2Blv


2IR+ R(I1 + I2)= 2Blv
2IR + IR =2Blv

(Using(i))

R2

3IR=2Blv

(i)

I = 2Blv
3R

...(iv)

Blv
3R
Blv
Substitutingthevalueof Iinequation(iii),weget I2 =
3R
Blv
2
Blv
, I =
Hence, I1 = I 2 =
3R
3R

Substitutingthisvalueof Iinequation(ii),weget I1 =

The currentthroughbatteryis I = V
R2
At time t = , the inductor acts as a short circuit. The
correspondingequivalentcircuitdiagramisasshowninthe
figure (ii).
I

- t / RC 2

q 1 ( q0e
U = 1
=
2 C 2
C

(Using(i))

q
...(ii)
= 1 0 e -2t / RC =U 0e-2t /RC
2 C
q2
where U0 = 1 0 ,themaximumenergystoredinthecapacitor.
.
2 C
According togiven problem
U0
=U 0e -2 t1/RC
2

(Using(ii))

...(iii)

and q0 = q0e - t /RC


(Using(i))
4
Fromequation(iii), we get

...(iv)

1 -2 t1/RC
= e
2

Takingnaturallogarithms ofboth sides,we get


2t1
or t1 = RCln 2
2
RC
Fromequation(iv), we get
ln1 - ln 2= -

(Q ln1 = 0)

R2

(ii)

\ The currentthrough the batteryis


I = V =
Req

V
R1 R2
R1 +R2

(... R1 and R2 arein parallel)

V ( R1 + R2)
R1R2

9. (a): Here, R =200 W, Vrms =220V, u=50Hz


Whenonlythecapacitanceisremoved,thephasedifference
betweenthe currentandvoltage is
X
tanf = L
R
X
tan 30 = L or X L = 1 R
R
3
Whenonlytheinductanceisremoved,thephasedifference
betweencurrentandvoltage is
tanf=

1 =e - t2 /RC
4

V
R1

7. (d): Duringdischarging ofcapacitor through a resistor,


q= q0et/RC
...(i)
Theenergystoredinthecapacitoratanyinstantoftime tis
2

XC
R

tan 30 =

XC
or X C = 1 R
R
3

Takingnaturallogarithmsofbothsidesoftheaboveequation,
weget

As XL = XC,thereforethegivenseries LCRisinresonance.

t
ln1 - ln 4= - 2
RC
t2 = RCln4=2RCln2

\ Impedanceofthe circuitis Z = R =200 W


The powerdissipatedinthecircuitis
P= VrmsIrmscosf

t1 RCln 2
1
1
=

=
t2
2
2 RC ln 2 4

(... ln4=2ln2)

2
Vrms
cosf
Z

(Q I

rms

Vrms
Z

84

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

or e = (20t 50) = [(20 3) 50] = 10 volt


or e = 10 volt.

At resonance,power
factor cosf = 1
0
\ P=

2
rms

V
(220 V)
=
= 242 W.
Z
(200 W)

16. (a) : In an a.c. generator, maximum emf = NABw.

10. (d) : Forthegiven R, Lcircuitthepotentialdifferenceacross


AD= VBC astheyare parallel.
I1 = E/R1.
I2 = I0(1 et/t)where t= meanlife or L/R.
t= t0 (given).
B
A
E(across BC)= L

dI2
+ R2 I2
dt

I1

E 12
=
=6 A.
R2 2

R1

I2 = I0(1 et/t ).
But I0 =

I2

12V

R2

-3
D
t = t0 = L = 400 10 H = 0.2 s
R
2 W
\ I2 =6(1 et/0.2)
PotentialdropacrossL = E R2I2
=1226(1 et/0.2)= 12et/0.2 =12e5t V.

11. (a):M= m0n1n2pr12l.


From f2 = pr12 (m0ni)n

2l.
A= pr12 =10cm2,l=20cm, N1 =300,N2 =400.
-7
-4
m N N A
M = 0 1 2 = 4p 10 300 400 10 10
l
0.20
=2.4p104H
12. (a):DuringthegrowthofcurrentinLRcircuitisgivenby

- Rt
I = I 0 1- e L

- Rt
or I = E 1- e L =

- 5 2
5
1- e 10

I=(1e1).
13. (c):Given:E=E0 sin wt
I = I 0sin wt - p
2

Sincethephase difference (f)between voltageandcurrent


p
is 2 .
p
\
Powerfactorcos f= cos 2 =0
Powerconsumption= Erms Irms cos f= 0.
14. (b): Maximum current I0 = E = 100 =1 A
R 100
The current decaysfor 1millisecond= 1 103 sec
During decay, I = I0 etR/L
( -110-3)100

I =(1)e

10010-3

1
I = e-1 = A.
e
2
15. (c) : f = 10t 50t + 250
df
= 20t-50
\
dt
- df
Induced emf e=
dt

or

E
17. (d) : Current I =
Z
2
2
where E = VR + (VL -VC)

Z = R 2 + ( X L - X C)2

At resonance, XL = XC
\
Z = R
Again at resonance, VL = VC
\
E = VR
V
100
I = R =
= 0.1 A
\
R 1 103
\
\

I
0.1
=
C w (2 10-6) (200)
VL = 250 volt.
VL = I Lw =

18. (d): Rand L causephasedifferenceto liebetween0 and


p/2 but never 0 and p/2 at extremities.
R 12
=0.8.
19. (c) : Power factor cos f = =
Z 15

20. (a): For maximum power, Lw = 1


Cw
1
1
C =
=
\
Lw2 10 (2 p 50)2
1
=
= 10 -6 F
10 104 ( p)2
or
C = 1 mF.
21. (d) : During growth of charge in an inductance,
I = I0 (1 eRt/L)
I0
= I 0(1 -e - Rt /L )
or
2
Rt
L
1
= ln 2t= ln 2
e - Rt / L = = 2- 1 or
or
2
L
R
300 10-3 (0.693)
t =
2
or
t = 0.1 sec.
22. (a):Theemfinducedinthecircuitiszerobecausethetwo
emfinducedareequalandoppositewhenoneUtubeslides
inside another tube.
23. (b) : Induced emf =
\

1
1
Bwl 2 = (0.2 10-4 )(5)(1)2
2
2

10
Induced emf =

-4

100 10- 6
= 50 mV.
2

24. (c): At resonance, w = 1


LC
when w is constant,
1
1
1
1
1
=

=
=
\
L1C1 L2 C2
LC L2 (2C ) 2L2C
\
L2 = L/2.

85

ElectromagneticInductionandAlternatingCurrent

25. (b) : Magnetic flux linked


2
= BA coswt = B pr coswt
2
- df - 1
=
B p r 2w sinw t
\
Induced emf e =
dt
2
e 2 B 2 p 2 r 4 w 2 sin2 wt
=
\ Power =
R
4R
( B pr2 w)2 2
=
sin wt
4R
2
<sin wt> = 1/2
Q
\
Mean power generated

( B pr 2 w) 2 1 ( Bpr2 w)2
=
=
.
4R
2
8R
- n df - n dW
=
26. (b) : Induced current I =
where
R dt
R dt
f = W = flux per unit turn of the coil
n (W2 - W1 )
n (W2 - W1)
1
I = =\
.
( R +4 R )
t
5Rt

30. (c) : Let Q denote maximum charge on capacitor.


Let q denote charge when energy is equally shared
2

\
\

1 q2
Q 2 = 2q2
=
2
C

q =Q / 2.
1 1 Q

2 2 C

31. (d) : L =

- e
- 8 0.05
=
= 0.1 H .
di / dt
-4

32. (c):Mutualinductancebetweentwocoilsdependsonthe
materials of the wires of the coils.
33. (d) : Induced emf = vBL.
34. (b) : I2 N2 = I1 N1 for a transformer
I N 4 140
I2 = 1 1 =
=2 A.
\
N 2
280
35. (b) : Power factor=

.
R + L2 w2
36. (d) : Three inductors are in parallel
3H

27. (c) : Average value of A.C. for complete cycle is zero.


HenceA.C. can not be measured by D.C. ammeter.

3H

28. (d) : In an LCR series a.c. circuit, the voltages across


components L and C are in opposite phase. The voltage
across LC combination will be zero.
29. (a) : The energy loss due to eddy currents is reduced by
using laminated core in a transformer.

D
3H

\
\

1 = 1 + 1 + 1 = 3 = 1
L( eq) 3 3 3 3 1

L(eq) = 1H.

86

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

CHAPTER

15 ELECTROMAGNETICWAVES

1.

The magnetic field in a travelling electromagnetic wave


hasapeakvalueof20nT.Thepeakvalueofelectricfield
strengthis
(a) 12V/m
(b) 3V/m
(c) 6V/m
(d) 9V/m
(2013)

2.

Aradarhasapowerof1kWandisoperatingatafrequency
of10GHz.Itislocatedonamountaintopofheight500m.
Themaximumdistanceuptowhichitcandetectobjectlocated
onthesurfaceoftheearth(Radiusofearth=6.4106 m)is
(a) 16km
(b) 40km
(c) 64km
(d) 80km
(2012)

3.

4.

An electromagnetic wave in vacuum has the electric and


r
r
magneticfields E and B,whicharealwaysperpendicularto
r
X and
eachother.Thedirectionofpolarizationisgivenby
r
thatofwave propagation byk. Then
r r r
r r r
r r
r r
(a) X P E and k PE B
(b) X P B and k PE B
r r r
r r r
r r
r r
(c) X P E and k PB E
(d) X P B and k PB E
(2012)
ThisquestionhasStatement1andStatement2.Ofthefour
choicesgivenafterthestatements,choosetheonethatbest
describesthetwostatements.
Statement1:Skywavesignalsareusedforlongdistance
radiocommunication.Thesesignalsareingeneral,lessstable
thangroundwavesignals.
Statement2:The stateof ionosphere varies fromhourto
hour,daytodayandseason to season.
(a) Statement1is true,statement2isfalse.
(b) Statement1istrue,Statement2istrue,Statement2is
the correctexplanation of Statement1.
(c) Statement1istrue,Statement2istrue,Statement2is
not the correct explanation of Statement1.
(d) Statement1is false, Statement2istrue.
(2011)

5.

Thermsvalueoftheelectricfieldofthelightcomingfrom
thesunis720N/C.Theaveragetotalenergydensityof the
electromagnetic wave is
(a) 3.3103 J/m3
(b) 4.58106 J/m3
9
3
(c) 6.3710 J/m
(d) 81.351012 J/m3.
(2006)

6.

Anelectromagneticwaveoffrequency u=3.0MHzpasses
from vacuum into a dielectric medium with permitivity
e = 4.0.Then
(a) wavelength is doubled and the frequency remains
unchanged
(b) wavelength is doubled and frequency becomes half
(c) wavelengthishalvedandfrequencyremainsunchanged
(d) wavelength and frequency both remain unchanged.
(2004)

7.

Consider telecommunication through optical fibres. Which


of the following statements is not true?
(a) Optical fibres can be of graded refractive index.
(b) Opticalfibresaresubjecttoelectromagneticinterference
from outside.
(c) Optical fibres have extremely low transmission loss.
(d) Opticalfibresmayhavehomogeneouscorewithasuitable
cladding.
(2003)

8.

Which of the following are not electromagnetic waves?


(a) cosmicrays
(b) gammarays
(c) brays
(d) Xrays.
(2002)

9.

Electromagneticwavesaretransverseinnatureisevidentby
(a) polarization
(b) interference
(c) reflection
(d) diffraction.
(2002)

10. Infraredradiationisdetectedby
(a) spectrometer
(b) pyrometer
(c) nanometer
(d) photometer.

Answer Key

1.
7.

(c)
(b)

2.
8.

(d)
(c)

3.
9.

(a)
(a)

4. (b)
10. (b)

5.

(b)

6.

(c)

(2002)

87

Electromagnetic Waves

1.

(c) : Inelectromagneticwave,thepeakvalueofelectric
field (E0) and peak value of magnetic field (B0) are
related by
E0 = B0c
E0 =(20109 T)(3108 ms1)=6V/m

2.

(d) :Maximumdistanceonearth
whereobjectcanbe detectedis d,
then
(h +R)2 = d2 + R2
d2 = h2 +2Rh
Q h < < R

E2
2
= 1 e0 Erms
+ 1 rms

2
2m 0 c 2

1
1 2
2
= e0 Erms +
E e m
2
2m0 rms 0 0
1
1
2
2
2
= e0 E rms
+ e0 Erms
= e0 Erms
2
2
= (8.85 1012) (720)2
= 4.58 106 Jm3.

h
d

90
R

6.

m=

\ d = 2Rh

4.
5.

(a) : Thedirectionofpolarizationisparalleltoelectricfield.
r r
\ X PE
The directionofwavepropagation is parallel to
r r
E B.
r r r
\ k PE B
(b)
1
1 2
2
(b) : u = 2 e0 Erms + 2m Brms
0

e
= 4=2
e0

1
Since m
l
\
Wavelength is halved
Hence option (c) holds good.

d = 2 6.4 106 500 = 8 10 4 m =80 km

3.

(c) : During propogation of a wave from one medium to


another,frequencyremainsconstantandwavelengthchanges

7.

(b): Opticalfibresaresubjecttoelectromagneticintereference
from outside.

8.

(c) : brays are not electromagnetic waves.

9.

(a) : Polarization proves the transverse nature of


electromagnetic waves.

10. (b): Infraredradiationproducesthermaleffectandisdetected


by pyrometer.

88

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

CHAPTER

OPTICS

16
1.

Diameterofaplanoconvexlensis6cmandthicknessatthe
centre is 3 mm. If speed of light in material of lens is
2108 m/s,thefocallength ofthe lens is
(a) 10cm (b) 15 cm (c) 20 cm
(d) 30cm
(2013)

2.

Two coherent pointsources


S1 and S2 areseparatedbya
small distance d as shown.
The fringes obtained on the
screenwillbe
(a) concentric circles
(b) points
(c) straightlines
(d) semicircles

Abeamofunpolarisedlightofintensity I0 ispassedthrough
apolaroidAandthenthroughanotherpolaroidBwhichis
oriented sothat its principal plane makes an angle of 45
relativetothatofA.The intensity ofthe emergent lightis
(a) I0/8
(b) I0
(c) I0/2
(d) I0/4
(2013)

4.

The graph between angle of deviation (d) and angle of


incidence(i)foratriangularprismis representedby

(c)

Direction:Thequestionhasaparagraphfollowedbytwo
statements,Statement1andStatement2.Ofthegivenfour
alternativesafterthestatements,choosetheonethatdescribes
thestatements.
Athinairfilmisformedbyputtingtheconvexsurfaceofa
planeconvex lens over a plane glass plate. With
monochromaticlight,thisfilmgivesaninterferencepattern
duetolightreflectedfromthetop(convex)surfaceand the
bottom (glassplate)surfaceofthe film.
Statement1: Whenlight reflects from theairglass plate
interface, thereflectedwave suffers a phase change of p.
Statement2:Thecentreoftheinterferencepatternisdark.
(a) Statement1istrue, Statement2isfalse.
(b) Statement1istrue,Statement2istrue,Statement2is
the correctexplanation of Statement1.
(c) Statement1istrue,Statement2istrue,Statement2is
not the correct explanation of Statement1.
(d) Statement1isfalse,Statement2istrue.
(2011)

8.

Letthexzplanebetheboundarybetweentwotransparent
media.Medium1inz 0hasarefractiveindexof 2 and
medium2withz<0hasa refractiveindexof 3.Aray
of light in medium 1 given by the vector
r
A = 6 3 i$+ 8 3 $j - 10k$ is incident on the plane of
separation.The angleofrefractionin medium2 is
(a) 30
(b) 45
(c) 60
(d) 75
(2011)

9.

Acarisfittedwithaconvexsideviewmirroroffocallength
20cm.Asecondcar2.8mbehindthefirstcarisovertaking
thefirstcaratarelativespeedof15ms1.Thespeedofthe
imageofthesecondcarasseeninthemirrorofthefirstone is

(2013)

(d)

InYoungs double slit experiment,one of the slitiswider


thanother,sothattheamplitudeofthelightfromoneslitis
doubleofthatfromotherslit.If Im bethemaximumintensity,
the resultant intensity I when they interfere at phase
differencefis given by
(a)

7.

(b)

(c)

5.

Anobject2.4minfrontofalensformsasharpimageona
film 12 cm behind the lens. A glass plate 1 cm thick, of
refractive index 1.50 is interposed between lens and film
withitsplanefacesparalleltofilm.Atwhatdistance(from
lens)shouldobjectbeshiftedtobeinsharpfocusonfilm?
(a) 2.4m
(b) 3.2m
(c) 5.6m
(d) 7.2m
(2012)

(2013)

3.

(a)

6.

(
)
I
f
1 +8cos )
9 (
2
I m
f
1 + 2cos2
3
2
m

(b)

I m
f
1 + 4cos2
5
2

(d)

I m
( 4 + 5cosf)
9

(a)
(2012)

1
m s-1
10

(c) 10ms1

(b)

1
m s-1
15

(d) 15ms1

(2011)

89

Optics

Directions:Questionsnumber1012arebasedonthefollowing
paragraph.
An initially parallel cylindrical beam travels in a medium of
refractive index m(I)= m0 + m2I,
where m0 and m2 are positive
constantsandIistheintensityofthelightbeam.Theintensity
ofthe beamisdecreasingwith increasingradius.
10. The initialshapeof the wavefront ofthe beam is
(a) planar
(b) convex
(c) concave
(d) convex nearthe axis and concavenear the periphery
11. Thespeedoflightinthe mediumis
(a) maximumon theaxis of thebeam
(b) minimumon theaxis of thebeam
(c) thesameeverywhere inthebeam
(d) directlyproportionalto the intensityI

(2010)
13. Amixtureoflight,consistingofwavelength590nmandan
unknown wavelength, illuminates Youngs double slit and
gives rise to two overlapping interference patterns on the
screen.Thecentralmaximumofbothlightscoincide.Further,
it is observed that the third bright fringe of known light
coincides with the 4th bright fringe of the unknown light.
Fromthisdata,thewavelengthoftheunknownlightis
(a) 393.4nm
(b) 885.0nm
(c) 442.5nm
(d) 776.8nm
(2009)
14. Atransparentsolidcylindricalrodhasarefractiveindexof
2
. Itissurroundedbyair.Alightrayisincidentatthemid
3
pointofoneendof therod as shown in the figure.
q

Theincidentangle qforwhichthelightraygrazesalongthe
walloftherodis
1
(a) sin-1
(b) sin-1 3
2
2
-1 2
-1 1
(c) sin
(d) sin
(2009)
3
3
15. A student measures the focal length of a convex lens by
putting an object pin at a distance u from the lens and
measuringthedistance v oftheimagepin.Thegraphbetween
u and vplottedby the student should look like

( )
( )

( )

v(cm)

v(cm)

(a)

(b)
O

u(cm)

v(cm)

(c)

(d)
O

u(cm)

u(cm)

(2008)
16. Twolensesofpower15Dand+5Dareincontactwitheach
other.The focallengthof the combination is
(a) +10cm
(b) 20cm
(c) 10cm
(d) +20cm
(2007)
17. InaYoungsdoubleslitexperimenttheintensityat apoint
l
wherethe path difference is (l being the wavelength of
6
I
lightused)isI.IfI0 denotesthemaximumintensity, I is
0

12. Asthebeamenters the medium,itwill


(a) travelasa cylindricalbeam
(b) diverge
(c) converge
(d) diverge nearthe axisand converge nearthe periphery

( )

v(cm)

u(cm)

equal to
3
(a) 4

(b)

1
2

(c)

3
2

1
(d) 2

(2007)
18. Therefractiveindexofglassis1.520forredlightand1.525
forbluelight.LetD1 and D2 beanglesofminimumdeviation
forredandblue lightrespectivelyina prismof this glass.
Then
(a) D1 > D2
(b)
D1 < D2
(c) D1 = D2
(d) D1 canbelessthanorgreaterthandependinguponthe
angle of prism.
(2006)
19. Athinglass(refractiveindex1.5)lenshasopticalpowerof
5Dinair.Itsopticalpowerinaliquidmediumwithrefractive
index 1.6 will be
(a) 25D (b) 25 D (c) 1 D (d) 1D
(2005)
20. Afishlookingupthroughthe
R
waterseestheoutsideworld
contained in a circular
q Cq
horizon. If the refractive
C
indexofwateris4/3andthe
fish is 12 cm below the
surface, the radius of this
circle in cm is
(a) 36 5
(b) 4 5
(c) 36 7
(d) 36 / 7

12cm

(2005)

21. Twopointwhitedotsare1mmapartonablackpaper.They
areviewedbyeyeofpupildiameter3mm.Approximately,
whatis the maximum distance at which these dots can be
resolved bythe eye? [Take wavelength of light = 500 nm]
(a) 6m
(b) 3m
(c) 5m
(d) 1m
(2005)
22. When an unpolarized light of intensity I0 is incident on a
polarizingsheet,theintensityofthelightwhichdoesnotget
transmittedis

90

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

(b) I0
1
(d) I0
4

(a) zero
1
(c) I0
2

(2005)

23. IfI0 istheintensityoftheprincipalmaximuminthesingle


slitdiffractionpattern,then whatwillbeitsintensitywhen
theslitwidth isdoubled?
(a) I0
(b) I0/2
(c) 2I0
(d)4I0

(2005)
24. A Youngs double slit experiment uses a monochromatic
source. The shape of the interference fringes formed on a
screen
(a) straightline
(b) parabola
(c) hyperbola
(d) circle
(2005)
25. A plano convex lens of refractive index 1.5 and radius of
curvature30cmis silveredatthecurvedsurface.Nowthis
lenshasbeenusedtoformtheimageofanobject.Atwhat
distancefromthislensanobjectbeplacedinordertohave
a real image of the size of the object?
(a) 20cm (b) 30 cm (c) 60 cm
(d) 80cm.
(2004)
26. A light ray is incident
perpendicular to one face of a
90prismandistotallyinternally
reflected at the glassair
45
interface. If the angle of
reflection is 45, we conclude
45
that the refractive index n
1
(b) n > 2
(a) n <
2
1
(2004)
(c) n >
(d) n < 2.
2
27. The angle of incidence at which reflected light in totally
polarizedforreflectionfromairtoglass(refractiveindexn),
is
(a) sin1(n)
(b) sin1(1/n)
1
(c) tan (1/n)
(d) tan1(n).
(2004)

28. Themaximumnumberofpossibleinterference maxima for


slitseparation equal to twice the wavelength in Youngs
doubleslit experiment is
(a) infinite (b) five
(c) three (d) zero.
(2004)
29. Togetthreeimagesofasingleobject,oneshouldhavetwo
plane mirrors at an angle of
(a) 60
(b) 90
(c) 120
(d) 30.
(2003)
30. Theimageformedbyanobjectiveofacompoundmicroscope
is
(a) virtualanddiminished (b) realanddiminished
(c) realandenlarged
(d) virtualandenlarged.
(2003)
31. To demonstrate thephenomenonofinterference we require
two sources which emit radiation of
(a) nearly the same frequency
(b) the same frequency
(c) different wavelength
(d) the same frequency and having a definite phase
relationship.
(2003)
32. An astronomical telescope has a large aperture to
(a) reduce spherical aberration
(b) have high resolution
(c) increase span of observation
(d) have low dispersion.
(2002)
33. Which of the following is used in optical fibres?
(a) total internal reflection (b) scattering
(c) diffraction
(d) refraction.
(2002)
34. Wavelength oflightused inan optical instrumentare l1 =
4000 and l2 = 5000 , then ratio of their respective
resolving powers (corresponding to l1 and l2) is
(a) 16:25
(b) 9:1
(c) 4:5
(d) 5:4.
(2002)
35. Iftwomirrorsarekeptat60toeachother,thenthenumber
of imagesformedbythemis
(a) 5
(b) 6
(c) 7
(d) 8.
(2002)

Answer Key

1.
7.
13.
19.
25.
31.

(d)
(c)
(c)
(*)
(a)
(d)

2.
8.
14.
20.
26.
32.

(a)
(b)
(d)
(d)
(b)
(b)

3.
9.
15.
21.
27.
33.

(d)
(b)
(d)
(c)
(d)
(a)

4.
10.
16.
22.
28.
34.

(d)
(a)
(c)
(c)
(b)
(d)

5.
11.
17.
23.
29.
35.

(c)
(b)
(a)
(a)
(b)
(a)

6.
12.
18.
24.
30.

(c)
(c)
(b)
(a)
(c)

91

Optics

5. (c) :Here, A2 =2A1


... Intensity (Amplitude)2
2
2
I
A
2A
\ 2 = 2 = 1 = 4
A1
I1 A1

1. (d):Accordingtolens makers formula


1
1
1
= (m - 1)
f
R1 R2

Asthelens isplanoconvex
\ R1 =R,R2 =
\

I 2 = 4I1
2

Maximumintensity, I m = ( I1 + I 2 )

1 (m - 1)
=
f
R

or f =

= ( I1 + 4 I1 ) = (3 I1 ) =9I1

...(i)

R
(m -1)

or I1 =

Asspeedoflightinthe mediumoflens is2 108 m/s

Im
9

...(i)

Resultantintensity, I = I1 + I 2 + 2 I1I 2 cosf

\ m=

c 3 10 m/s 3
=
=
v 2 108 m/s 2

= I1 + 4 I1 + 2 I1 (4I1) cosf
=5I1 +4I1cosf= I1 +4I1 +4I1cosf
=I1 +4I1(1+cosf)

...(ii)

If r istheradiusandt isthethicknessoflens(atthecentre),
theradiusofcurvature R ofitscurvedsurfaceinaccordance
withfigure will be given by

= I1 + 8 I1cos 2

R2 =r2 +(R t)2

2Rt= r2 + t2
r2
(Q r >> t)
2t
Here,r=3cm,t= 3mm=0.3cm

I=

R=

R=

6.

(3 cm)2
= 15 cm
2 0.3 cm

3. (d) : Intensity of light after passing polaroid A is

I0
2

whose axis is inclined at an angle of 45 to the axis of


polaroid A. So in accordance with Malus law, the inten
sity of light emerging from polaroid B is

( I2 )( 12) = I4
2

4.

)
1cm

O
2.4m

(d) :Thegraph between angle of


deviation(d)andangleofincidence(i)
for a triangular prism is as shownin
theadjacent figure.

12cm

Accordingtothinlens formula
1 = 1 - 1
f v u
Here,u=2.4m=240cm, v=12cm
\

Now this light will pass through the second polaroid B

I 2 = I1cos 2 45 =

Im
f
1 +8cos2
9
2

Film

(a) : When the screen is placed perpendicular to the line


joiningthe sources, thefringes willbe concentric circles.

I1 =

(c) :

Onsubstituting the valuesof m and R from Eqs.(ii) and


(iii)in(i),we get
15 cm
f =
= 30 cm.
(1.5 -1)
2.

f
2
Puttingthe value of I1 from eqn.(i), we get
= I1 1 +8cos2

R2 = r2 + R2 + t2 2Rt

(Q 1 + cos f = 2cos f2)

f
2

1 = 1 - 1 = 1 + 1
f 12 ( -240) 12 240

1 = 21 or f = 240 cm
f 240
21
Whena glassplateisinterposed betweenlensandfilm,so
shiftproducedbyit willbe

( ) (

Shift = t 1 -

) ( )

1
1
2
1
=1 1=1 1= cm
m
1.5
3
3

Togetimageatfilm,lensshouldformimage atdistance
v = 12 -

1 35
=
cm
3
3

Againusinglensformula

92

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

21 = 3 - 1 or 1 = 3 - 21 = 1 3 - 21
u 35 240 5 7 48
240 35 u

1 1 144 - 147
1
3
=
or
=u 5 336
u
1680

u=560cm=5.6m
|u|=5.6m

If qc hastobethecriticalangle, qc = sin-1 1
m
But qc =90 f, qi = q.
sinqi
= m = 2 sinq = m.
sin f
cosqc
3

qc

m2 -1

cos qc =

m2 - 1
m 2 - 1
\ sin q = m
= m 2 - 1.
m
m

(b):
\ q = sin -1

r
Here, A = 6 3 i^ + 8 3 j^ - 10k^

10

cosi =

(6 3 )2 + (8 3 )2 + (-10)2

= 10
20

( )

cos i = 1 or i = cos -1 1 = 60
2
2
UsingSnellslaw, m1sini= m2sinr
2 sin 60 = 3 sin r r = 45
9.

But

7. (c)
8.

(b)

10. (a): Asthebeamisinitiallyparallel,theshapeofwavefront


isplanar.
11. (b): Given m = m0 + m2I
Speed of light in vacuum
As m =
Speed of light in medium
c
c
m = c or v= m = m + m I
v
0
2
Astheintensityismaximumontheaxisofthebeam,therefore
v isminimumonthe axis ofthe beam.
12. (c)
13. (c) : For interference, by Youngs double slits, the path
difference

xd
xd
l
= nl for bright fringes and
= (2 n+1)
D
D
2

forgettingdarkfringes.
Thecentralfringeswhenx =0,coincideforallwavelengths.
The thirdfringe of l1 = 590 nm coincides with the fourth
bright fringeofunknownwavelength l.
\ xd =3590nm=4lnm
D
\ l=

3 590
= 442.5 nm.
4

14. (d) : q

qc
m =ref.indexoftherod

( )

4
1
- 1 =sin-1
3
3

Sothat qc ismaking totalinternalreflection.


15. (d):Accordingtothe newcartesian
1 1 1
systemusedinschools, - = for
v u f
aconvex lens.
uhastobenegative.

vis+ve

f
f
u negative

Ifv= ,u = f andifu= ,v=f.


A parallel beam (u = ) is focussed at f and if
the object is at f, the rays are parallel. The point which
meetsthecurveat u= vgives2f.Thereforevis+ve,u is
negative,botharesymmetricalandthiscurvesatisfiesall
the conditions for a convex lens.
16.(c): Powerofcombination= P1 + P2
=15D+5D=10D.
1
1
Focallengthofcombination F = P = -10 D
=0.1m=10cm.

17. (a):InYoungsdoubleslitexperimentintensityatapointis
givenby
f
I = I 0cos2
2
where f=phasedifference,I0 =maximumintensity
f
I
= cos2
... (i)
or
I 0
2
Phase difference f = 2p path difference
l
2p l
p
f=

f =
\
or
...(ii)
l 6
3
Substituteeqn.(ii)ineqn.(i),weget
I 3
I = cos2 p
6 or I = 4 .
I 0

0
18. (b) :Angle of minimum deviation D = A(m 1)
D1 for red
m - 1
= R
D2 for blue m B -1

Since mB > mR,


D1
< 1
\
D2
\

D1 < D2.

93

Optics

Hence intensity remains constant at I0


I = I0 (1) = I0.

1
1
1
a
19. (*) : f = ( m g - 1) R - R
a
1
2
1
1
1
= (lm g - 1) -
fl
R1 R2

24. (a) : Straight line fringes are formed on screen.


25. (a) : A planoconvex lens behaves like a concave mirror
when its curved surface is silvered.
\
F of concave mirror so formed

fa ( m g - 1) (m g / m l ) - 1
= a
=
fl
(m g - 1)
( m g -1)
=

m g - m l
= 1.5 - 1.6
m l (m g - 1) 1.6 (1.5 -1)

or

Pl
= - 0.1 = -1
Pa
1.6 0.5 8

Pl = -

Toformanimageofobjectsize,theobjectshouldbeplaced
at (2F) of the concave mirror.
\
Distance of object from lens = 2 F
= 2 10 = 20 cm.

Pa
( -5) 5
==
8
8
8

or Optical power in liquid medium = 5 Dipotre.


8

N.B.:Thisanswerisnotgiveninthefouroptionsprovided
in the question.
20. (d) : For total internal reflection,
m=

1
1 3
sinqC = =
sin qC
m 4
tanqc =
=

1 - sin2 qc

3/ 4 = 3 4 = 3
4 7
7
1- 9
16

or
or

D=

1 > 1 > 2
.
sin C sin 45

28. (b) : For interference maxima, dsinq = nl


\
2lsinq = nl
n
sinq =
or
2
This equation is satisfied if n = 2, 1, 0, 1, 2.
sinq is never greater than (+1), less than (1)
\
Maximum number of maxima can be five.

R 3
36
=
R =
cm.
12 7
7
21. (c) : Resolution limit =1.22l
d

y 1.22l
=
D
d
yd
D=
1.22l

n>

27. (d): AccordingtoBrewster'slawofpolarization,n=tanip


where ip is angle of incidence
\
ip = tan1(n).

26. (b) : Total internal reflection occurs in a denser medium


when light is incident at surface of separation at angle
exceeding critical angle of the medium.
Given:i=45inthemediumandtotalinternalreflection
occurs at the glass air interface
\

sinqc

Again resolution limit = sinq = q =

R
30
=
= 10 cm
2m 2 1.5

y
D

360
- 1
q0
360
3=
- 1 4 q = 360 q = 90.
q

29. (b) : n =
\
y
q

(10 -3 ) (3 10-3) 30
=
5 m.
(1.22) (5 10-7) 6.1

22. (c) : Intensity of polarized light = I0/2


\
Intensity of light not transmitted
I
I
= I0 - 0 = 0 .
2
2
23. (a) : For diffraction pattern

30. (c): The objective of compound microscope forms a real


andenlarged image.
31. (d):Forinterferencephenomenon,twosourcesshouldemit
radiationofthesamefrequencyandhavingadefinitephase
relationship.
32. (b): Large aperture leadsto high resolution of telescope.
33. (a) : Total internal reflection is used in optical fibres.
34. (d) : Resolving power is proportional to l1

sinf
I = I 0
where f denotes path difference
f
sinf
For principalmaxima, f = 0. Hence f = 1

R . P. for l1 l 2 5000 5
=
=
= .
R . P . for l 2 l1 4000 4

360
360
35. (a) : n = q - 1 = 60 - 1 = 5.

94

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

CHAPTER

17
1.

DUALNATUREOFMATTER
ANDRADIATION

Theanodevoltageofaphotocelliskeptfixed.Thewavelength
l ofthelightfallingonthecathodeisgraduallychanged.The
platecurrentIofthe photocell varies as follows
I

(a)

Ifasourceofpower4kWproduces 1020 photons/second,the


radiationbelongstoa partofthe spectrumcalled
(a) grays
(b) Xrays
(c) ultravioletrays
(d) microwaves
(2010)

5.

Statement1: Whenultravioletlightisincidentonaphotocell,
itsstoppingpotentialisV0 andthemaximumkineticenergy
of the photoelectrons is Kmax.When the ultraviolet light is
replacedbyXrays,bothV0 andKmax increase.
Statement2: Photoelectronsareemittedwithspeedsranging
from zero to a maximum value because of the range of
frequenciespresentinthe incidentlight.
(a) Statement1istrue, Statement2isfalse.
(b) Statement1istrue,Statement2istrueStatement2is
the correctexplanation of Statement1.
(c) Statement1istrue,Statement2istrueStatement2is
not the correct explanation of Statement1.
(d) Statement1isfalse,Statement2istrue.
(2010)

(c)

(2013)

(d)
O

3.

4.

(b)
O

2.

(c) Statement1istrue,Statement2istrue,Statement2is
not the correct explanation of Statement1.
(d) Statement1isfalse,Statement2istrue.
(2011)

ThisquestionhasStatement1andStatement2.Ofthefour
choicesgivenafterthe statements,choosetheonethatbest
describesthetwostatements.
Statement1: DavissonGermerexperimentestablishedthe
wavenature of electrons.
Statement2: Ifelectronshavewavenature,theycaninterfere
and show diffraction.
(a) Statement1istrue, Statement2isfalse.
(b) Statement1istrue,Statement2is true,Statement2is
the correct explanation for Statement 1.
(c) Statement1istrue,Statement2is true,Statement2is
notthe correct explanation of Statement 1.
(d) Statement1isfalse, Statement2istrue.
(2012)
ThisquestionhasStatement1andStatement2.Ofthefour
choicesgivenafterthe statements,choosetheonethatbest
describesthetwostatements:
Statement1 : A metallic surface is irradiated by a
monochromatic light of frequency u > u0 (the threshold
frequency).The maximum kinetic energy and the stopping
potentialare Kmaxand V0respectively.Ifthefrequencyincident
on the surface is doubled, both the Kmax and V0 are also
doubled.
Statement2: Themaximumkineticenergyandthestopping
potentialofphotoelectronsemittedfromasurfacearelinearly
dependent on thefrequency of incident light.
(a) Statement1is true,statement2isfalse.
(b) Statement1is true,Statement2is true,Statement2is
the correctexplanation of Statement1.

The surface of a metal is illuminated with the light of


400nm.Thekineticenergyoftheejectedphotoelectronswas
found to be 1.68 eV. The work function of the metal is
(hc=1240eV nm)
(a) 3.09eV
(b) 1.41eV
(c) 1.51eV
(d) 1.68eV
(2009)
Directions:Questions 7,8and9arebased onthe following
paragraph.
Wavepropertyofelectronsimpliesthattheywillshowdiffraction
effects. Davissonand Germerdemonstrated thisby diffracting
electronsfromcrystals.Thelawgoverningthediffractionfrom
acrystalisobtainedbyrequiringthatelectronwaves reflected
fromtheplanesofatomsinacrystalinterfereconstructively(see
figure).
(2008)
6.

incoming
electrons

outgoing
electrons

i
d

crystalplane

95

DualNatureofMatterandRadiation

7.

8.

9.

Electrons accelerated by potential Vare diffracted from a


crystal. If d = 1 and i = 30, V should be about
(h=6.61034 Js,me =9.11031 kg,e=1.61019 C)
(a) 1000V (b) 2000V (c) 50V (d) 500V.
Ifastrongdiffractionpeakisobservedwhenelectronsare
incidentatanangleifromthenormaltothecrystalplanes
with distance d between them (see figure), de Broglie
wavelength ldB of electrons can be calculated by the
relationship(nisan integer)
(a) dcosi=nldB
(b) dsini =nldB
(c) 2dcosi= nldB
(d) 2dsini= nldB
Inanexperiment,electronsaremadetopassthroughanarrow
slitofwidthdcomparabletotheirdeBrogliewavelength.
TheyaredetectedonascreenatadistanceDfromtheslit.

Whichofthefollowinggraphscanbeexpectedtorepresent
thenumberofelectrons N detectedasafunctionofthedetector
positiony (y=0correspondsto the middle of the slit)?
y

(a) N

(c)

(d) N

10. If gEand gM aretheaccelerationsduetogravityonthesurfaces


oftheearthandthemoonrespectivelyandifMillikansoil
dropexperimentcouldbeperformedonthetwosurfaces,one
willfindtheratio
electronic charge on the moon
electronic charge on the earth tobe

(a) gM/gE
(c) 0

(b) 1
(d) gE/gM

(c)

(d)
O

.
O

(2006)

13. The threshold frequencyfora metallic surface corresponds


to an energy of 6.2 eV, and the stopping potential for a
radiationincidentonthissurface5V.Theincidentradiation
lies in
(a) Xray region
(b) ultraviolet region
(c) infrared region
(d) visible region.
(2006)

15. Ifthekineticenergyofafreeelectrondoubles,itsdeBroglie
wavelength changes by the factor
(c) 1/2
(d) 2.
(2005)
(a) 1/ 2 (b) 2
16. Aphotocellisilluminatedbyasmallbrightsourceplaced1m
away.Whenthesamesourceoflightisplaced(1/2)maway,
the number of electrons emitted by photocathode would
(a) decrease by a factor of 2
(b) increase by a factor of 2
(c) decrease by a factor of 4
(d) increase by a factor of 4
(2005)

(b) N

(b)

14. The time by a photoelectron to come out after the photon


strikesis approximately
(a) 101 s
(b) 104 s
10
(c) 10 s
(d) 1016 s.
(2006)

y =0

(a)

(2007)

11. Photonoffrequency uhasa momentumassociatedwithit.


Ifcisthevelocityof light,the momentumis
(a) hu/c
(b) u/c
(c) huc
(d) hu/c2
(2007)
12. The anode voltage of a photocell is kept fixed. The
wavelength lofthelightfallingonthecathodeisgradually
changed.Theplatecurrent I ofthephotocellvariesasfollows

17. A charged oil drop is suspended in a uniform field of


3104 V/msothatitneitherfallsnorrises.Thechargeonthe
dropwillbe(takethemassofthecharge=9.91015 kgand
g=10m/s2)
(a) 3.3 1018 C
(b) 3.2 1018 C
18
(c) 1.6 10 C
(d) 4.8 1018 C.
(2004)
18. The work function of a substance is 4.0 eV. The longest
wavelength of light that can cause photoelectron emission
from this substance is approximately
(a) 540 nm
(b) 400 nm
(c) 310 nm
(d) 220 nm.
(2004)
19. According to Einsteins photoelectric equation, the plot of
the kinetic energy of the emitted photo electrons from a
metal vs thefrequency,oftheincidentradiationgivesastraight
line whose slope
(a) depends on the nature of the metal used
(b) depends on the intensity of the radiation
(c) depends both on the intensity of the radiation and the
metal used

96

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

(d) isthesameforallmetalsandindependentoftheintensity
of the radiation.
(2004)
20. Two identicalphotocathodes receive light of frequencies f1
and f2. If the velocities of the photoelectrons (of mass m)
coming out are respectively v1 and v2, then
2
2h
2
(a) v1 - v2 = m ( f1 - f2)

(b) v1 + v2 = 2h( f1 + f2) 2


m

2
2 2h
(c) v1 + v2 = m ( f1 + f2)

(d) v1 - v2 = 2h( f1 - f2) 2.


m

(2003)

21. Sodiumandcopperhaveworkfunctions2.3eVand4.5eV
respectively.Thentheratioofthewavelengthsisnearestto
(a) 1:2
(b) 4:1
(c) 2:1
(d) 1:4.
(2002)

Answer Key

1.
7.
13.
19.

(a)
(c)
(b)
(d)

2.
8.
14.
20.

(b)
(c)
(c)
(a)

3.
9.
15.
21.

(d)
(a)
(a)
(c)

4. (b)
10. (b)
16. (d)

5. (a)
11. (a)
17. (a)

6. (b)
12. (c)
18. (c)

97

DualNatureofMatterandRadiation

1.

(a)

2.

(b) : DavissonGermer experiment showed that electron


beamscanundergodiffractionwhenpassedthroughatomic
crystals.Thisshows thewavenatureof electronsaswaves
can exhibit interference and diffraction.

3.

(d) :Themaximumkinetic energy of the electron


Kmax = hu hu0
Here, u0 isthreshold frequency.
Thestoppingpotential is
eV0 =Kmax =hu hu0
Therefore,if uisdoubled Kmax andV0 is notdoubled.

me =9.11031 kg, e=1.61019 C.


BraggsequationforXrays,whichisalsousedinelectron
diffractiongives nl =2d sinq.
\ l =

2 1(A)
sin 60
(assuming first order)
1

l = 3 A,

V =

(12.27 10 -10)
3 10-10

V=50.18Volt.
8.

(c):Braggsrelationnl=2dsinqforhavinganintensity
maximum for diffraction pattern.

4. (b): Here,
Powerofa source,P=4 kW= 4 103 W
Numberofphotons emitted persecond, N = 1020

i
q

Energy of photon, E = hu = hc

l
P
... E =
N
hc = P
l N
20
-34
8
Nhc 10 6.63 10 3 10
or l =
=
3
P
4 10

Butastheangle ofincidenceisgiven,
nl =2dcosi istheformulaforfindingapeak.
9.

(a):Theelectrondiffractionpatternfromasingleslitwill
beasshownbelow.
d

=4.972109 m =49.72
It liesinthe Xrayregion.
5. (a) : According to Einsteins photoelectric equation
Kmax =hu f0
where,
u= frequencyof incident light
f0 =workfunction of the metal
SinceKmax = eV0
hu f0
V0 =
-
e
e
As uX rays > uUltraviolet
Therefore,bothKmax andV0 increasewhenultravioletlight
isreplacedbyXrays.
Statement2isfalse.
6.

7.

(b) :Thewavelengthoflightilluminatingthephotoelectric
surface=400nm.
1240 eV nm
i.e., hu =
=3.1 eV.
400 nm
Max. kineticenergy ofthe electrons =1.68 eV.
hu=Wf + kinetic energy
\ Wf,theworkfunction = hu kinetic energy
=3.11.68eV=1.42eV.
(c): Forelectrondiffraction, d =1 , i =30
i.e.,grazingangle q=60,h=6.61034 Js.

l
.
2p
Thelineofmaximumintensityforthezerothorderwillexceed
d very much.
dsin q =

10. (b): Sinceelectroniccharge(1.61019C)universalconstant.


Itdoesnot dependong.
\
Electronic chargeonthe moon=electronic
chargeontheearth
electronicchargeonthe moon
=1.
or
electroniccharge ontheearth
11. (a): EnergyofaphotonE= hu
AlsoE= pc
wherepisthemomentumofaphoton
From(i)and(ii),weget
hu
hu=pc or p = .
c

... (i)
...(ii)

12. (c) : The graph (c) depicts the variation of l with I.


13. (b) : For photoelectron emission,
(Incident energy E) = (K.E.)m ax + (Work function f)

98

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

E= Km + f
E = 5 + 6.2 = 11.2 eV
= 11.2 (1.6 1019) J
hc
= 11.2 1.6 10-19
\
l
(6.63 10 -34 ) (3 108)
l=
m
or
11.2 1.6 10-19
or
l = 1110 1010 m = 1110 .
The incident radiation lies in ultra violet region.
or
or

14. (c) : Emission of photoelectron starts from the surface


after incidence of photons in about 1010 sec.
15. (a) : de Broglie wavelength l = h / p = h / (2mK )
h
l =
\
where K = kinetic energy of
2mK
particle
\

l2
K1
K1
1
=
=
=
.
l1
K2
2K1
2
P of source

P
4 p (distance)
4pd 2
Here,weassumelighttospreaduniformlyinalldirections.
Numberofphotoelectrons emittedfroma surface depend
on intensity of light I falling on it. Thus the number of
electronsemitted n dependsdirectlyon I. P remainsconstant
as the source is the same.

16. (d) : I =

I 2 n2
P d
n
=
2 1 = 2
I1 n1
P1 d 2
n1

n2 P 1 2 4
=
= .
n1 P
1/ 2 1

17. (a) : For equilibrium of charged oil drop,


qE = mg
\

mg (9.9 10 -15) 10
q=
=
= 3.3 10-18C.
E
(3 104)

18. (c) : Let lm = Longest wavelength of light


hc
= f (work function)
\
l m
\
or

-34
8
hc (6.63 10 ) (3 10 )
=
f
4.0 1.6 10-19
lm = 310 nm.

l m =

19. (d) : According to Einstein's equation,


Kineticenergy= hf f wherekineticenergyand f (frequency)
are variables, compare it with equation, y = mx + c
Kineticenergy

Workfunction

\
slope of line = h
h is Planck's constant.
Hencetheslopeissameforallmetalsandindependentof
the intensity of radiation.
Option (d)represents the answer.
20. (a): Forphotoelectriceffect,accordingtoEinstein'sequation,
Kineticenergyofemittedelectron=hf (workfunction f)
1 2
mv = hf1 - f
\
2 1
1 2
mv = hf 2 - f
2 2
1
m ( v 2 - v22) = h ( f1 - f 2)
\
2 1
2h
v12 - v22 =
( f - f2).
\
m 1
21. (c) : Work function = hc/l
WNa 4.5 2
=
= .
WCu 2.3 1

99

AtomsandNuclei

CHAPTER

ATOMSANDNUCLEI

18
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

In a hydrogen like atom electron makes transition froman


energylevelwithquantumnumber n toanotherwithquantum
number(n 1).If n >>1,thefrequencyofradiationemitted
is proportional to
1
1
1
1
(a) 3
(b)
(c) 2
(d) 3/ 2
n
n
n
n
(2013)
Hydrogenatomisexcitedfromgroundstatetoanotherstate
withprincipalquantumnumberequalto4.Thenthenumber
ofspectrallinesintheemissionspectra will be
(a) 3
(b) 5
(c) 6
(d) 2
(2012)
Assumethataneutronbreaksintoaprotonandanelectron.
Theenergyreleasedduring thisprocessis
(Massofneutron=1.6725 1027 kg
Massofproton=1.67251027 kg
Massofelectron= 9 1031 kg)
(a) 7.10MeV
(b) 6.30MeV
(c) 5.4MeV
(d) 0.73MeV
(2012)
Adiatomicmoleculeismadeoftwomasses m1 and m2 which
are separatedby a distance r. If we calculate its rotational
energy by applying Bohrs rule of angular momentum
quantization,itsenergywillbe givenby(nis aninteger)
(a)

n 2 h2
2(m1 + m2)r 2

(b)

2n 2 h2
( m1 + m2)r 2

(c)

( m1 + m2)n 2 h2
2m1m2r 2

(d)

( m1 + m2)2 n 2 h2
2m12 m22 r 2

(2012)

Energyrequiredforthe electronexcitation inLi++ fromthe


firsttothe thirdBohrorbit is
(a) 12.1eV
(b) 36.3eV
(c) 108.8eV
(d) 122.4 eV
(2011)
The halflifeofa radioactive substance is 20 minutes. The
approximatetimeinterval(t2 t1)betweenthetimet2 when
2
1
ofithasdecayedandtimet1 when ofithaddecayedis
3
3

(a) 7min
(c) 20min
7.

(b) 14 min
(d) 28 min

(2011)

A radioactive nucleus (initial mass number A and atomic


numberZ)emits3aparticles and 2 positrons.Theratioof
number of neutrons to that of protons in the final nucleus
willbe

(a)

A - Z - 4
Z -2

(b)

A - Z - 8
Z - 4

(c)

A - Z - 4
Z -8

(d)

A - Z - 12
Z - 4

(2010)

Directions : Questionsnumber 89are based on the following


paragraph.
Anucleusofmass M + Dm isatrestanddecaysintotwodaughter
nucleiofequalmass
8.

9.

M
each. Speedoflightisc.
2

The speedofdaughternucleiis
Dm
(a) c M + Dm

Dm
(b) cM + Dm

(c) c 2Dm
M

(d) c Dm
M

(2010)

ThebindingenergypernucleonfortheparentnucleusisE1
andthatforthedaughternucleiis E2.Then
(a) E1 =2E2
(b) E2 =2E1
(c) E1 > E2
(d) E2 >E1
(2010)

10. Thetransitionfromthestate n =4to n =3inahydrogenlike


atomresultsinultravioletradiation.Infraredradiationwillbe
obtainedinthe transitionfrom
(a) 2 1
(b) 3 2
(c) 4 2
(d) 5 4
(2009)

B C D E

11. Eb

A
M

Theaboveisaplotofbindingenergypernucleon Eb,against
thenuclearmassMA,B,C,D,E,Fcorrespondtodifferent
nuclei. Considerfour reactions:
(i) A+B C+ e

(ii) C A+B+ e

(iii)D+E F+ e
(iv) F D+ E+ e
where e istheenergyreleased?Inwhichreactionsis e positive?
(a) (i)and(iv)
(b) (i)and(iii)
(c) (ii)and(iv)
(d) (ii)and(iii)
(2009)

100

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

Directions: Question12containsstatement1andstatement2.
Ofthefourchoicesgiven,choosetheonethatbestdescribesthe
twostatements.
(a) Statement1istrue,statement2 isfalse.
(b) Statement1isfalse,statement2 istrue.
(c) Statement1 istrue, statement2 is true statement2 is a
correct explanation for statement1.
(d) Statement1istrue,statement2istruestatement2isnota
correct explanation for statement1.
12. Statement1: Energyisreleasedwhenheavynucleiundergo
fission or lightnuclei undergo fusion.
Statement2: Forheavynuclei,bindingenergypernucleon
increaseswithincreasing Z whileforlightnucleiitdecreases
withincreasing Z.
(2008)
13. Supposeanelectronisattractedtowardstheoriginbyaforce
k/r where k isaconstantand risthedistanceoftheelectron
fromtheorigin.ByapplyingBohrmodeltothissystem,the
radiusofthenth orbitaloftheelectronisfoundtobern and
the kinetic energyof the electron tobeTn.Thenwhich of
the followingis true?
1
1
(a) Tn , rn n2
(b) Tn 2 , rn n2
n
n
(c) Tn independent of n, rn n
1
(d) Tn , rn n
(2008)
n
14. Whichofthefollowing transitionsin hydrogenatomsemit
photonsof highest frequency ?
(a) n=1ton=2
(b) n= 2ton=6
(c) n=6ton=2
(d) n= 2ton=1
(2007)
15. Thehalflifeperiodofaradioactiveelement X issameasthe
meanlifetimeofanotherradioactiveelement Y.Initiallythey
havethesamenumberof atoms.Then
(a) XandYdecayatsameratealways
(b) Xwilldecayfaster thanY
(c) Ywilldecayfasterthan X
(d) XandYhavesame decayrateinitially
(2007)
16. Ingammarayemissionfromanucleus
(a) onlytheproton number changes
(b) boththeneutronnumberandtheprotonnumberchange
(c) thereisnochangeintheprotonnumberandtheneutron
number
(d) onlytheneutron number changes
(2007)
17.

IfMO isthemassofanoxygenisotope8O17,MP andMN are


themassesofaprotonandaneutronrespectively,thenuclear
bindingenergyoftheisotope is
2
(a) (MO 17MN)c2
(b) (MO 8MP)c

(c) (MO 8MP 9MN)c2


(d) MO c2
(2007)

7
18. Ifthebindingenergypernucleonin 3
nucleiare
Li and 4
2He
5.60 MeV and 7.06 MeV respectively, then in the reaction :
, energy of proton must be
p + 73 Li 2 4
2He
(a) 39.2MeV
(b) 28.24 MeV
(c) 17.28MeV
(d) 1.46 MeV.
(2006)

19. Theradisthecorrectunitusedtoreportthemeasurementof
(a) the rate of decay of radioactive source
(b) theabilityofabeamofgammarayphotonstoproduce
ions in a target
(c) the energy delivered by radiation to target
(d) the biological effect of radiation.
(2006)
20. When3Li7nucleiarebombardedbyprotons,andtheresultant
nuclei are 4Be8, the emitted particles will be
(a) neutrons
(b)
alpha particles
(c) beta particles
(d) gamma photons.
(2006)
21. Theenergyspectrumof bparticles[number N(E)asafunction
of benergy E] emitted from a radioactive source is
N (E)

N (E)

(a)

(b)
E

E0

(c)

N (E)

E0

(d)
E0

N (E)

. (2006)

E0

1 mv2
bombardsaheavynuclear
2
target ofcharge Ze.Then thedistance of closest approach
for the alpha nucleus with be proportional to
(a) 1/Ze
(b) v2
(c) 1/m
(d) 1/v4.
(2006)

22. Analphanucleusofenergy

7
23. AnucleartransformationisdenotedbyX(n, a)3
Li.Which
of the following is the nucleus of elementX?

(a)

9
5B

(b)

11
4Be

(c)

12
6C

(d)

10
5B

(2005)

24. The diagramshows theenergy levels for an electron in a


certainatom.Whichtransitionshownrepresentstheemission
of a photon with the most energy?
n=4
n =3

n =2

(a) I

II

(b) II

IV

III

(c) III

n=1

(d) IV

(2005)

25. Starting with a sample of pure 66Cu, 7/8 of it decays into


Zn in 15 minutes.The corresponding halflife is
1
2

(a) 5minutes

(b) 7 minutes

(c) 10 minutes

(d) 14 minutes

(2005)

26. Theintensityofgammaradiationfromagiven sourceisI.


Onpassingthrough36mmoflead,itisreducedtoI/8.The
thicknessofleadwhichwillreducetheintensityto I/2willbe
(a) 18 mm
(b) 12 mm
(c) 6mm
(d) 9mm
(2005)

101

AtomsandNuclei
27
27. Ifradiusofthe 13
Al nucleusisestimatedtobe3.6fermi

thentheradius of 125
52Al nucleusbe nearly
(a) 4 fermi
(b) 5 fermi
(c) 6 fermi
(d) 8 fermi

(2005)

28. An aparticleofenergy5MeVisscatteredthrough180by
afixeduraniumnucleus.Thedistanceoftheclosestapproach
is of the order of
(a) 1
(b) 1010 cm
12
(c) 10 cm
(d) 1015 cm.
(2004)

( )

29. Thebindingenergypernucleonofdeuteron 12H andhelium


nucleus 4
2He is1.1MeVand7MeVrespectively.Iftwo
deuteronnucleireacttoforma singleheliumnucleus,then
the energy released is
(a) 13.9MeV
(b) 26.9 MeV
(c) 23.6MeV
(d) 19.2 MeV.
(2004)
30. A nucleusdisintegrates into two nuclear parts which have
theirvelocitiesinthe ratio 2 : 1.The ratio of their nuclear
sizes will be
(a) 21/3 : 1 (b) 1 : 31/2 (c) 31/2 : 1 (d) 1:21/3. (2004)
31. Ifthe bindingenergy ofthe electronin ahydrogen atomis
13.6eV,theenergyrequiredtoremovetheelectronfromthe
first excited state of Li++ is
(a) 30.6 eV
(b) 13.6 eV
(c) 3.4 eV
(d) 122.4 eV.
(2003)

32. Thewavelengthsinvolvedinthespectrumofdeuterium (12D)


areslightlydifferentfromthatofhydrogenspectrum,because
(a) size of the two nuclei are different
(b) nuclear forces are different in the two cases
(c) masses of the two nuclei are different
(d) attractionbetweentheelectronandthenucleusisdifferent
in the two cases.
(2003)
33. Which of the following atoms has the lowest ionization
potential?
(a)

14
7N

(b)

133
55Cs

(c)

40
18 Ar

(d)

16
8O.

(2003)

34. In the nuclear fusion reaction,


2
3
4
1 H +1 H 2He + n given that the repulsive potential
energy between the two nuclei is ~ 7.7 1014 J, the
temperatureatwhichthegasesmustbeheatedtoinitiatethe
reaction is nearly

[Boltzmann's constant k = 1.38 1023 J/K]


(a) 107 K (b) 105 K (c) 103 K (d) 109 K.

35. Which of the following cannot be emitted by radioactive


substances during their decay?
(a) protons
(b) neutrinos
(c) helium nuclei
(d) electrons.
(2003)
36. A nucleus with Z =92 emits the followingin a sequence:
a, a, b, b, a, a, a, a, b, b, a, b+, b+, a.The Z of the
resulting nucleus is
(a) 76
(b) 78
(c) 82
(d) 74.
(2003)
37. Aradioactivesampleatanyinstanthasitsdisintegrationrate
5000disintegrationsperminute.After5minutes,therateis
1250 disintegrations per minute. Then, the decay constant
(per minute) is
(a) 0.4 ln2
(b) 0.2 ln2
(c) 0.1 ln2
(d) 0.8 ln2.
(2003)
38. WhenU238 nucleusoriginallyatrest,decaysbyemittingan
alphaparticlehavingaspeed u,therecoilspeedoftheresidual
nucleus is
4u
4u
4u
4u
(b) -
(c)
(d) -
. (2003)
(a)
238
234
234
238
39. Whichofthefollowingradiationshastheleastwavelength?
(a) grays
(b) brays
(c) arays
(d) Xrays.
(2003)
40. IfN0 istheoriginalmassofthesubstanceofhalflifeperiod
t1/2 =5years,thentheamountofsubstanceleftafter15years
is
(a) N0/8
(b) N0/16
(c) N0/2
(d) N0/4.
(2002)

41. If 13.6eV energyisrequiredtoionize the hydrogen atom,


then theenergy requiredtoremovean electron from n = 2
is
(a) 10.2 eV
(b) 0 eV
(c) 3.4 eV
(d) 6.8 eV.
(2002)
42. At a specific instant emission of radioactive compound is
deflected in a magnetic field. The compound can emit
(i) electrons
(ii) protons
(iii)He2+
(iv) neutrons
The emission at the instant can be
(a) i, ii, iii
(b) i, ii, iii, iv
(c) iv
(d) ii, iii.
(2002)

Answer Key

1.
7.
13.
19.
25.
31.
37.

(a)
(c)
(c)
(d)
(a)
(a)
(a)

2.
8.
14.
20.
26.
32.
38.

(c)
(c)
(d)
(d)
(b)
(c)
(b)

3.
9.
15.
21.
27.
33.
39.

(*)
(d)
(b)
(d)
(c)
(b)
(a)

(2003)

4.
10.
16.
22.
28.
34.
40.

(c)
(d)
(c)
(c)
(c)
(d)
(a)

5.
11.
17.
23.
29.
35.
41.

(c)
(a)
(c)
(d)
(c)
(a)
(c)

6.
12.
18.
24.
30.
36.
42.

(c)
(a)
(c)
(c)
(d)
(b)
(a)

102

1.

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

Onrearranging,weget

(a) :Inahydrogen like atom, when anelectron makesan


transitionfromanenergylevelwithnton1,thefrequency
of emittedradiation is
1
1
u = RcZ2
- 2
2

( n - 1) n

r1 =

Similarly, r2 =

n 2 - (n- 1)2 RcZ 2(2n- 1)


= RcZ2 2
=
2
n 2( n- 1)
(n )( n - 1)
Asn>>1
2

m2 r
m1r
I = m1
+ m2
m1 + m2
m1 + m2

RcZ 2n 2RcZ
=
n4
n3
or u 13
n

L=

n( n- 1)
N =
2
Here,n=4

or L2 =

4(4 - 1)
= 6
2

m1m2 2
r
m1 + m2
nh
2p
n 2 h2
4p2

E =

16

=0.51MeV
* None ofthe given option is correct.

n 2 h2
8p2I
n 2 h 2(m1 + m2)
8p2 ( m1m2)r 2
n 2 h 2(m1 + m2)
2m1m2r 2

(Using(i))

(Q h= 2hp )

5.

13.6Z2
(c): Using, En = - 2 eV
n

Here,Z=3(ForLi++)

m1

m2

13.6(3)2
E1 = -
eV
(1)2
E1 =122.4eV

COM
r2

r1
r

and E3 =

Themomentofinertiaofthismoleculeaboutanaxispassing
throughitscentreofmassandperpendiculartoalinejoining
theatomsis
I = m1r12 + m2 r22

-13.6 (3)2
= -13.6 eV
(3)2

DE= E3 E1 =13.6+122.4=108.8eV
6.

m
or r1 = 2 r2
m1

m
\ r1 = 2 ( r - r1)
m1

(Using (ii))

Inthequestioninstead ofh, hshouldbegiven.

4. (c) :Adiatomicmoleculeconsistsoftwoatomsofmasses
m1 andm2 atadistance r apart.Letr1 andr2 bethedistances
of the atomsfrom the centre of mass.

Q r1 + r2 = r

...(ii)
2

9 10 9 10
MeV
1.6 10 -13

As m1r1 = m2 r2

...(i)

L
Rotational energy, E =
2I

3. (*) :Massdefect, Dm = mp +me mn


=(1.67251027 +91031 1.6725 1027) kg
=91031 kg
Energyreleased= Dmc2
=91031 (3 108)2 J
-31

According to Bohrs quantisation condition

(c) :Numberofspectrallines intheemissionspectra,

\ N=

m1r
m1 + m2

Therefore,the momentofinertia canbe written as

\ u=

2.

m2r
m1 + m2

(c) : Numberof undecayedatomsaftertimet2,


N0
= N 0e -lt
3
Number ofundecayedatomsaftertimet1,
2

2 N = N e - lt1
0
3 0

Dividing(ii)by(i),weget

...(i)

...(ii)

103

AtomsandNuclei

2=e l (t2 - t1)

Transition 4 3 is in Paschen series. This is not in the


ultravioletregion butthisisininfraredregion.
Transition5 4willalsobeininfraredregion (Brackett).

orln2= l(t2 t1)

ln 2
or (t 2 - t1)=
l

Asperquestion,t1/2 = halflifetime= 20 min


Q t = ln 2
1/2

\ t2 t1 =20min
7.

(c):Whenaradioactivenucleusemitsanalphaparticle,its
mass number decreases by 4 while the atomic number
decreasesby2.
Whenaradioactivenucleus,emitsa b+ particle(orpositron
(e+))itsmassnumberremainsunchangedwhiletheatomic
numberdecreasesby1.

12. (a):Statement1statesthatenergyisreleasedwhenheavy
nuclei undergo fission and light nucleiundergo fusion is
correct.Statement2iswrong.
Thebindingenergypernucleon, B/A,startsatasmallvalue,
risestoamaximumat62Ni,thendecreasesto7.5MeVfor
the heavynuclei.Theansweris(a).

3a
2e
\ ZA X
AZ- -126Y

AZ- -128 W
Inthe finalnucleus,
Numberofprotons, Np = Z 8
Numberofneutrons, Nn = A12(Z 8)
=AZ4
Nn A - Z - 4
\
=
.
N p
Z -8

8.

M M
(c):Massdefect, DM = ( M + Dm)- 2 + 2

=[M+ DmM]= Dm
Energyreleased,Q= DMc2 = Dmc2
...(i)
Accordingtolaw of conservation of momentum, we get
( M + Dm ) 0 = M v1 - M v2 or v1 = v2
2
2

Also, Q =

( )

( )

1 M 2 1 M 2 1
v +
v - ( M +Dm) (0)2
2 2 1 2 2 2 2
= M v12 (Q v1 = v2)
2

11. (a) :Whentwonucleonscombinetoformathirdone,and


energyisreleased,onehasfusionreaction.Ifasinglenucleus
splits intotwo,onehasfission.Thepossibilityof fusionis
more for light elements and fission takes place for heavy
elements.
Outofthe choices givenforfusion,onlyAand B are light
elements and D and E are heavy elements. Therefore
A+B C+ eiscorrect.Inthepossibilityoffissionisonly
for Fand not C.Therefore
F D+E + eisthecorrect choice.

...(ii)

13. (c) : Supposing that the forceof attraction in Bohr atom


doesnotfollowinversesquarelawbutinverselyproportional
tor,
1 e2
mv2
4pe0 r wouldhavebeen = r
2
\ mv 2 = e = k 1 mv 2 = 1k .
4 pe0
2
2
Thisisindependentof n.
From mvrn = nh,
2p
asmv isindependentofr,rn n.

14. (d):

n =2
hu21

Equatingequations(i)and(ii),we get

( M2 )v = Dmc
2
1

v12 =

2Dmc2
M

= + 13.6

(d) : After decay, the daughter nuclei will be more stable,


hencebindingenergypernucleonofdaughternucleiismore
thanthat oftheir parentnucleus.
Hence,E2 >E1.

n=5Pfund

10. (d) :

3
eV =10.2 eV.
4

Emissionisn=2 n=1i.e.,higherntolowern.
Transitionfromlowertohigherlevelsareabsorptionlines.

-13.6 12 - 12 = +13.6 2
9
6
2

Thisis<En= 2 En= 1.
15. (b):T1/2,halflifeofX= tY,meanlifeofY
ln 2 1
=
l X = lY ln 2
l X lY
lX > lY

n=4Brackett

n=3Paschen

XwilldecayfasterthanY.

n=2Balmer
Balmer

n=1Lyman
Lyman

n =113.6eV

1 1
hu21 = -13.6 2 - 2 eV
2 1

v1 = c 2Dm
M

9.

13.6eV
2
2

AX = A0e-l Xt AY = A0e -lYt

16. (c) : gray emission takes place due to deexcitation of the


nucleus.Thereforeduring grayemission,thereisnochange
intheprotonandneutronnumber.

104

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

17. (c):Bindingenergy= [ZMP + (AZ)MN M]c2


=[8MP +(17 8)MN MO]c2
=(8MP +9MN MO)c2
[Buttheoptiongivenis negativeof this].
18. (c) : Binding energy of
7
3Li = 7 5.60 =39.2 Me V
Binding energy of 4
2He = 4 7.06 = 28.24MeV

Energy of proton = Energy of 2(2 He) -3 Li


= 2 28.24 39.2
=17.28 MeV.

19. (d) : The 'rad' the biological effect of radiation.


7

20. (d) : 3 Li + 1H 4Be + Z X


Z for the unknown X nucleus = (3 + 1) 4 = 0
A for the unknown X nucleus = (7 + 1) 8 = 0
Hence particle emitted has zero Z and zero A
It is agamma photon.
21. (d) : Graph (d) represents the variation.
22. (c):Forclosestapproach,kineticenergyisconvertedinto
potential energy
\

1 mv2 = 1 q1q2 = 1 ( Ze )(2 e)


2
4 pe0 r0
4pe0
r0

or

r0 =

or

1
r0 is proportional to m .

4 Ze2 = Ze2 1

4pe0 mv 2 pe0v 2 m

23. (d) : The nuclear transformation is given by


A
X
Z

So the nucleus of the element be105B.


24. (c) : I is showing absorption photon.
Fromrestofthree,III having maximum energy from
1
1
DE 2 - 2 .
n
n2
1
N 1
25. (a) : N = 2

0

1
ln = - k 36
8
ln (23) = k 36
or 3ln2 = k 36

........(i)

In second case, ln 1 = - k x
2
or
ln(21) = kx
or
ln2 = kx
From (i) and (ii)
3 (kx) = k 36
or
x = 12 mm.

......... (ii)

27. (c) : R is proportional to A1/3 where A is mass number


3.6 = R0 (27)1/3 = 3R0, for

27
13 Al .
125
52 Al

Again R = R0 (125)1/3, for


(3 6)
R=
5 =6 fermi .
\
3

28. (c) : Kinetic energy is converted into potential energy at


closest approach
\
K.E. = P.E.
q q
5 MeV= 1 1 2
\
4pe0 r
or
or

(9 109) (92 e )(2 e)


r
9 109 92 2 e
r=
5 106
9 109 92 2 (1.6 10 -19)
=
5 106
14
r = 5.3 10 m = 5.3 1012 cm.
5 106 e =

29. (c) : Total binding energy for (each deuteron)


= 2 1.1 =2.2 MeV
Total binding energy for helium = 4 7 = 28 MeV
\
Energy released = 28 (2 2.2)
= 28 4.4 = 23.6 MeV.
30. (d): Momentumis conserved during disintegration
\
m1v1 = m2v2
For an atom, R = R0A1/3

.........(i)

1/ 3

t /T

15 / T

I
ln = - kx
I 0
In first case

+ 10 n 24 He + 37Li

According to conservation of mass number


A + 1= 4 + 7
or
A = 10
According to conservation of charge number
Z + 0 2 + 3
or
Z = 5

I
- kx
26. (b) : Q I = I0 ekx I = e
0

R1 A1
=
R2 A2
1/ 3

m
= 1
m2

15 /T

1 1
1
1
=
=
8 2
2 2
15
= 3 T = 5 min.
T

1/ 3

m v
= 2 2 ,from (i)
m2 v1

R1 1 1/ 3
1
=
= 1/ 3 .
R2 2
2

105

AtomsandNuclei

- Z 2E0

- (3)2 13.6
= -30.6 eV
2
n
(2)2
energy required = 30.6 eV.

31. (a) : Energy E2 =

32. (c) : Masses of 1H1 and 1D2 are different. Hence the
corresponding wavelengths are different.
33. (b): 133
55Cs hasthelowestionizationpotential.Ofthefour
atomsgiven,Cshasthelargestsize.Electronsintheouter
mostorbitareatlargedistancefromnucleusinalargesize
atom. Hence the ionization potential is the least.
34. (d): AttemperatureT,moleculesofagasacquireakinetic
3
energy = kT where k = Boltzmann's constant
2
\
To initiate the fusion reaction
3
kT = 7.7 10-14 J
2
-14
2 = 3.7 109 K.
T = 7.7 10 -23
\
3 1.38 10

Disintegration rate,initially = 5000


\
N0l = 5000
Disintegration rate, finally = 1250
\
Nl = 1250
Nl 1250 1
=
=
\
N 0l 5000 4
or
\
\

........... (i)
........... (ii)

N e-5l 1
N 1
= 0
= e-5 l = (4)-1
N0 4
N 0
4
5l = ln4 = 2ln2
2
l = ln 2 =0.4ln 2.
5

38. (b) : Linear momentum is conserved


aparticle = 42He
U238 X234 + He4
\
(238 0)= (238 v) + 4u
4u
or
v = -
.
234
39. (a): Gamma rays have the least wavelength.

35. (a) : Protons are not emitted during radioactive decay.


t / T

36. (b) : The nucleus emits 8a particles i.e., 8(2He4)


\ Decrease in Z = 8 2 = 16
........(i)
Four b particles are emitted i.e., 4(1b0)
\ Increase in Z = 4 1 = 4
........(ii)
2 positrons are emitted i.e., 2(1b0)
\ Decrease in Z = 2 1 = 2
......(iii)
\ Zofresultant nucleus = 92 16 + 4 2 = 78.
37. (a) : Let decay constant per minute = l

15 / 5

N 1
1
40. (a) : N = 2 = 2


0
\
N = N0/8.

1
1
= =
8
2

13.6
41. (c) : En = 13.6
E2 =
=3.4 eV
n2
(2)2
42. (a): Neutronsareelectricallyneutral.Theyarenotdeflected
by magnetic field.
Hence (a) represents the answer.

106

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

CHAPTER

ELECTRONICDEVICES

19
1.

TheIVcharacteristic ofan LEDis

4.

The combinationofgatesshown belowyields


A
X

(a)

(b)

(a) NANDgate
(c) NOTgate
5.
(c)

(d)

(b) ORgate
(d) XORgate

(2010)

ThelogiccircuitshownbelowhastheinputwaveformsA
andBasshown.Pickoutthecorrect outputwaveform.
A
Y
B

(2013)
InputA

2.

3.

A diode detectoris used to detect an amplitude modulated


waveof60%modulation by using acondenser of capacity
250 pico farad in parallel with a load resistance 100 kilo
ohm.Findthemaximummodulatedfrequencywhichcould
be detectedby it.
(a) 5.31kHz
(b) 10.62MHz
(c) 10.62kHz
(d) 5.31MHz
(2013)

InputB

Outputis
(a)

Truth table for system of four NAND gates as shown in


figure is
A

(b)

Y
B

(a)

(b)

(c)

6.

(c)

(d)

(2009)

(d)

A pnjunction(D)showninthefigurecanactasarectifier.
D

(2012)

Analternatingcurrentsource(V)isconnectedinthecircuit.
Thecurrent(I)intheresistor(R)canbeshown by

107

Electronic Devices
I

(a)

10V

+5V

(b)

(a)
t

(c)

(d)
10V

(2007)

5V

11. Thecircuithastwooppositelyconnectidealdiodesinparallel.
What is the current following in the circuit?

(b)
t

4 W

(c)

D1

D2

(2009)

(d)
t

7.

2 W

3 W

12V

Inthe circuitbelow, A and B represent two inputs and C


representsthe output.The circuitrepresents

(a) 1.33A
(c) 2.00A

(b) 1.71A
(d) 2.31A.

(2006)

12. Inthefollowing,whichoneofthediodesisreversebiased?
+5V

+10V

(a)

(b)
+5V

(a) ORgate
(c) ANDgate
8.

9.

(b) NORgate
(d) NANDgate.

(2008)

AworkingtransistorwithitsthreelegsmarkedP,QandR
istestedusingamultimeter.Noconductionisfoundbetween
PandQ.Byconnectingthecommon(negative)terminalof
the multimetertoRand the other(positive) terminalto P
orQ,someresistanceisseenonthemultimeter.Whichof
the followingistrue forthe transistor?
(a) Itisannpntransistorwith Rascollector.
(b) Itisannpn transistorwith Rasbase.
(c) Itisapnp transistorwith Ras collector.
(d) Itisapnp transistorwith Ras emitter.
(2008)
Carbon, silicon and germanium have four valence electrons
each.At room temperature which one of the following
statementsismostappropriate?
(a) Thenumberoffreeelectronsforconductionissignificant
onlyinSi and Ge butsmallinC.
(b) Thenumberoffreeconductionelectronsissignificantin
CbutsmallinSi and Ge.
(c) The number of free conduction electrons is negligibly
smallinallthethree.
(d) Thenumberoffreeelectronsforconductionissignificant
inallthethree.
(2007)

10. Ifinapnjunctiondiode,asquareinputsignalof10Vis
appliedasshown
5V

RL
5V

ThentheoutputsignalacrossRL will be

12V

(c)

R
5V

(d)

(2006)

10V

13. If the lattice constant of this semiconductor is decreased,


then which of the following is correct?
Ec

Conductionbandwidth
Bandgap

Eg

Valencebandwidth

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

all Ec, Eg, Ev decrease


all Ec, Eg, Ev increase
Ec, and Ev increase, but Eg decreases
Ec, and Ev decrease, but Eg increases.

Ev

(2006)

14. In commonbasemode of a transistor,thecollector current


is 5.488 mAforan emittercurrent of5.60mA. The value
of the base current amplification factor (b) will be
(a) 48
(b) 49
(c) 50
(d) 51.
(2006)
15. In the ratio of the concentration of electrons that of holes
inasemiconductoris7/5andtheratioofcurrentsis7/4then
what is the ratio of their drift velocities?
(a) 4/7
(b) 5/8
(c) 4/5
(d) 5/4.
(2006)
16. A solid which is transparent to visible light and whose
conductivity increases with temperature is formed by
(a) metallicbinding
(b) ionic binding
(c) covalent binding
(d) vanderWaalsbinding
(2006)

108

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

17. In afullwaverectifiercircuitoperatingfrom50Hzmains
frequency,thefundamentalfrequencyintheripplewouldbe
(a) 100 Hz
(b) 70.7 Hz
(c) 50 Hz
(d) 25 Hz
(2005)
18. Inacommonbaseamplifier,thephasedifferencebetween
the input signal voltage and output voltage is
(a) 0
(b) p/2
(c) p/4
(d) p
(2005)
19. Theelectricalconductivityofasemiconductorincreaseswhen
electromagnetic radiation of wavelength shorter than 2480
nm is incident on it. The band gap in (eV) for the
semiconductor is
(a) 0.5 eV
(b) 0.7 eV
(c) 1.1 eV
(d) 2.5 eV
(2005)
20. When pn junction diode is forward biased, then
(a) the depletion region is reduced and barrier height is
increased
(b) the depletion region is widened and barrier height is
reduced.
(c) boththedepletionregionandbarrierheightarereduced
(d) boththedepletionregionandbarrierheightareincreased
(2004)
21. The manifestation of band structure in solids is due to
(a) Heisenbergs uncertainty principle
(b) Paulis exclusion principle
(c) Bohrs correspondence principle
(d) Boltzmanns law
(2004)
22. Apieceofcopperandanotherofgermaniumarecooledfrom
room temperature to 77 K, the resistance of
(a) each of them increases
(b) each of them decreases
(c) copper decreases and germanium increases
(d) copper increases and germanium decreases. (2004)
23. Foratransistoramplifierincommonemitterconfiguration
forloadimpedanceof1kW (hfe =50andhoe =25)the
current gain is
(a) 5.2
(b) 15.7
(c) 24.8
(d) 48.78.
(2004)
24. Whennpn transistor is used as an amplifier
(a) electrons move from base to collector
(b) holes move from emitter to base
(c) electrons move from collector to base
(d) holes move from base to emitter.

(2004)

25. In the middle of the depletion layer of a reversebiased p


n junction, the
(a) electric field is zero
(b) potential is maximum
(c) electric field is maximum
(d) potential is zero.
(2003)
26. Thedifferenceinthevariationofresistancewithtemperature
inametalandasemiconductorarisesessentiallyduetothe
difference in the
(a) crystal structure
(b) variation of the number of charge carriers with
temperature
(c) type of bonding
(d) variation of scattering mechanism with temperature.
(2003)
27. A strip of copper andanother germanium are cooled from
room temperature to 80 K. The resistance of
(a) each of these decreases
(b) copperstripincreasesandthatofgermaniumdecreases
(c) copperstripdecreasesandthatofgermaniumincreases
(d) each of these increases.
(2003)
28. Formation of covalent bonds in compounds exhibits
(a) wave nature of electron
(b) particle nature of electron
(c) both wave and particle nature of electron
(d) none of these.
(2002)
29. Thepartofatransistorwhichismostheavilydopedtoproduce
large number of majority carriers is
(a) emitter
(b) base
(c) collector
(d) can be any of the above three.
(2002)
30. The energy band gap is maximum in
(a) metals
(b) superconductors
(c) insulators
(d) semiconductors.

31. By increasing the temperature, the specific resistance of a


conductor and a semiconductor
(a) increases for both (b) decreases for both
(c) increases, decreases (d) decreases, increases.
(2002)
32. At absolute zero, Si acts as
(a) nonmetal
(b) metal
(c) insulator
(d) none of these.
(2002)

Answer Key

1.
7.
13.
19.
25.
31.

(b)
(a)
(d)
(a)
(a)
(c)

2.
8.
14.
20.
26.
32.

(c)
(a)
(b)
(c)
(b)
(c)

3.
9.
15.
21.
27.

(d)
(a)
(d)
(b)
(c)

(2002)

4.
10.
16.
22.
28.

(b)
(a)
(c)
(c)
(a)

5.
11.
17.
23.
29.

(a)
(c)
(a)
(d)
(a)

6.
12.
18.
24.
30.

(c)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(c)

109

Electronic Devices

1.

2.

ThisissameastheBooleanexpression ofORgate.
Alternativemethod
Thetruthtableofthegivencircuitisasshowninthetable

(b) :TheIVcharacteristicsofaLEDissimilartothatofa
Sijunctiondiode.Butthethresholdvoltagesaremuchhigher
and slightly different for each colour.
Hence, the option (b)represents the correct graph.
(c) :Themaximumfrequencywhich can be detectedis
1
u=
2pmat
where, t=CR
Here, C=250picofarad=2501012 farad
R=100kiloohm=100 103 ohm
ma =0.6
\

u=

A
B
A
B
A B
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
ThisissameasthatofORgate.
A

5.

(a) :

Y
B

1
2p 0.6 250 10 -12 100 103

BydeMorganstheorem, ( A + B )= A B.

=10.61 103 Hz= 10.61kHz.


A

0
0

3.

(d) :
B

1
1

1 1
1
0

X = A B
0
1
1
1

1 1

A B

A+ B

A +B

Verify
A B

ThisisthesameasANDGateofAandB.
A

0
0

B
A

1
1

1
1

4.

1 1
1
0

1
1

1 1
1
1

0 0
0
1

1
1

7.

(a):ItisORgate.Wheneitherofthemconducts,thegate
conducts.

8.

(a): Itis npntransistorwith Rascollector.Ifitisconnected


tobase,itwillbe inforwardbias.

9.

(a):C,Siand Gehavethesamelatticestructureandtheir
valenceelectronsare4.ForC,theseelectronsareinthesecond
orbit,forSiitisthirdandgermaniumitisthefourthorbit.
In solid state, higher the orbit, greater the possibility of
overlappingofenergybands.Ionizationenergiesarealsoless
thereforeGehasmoreconductivitycomparedtoSi.Bothare
semiconductors.Carbonisaninsulator.

0
0

1 1

1
1

1 1

(c) : (a)isoriginalwave(b)isafullwaverectified(c)isthe
correct choice. The negative waves are cut off when the
diodeisconnectedinreversebias(d)isnotthediagramfor
alternatingcurrent.

0 0

(b): A

6.

The Booleanexpression of the given circuit is


X = A B
= A + B (UsingDe Morgantheorem)
=A+B(UsingBooleanidentity)

10. (a): ThecurrentwillflowthroughRL whendiodeisforward


biased.
11. (c) : SincediodeD1 isreverse biased,therefore itwill act
like an open circuit.
EffectiveresistanceofthecircuitisR=4+2=6 W.
CurrentinthecircuitisI=E/R=12/6=2A.
12. (a) : Figure (a) represent a reverse biased diode.
13. (d): Ecand Ev decreasebut Eg increasesifthelatticeconstant
of the semiconductor is decreased.

110

Ic
Ic
5.488
=
=
= 5.488 = 49.
I b I e - I c 5.60 -5.488 0.112
I
15. (d) : Drift velocity vd =
nAe
( vd )electron I e nh
= = 7 5 = 5 .
( vd )hole
4 7 4
I h ne

14. (b) : b =

16. (c) : Covalent binding.


17. (a) : Frequency of full wave rectifier
= 2 input frequency = 2 50 = 100 Hz.
18. (a): Inacommonbaseamplifier,thephasedifferencebetween
the input signal and output voltage is zero.
19. (a) : Band gap=Energy of photon of l = 2480 nm
hc
hc
\
Energy= l J = le (eV)
(6.63 10 -34 ) (3 108)
eV
\ Band gap =
(2480 10 -9 ) (1.6 10-19)
= 0.5 eV.
20. (c) : When pn junction diode is forward biased, both the
depletion region and barrier height are reduced.
21. (b):Pauli'sexclusionprincipleexplainsbandstructureof
solids.
22. (c) : Copper is a conductor.
Germanium is a semiconductor.

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

Whencooled,theresistanceofcopperdecreasesandthatof
germaniumincreases.
23. (d) : In common emitter configuration, current gain is
- ( hfe)
-50
=
Ai =
1 + (25 10 -6 ) (1 103)
1 +( hoe )( RL )
50
= -50 = 48.78.
1 +0.025 1.025
24. (a):Electronsofntypeemittermovefromemittertobase
andthen base to collector when npn transistor is used as
an amplifier.
25. (a) : Electric field is zero in the middle of the depletion
layer of a reverse baised pn junction.
=-

26. (b): Variationofnumberofchargecarrierswithtemperature


is responsible for variationofresistance ina metal and a
semiconductor.
27. (c):Copperisconductorandgermaniumissemiconductor.
When cooled,the resistanceofcopperstripdecreases and
that of germanium increases.
28. (a): Wavenatureofelectronandcovalentbondsarecorrelated.
29. (a) : The emitter is most heavily doped.
30. (c): Theenergy band gap is maximum in insulators.
31. (c) : For conductor, r increases as temperature rises.
For semiconductor, r decreases as temperature rises.
32. (c): Semiconductors,likeSi,Ge,act asinsulators at low
temperature.

111

Experimental Skills

CHAPTER

EXPERIMENTALSKILLS

20
1.

2.

3.

4.

A spectrometer gives the following reading when used to


measuretheangleofa prism.
Mainscalereading:58.5degree
Vernierscalereading:09divisions
Giventhat1divisiononmainscalecorrespondsto0.5degree.
Totaldivisionsonthevernierscaleis30andmatchwith29
divisionsofthemainscale.Theangleoftheprismfromthe
abovedata
(a) 58.77 degree
(b) 58.65 degree
(c) 59 degree
(d) 58.59 degree
(2012)
A screw gauge gives the following reading when used to
measurethediameter of awire.
Mainscalereading
:0 mm
Circularscalereading
: 52divisions
Giventhat 1mmonmain scale correspondsto
100divisionsofthe circular scale.
The diameterofwirefromtheabove datais :
(a) 0.52cm
(b) 0.052 cm
(c) 0.026cm
(d) 0.005 cm
(2011)
In an experiment the angles are required to be measured
usinganinstrument.29divisionsofthemainscaleexactly
coincide with the 30 divisions of the vernier scale. If the
smallestdivisionofthemainscaleishalfadegree(=0.5),
thentheleastcountofthe instrumentis
(a) one minute
(b) half minute
(c) one degree
(d) half degree
(2009)

distancev,fromthelens,isplottedusingthesamescalefor
thetwoaxes.Astraightlinepassingthroughtheoriginand
makinganangleof45withthe xaxismeetstheexperimental
curveatP.ThecoordinatesofPwill be
(a) (2f,2f)
(b) (f/2, f/2)
(c) (f,f)
(d) (4f,4f)
(2009)
5.

Anexperimentisperformedtofindtherefractiveindexof
glass using a travelling microscope. In this experiment
distancesaremeasuredby
(a) ascrewgaugeprovided onthemicroscope
(b) avernier scaleprovided onthe microscope
(c) astandardlaboratoryscale
(d) ameter scaleprovided onthemicroscope.
(2008)

6.

While measuring the speed of sound by performing a


resonance column experiment, a student gets the first
resonancecondition ata columnlength of 18 cm during
winter.Repeatingthesameexperimentduringsummer,she
measures the column length to be x cm for the second
resonance. Then
(a) 36> x >18
(b) 18 > x
(c) x > 54
(d) 54> x>36.
(2008)

7.

Twofullturnsofthecircularscaleofascrewgaugecover
adistanceof1mmonitsmainscale.Thetotalnumberof
divisionsonthecircularscaleis50.Further,itisfoundthat
the screw gauge has a zero error of 0.03 mm. While
measuringthediameterofathinwire,astudentnotesthe
mainscalereadingof3mmandthenumberofcircularscale
divisionsinlinewiththemainscaleas35.Thediameterof
thewireis
(a) 3.38mm
(b) 3.32mm
(c) 3.73mm
(d) 3.67mm.
(2008)

Inanopticsexperiment,withthepositionoftheobjectfixed,
a studentvariesthe position ofa convex lens and foreach
position, thescreen is adjusted to get a clear imageof the
object.Agraphbetweentheobjectdistanceuandtheimage

Answer Key

1.
7.

(b)
(a)

2.

(b)

3.

(a)

4.

(a)

5.

(b)

6.

(c)

112

1.

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

(b) :30VSD=29MSD
1 VSD = 29 MSD
30

Leastcount=1MSD1VSD

29
1
MSD =
0.5
30
30
Reading=Mainscalereading+Vernierscale
readingleastcount
= 1-

= 58.5 + 9 0.5 = 58.5 + 0.15 = 58.65.


30

2.

(b) :Leastcountof screw gauge


Pitch
=
Number of divisions on circular scale

5.

1
mm =0.01 mm
100
Diameterofwire= Mainscalereading
+circularscalereading Leastcount
=0+520.01=0.52mm=0.052cm
=

6.

Ifu=radiusofcurvature,2f,v=2f
1
1
1
i.e., 2 f + 2f = f .
vanduarehavethesamevaluewhentheobjectis at the
centre ofcurvature.Thesolutionis(a).
Accordingtherealandvirtualsystem,uis+veandvisalso
+veasbotharereal.Ifu= v,u=2f =radiusofcurvature.
\ 1 + 1 = 1 1 + 1 = 1.
v u
f
2 f 2f
f
Theansweristhesame(a).
(ThefiguregivenisaccordingtoNewCartesiansystem).
(b): Atravellingmicroscopemoveshorizontallyonamain
scale provided with a vernier scale, provided with the
microscope.
g RT
assumingMistheaveragemolarmassof
M
theair(i.e.,nitrogen)and g isalsofornitrogen.

(c): v1 =

n
L1

3.

(a) : Least count=

L2

value of 1 main scale division


The number of divisions
on the vernier scale

asshownbelow.
Herenvernierscale divisions= (n 1) M.S.D.

1 stresonance

g RT1
g RT2
v2 =
whereT1 andT2 standforwinter
M
M
andsummertemperatures.
v1 =

\ 1 V.S.D.= n- 1 M.S.D
n
L.C. = 1 M.S.D. - 1 V.S.D

L1 =

(n- 1)
M.S.D.
n
29
L .C. = 0.5 0.5
30

= 1 M.S.D -

4.

L .C. =

L2 =

v
P
u

v2 3l
=
> 3 18.
n
4

\ L2 >54cm.

45

1 - 1 = 1.
v u
f
One hasto takethat u is negative again for calculation, it
1 1 1
effectivelycomes to v + u = f .

v1 l
= =18 cm. AttemperatureT1
n 4

AtT2,summer, v2 > v1.

0.5
1 1
1
=
=
=1 min .
30 30 2 60

(a) :According to New Cartesian


coordinate system used in our 12th
classes, for a convex lens, as u is
negative, the lens equation is

2 ndresonance

7.

(a): Leastcountofthescrewgauge
0.5 mm
=
=0.01 mm
50
Mainscalereading=3mm.
Vernierscalereading=35
\Observedreading=3+0.35=3.35
zeroerror=0.03
\ actualdiameterofthewire=3.35(0.03)
=3.38mm.

CHEMISTRY

SomeBasicConceptsinChemistry

SOMEBASICCONCEPTS
INCHEMISTRY

CHAPTER

1
1.

2.

3.

4.

The molarity of a solution obtained by mixing 750 mL of


0.5MHClwith250mLof2MHClwillbe
(a) 0.975M
(b) 0.875M
(c) 1.00M
(d) 1.75M
(2013) 5.
Inthereaction,
2Al(s) +6HCl(aq) 2Al3+ (aq) +6Cl (aq) +3H2(g)
(a) 11.2 L H2(g) at STP is produced for every mole HCl(aq)
consumed
(b) 6LHCl(aq) isconsumedforevery3LH2(g) produced
(c) 33.6L H2(g) is producedregardless of temperature and
6.
pressureforevery moleAlthatreacts
(d) 67.2 L H2(g) at STP is produced for every moleAl that
reacts.
(2007)
How many moles of magnesium phosphate, Mg3(PO4)2 will
contain0.25mole of oxygen atoms?
7.
(a) 0.02
(b) 3.125102
2
(c) 1.2510
(d) 2.5102
(2006)
Ifweconsiderthat1/6,inplaceof1/12,massofcarbonatom
istakentobetherelative atomic mass unit,the massofone
moleofasubstancewill
(a) decreasetwice
(b) increasetwo fold

(c) remainunchanged
(d) bea functionofthemolecularmassofthesubstance.
(2005)
Whatvolumeofhydrogengas,at273Kand1atm.pressure
willbeconsumedinobtaining21.6gofelementalboron(atomic
mass = 10.8) from the reduction of boron trichloride by
hydrogen?
(a) 89.6L
(b) 67.2L
(c) 44.8L
(d) 22.4L
(2003)
Withincreaseoftemperature,whichofthesechanges?
(a) Molality
(b) Weightfraction ofsolute
(c) Fractionofsolutepresentinwater
(d) Mole fraction
(2002)
Number of atoms in 558.5 gram Fe (at. wt. of
Fe=55.85gmol1)is
(a) twicethatin60gcarbon
(b) 6.0231022
(c) halfthatin8gHe
(d) 558.56.0231023
(2002)

Answer Key

1.
7.

(b)
(a)

2.

(a)

3.

(b)

4.

(a)

5.

(b)

6.

(c)

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

1. (b): MmixVmix = M1V1 + M2V2


Mmix =

Now,atomic massofanelement

M1V1 + M2 V2
Vmix

0.5 750 + 2 250


1000
Mmix = 0.875 M
Mmix =

2.

(a): 2Al(s) +6HCl(aq )

3.

4.

Massofoneatomoftheelement
1
2amu(Hereonthescaleof ofC -12)
12

\
Numericallythemassofasubstancewillbecomehalf
ofthe normalscale.

2Al3+
(aq ) +6Cl(aq )+3H2(g )

6molesofHClproducedH2 atSTP=3 22.4L


\ 1moleofHClwillproduceH2 at STP
3 22.4
=
=11.2 L
6

Massofoneatomoftheelement
1
1amu(Hereonthescaleof ofC -12)
6

5.

(b):1mole ofMg3(PO4)2
3molesofMg atom+ 2 moles ofP atom
+ 8 molesofOatom
8molesofoxygenatomsarepresentin=1moleofMg3(PO4)2
1 0.25
0.25mole ofoxygen atoms are present in =
6.
8
=3.125 102 molesof Mg3(PO4)2
7.
(a) : 1 atomic mass unit on the scale of 1/6 of
C12=2amuonthe scale of1/12 of C12.

(b):2BCl3 +3H2 6HCl+2B


or

3
BCl3 + H2 3HCl+B
2

3
10.8gboronrequireshydrogen= 22.4L
2

21.6gboronwillrequirehydrogen
3 22.4 21.6 =67.2L
=
2 10.8

(c):Volumeincreaseswithriseintemperature.
558.5
=10 moles
(a):Fe(no.ofmoles)=
55.85
C(no.ofmoles)=60/12=5moles.
(atomicweightofcarbon=12)

StatesofMatter

CHAPTER

STATESOFMATTER

1.

Experimentallyitwasfoundthatametaloxidehasformula
M0.98O.Metal M,ispresentas M2+and M3+initsoxide.Fraction
ofthemetalwhichexistsas M3+ would be
(a) 5.08%
(b) 7.01%
(c) 4.08%
(d) 6.05%
(2013)

2.

Forgaseousstate,ifmostprobablespeedisdenotedbyC*,
averagespeedby C andmeansquarespeedbyC,thenfor
alarge number of moleculestheratios of these speedare
(a) C*: C : C = 1:1.225 :1.128
(b) C*: C : C = 1.225:1.128 :1
(c) C*: C : C = 1.128:1 :1.225
(d) C*: C : C = 1:1.128 :1.225
(2013)

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

If 104 dm3 of water is introduced into a 1.0 dm3 flask at


300 K,how many moles of waterare in the vapour phase
whenequilibriumisestablished?
(Given : Vapour pressure of H2O at 300 K is 3170 Pa
R=8.314JK1 mol1)
(a) 1.27103 mol
(b) 5.56103 mol
2
(c) 1.5310 mol
(d) 4.46102 mol
(2010)

9.

Percentagesoffreespaceincubicclosepackedstructureand
inbody centredpacked structure are respectively
(a) 48%and26% (b) 30%and26%
(c) 26%and32% (d) 32%and48%

(2010)

10. Coppercrystallizesinfccwithaunitcelllengthof361pm.
Whatistheradiusofcopperatom?
(a) 108pm
(b) 127pm
Lithium forms body centred cubic structure. The length of
(c) 157pm
(d) 181pm
(2009)
thesideofitsunitcellis351pm.Atomicradiusofthelithium
willbe
11. Inacompound,atomsofelement Y form ccp latticeandthose
(a) 300pm
(b) 240pm
ofelementX occupy2/3rd oftetrahedralvoids.Theformula
of thecompound willbe
(c) 152pm
(d) 75pm
(2012)
(a) X3Y4
(b) X4Y3
Thecompressibilityfactorforarealgasathighpressureis
(c) X2Y3
(d) X2Y
(2008)
(a) 1
(b) 1+ Pb/RT
(c) 1 Pb/RT
(d) 1+ RT/Pb
(2012) 12. Equalmassesofmethaneandoxygenaremixedinanempty
containerat25C.Thefractionofthetotalpressureexertedby
Inafacecentredcubic lattice,atom A occupies the corner
oxygenis
positionsandatom B occupies the facecentre positions.If
(a) 1/2
(b) 2/3
oneatomof Bismissingfromoneofthefacecentredpoints,
1 273

(c)
(d) 1/3
(2007)
the formula ofthecompound is
3 298
(a) A2B
(b) AB2
13. Totalvolumeofatomspresentinafacecentredcubicunitcell
(c) A2B3
(d) A2B5
(2011)
ofametalis(risatomicradius)
20 3
24 3
aandbarevanderWaalsconstantsforgases.Chlorine
pr
pr
(a)
(b)
3
3
ismore easilyliquefied thanethane because
12 3
16 3
(a) aand bforCl2 > a and bforC2H6
pr
pr
(c)
(d)
(2006)
3
3
(b) aand bforCl2 < a and bforC2H6
(c) aforCl2 < aforC2H6 but bfor Cl2 > b for C2H6
14. Which one of the following statements is not true about the
(d) aforCl2 > aforC2H6 but bfor Cl2 < b for C2H6
effect of an increase in temperature on the distribution of
molecularspeedsinagas?
(2011)
(a) Themostprobablespeedincreases.
Theedgelengthofafacecentredcubiccellofanionicsubstance
(b) Thefractionofthemoleculeswiththemostprobablespeed
is508pm.Iftheradiusofthecationis110pm,theradius
increases.
of theanionis
(c) Thedistributionbecomesbroader.
(a) 144pm
(b) 288pm
(d) Theareaunderthedistributioncurveremainsthesameas
underthelowertemperature.
(c) 398pm
(d) 618pm
(2010)
(2005)

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

15. AnioniccompoundhasaunitcellconsistingofAionsatthe 20. Accordingtothekinetictheoryofgases,inanidealgas,between


cornersofacubeandBionsonthecentresofthefacesofthe
twosuccessivecollisionsagasmoleculetravels
cube.Theempirical formulafor this compoundwouldbe
(a) inacircularpath
(a) AB
(b) A2B
(b) inawavypath
(c) AB3
(d) A3B
(2005)
(c) inastraightlinepath
(d) withan acceleratedvelocity.
16. Whattypeofcrystaldefectisindicatedinthediagrambelow?
(2003)
Na+ Cl Na+ Cl Na+ Cl
21. Howmanyunitcellsarepresentinacubeshapedidealcrystal
Cl
Cl Na+
Na+
ofNaClofmass1.00g?
Na+ Cl
Cl Na+ Cl
[Atomicmasses:Na=23,Cl=35.5]
+

+
Na
Cl Na Cl Na
21
(a)
2.5710
(b)
5.141021
(a) Frenkel defect
21
(c) 1.2810
(d) 1.711021
(b) Schottky defect
(2003)
(c) Interstitial defect
(2004) 22. NaandMgcrystallizeinbcc andfcc typecrystalsrespectively,
thenthenumberofatomsofNaandMgpresentintheunitcell
17. InvanderWaalsequationofstateofthegaslaw,theconstant
oftheirrespectivecrystalis
bisameasureof
(a) 4and2
(b) 9and14
(a) intermolecularrepulsions
(c)
14and9
(d) 2and4
(b) intermolecular attraction
(2002)
(c) volumeoccupied by the molecules
(d) FrenkelandSchottky defects

(2004) 23. Foranidealgas,numberofmolesperlitreintermsofitspressure


P,gasconstantRandtemperatureTis
18. Asthetemperatureisraisedfrom20Cto40C,theaverage
(a) PT/R
(b) PRT
kineticenergyofneonatomschangesbyafactorofwhichof
(c)
P/RT
(d) RT/P
the following?
(2002)
(a) 1/2
(b) 313/ 293
(c) 313/293
(d) 2
(2004) 24. Kinetictheoryofgasesproves
(a) onlyBoyle's law
19. A pressurecookerreducescookingtime forfood because
(b) onlyCharles'law
(a) heatismoreevenlydistributed inthecookingspace
(c) onlyAvogadro'slaw
(b) boilingpointofwater involvedincookingis increased
(d) allofthese.
(2002)
(c) the higher pressure inside the cooker crushes the food
(d) intermolecularcollisionsper unitvolume.

material
25. ValueofgasconstantRis
(d) cooking involves chemical changes helped by a rise in
(a) 0.082Latm
(b) 0.987calmol1 K1
1
1
temperature.
(c) 8.3Jmol K (d) 83ergmol1 K1
(2003)

Answer Key

1.
7.

(c)
(a)

2.
8.

(d)
(a)

3.
9.

(c)
(c)

4. (b)
10. (b)

5. (d)
11. (b)

6. (d)
12. (d)

13. (d)

14. (b)

15. (c)

16. (b)

17.

(c)

18. (c)

19. (b)
25. (c)

20. (c)

21. (a)

22. (d)

23.

(c)

24. (d)

(2002)

StatesofMatter

1.

(c) : Let thefraction ofmetal whichexists as M3+ be x.


Thenthefractionof metalas M2+ =(0.98 x)
\ 3x+2(0.98 x)=2
x+1.96=2
x=0.04
\ %ofM3+ =

2.

0.04
100 = 4.08%
0.98
2 RT
=
M

(d): C * : C :C=

8 RT
=
pM

3RT
M

8
= 3
3.14

= 2:

(c): a=351pm
Forbccunitcell, a 3 = 4r
r=

4.

a 3 351 3
=
=152pm
4
4

5.

(b): Forrealgases, P + 2 (V - b) = RT
V
Athighpressure,P>>a/V2
Thusneglecting a/V2 gives
P(Vb)= RT or PV=RT +Pb
PV
RT + Pb
=Z=
RT
RT

or

Z=1 + Pb/RT

(d): AB
8

1
8

1
2

Formulaofthe compound isA2B5.


6. (d) :

a(dm3 atmmol2)

b(dm3 mol1)

Cl2
6.49
0.0562
C2H6
5.49
0.0638
Fromtheabove values, afor Cl2 >a for ethane(C2H6)
b forethane (C2H6)> bfor Cl2.
7.

(a):Infcclattice,
Given,a =508pm
rc =110pm
\ 110+ra =

8.

508
ra = 144pm
2

(a): The volumeoccupied by water molecules invapour


phaseis(1104)dm3,i.e.,approximately 1dm3.
PV=nRT
31701103 = nH2O 8.314 300
nH

=
2O

(c): Thepackingefficiencyina ccp structure = 74%


\ Percentagefreespace =10074=26%
Packingefficiency inabody centredstructure = 68%
Percentagefreespace =10068=32%

10. (b) :SinceCucrystallizesinfcc lattice,


\ radiusofCuatom,

r=

a
(a =edge length)
2 2

Given,a =361pm

\ C * : C :C =1:1.128 :1.225

3.

9.

3170 10-3
= 1.27 10 -3 mol
8.314 300

\ r=

361
127 pm
2 2

11. (b):NumberofYatomsperunitcellinccplattice(N)=4
Numberoftetrahedralvoids=2N =24=8
Number oftetrahedralvoids occupied byX = 2/3 rd of the
tetrahedralvoid=2/38=16/3
Hencetheformulaof the compoundwill be
X16/3Y4 = X4Y3
12. (d): Letthemassofmethane andoxygenbem g.
Molefraction ofoxygen, xO2
m
m
32
1
32
=

=
=
m m
32
3m
3
+
32 16
Letthetotal pressurebeP.
\ PartialpressureofO2,pO2 = P xO2
1
1
= P
3
3
13. (d) : In case of a facecentred cubic structure, since four
atomsare presentinaunitcell,hencevolume
= P

4
16
V = 4 pr 3 = pr 3
3
3

14. (b):Mostprobablevelocityisdefinedasthespeedpossessed
by maximum number of molecules of a gas at a given
temperature.AccordingtoMaxwell'sdistributioncurves, as
temperatureincreases,mostprobablevelocityincreasesand
fraction of molecule possessing most probable velocity
decreases.
1
15. (c):NumberofAionsperunitcell= 8 =1
8
1
NumberofBionsperunitcell= 6 =3
2
Empiricalformula=AB3

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

16. (b): Whenanatomorionismissingfromitsnormallatticesite, 24. (d):ExplanationoftheGasLawsonthebasis ofKinetic


MolecularModel
alatticevacancyiscreated.ThisdefectisknownasSchottky
Oneof thepostulatesofkinetictheoryofgasesis
defect.
+

AverageK.E. T
HereequalnumberofNa andCl ionsaremissingfromtheir
2
regularlatticepositioninthecrystal.SoitisSchottkydefect.
1 mnC 2 T
1
or,
or, mnCrms = kT
rms
2
2
17. (c):vanderWaals constantfor volumecorrectionb isthe
2
2
Now, PV = 1 mnCrms
= 2 1mnCrms
= 2kT
measureoftheeffectivevolumeoccupiedbythegasmolecules.
3
3 2
3
(i) BoylesLaw:
18. (c):Kb =3/2RT
l
Constanttemperaturemeansthattheaveragekineticenergy
K 40 T40 273 + 40 313
ofthegasmoleculesremainsconstant.
=
=
=
K 20 T20 273 +20 293
l
Thismeansthatthermsvelocityofthemolecules, Crms
remainsunchanged.
19. (b):AccordingtoGayLussac'slaw,atconstantpressureofa
l
If the rms velocity remains unchanged, but the volume
given massofagasisdirectly proportional totheabsolute
increases,this meansthatthere willbe fewer collisions
temperature ofthe gas. Hence, on increasing pressure,the
withthecontainerwallsoveragiventime.
temperatureisalsoincreased.Thusinpressurecookerdueto
l
Therefore,thepressurewilldecrease
increase inpressure the boiling point of water involvedin
cookingisalsoincreased.
i.e. P 1
V
20. (c): Accordingtothekinetictheoryofgases,gasmoleculesare
orPV=constant.
alwaysinrapidrandommotioncollidingwitheachotherand
(ii) CharlesLaw:
withthewallofthe container and between two successive
l
Anincreaseintemperaturemeansanincreaseintheaverage
collisionsagasmoleculetravelsinastraightlinepath.
kineticenergyofthegasmolecules,thusanincreasein Crms.
l
Therewillbemorecollisionsperunittime,furthermore,
21. (a):Mass(m)=densityvolume=1.00g
themomentumofeachcollisionincreases(moleculesstrike
Mol.wt.(M)ofNaCl=23+35.5=58.5
thewallharder).
l
Numberofunitcellpresentinacubeshapedcrystal ofNaClof
Therefore,therewillbeanincreaseinpressure.
l
Ifweallow thevolumetochangetomaintainconstant
r a 3 N A m NA
mass1.00g=
=
pressure, the volume will increase with increasing
M Z
M Z
temperature(Charleslaw).
23
(iii) AvogadrosLaw
= 1 6.023 10
58.5 4
Itstatesthatundersimilarconditionsofpressureand
(InNaCleachunitcellhas4NaClunits.HenceZ=4).
temperature,equalvolumeofallgasescontainequalnumber
\ Numberofunitcells=0.025731023
ofmolecules.Consideringtwogases,wehave
=2.571021 unitcells
2
2
PV
1 1 = kT1 and PV
2 2 = kT2
3
3
22. (d):bcc Pointsareatcornersandoneinthecentreoftheunit
SinceP1 =P2 and T1 = T2,therefore
cell.
1
Numberofatomsperunitcell= 8 + 1 = 2
8

fccPointsareatthecornersandalsocentreofthesixfaces
of eachcell.
1
1
Numberofatomsperunitcell= 8 + 6 = 4
8

23. (c):Fromidealgasequation,PV=nRT
\ n/V=P/RT(numberofmoles=n/V)

PV
(2 / 3)kT1
V
n
1 1
=
1 = 1
P2V2 (2 / 3)kT2
V2 n2
Ifvolumesareidentical,obviouslyn1 = n2.

25. (c):UnitsofR
(i) inLatm 0.082Latmmol1 K1
(ii) inC.G.S.system 8.314107 ergmol1 K1
(iii) inM.K.S.system 8.314Jmol1 K1
(iv) incalories 1.987calmol1 K1

AtomicStructure

CHAPTER

3
1.

ATOMICSTRUCTURE

Energyofanelectronisgivenby E= -2.178 10

-18

Z2
J 2 .
n

Wavelength of light required to excite an electron in an 8.


hydrogenatomfromlevel n =1 ton =2 willbe
(h =6.621034 Jsand c =3.0108 ms1)
(a) 8.500107 m (b) 1.214107 m
(c) 2.816107 m (d) 6.500107 m
(2013)
2.

3.

4.

5.

Theelectronsidentifiedby quantum numbers nand l:


(1) n=4,l =1
(2) n=4,l = 0
(3) n=3,l =2
(4) n=3,l = 1
9.
canbeplacedinorderof increasing energy as
(a) (4)<(2)<(3)<(1)
(b) (2)<(4)<(1)<(3)
(c) (1)<(3)<(2)<(4)
(d) (3)<(4)<(2)<(1)
(2012)
Agasabsorbsaphotonof355nmandemitsattwowavelengths.
Ifoneoftheemission isat 680 nm, the otherisat
(a) 1035nm
(b) 325nm
(c) 743nm
(d) 518nm
(2011)

(c) 4.411017 Jatom1


(d) 2.21015 J atom1

7.

(2009)

The ionization enthalpy of hydrogen atom is


1.312106Jmol1.Theenergyrequiredtoexcitetheelectron
intheatomfrom n=1to n=2is
(a) 9.84105 Jmol1
(b) 8.51105 Jmol1
(c) 6.56105 Jmol1
(d) 7.56105 Jmol1
(2008)
Whichofthefollowingsetsofquantumnumbersrepresentsthe
highestenergyofan atom?
1
(a) n=3,l=0,m=0,s= +
2
1
(b) n=3,l=1,m=1,s= +
2
1
(c) n=3,l=2,m=1,s= +
2
1
(d) n=4,l=0,m=0,s= +
2

(2007)
The energyrequired tobreak one moleof ClClbondsin
Cl2 is242kJmol1.Thelongestwavelengthoflightcapable 10. Uncertainty in the position of an electron
(mass=9.11031kg)movingwithavelocity300ms1,accurate
of breaking a single ClCl bond is (c = 3 108 m s1
upto0.001%willbe(h=6.61034 Js)
andNA =6.021023 mol1)
(a) 19.2102 m (b) 5.76102 m
(a) 494nm
(b) 594nm
(c) 1.92102 m (d) 3.84102 m
(c) 640nm
(d) 700nm
(2010)
(2006)
IonisationenergyofHe+ is19.61018 Jatom1.Theenergy
ofthefirststationary state(n =1) ofLi2+ is
11. According to Bohrs theory, the angular momentum of an
17
1
electronin5th orbitis
(a) 8.8210 Jatom
(b) 4.411016 Jatom1

6.

(a) 1.52104 m (b) 5.10103 m


(c) 1.92103 m (d) 3.84103 m

(2010)

h
(a) 25
p

h
(b) 1.0
p

h
(c) 10
p

h
(d) 2.5
p

(2006)
Calculatethe wavelength(in nanometre)associatedwitha
protonmovingat1.0 103 ms1.
12. Whichofthefollowingstatementsinrelationtothehydrogen
(Massofproton=1.671027 kgandh=6.631034 Js)
atomiscorrect?
(a) 0.032nm
(b) 0.40nm
(a) 3sorbitalislowerinenergythan3porbital.
(c) 2.5nm
(d) 14.0nm
(2009)
(b) 3porbitalislowerinenergythan3dorbital.
Inanatom,anelectronis movingwith aspeedof600m/s
(c) 3sand3porbitalsareoflowerenergythan3dorbital.
withanaccuracyof0.005%.Certaintywithwhichtheposition
(d) 3s,3pand3dorbitalsallhavethesameenergy.
oftheelectroncanbelocatedis(h=6.61034 kgm2 s1,
(2005)
massofelectron,em =9.11031 kg)

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

13. In a multielectron atom, which of the following orbitals 17. Theorbitalangularmomentumforanelectronrevolvinginan


described bythe three quantum numbers will have the same
h
orbit is given by l( l + 1)
. This momentum for an
energyintheabsenceof magnetic andelectric fields?
2 p
(i) n=1,l=0,m=0
selectronwillbegivenby
(ii) n=2,l=0,m=0
1 h
(iii) n=2,l=1,m=1
(a) +
(b) zero
2 2 p
(iv) n=3,l=2,m=1
h
h
(v) n=3,l=2,m=0
(d) 2
(c)
2 p
2 p
(a) (i)and(ii)
(b) (ii)and(iii)
(2003)
(c) (iii)and(iv)
(d) (iv)and(v)
(2005) 18. ThedeBrogliewavelengthofatennisballofmass60gmoving
witha velocityof10metrespersecondisapproximately
14. Thewavelengthoftheradiationemitted,wheninahydrogen
(Planck'sconstant,h=6.631034 Js)
atomelectronfallsfrominfinitytostationarystate1,wouldbe
33
(a) 10 metres
(b) 1031 metres
(Rydbergconstant=1.097107 m1)
16
(c) 10 metres
(d) 1025 metres.
(a) 91nm
(b) 192nm
(2003)
(c) 406nm
(d) 9.1108 nm
(2004) 19. InBohrseriesoflinesofhydrogenspectrum,thethirdlinefrom
the redend correspondsto which oneof thefollowing inter
15. ConsiderthegroundstateofCratom(Z =24).Thenumbersof
orbit jumps of the electron for Bohr orbits in an atom of
electronswiththeazimuthalquantumnumbers, l =1and2are,
hydrogen?
respectively
(a) 3 2
(b) 5 2
(a) 12and4
(b) 12and5
(c) 4 1
(d) 2 5
(c) 16and4
(d) 16and5
(2003)
(2004)
16. Whichofthefollowingsetsofquantumnumbersiscorrectfor 20. Uncertaintyinpositionofa minuteparticleofmass 25 g in
space is 105 m. What is the uncertainty in its velocity
anelectronin4f orbital?
(inms1)?
(h=6.61034 Js)
1
(a) n=4,l=3,m=+4,s= +
34
(a) 2.110
(b) 0.51034
2
(c) 2.11028
(d) 0.51023
(2002)
1
(b) n=4,l=4,m=4,s= -
2
21. Inahydrogenatom,ifenergyofanelectroningroundstateis
1
13.6eV,thenthatinthe2nd excitedstateis
(c) n=4,l=3,m=+1,s= +
2
(a) 1.51eV
(b) 3.4eV
1
(c) 6.04eV
(d) 13.6eV
(d) n=3,l=2,m=2,s= +
(2004)
(2002)
2

Answer Key

1.

(b)

7. (c)
13. (d)
19. (b)

2.

(a)

8. (a)
14. (a)
20. (c)

3.

(c)

9. (c)
15. (b)
21. (a)

4.

(a)

10. (c)
16. (c)

5.

(c)

11. (d)
17. (b)

6.

(b)

12. (d)
18. (a)

AtomicStructure

1.

1
-18 2 1
(b):E= -2.178 10 Z 2 - 2
n1 n2
-18

E = -2.178 10

1
1
2 - 2
(1)

(2)

E = +2.178 10 -18
E=

5.

2.

3.

hc 6.62 10 -34 Js 3 10 8m
=
E
1.6335 10 -18J

l =1.214107 m

6.

l1

1
1
1
=
+
355 680 l2

l2

h
mv
Given,v =1.0103 ms1

355 680
= 742.769 nm 743nm
680 -355

Energyrequired to break 1 bond =

Weknowthat, E =

hc
l

Given,c=3108 ms1

6.63 10-34
= 3.9 10 -10 m
1.67 10 -27 1.0 103
l 0.4nm

\ l=

or
7.

(c): Given,velocityof e, v =600ms1


Accuracy of velocity = 0.005%
600 0.005
\ Dv=
= 0.03
100
AccordingtoHeisenbergsuncertaintyprinciple,
h
Dx mDv
4p
6.6 10-34
Dx=
4 3.14 9.1 10 -31 0.03

8.

(a):Energyrequiredtobreak1molofbonds=242kJmol1
\

(b):AccordingtodeBroglies equation,

=1.92103 m

E=E1 +E2 or hc = hc + hc

4.

-19.6 10 -18 9
= - 44.1 10 -18 J atom-1
4

l =

E= hu=hc/l

\ l 2 =

242 10 3

=4.411017 Jatom1

(c):Weknowthat

1
1
1
=
+
l l1 l 2

6.63 10 -34 3 108 6.02 1023

(c): I.E.(He+)=19.61018 Jatom1

(a): (1) n=4,l =1 4p


(2) n=4,l =0 4s
(3) n=3,l =2 3d
(4) n=3, l=1 3p
Increasingorderof energyis3p <4s< 3d < 4p
(4)<(2)<(3) <(1)
Alternatively,
for (1) n+ l= 5 n= 4
(2) n+ l= 4 n= 4
(3) n+l= 5 n = 3
(4) n+l= 4 n = 3
Lower n + l means less energy and if for two subshells
n+lissamethanlower n, lowerwillbetheenergy.
Thuscorrectorderis(4)< (2)<(3)< (1).

l=

6.63 10 -34 3 108


l

E1 (forH) Z2 = I.E.
E1 4=19.61018
E1 (forLi2+)= E1 (forH)9

l =12.14108 m

or

6.02 10 23

=0.494106 m=494nm

3
= 1.6335 10 -18 J
4

hc
l
l=

242 10 3

242 103
6.02 10 23

(a):TheionisationofHatomistheenergyabsorbedwhen
the electroninanatomgetsexcitedfromfirst shell(E1) to
infinity(i.e., E)
I.E=E E1
1.312106 =0 E1
E1 =1.312106 Jmol1
6

E2 = - 1.312 210 = -1.312 10


4
(2)
Energyofelectroninsecond orbit(n= 2)
\ Energyrequiredwhenanelectronmakestransitionfrom
n=1ton=2
6

DE= E2 E1 = - 1.312 10 - ( -1.312 106)


4

10

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER
6
6
6
= -1.312 10 + 5.248 10 =0.98410
4
DE =9.84105 Jmol1

9.

(c): n=3,l=0represents3sorbital
n=3,l=1represents3porbital
n=3,l=2represents3dorbital
n=4,l=0represents4sorbital
Theorderofincreasing energy of theorbitals is
3s< 3p< 4s< 3d.

10. (c): Accordingto Heisenbergs uncertainty principle,


h
Dx Dp =
4p
h
h
Dx (m Dv )=
Dx=
4p
4pm Dv
0.001
-3
300 = 3 10 m s-1
Here Dv =
100
6.63 10-34
\
Dx =
4 3.14 9.1 10 -31 3 10-3
= 1.92 10 -2m
11.

12.
13.

14.

15.

Forl =1,totalnumberofelectrons=12
[2p6 and3p6]
Forl =2,totalnumberofelectrons=5
16. (c): For4f orbitalelectrons, n=4

[3d5]

spdf

l=3(because 0123 )
m=+3,+2,+1,0,1,2,3
s= 1/2
17. (b): Thevalueof l (azimuthalquantumnumber)for s electron
isequaltozero.
h
Orbitalangularmomentum= l (l + 1) 2p

Substituting

the

value

of

for

selectron

= 0(0 + 1) h = 0
2p

-34
18. (a): l = h = 6.63 10 1000 m

mv

60 10

=11.051034 m=1.1051033 metres.

19. (b):Theelectronhasminimumenergyinthefirstorbitand
itsenergyincreasesasn increases.Here n representsnumber
nh
(d): Angularmomentum of the electron, mvr =
oforbit, i.e.1st,2nd,3rd ....Thethirdlinefromthe redend
2p
correspondstoyellowregion i.e.5.Inordertoobtain less
whenn=5(given)
energy electron tends to come in 1st or 2nd orbit. So jump
5h
h
maybeinvolvedeither5 1or5 2.Thusoption(b)is
= 2.5
\
Angularmomentum=
2p
p
correct here.
(d): For hydrogen the energy order of orbital is
20. (c) : According to Heisenberg uncertainty principle,
1s <2s=2p <3s =3p=3d< 4s=4p=4d = 4f
h
Dx mDv =
(d): Orbitalshaving same (n + l) value in the absenceof
4p
electricandmagnetic field will have same energy.
6.6 10-34
Dv =

4 3.14 25 10-5
(a): 1 = R 12 - 12 1 = 1.097 107 m-1 1 - 1
2
2
l
l
1
n1 n2
\ D v = 2.1 10 -28 m s-1
\
l=91109 m=91nm
21. (a): 2nd excitedstate willbe the 3rdenergylevel.
(b): 24Cr 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d5 4s1
weknowforp, l=1andfor d, l = 2.
En = 13.6
eV or E = 13.6= 1.51eV
n 2
9

11

ChemicalBondingandMolecularStructure

CHAPTER

4
1.

2.

StabilityofthespeciesLi2,Li

2 andLi2 increasesintheorder
of
(a) Li2 <Li2 <Li+
2
(b) Li2 <Li+2 <Li2
(c) Li2 <Li+
2 <Li2
11.
(d) Li2 <Li2 <Li+
(2013)
2

Inwhichofthe followingpairs ofmolecules/ions,boththe


speciesare notlikely toexist?
(a) H2, He22+
(b) H2+, He22

4.

5.

6.

7.

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

N2,O2,NO+,CO
C22,O2,CO,NO

NO+,C22
,CN ,N2
2
CN,N2,O2 ,C22

Whichoneofthefollowingpairsofspecieshave the same


bond order?
(a) NO+ andCN+ (b) CN andNO+
(c) CN andCN+ (d) O2 andCN
(2008)

(d) H22+, He2

(2013)

In which of the following pairs the two species are not 14. Thecharge/sizeratioofacationdeterminesitspolarizingpower.
Whichoneofthefollowingsequencesrepresentstheincreasing
isostructural?
+
orderofthepolarizingpowerofthecationicspecies,K+,Ca2+,
(a) PCl4 andSiCl4 (b) PF5 andBrF5
Mg2+,Be2+?
(c) AlF63 andSF6 (d) CO32 andNO3
(2012)
(a) Ca2+ <Mg2+ <Be+ <K+
The structureofIF7 is
(b) Mg2+ <Be2+ <K+ <Ca2+
(a) squarepyramid (b) trigonalbipyramid
(c) Be2+ <K+ <Ca2+ <Mg2+
(c) octahedral
(d) pentagonalbipyramid.
(2011)
(d) K+ <Ca2+ <Mg2+ <Be2+
(2007)

+
+
ThehybridisationoforbitalsofNatominNO3,NO2 andNH4
15. Which of the following species exhibits the diamagnetic
are respectively
behaviour?
2
(a) sp, sp2,sp3
(b) sp2,sp, sp3
(a) NO
(b) O2
+
(c) sp, sp3,sp2
(d) sp2,sp3, sp
(2011)
(c) O
(d) O
(2007)
2

8.

9.

(2008)

12. Whichofthefollowinghydrogenbondsisthestrongest?
(a) OHF
(b) OHH
Whichoneofthefollowingmoleculesisexpectedtoexhibit
(c) FHF
diamagnetic behaviour?
(d) OHO
(2007)
(a) S2
(b) C2
(c) N2
(d) O2
(2013) 13. Inwhichofthefollowingionizationprocesses,thebondorder
hasincreasedandthemagneticbehaviourhaschanged?
Themolecule havingsmallest bondangle is
(a) N2 N2+
(b) C2 C2+
(a) AsCl3
(b) SbCl3
(c) NO NO+
(d) O2 O2+
(2007)
(c) PCl
(d) NCl
(2012)
(c) H2,He22

3.

CHEMICALBONDINGAND
MOLECULARSTRUCTURE

Amongthefollowingthemaximumcovalentcharacterisshown
16. Inwhichofthefollowingmolecules/ionsareallthebondsnot
by the compound
equal?
(a) FeCl2
(b) SnCl2
(a) SF4
(b) SiF4
(c) AlCl3
(d) MgCl2
(2011)
(c) XeF4
(d) BF4
(2006)
UsingMOtheorypredictwhichofthefollowingspecieshas
17. Among the following mixtures, dipoledipole as the major
the shortest bondlength?
interaction,ispresentin
(a) O2+
(b)O+2
2
(a) benzeneand ethanol
(c) O2
(d) O2
(2009)
2
(b) acetonitrileand acetone

10. Which one of the following constitutes a group of the


isoelectronic species?

(c) KClandwater
(d) benzeneand carbontetrachloride.

(2006)

12

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

18. Whichofthefollowingmolecules/ionsdoesnotcontainunpaired 25. The pair of species having identical shapes for molecules of
electrons?
bothspeciesis
(a) O22
(b) B2
(a) CF4,SF4
(b) XeF2,CO2
(c) N2+
(d) O2
(2006)
(c) BF3,PCl3
(d) PF5,IF5
(2003)
19. OfthefollowingsetswhichonedoesNOTcontainisoelectronic
species?
(a) PO43,SO42,ClO4
(b) CN,N2,C22
2

(c) SO32
,CO3 ,NO3
3
2
(d) BO3 ,CO3 ,NO3

(2005)

26. Whichoneofthefollowingcompoundshasthesmallestbond
angleinitsmolecule?
(a) SO2
(b) OH2
(c) SH2
(d) NH3
(2003)

27. Whichofthefollowingarearrangedinanincreasingorderof
theirbondstrengths?
(a) O2 <O2 <O2+ <O22

+
(b) O22
<O2 <O2 <O2
+
Themaximumnumberof90anglesbetweenbondpairbond
(c) O2 <O22
<O2 <O2
+

2
pairofelectronsisobserved in
(d) O2 <O2 <O2 <O2
(a) dsp3 hybridisation
(2002)
(b) sp3dhybridisation
28. Asquareplanarcomplexisformedbyhybridisationofwhich
(c) dsp2 hybridisation
atomicorbitals?
(d) sp3d2 hybridisation.
(2004)
(a) s,px ,py ,dyz
(b) s,px ,py ,dx2 y2
Whichoneofthefollowinghastheregulartetrahedralstructure?
(c) s,px ,py ,dz2
(d) s,py ,pz ,dxy
(a) XeF4
(b) SF4
(2002)
(c) BF4
(d) [Ni(CN)4]2
(Atomicnos.:B= 5,S= 16,Ni= 28,Xe=54) 29. NumberofsigmabondsinP4O10 is
(a) 6
(b) 7
(2004)
(c) 17
(d) 16
ThebondorderinNOis2.5whilethatinNO+ is3.Whichof
(2002)
thefollowingstatementsistrue forthese twospecies?
30. Inwhichofthefollowingspeciesistheunderlinedcarbonhaving
(a) BondlengthinNO+ isgreaterthaninNO.
+
(b) BondlengthinNOisgreaterthaninNO .
sp3 hybridisation?
+
(c) BondlengthinNO isequaltothatinNO.
(a) CH3COOH
(b) CH3 CH2 OH
(d) Bondlengthisunpredictable.
(2004)
(d) CH2 CHCH3
(c) CH3COCH3
(2002)
Thecorrectorderofbondangles(smallestfirst)inHS,NH,

20. Whichoneofthefollowingspeciesisdiamagneticinnature?
(a) He2+
(b) H2
(c) H2+
(d) H2
(2005)

21.

22.

23.

24.

BF3 andSiH4 is
(a) H2S<SiH4 <NH3 <BF3
(b) NH3 <H2S<SiH4 <BF3
(c) H2S<NH3 <SiH4 <BF3
(d) H2S<NH3 <BF3 <SiH4.

(2004)

31. Inwhichofthefollowingspeciestheinteratomicbondangleis
10928?
1
+
(a) NH3,(BF
(b) (NH4)

4)

,BF3
1
(c) NH3,BF
(d) (NH2)
(2002)

3
,BF3

Answer Key

1.

(c)

2.

(d)

3.

(d)

4.

(b)

5.

(b)

6.

(d)

7.
13.
19.
25.
31.

(b)
(c)
(c)
(b)
(a)

8.
14.
20.
26.

(c)
(d)
(b)
(c)

9.
15.
21.
27.

(a)
(b)
(d)
(b)

10.
16.
22.
28.

(c)
(a)
(c)
(b)

11.
17.
23.
29.

(b)
(b)
(b)
(d)

12.
18.
24.
30.

(c)
(a)
(c)
(b)

13

ChemicalBondingandMolecularStructure

1.

(c): Species Bond order


Li2
1

Li2
0.5

8.

inionic bond.
Fajansrulestatesthat
(i)thepolarisingpowerofcationincreases,withincreasein
magnitude of positive charge on thecation
\
polarisingpower chargeofcation
(ii)thepolarisingpowerofcationincreaseswiththedecrease
inthesizeofacation.

Li2+
0.5
Higherthebondorder, greateristhestability.
2.

(d):Specieswith zerobond order does notexist.


H22+ : s(1s)0
\
Bondorder= 0
He2 : s(1s)2 s*(1s)2
Bondorder =

\ polarisingpower

3.

(d):O2 isexpectedtobediamagneticinnaturebutactually 9.
itisparamagnetic.

4.

(b):Aswemovedownthegroupthesizeofatomincreases
and as size of central atom increases, lone pairbond pair
repulsionalsoincreases.Thus bond angledecreases.
Increasingorderof atomic radius :
N<P<As<Sb
Decreasingorderof bond angle :
NCl3 >PCl3 >AsCl3 >SbCl3

5.

6.

(b):PCl andSiCl4 bothtetrahedral


PF5 trigonalbipyramidal
BrF5 squarepyramidal
AlF63 andSF6 bothareoctahedral,CO32 andNO3 bothare
trigonalplanar.
(d):The structureis pentagonalbipyramidal havingsp3d3
hybridisationasgiven below:

1
sizeofcation

HeretheAlCl3 issatisfyingtheabovetwoconditionsi.e.,Al
is in +3 oxidation state andalso has small size. So it has
more covalent character.

2 - 2
=0
2

+
4

(c): Weknowthat,extentofpolarisation covalentcharacter

(a) : According to MOT, the molecular orbital electronic


configuration of
O22+ :(s 1s)2(s*1s)2(s 2s)2(s*2s)2(s 2pz)2(p 2px)2 =(p 2py )2
10 - 4
=3
2
+
O2 :(s1s)2(s*1s)2(s2s)2(s*2s)2(s2pz)2(p 2px )2
\ B.O. =

=(p 2py )2(p*2px )1


10 - 5
= 2.5
2

O2 :(s1s)2(s*1s)2(s2s)2(s*2s)2(s2pz)2(p 2px )2
=(p 2py)2(p*2px)2 =(p*2py )1
\ B.O. =

10 - 7
=1.5
2
O22 :(s 1s)2(s*1s)2(s 2s)2(s*2s)2(s 2pz)2(p2px )2
=(p 2py)2(p*2px)2 =(p*2py )2
\ B.O. =

10 - 8
= 1.0
2
1
Q B.O.
,
Bond length
2+
\
O2 hastheshortestbondlength.
\ B.O. =

7.

(b):Thestructuresof NO3,NO2+ and NH4+ is


sp2 hybridisation
sp hybridisation

sp3 hybridisation

10. (c): Numberofelectronsineach speciesaregiven below


N2 =14
CN =14

O2 =17
C22
=14
+
NO =14
O22
=18
CO=14
NO=15
It is quite evident from the above that NO+,

C22
,CN ,N2andCOareisoelectronicinnature.Henceoption
(c)iscorrect.
11. (b):Inthegivenpairofspecies,numberofelectroninNO+
=numberofelectroninCN = 14electrons.
So theyare isoelectronicin nature.

14

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

Hencebondorderof these two species will be also


similarwhichisshownbelow.
NO+ s1s2 s*1s2 s2s2 s*2s2 s2pz2 p2px2 p2py2
B.O=1/2[Nb Na]= 1/2[10 4]
or
B.O=3
CN s1s2 s*1s2 s2s2 s*2s2 p2px2 p2py2 s2pz2
B.O =1/2[10 4] orB.O= 3
12. (c): Becauseof highestelectronegativity of F, hydrogen
bondinginFHFisstrongest.
13. (c):Molecular orbital configuration of
O2 s1s2 s*1s2 s2s2 s*2s2 s2pz2 p2px2 p2py2 p*2px1 p*2py1
paramagnetic

16. (a):

F
.
.

SF4 moleculeshows sp3d hybridisationbutitsexpectedtrigonal


bipyramidal geometry gets distorted due to presence of a
lone pairof electronsand it becomesdistorted tetrahedral
orseesawwiththebondanglesequalto89and177instead
of the expected angles of90and 180 respectively.
SiF4 : sp3 hybridisationandtetrahedralgeometry.
F

Bondorder= 10 - 6 = 2
2
+

109.5

O2 s1s2 s*1s2 s2s2 s*2s2 s2pz2 p2px2 p2py2 p*2px1

Si

paramagnetic
Bondorder= 10 - 5 = 2.5
2

N2 s1s2 s*1s2 s2s2 s*2s2 p2px2 p2py2 p2pZ2


paramagnetic
10 - 4
Bondorder=
= 3
2
+
N2 s1s2 s*1s2 s2s2 s*2s2 p2px2 p2py2 p2pz1
paramagnetic
9 - 4
Bondorder=
= 2.5
2
C2 s1s2 s*1s2 s2s2 s*2s2 p2px2 p2py2
diamagnetic
Bondorder= 8 - 4 = 2
2

C2+ s1s2 s*1s2 s2s2 s*2s2 p2px2 p2py1


paramagnetic
Bondorder= 7 - 4 = 1.5
2

NO s1s2 s*1s2 s2s2 s*2s2 s2pz2 p2px2 p2py2 p*2px1


paramagnetic
Bondorder= 10 - 5 = 2.5
2

NO+ s1s2 s*1s2 s2s2 s*2s2 s2pz2 p2px2 p2py2


diamagnetic

F
F

XeF4:sp3d2 hybridisation,shapeissquareplanarinsteadof
octahedralduetopresenceoftwolonepairofelectronson
Xeatom.
F

F
Xe
F

BF4

: sp3 hybridisationandtetrahedral geometry.

17. (b) : Dipoledipole interactions occur among the polar


molecules. Polar molecules have permanent dipoles. The
positivepoleofonemoleculeisthusattractedbythenegative
poleoftheothermolecule.Themagnitudeofdipoledipole
forcesindifferentpolarmoleculesispredictedonthebasis
ofthepolarityofthemolecules,whichinturndependsupon
theelectronegativitiesoftheatomspresentinthemolecule
and the geometry of the molecule (in case of polyatomic
molecules,containingmorethantwoatomsinamolecule).

18. (a): The molecular orbitalconfiguration ofO22 ion is


KK s(2s)2 s*(2s)2 s(2pz)2 p(2px)2 p(2py)2 p*(2px)2 p*(2py)2
10
4
Bondorder=
= 3
Here KK representsnonbondingmolecularorbitalof1s orbital.
2
O22
contains nounpaired electrons.
14. (d) : High charge and small size of the cations increases
The molecular orbitalconfiguration of B2 molecule is
polarisation.
1
1
KK s(2s)2 s*(2s)2 p(2px)
p(2py)
Asthesizeofthegivencationsdecreases as
Itcontains2unpairedelectrons.
K+ >Ca2+ >Mg2+ >Be2+
The molecular orbitalconfiguration of N+
2 ion is
Hence,polarisingpowerdecreasesas
KK s(2s)2 s*(2s)2 s(2pz)2 p(2px)2 p(2py)2 s(2pz)1
K+ <Ca2+ <Mg2+ < Be2+
Itcontains one unpairedelectron.
The molecularorbital configurationof O2 molecule is
15. (b): Molecular orbital configuration is
KK s(2s)2 s*(2s)2 p(2px)2 p(2py)2 s(2pz)2 p*(2px)1 p*(2py)1
NO s1s2 s*1s2 s2s2 s*2s2 s2pz2 p2px2 p2py2 p*2px1
Itcontains2unpairedelectrons.
paramagnetic
2
O2 s1s2 s*1s2 s2s2 s*2s2 s2pz2 p2px2 p2py2 p*2px1 p*2py1 19. (c): Numberofelectrons inSO3
=16+83+2=42
paramagnetic
Number of electrons in CO32=6+83+2= 32
O22 s1s2 s*1s2 s2s2 s*2s2 s2pz2 p2px2 p2py2 p*2px2 p*2py2
NumberofelectronsinNO3 =7 +83+1= 32
diamagnetic
Theseare notisoelectronicspeciesasnumber ofelectrons
O2+ s1s2 s*1s2 s2s2 s*2s2 s2pz2 p2px2 p2py2 p*2px1
arenotsame.
paramagnetic

15

ChemicalBondingandMolecularStructure

20. (b): He2+ s(1s)2 s*(1s)1, one unpaired electron


25. (b):Centralatomineachbeingsphybridisedshowslinear
H2 s(1s)2 s*(1s)0, no unpaired electron
shape.
+
FXeF
O C O
1
0
H2 s(1s) s*(1s) , one unpaired electron

2
1
26. (c):
SO2 OH2
SH2 NH3
H2 s(1s) s*(1s) , one unpaired electron.
Bondangle:119.5 104.5 92.5 106.5
Duetoabsenceofunpairedelectrons,H2 willbediamagnetic.
27. (b) : Molecular orbital configuration of
21. (d):
O2 s(1s)2s*(1s)2s(2s)2s*(2s)2s(2pz)2p(2px)2
1
1
p(2py)2p*(2px)
p*(2py)
B.O. =

dsp2 hybridisation

dsp2

sp3d or dsp3

hybridisation
(four 90 angles between
bond pair and bond pair)

hybridisation
(six 90 angles between
bond pair and bond pair)

10 - 6
= 2
2

O+2 s(1s)2s*(1s)2s(2s)2s*(2s)2s(2pz)2p(2px)2
p(2py)2p*(2px)1;B.O. =

10 - 5
=2.5
2

2
2
O2 s(1s)2s*(1s)2s(2s)2s*(2s)2s(2pz)
p(2px)

p(2py)2p*(2px)2p*(2py)1 B.O. =

2
2
O22 s(1s)2s*(1s)2s(2s)2s*(2s)2s(2pz)
p(2px)

sp3d2hybridisation
(twelve90anglebetweenbondpairandbondpair)

F
2

p(2py)2p*(2px)2p*(2py)2 B.O. =

CN

NC

22. (c):

Ni
NC

CN

squareplanar

..

29.

..
..

Xe

28. (b):dsp2 hybridisationgivessquareplanarstructurewiths,


px,py and dx2 y2 orbitalswithbondanglesof 90.

10 - 8
=1
2

Hence increasingorder of bondorder is


O22 <O2 <O2 <O2+

regulartetrahedral

10 - 7
=1.5
2

P
O
(d):
O
P

O
O

No.of s bonds =16


No.of p bonds=4
23. (b):Higherthebondorder,shorterwillbethebondlength.
ThusNO+ ishaving higher bond order than that ofNOso
O
O
NO+ hasshorterbond length.
30. (b): Inmolecules(a) CH3 C OH ,(c) CH C CH
3
3
24. (c): The correctorder of bond angle (smallest first)is
H2S <NH3 < SiH4 < BF3
and(d)(CH2 CH CH3),thecarbonatomhasamultiple
92.6<107<10928 < 120
bond,only(b)has sp3 hybridization.
squareplanar

seesawshaped

H
92.6

107 N

H H

10928

Si

H H

H F

120

31. (a): Bothundergoes sp3hybridization.Theexpectedbondangle


shouldbe10928butactualbondangleislessthan 10928
becauseoftherepulsionbetweenlonepairand bonded pairs
duetowhichcontractionoccurs.

16

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

CHAPTER

5
1.

2.

CHEMICAL
THERMODYNAMICS

Apistonfilledwith0.04molofanidealgasexpandsreversibly
from50.0mLto375mLataconstanttemperatureof37.0C.
Asitdoesso,itabsorbs208Jofheat.Thevaluesofq and 7.
w fortheprocesswillbe(R=8.314J/molK)(ln7.5=2.01)
(a) q=+208J,w=+208J
(b) q=+208J,w=208J
(c) q=208J,w=208J
(d) q=208J,w=+208J
(2013)
The incorrectexpression among the following is
(a) inisothermal process, wreversible = -nRT ln

Vf
Vi

DH - T DS
(b) ln K =
RT

(c)
(d)
3.

4.

5.

6.

8.

K= eDG/RT
DGsystem
DStotal

= -T

(2012)

The entropy change involved in the isothermal reversible


expansionof 2moles of an ideal gas froma volumeof10 9.
dm3 toavolume of 100 dm3 at 27Cis
(a) 38.3Jmol1 K1
(b) 35.8Jmol1 K1
1
1
(c) 32.3Jmol K
(d) 42.3Jmol1 K1
(2011)
is46kJmol1.

ThestandardenthalpyofformationofNH3
If the enthalpy of formation of H2 from its atoms is
436kJmol1 andthatofN2 is712kJmol1,theaverage
bondenthalpyofNHbond inNH3 is
(a) 1102kJmol1(b) 964 kJmol1
(c) +352kJmol1 (d) +1056kJmol1
(2010)

(a) 22.88kJ
(c) +228.88kJ

(b) 228.88kJ
(d) 343.52kJ

(2009)

Inafuelcellmethanolisusedasfuelandoxygengasisused
asanoxidizer.The reactionis
3
CH3OH(l)+ O2(g)
CO2(g)+ 2H2O(l).
2
At298KstandardGibbsenergiesofformationforCH3OH

(l),
1
H2O
(l) and CO2(g) are 166.2,237.2 and 394.4 kJ mol
respectively.Ifstandardenthalpyofcombustionofmethanol
is726 kJmol1, efficiencyofthe fuelcellwill be
(a) 80%
(b) 87%
(c) 90%
(d) 97%
(2009)
StandardentropyofX2,Y2 andXY3 are60, 40and 50JK1 mol1,

respectively. For the reaction, 1/2 X2 + 3/2 Y2 XY3,


DH=30kJ,tobe atequilibrium,thetemperaturewillbe
(a) 1000K
(b) 1250K
(c) 500K
(d) 750K
(2008)
Oxidising power of chlorine in aqueous solution can be
determined bytheparametersindicated below:

1/2Cl2(g)

1/2DdissH

Cl(g)

DegH

Cl( g)

DhydH

Cl(aq)

Theenergyinvolvedintheconversionof1/2Cl2(g)toCl(aq)

(usingdata, DdissHCl2=240kJmol1, DegHCl=349kJmol1,

DhydHCl=381kJmol1) willbe

(a) +120kJmol1 (b) +152kJmol1


(c) 610kJmol1 (d) 850kJmol1

(2008)

ForaparticularreversiblereactionattemperatureT, DHand 10. Identifythecorrectstatementregardingaspontaneousprocess:


(a) Lowering of energy in the reaction process is the only
DS were found to be both +ve. If Te is the temperature at
criterion for spontaneity.
equilibrium,the reaction would be spontaneous when
(b) Foraspontaneousprocessinanisolatedsystem,thechange
(a) T=Te
(b) Te >T
inentropyispositive.
(c) T>Te
(d) Te is5timesT
(2010)
(c) Endothermicprocessesareneverspontaneous.
Onthebasisofthefollowingthermochemicaldata:(Df G
(d) Exothermicprocessesarealwaysspontaneous. (2007)
H+(aq) =0).
11. Assumingthatwatervapourisanidealgas,theinternalenergy
+

H2O
(l) H (aq) +OH (aq) D H=57.32kJ
change(DU)when1molofwaterisvapourisedat1barpressure
1
H2( g ) + O2( g ) H 2O( l) DH = -286.2 kJ
and100C,(given:molarenthalpyofvapourisationofwaterat
2
1barand373K=41kJmol1 andR=8.3Jmol1 K1)willbe
The valueofenthalpy of formationof OH ion at 25Cis

17

ChemicalThermodynamics

(a) 41.00kJmol1 (b) 4.100kJmol1


(c) 3.7904kJmol1
(d) 37.904kJmol1

(a) 100kJmol1
(c) 800kJmol1
(2007)

12. Inconversionoflimestone to lime,


CaCO3(s) CaO(s) +CO2(g)
the values of DH and DS are +179.1 kJ mol1 and
160.2J/Krespectivelyat298Kand1bar.Assumingthat DH
and DS do not change with temperature, temperature above
whichconversionoflimestonetolimewillbespontaneousis
(a) 1118K
(b) 1008K
(c) 1200K
(d) 845K
(2007)
13. (DH DU)fortheformationofcarbonmonoxide(CO)fromits
elementsat298Kis
(R =8.314 JK1 mol1)
(a) 1238.78Jmol1 (b) 1238.78Jmol1
(c) 2477.57Jmol1 (d) 2477.57Jmol1
(2006)

(b) 200kJmol1
(d) 400kJmol1

(2005)

18. AschematicplotoflnKeq versusinverseoftemperaturefora


reactionisshowninthefigure.Thereactionmustbe
6.0

ln Keq

2.0
1.5103

2.0103

1/T (K1)

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

exothermic
endothermic
onewithnegligibleenthalpychange
highlyspontaneousatordinarytemperature.

(2005)

19. Considerthereaction:N2 +3H2 2NH3 carriedoutatconstant


14. The enthalpy changes for the following processes are listed
temperatureandpressure.If DHand DUaretheenthalpyand
below:
internalenergychangesforthereaction,whichofthefollowing
Cl2(g) =2Cl(g),242.3kJmol1
expressionsistrue?
I2(g) =2I(g),151.0kJmol1
(a) DH=0
(b) DH= DU
ICl(g) =I(g) +Cl(g),211.3kJmol1
(c)
DH<
DU
(d) DH> DU
I2(s) =I2(g),62.76kJmol1
(2005)
Giventhatthestandardstatesfor iodineandchlorineareI2(s)
andCl2(g),thestandardenthalpyofformationforICl(g) is
20. Fora spontaneous reactionthe DG,equilibrium constant (K)
(a) 14.6kJmol1 (b) 16.8kJmol1
andEcell willberespectively
(c) +16.8kJmol1 (d) +244.8kJmol1
(2006)
(a) ve,>1,+ve (b) +ve,>1,ve
(c) ve,<1,ve (d) ve,>1,ve
(2005)
15. Anidealgasisallowedtoexpandbothreversiblyandirreversibly
inanisolatedsystem.If Ti istheinitialtemperatureand Tf isthe 21. Theenthalpiesofcombustionofcarbonandcarbonmonoxide
finaltemperature,whichofthefollowingstatementsiscorrect?
are 393.5 and 283 kJ mol1 respectively.The enthalpy of
(a) (Tf)irrev >(Tf)rev
formationofcarbonmonoxidepermoleis
(b) Tf > Ti forreversible process but Tf =Ti for irreversible
(a) 110.5kJ
(b) 676.5kJ
process
(c) 676.5kJ
(d) 110.5kJ
(2004)
(c) (Tf)rev =(Tf)irrev
22. An ideal gas expands in volume from 1 103 m3 to
(d) Tf =Ti forbothreversibleandirreversibleprocesses.
1102 m3 at300Kagainstaconstantpressureof1105 Nm2.
(2006)
Theworkdoneis
16. The standard enthalpy of formation (DHf) at
(a) 900J
(b) 900kJ
298 K for methane, CH4(g) is 74.8 kJ mol1. The additional
(c) 270kJ
(d) 900kJ
(2004)
information required to determine the average energy for
23. Theinternalenergychangewhenasystemgoesfromstate A to
CHbondformation wouldbe
Bis40kJ/mole.IfthesystemgoesfromAto Bbyareversible
(a) thedissociationenergyofH2 andenthalpyofsublimation
pathandreturnstostateAbyanirreversiblepathwhatwould
of carbon
bethenetchangeininternalenergy?
(b) latentheat ofvaporisation of methane
(a) 40kJ
(b) >40kJ
(c) the first four ionisation energies of carbon and electron
(c) <40kJ
(d) zero
(2003)
gain enthalpyof hydrogen
24. InanirreversibleprocesstakingplaceatconstantTandPand
(d) thedissociation energy of hydrogen molecule,H2.
inwhichonlypressurevolumeworkisbeingdone,thechange
(2006)
inGibbsfreeenergy(dG)andchangeinentropy(dS),satisfy
17. IfthebonddissociationenergiesofXY,X2 andY2 (alldiatomic
thecriteria
molecules)areintheratioof1:1:0.5and DHf fortheformation
(a) (dS)V,E <0,(dG)T,P <0
of XY is200kJmol1.Thebonddissociationenergyof X2 will
(b) (dS)V,E >0,(dG)T,P <0
be

18

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

(c) (dS)V,E =0,(dG)T,P =0


(d) (dS)V,E =0,(dG)T,P >0

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

(2003)

violates1st law ofthermodynamics


violates1st lawofthermodynamicsifQ1 isve
violates1st lawofthermodynamicsifQ2 isve
doesnotviolate1st lawofthermodynamics.
(2002)

25. Theenthalpychangeforareaction doesnotdependuponthe


(a) physicalstatesofreactantsandproducts
(b) useofdifferentreactantsfor the same product
28. Ifanendothermicreactionisnonspontaneousatfreezingpoint
(c) natureofintermediatereaction steps
ofwaterandbecomesfeasibleatitsboilingpoint,then
(d) difference in initial or final temperatures of involved
(a) DHisve, DSis+ve
substances.
(b) DHand DSbothare+ve
(2003)
(c) DHand DSbothareve
26. If at 298 K the bond energies of C H, C C,
(d) DHis+ve, DSisve
(2002)
CandHHbondsarerespectively414,347,615and
C
29. Forthereactions,
435kJmol1,thevalueofenthalpy changefor thereaction
C+O2 CO2
DH=393J
H2C
CH2(g) +H2(g) H3CCH

3(g)
2Zn+O
2ZnO
DH=412J
2
at298Kwillbe
(a)
carboncan
oxidiseZn
(a) +250kJ
(b) 250kJ
(b) oxidationofcarbonisnotfeasible
(c) +125kJ
(d) 125kJ.
(2003)
(c) oxidationofZnisnotfeasible
27. AheatengineabsorbsheatQ1 attemperature T1 andheatQ2 at
(d) Zncan oxidisecarbon.
(2002)
temperatureT2.WorkdonebytheengineisJ(Q1 +Q2).This
data

Answer Key

1.
7.
13.
19.
25.

(b)
(d)
(a)
(c)
(c)

2.
8.
14.
20.
26.

(b)
(d)
(c)
(a)
(d)

3.
9.
15.
21.
27.

(a)
(c)
(a)
(d)
(d)

4.
10.
16.
22.
28.

(c)
(b)
(a)
(a)
(b)

5.
11.
17.
23.
29.

(c)
(d)
(c)
(d)
(d)

6.
12.
18.
24.

(b)
(a)
(a)
(b)

19

ChemicalThermodynamics

1.

(b):Asitabsorbsheat,
\

7.

q=+208J

(d):Forthe given reaction,


CH3OH ( l ) +

V2

wrev = -2.303 nRTlog10 V

also, DGf [CH3OH(l)]=166.2kJmol1

375
wrev = -2.303 (0.04) 8.314 310 log10
50
\

2.

DGf [H2O(l)]=237.2kJmol1

and DGf [CO2(g)]=394.4kJmol1

wrev =207.76 208J

Now, DGreaction = DG of products - DGof reactants

(b): DG=RTlnK
DG= DH TD S

=[394.4+2(237.2)](166.2)

DHTDS=RT lnK

3.

=702.6kJmol1
% Efficiency =

(a): Entropychangeforan isothermalprocess is

Efficiency 97%

(d):

1 X + 3Y XY
3
2 2 2 2

8.

DS = 2.303 2 8.314 log 100


10

0
0
0
DS reaction
= DS products
- DS reactants

=38.294Jmol1 K1 38.3 Jmol1 K1


(c): 1/2N2 +3/2H2
B.E.712

0
0
\ DS reaction
= DS XY
- 1 DS X0 - 3 DSY0
3
2
2
2
2
= 50 - 1 60 - 3 40=40JK1 mol1
2
2

NH3
436

1
3

\ ( DH f ) NH = B.E.N + B.E.H - 3B.E.N -H


3
2
2
2
2

Usingequation, DG= DHTDS


Wehave DH =30kJ, DS =40JK1 mol1andatequilibrium
DG =0.Therefore

1
3

- 46 = 712 + 436 - 3B.E.N -H


2
2

T =

46=356+654 3B.E.NH
3B.E.N H =1056
B.E.N -H =

5.

9.

DH -30 1000
=
= 750 K
DS
-40

(c):

1
Cl Cl( g )
2 2( g )

1
- 240
DH1= D dissHe
=
= 120 kJ mol-1
Cl2
2
2

1056
= 352 kJ mol-1
3

e
Cl( g ) Cl(-g ) DH 2 = D egHCl
= -349 kJ mol-1

(c):Accordingto Gibbs formula,


DG= DH TDS

Cl(-g ) + aq Cl(-aq)

Since DH and DS, both are +ve, for DG < 0, the value of
T>Te.
6.

DG
-702.6
100 =
100
DH
-726
=96.77%

DH - T DS
ln K = -

RT

V
DS = 2.303nR log 2
V

4.

3
O

CO2( g ) + 2H 2O( l ),
2 2( g )
DH =726 kJmol1

(b): The reaction for the formation of OH (aq) is


1
H2(g)+ O2(g)
H+(aq)+ OH(aq )
2
Thisisobtainedbyadding thetwo given equations.
\
DH forthe abovereaction =57.32 + (286.2)
= 228.88kJ

DH 3 = D hydHe
= -381 kJ mol -1

Therequiredreactionis

1
Cl
Cl(-aq)DH
2 2( g )

1
e
e
e
Then DH = D diss H + D eg H + D hydH
2

=120+(349)+(381)=610kJmol1

20

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

10. (b):Inanisolatedsystem,thereisneitherexchangeofenergy 16. (a):C+2H2 CH4 DH=74.8kJmol1


InordertocalculateaverageenergyforCHbondformation
nor matter between the system and surrounding. For a
spontaneousprocessinanisolatedsystem,thechangeinentropy
weshouldknow thefollowingdata.
ispositive,i.e. DS> 0.
C(graphite) C(g) DHf =enthalpyofsublimationofcarbon
Mostofthespontaneouschemicalreactionsareexothermic.A
H2(g) 2H(g) DH=bonddissociationenergyofH2
numberofendothermicreactionsarespontaneouse.g.melting 17. (c):LetthebonddissociationenergyofXY,X2 andY2 bexkJ
of ice(an endothermic process)is a spontaneousreaction.
mol1,xkJmol1 and0.5xkJmol1 respectively.
Thetwofactorswhich areresponsible forthe spontaneityof
1
1
aprocessare
X 2 + Y2 XY DH f = -200kJmol-1
2
2
(i) tendencytoacquire minimumenergy
DHreaction=[(sumofbonddissociationenergyofallreactants)
(ii) tendencytoacquire maximumrandomness.
(sum ofbonddissociation energyofproduct)]
11. (d): DU = DH DnRT
1
1

= DH X 2 + DHY2 - DH XY
=4100018.314373
2
2

=410003101.122
x 0.5x
=37898.878Jmol1 = 37.9kJmol1
= +
- x = -200
2
2
12. (a): For DG= DHTDS
200
Foraspontaneousprocess DG<0
x=
= 800kJmol-1
\
0.25
i.e.
DHTDS<0
K 2 DH 1 1
or DH< TDSor, TDS> DH
18. (a): ln K = R T - T
1
1
2
DH
179.1 1000
i.e.T >
or T >
6 DH
DS
160.2
ln =
[1.5 10-3 - 2 10 -3]
2 R
or T>1117.9K 1118K
DH
13. (a): DH DU= Dng RT
(-0.5 10-3)
or, ln3 =
R
1
C+ O2 CO
DH of reaction comes out to be negative. Hence reaction is
2
exothermic.
1
1
Dng = 1 - 1+ =
2
2
19. (c):N2 +3H2 2NH3
1
-1
DH DU= - 8.314 298 = -1238.78Jmol
2

14. (c):

1
1
I2(s) + Cl2(g) ICl(g)
2
2

1
1
1

DHICl(g) = DH I2 ( s ) I 2( g) + DH I -I + DH Cl -Cl -[ DH I -Cl]


2
2
2

1
1
1

= 62.76 + 151.0 + 242.3 - [211.3]


2
2
2

=[31.38+75.5+121.15]211.3
=228.03211.3=16.73kJ/mol

Dn=24=2
DH= DU+ DnRT= DU2RT
\ DH< DU
20. (a):Forspontaneousprocess, DG=ve
Now DG=RTlnK
WhenK>1, DG=ve
Again DG=nFE
WhenE=+ve, DG=ve
21. (d):C(s) +O2(g) CO2(g) DH=393.5kJmol1
CO(g) +

1
O CO2(g) DH=283kJmol1
2 2(g)

..(i)
...(ii)

Onsubtractionequation(ii)fromequation(i),weget
15. (a): Ifagaswastoexpandbyacertainvolumereversibly,then
C(s) +O2(g) CO(g) DH=110.5kJmol1
itwoulddoacertainamountofworkonthesurroundings.If
Theenthalpyof formationofcarbonmonoxide per mole
itwastoexpandirreversiblyitwouldhavetodothesameamount
=110.5kJmol1
ofworkonthesurroundingstoexpandinvolume,butitwould
22. (a):W=PDV
also have to do work against frictional forces. Therefore the
=1105(1102 1103)
amountofworkhavegreatermodulusbutvesign.
=1105 9103 =900J
Wirrev. >Wreve. (Tf)irrev. > (Tf)rev.

21

ChemicalThermodynamics

reversible path

26. (d):

23. (d):

H
B

irreversible path

H
C

+HH
H

H
H
HCCH
H
H

DHReaction = BEreactant BEproduct


=4414+615+435(6414+347)
=27062831
=125kJ

Weknow thatfora cyclic process the netchange ininternal


energyisequaltozeroandchangeintheinternalenergydoes
27. (d): Itdoesnotviolatefirstlawofthermodynamicsbutviolates
notdependonthepathbywhichthefinalstateisreached.
secondlawofthermodynamics.
24. (b):Forspontaneity,changeinentropy(dS)mustbepositive,
28. (b):Forendothermicreaction, DH=+ve
meansitshouldbegreaterthanzero.
Now, DG= DHTDS
ChangeinGibbsfreeenergy(dG)mustbenegativemeansthat
Fornonspontaneousreaction, DGshouldbepositive
Now DGispositiveatlowtemperatureif DHispositive.
itshouldbelesserthanzero.(dS)V,E >0,(dG)T,P <0.
DGisnegativeathightemperatureif DSispositive.
25. (c):ThisisaccordingtoHess'slaw.
29. (d) : DH = negative shows that the reaction is spontaneous.
Highervaluefor DHshowsthatthereactionismorefeasible.

22

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

CHAPTER

SOLUTIONS

6
1.

2.

3.

Kf forwateris1.86Kkgmol1.Ifyourautomobileradiator 7.
holds1.0kgof water, how many gramsof ethyleneglycol
(C2H6O2)mustyouaddtogetthefreezingpointofthesolution
lowered to2.8C?
(a) 93g

(b) 39g

(c) 27g

(d) 72g

(2012)

The density of a solution prepared by dissolving 120 g of 8.


urea(mol.mass=60u)in1000gofwateris1.15g/mL.The
molarityof thissolution is
(a) 1.78M

(b) 1.02M

(c) 2.05M

(d) 0.50M

(2012)

Thedegreeofdissociation(a)ofaweakelectrolyte,AxBy is
related to vantHoff factor (i) by the expression
i - 1
i - 1
(b) a =
( x + y +1)
( x + y -1)
( x + y - 1)
( x + y + 1)
(c) a =
(d) a =
i -1
i -1

(a) a =

(2011)
9.

Ifsodiumsulphateisconsideredtobecompletelydissociated
intocationsandanionsinaqueoussolution,thechangeinfreezing
pointofwater(DTf),when0.01molofsodiumsulphateisdissolved

in1kgofwater,is(Kf =1.86Kkgmol1)
(a) 0.0186K
(b) 0.0372K
(c) 0.0558K
(d) 0.0744K
(2010)
Abinaryliquidsolutionispreparedbymixing nheptaneand
ethanol. Which one of the following statements is correct
regardingthe behaviourof the solution?
(a) The solution formedisanidealsolution.
(b) Thesolutionisnonideal,showing+vedeviationfrom
Raoultslaw.
(c) Thesolutionisnonideal,showingvedeviationfrom
Raoultslaw.
(d) nheptane shows +ve deviation while ethanol shows
ve deviationfromRaoults law.
(2009)
Twoliquids X and Y formanidealsolution.At300K,vapour
pressureofthesolutioncontaining1molofXand3molof
Yis550mmHg.Atthesametemperature,if1molofYis
furtheraddedtothissolution,vapourpressureofthesolution
increasesby10mmHg.Vapourpressure(inmm Hg)of X
andYintheirpurestateswillbe,respectively
(a) 200and300 (b) 300and400
(c) 400and600 (d) 500and600
(2009)

4.

Ethylene glycol is used as an antifreeze in a cold climate.


Massof ethylene glycol whichshould be added to4 kgof
watertoprevent it from freezing at 6C will be :(Kf for
water=1.86Kkgmol1,andmolarmassofethyleneglycol
=62gmol1)
(a) 804.32g
(b) 204.30g
(c) 400.00g
(d) 304.60g
(2011)

5.

A5.2molalaqueoussolutionofmethylalcohol,CH3OH,is
supplied.Whatisthemolefractionofmethylalcoholinthe 10. The vapour pressure of water at 20C is 17.5 mm Hg. If
18 gof glucose (C6H12O6)
solution?
is added to178.2 g of water at
20C,thevapourpressureoftheresultingsolution
willbe
(a) 0.100
(b) 0.190
(a) 17.325mmHg (b) 17.675mmHg
(c) 0.086
(d) 0.050
(2011)
(c) 15.750mmHg (d) 16.500mmHg
On mixing, heptane and octane form an ideal solution.At
(2008)
373 K, the vapour pressure of the two liquid components

6.

(heptane andoctane) are105 kPa and 45kPa respectively. 11. At80C,thevapourpressureofpureliquidAis520mmof


HgandthatofpureliquidBis1000mmofHg.Ifamixture
Vapourpressureofthesolutionobtainedbymixing25.0gof
solutionof A and B boilsat 80C and 1atm pressure, the
heptaneand35gofoctanewillbe(molarmassofheptane=
1
1
100gmol andofoctane=114gmol )
amountofA inthemixtureis(1atm=760mmofHg)
(a) 50molpercent (b) 52molpercent
(a) 144.5kPa
(b) 72.0kPa
(c) 34molpercent (d) 48molpercent
(c) 36.1kPa
(d) 96.2kPa
(2010)
(2008)

Solutions

23

12. A5.25%solutionofasubstanceisisotonicwitha1.5%solution 21. Whichoneofthefollowingstatementsisfalse?


ofurea(molarmass=60gmol1)inthesamesolvent.Ifthe
(a) Raoultslawstatesthatthevapourpressureofacomponent
densities of both the solutions are assumed to be equal to
overasolutionisproportional toitsmolefraction.
1.0gcm3,molarmassofthesubstancewillbe
(b) The osmotic pressure (p) of a solution is given by the
(a) 210.0gmol1 (b) 90.0gmol1
equation (p = MRT,where M isthemolarityofthesolution.
(c) 115.0gmol1 (d) 105.0gmol1
(c) The correct order of osmotic pressure for
(2007)
0.01Maqueoussolutionofeachcompoundis
BaCl2 >KCl>CH3COOH>sucrose.
13. A mixture of ethyl alcohol and propyl alcohol has a vapour
(d) Two sucrose solutions of same molality prepared in
pressureof290mmat300K.Thevapour pressureofpropyl
different solvents will have the same freezing point
alcoholis200nm.Ifthemolefractionofethylalcoholis0.6,
depression.
(2004)
itsvapourpressure(inmm)atthesametemperaturewillbe
(a) 360
(b) 350
22. Whichofthefollowingliquidpairsshowsapositivedeviation
(c) 300
(d) 700
(2007)
fromRaoultslaw?
(a) Waterhydrochloricacid
14. Thedensity(ingmL1)ofa3.60Msulphuricacidsolutionthat
(b) Benzenemethanol
is29%H2SO4 (molarmass=98gmol1)bymasswillbe
(c) Waternitricacid
(a) 1.45
(b) 1.64
(d) Acetone chloroform
(2004)
(c) 1.88
(d) 1.22
(2007)
23. Toneutralisecompletely20mLof0.1Maqueoussolutionof
15. 18g ofglucose (C6H12O6) is added to 178.2 g of water.The
phosphorousacid(H3PO3),thevolumeof0.1MaqueousKOH
vapourpressureofwaterforthisaqueoussolutionat100Cis
solutionrequiredis
(a) 759.00torr
(b) 7.60torr
(a) 10mL
(b) 20mL
(c) 76.00torr
(d) 752.40torr
(2006)
(c) 40mL
(d) 60mL
(2004)
16. Densityofa2.05Msolutionofaceticacidinwateris1.02g/
24. 6.021020moleculesofureaarepresentin100 mlofitssolution.
mL.Themolalityof thesolution is
Theconcentrationofurea solutionis
(a) 1.14molkg1 (b) 3.28molkg1
(a) 0.001M
(b) 0.01M
(c) 2.28molkg1 (d) 0.44molkg1
(2006)
(c) 0.02M
(d) 0.1M
(2004)
17. Equimolalsolutionsinthesamesolventhave
25. Which one of the following aqueous solutions will exhibit
(a) sameboiling pointbutdifferentfreezingpoint
highestboilingpoint?
(b) samefreezingpointbutdifferentboiling point
(a) 0.01MNa2SO4 (b) 0.01MKNO3
(c) sameboilingandsamefreezingpoints
(c) 0.015Murea (d) 0.015Mglucose
(2004)
(d) differentboiling and differentfreezingpoints. (2005)
26. IfliquidsAandBformanidealsolution,the
18. Twosolutionsofasubstance(nonelectrolyte)aremixedinthe
(a) enthalpyofmixingiszero
followingmanner.480mLof1.5Mfirstsolution+520mLof
(b) entropyofmixingiszero
1.2Msecondsolution.Whatisthemolarityofthefinalmixture?
(c) freeenergyofmixingiszero
(a) 1.20M
(b) 1.50M
(d) freeenergyaswellastheentropyofmixingareeachzero.
(c) 1.344M
(d) 2.70M
(2005)
(2003)
19. Benzeneandtolueneformnearlyidealsolutions.At20C,the 27. 25mLofasolutionofbariumhydroxideontitrationwitha0.1
vapourpressureofbenzeneis75torrandthatoftolueneis22
molarsolutionofhydrochloricacidgavealitrevalueof35mL.
torr.Thepartialvapourpressureofbenzeneat20Cforasolution
Themolarityofbariumhydroxidesolutionwas
containing78gofbenzeneand46 goftolueneintorris
(a) 0.07
(b) 0.14
(a) 50
(b) 25
(c) 0.28
(d) 0.35
(2003)
(c) 37.5
(d) 53.5
(2005)
28. Ina0.2molalaqueoussolutionofaweakacidHX,thedegree
20. If a is the degree of dissociation of Na2SO4, the vant Hoffs
ofionizationis0.3.TakingKf forwateras1.85, the freezing
factor(i)usedforcalculatingthemolecularmassis
pointofthesolutionwillbenearestto
(a) 1+ a
(b) 1 a
(a) 0.480C
(b) 0.360C
(c) 1+2a
(d) 12a
(2005)
(c) 0.260C
(d) +0.480C
(2003)

24

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

29. InmixtureAandBcomponentsshowvedeviationas
30. Freezingpointofanaqueoussolutionis(0.186)C.Elevation
(a) DVmix >0
of boiling point of the same solution is Kb = 0.512C,
(b) DHmix <0
Kf =1.86C,findtheincreaseinboilingpoint.
(c) A B interaction is weaker than A A and
(a) 0.186C
BBinteraction
(b) 0.0512C
(d) A B interaction is stronger than A A and
(c) 0.092C
BBinteraction.
(d) 0.2372C
(2002)
(2002)

Answer Key

1. (a)
7. (c)
13. (b)
19. (a)
25. (a)

2.
8.
14.
20.
26.

(c)
(b)
(d)
(c)
(a)

3.
9.
15.
21.
27.

(a)
(c)
(d)
(d)
(b)

4.
10.
16.
22.
28.

(a)
(a)
(c)
(b)
(a)

5.
11.
17.
23.
29.

(c)
(a)
(c)
(c)
(b,d)

6.
12.
18.
24.
30.

(b)
(a)
(c)
(b)
(b)

25

Solutions

1.

(a): Kf =1.86Kkgmol1
DTf =0(2.8)=2.8C
Massofsolvent= 1.0kg
Massofsolute=?
Molecularmassofsolute= 62
DTf =Kf m

Here solute ismethylalcohol,solventiswater.


Givenn=5.2, N = 1000
18

\ Mole fraction=

Weightofsolute
Molecular mass of solute
m=
1000
Massofsolvent(g)
m=

6.

woctane =35g

w
62 2.8
w=
=93g
62
1.86

nheptane =

(c) :Massofsolutetaken= 120g


Molecularmassof solute=60 u
Massofsolvent= 1000g
Densityofsolution = 1.15 g/mL
Totalmassofsolution= 1000+120 =1120 g

35
=0.30
114
0.25
x heptane =
= 0.45
0.25 +0.30
xoctane =

Mass
1120
=
mL
Density 1.15
Massofsolute
Molecularmassofsolute
Molarity=
1000
Volumeofsolution

120 / 60
2 1000 1.15
=
1000 =
=2.05 M
1120 / 1.15
1120

(a) :AxBy

=0.45105+0.5445
=47.25+24.3=71.55 72kPa
7.

8.

(b): Thesolutioncontaining nheptaneandethanol shows


nonideal behaviour with positive deviation from Raoults
law.Thisisbecausetheethanolmoleculesareheldtogether
by strongHbonds, however the forces between nheptane
andethanolarenotverystrong,asaresulttheyeasilyvapourise
showinghighervapourpresurethanexpected.

9.

(c) :PT = pX xX + p
Y xY

w1 and w2 =wt.of solvent and solute


m2 =molecularwt. of solute
DTf =0(6)=6
1.86 w2 1000
4000 62
6 62 4000
w 2 =
= 800g
1000 1.86

5.

(c) :Mole fraction of solute =

n
N +n

n =numberof moles of solute


N=numberofmoles of solvent

0.01
=0.01 m.
1 kg

Given,Kf =1.86Kkgmol1
\ DTf =31.860.01=0.0558K

w 1000
(a) : D Tf =Kf m = K f 2
w1 m2

\ 6=

(c):Depressioninfreezingpoint, DTf =iKf m


Forsodiumsulphate,i =3
m=

1 a
xa
ya
i=1 a +xa+ya =1+ a(x+y 1)

4.

0.30
= 0.54
0.25 +0.30

pTotal =xheptane pheptane +xoctane poctane

xAy+ + yBx

i - 1
\ a = ( x + y -1)

25
=0.25
100

noctane =

Volumeofsolution=

3.

(b) :Given, pheptane =105kPa


wheptane =25g

DTf =Kf m

2.

5.2 18
93.6
=
= 0.0855 0.086
93.6 +1000 1093.6

poctane =45kPa

w / 62
w
1000=
1000
62

2.8 = 1.86

5.2
1000
5.2+
18

where,PT =Totalpresure
pX =Vapourpressureof X inpure state
p
Y =Vapourpressure ofYinpure state
xX =Molefractionof X =1/4
xY =Molefractionof Y=3/4
(i) WhenT=300K, PT =550mmHg

26

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

\ 550= p X

( 14 ) + p ( 43)

pX + 3 pY =2200

.....(1)

(ii) WhenatT=300 K,1 moleof Yis added,


PT =(550+10)mmHg
\ xX =1/5and xY =4/5
1
4
560= p X
+ pY
5
5

( ) ( )

or pX + 4 pY =2800

....(2)

14. (d):3.6Msolutionmeans3.6moleofH2SO4 ispresentin


1000mL ofsolution.
\Massof3.6molesofH2SO4 =3.698g=352.8g
\MassofH2SO4 in1000mLofsolution=352.8g
Given,29gofH2SO4 ispresentin100gofsolution
\352.8gofH2SO4 ispresentin
100
352.8 = 1216 g ofsolution
29
Mass
1216
=
=1.216 g/mL
Now,density=
Volume
1000

Onsolvingequations(1) and(2),weget
p - p s n
=
15. (d):
pY =600mmHgandpX =400mmHg
p s
N
10. (a): In solutioncontainingnonvolatile solute, pressureis
760 - ps 18/180 1/10
directly proportional to its mole fraction.
=
=
ps
178.2 /18 9.9
Psolution = vapourpressureof its pure component
1
mole fraction in solution
ps 760 99 - 99ps = ps
760 - p s =
99
\ Psol = PXsolvent
760 99
LetAbethe soluteand Bthe solvent
=752.4torr
100ps =76099 ps =
100
178.2
nB
18
\ XB =
=
M
n A + nB 18 +178.2
1000
16. (c):Molality, m=
180
18
1000d -MM 2
X B = 9.9 =0.99
whereM =molarity, d=density, M2 =molecular mass
9.94
NowPsolution = PXsolvent = 17.5 0.99
2.05
2.05
m=
=
Psolution = 17.325
1000 1.02 - 2.05 60 897
11. (a): We have, PA
=520mmHg
=2.28103 molg1 =2.28molkg1
17. (c): AccordingtoRaoultslawequimolalsolutionsofallthe
and PB =1000mmHg
substancesinthesamesolventwillshowequalelevationin
Let mole fractionofA in solution= XA
boilingpointsaswellasequaldepressioninfreezingpoint.
andmole fractionof B in solution = XB
18. (c):Totalmillimolesofsolute
Then,at1atmpressurei.e.at760 mmHg
=4801.5+5201.2=720+624=1344
PA X A + PB X B =760 mm Hg
Totalvolume=480+520=1000
PA X A + PB (1 - X A) = 760 mm Hg
1344
=1.344M
Molarityofthe final mixture =
520XA +10001000XA =760mmHg
1000
1
X A =
or50 molpercent
2

12. (a):Isotonicsolutions havesameosmoticpressure.


p1 = C1 RT , p 2 = C 2RT
Forisotonicsolution, p1 = p 2
\ C1 =C2
1.5/ 60
5.25 / M
=
V
V
[WhereM=molecularweightofthesubstance]
1.5
5.25
or,
=
or M= 210
60
M
13. (b):AccordingtoRaoultslaw,
or,

P = PA +PB =PA x A +PBx B


or290= PA (0.6) + 200 (1 -0.6)
or290= 0.6 PA + 0.4 200
or

PAo = 350 mm

19. (a):AccordingtoRaoult'slaw,PB =PB XB


P
B = 75torr
78 / 78
1
1
XB = (78/ 78) + (46 / 92) = 1 +0.5 = 1.5
1
PB = 75
=50torr
1.5
20. (c):Na2SO4 2Na+ +SO42

1 0 0
1 a
2a
a

VantHofffactor(i)=

1 - a + 2a + a
=1+2a
1

21. (d):The extentofdepressioninfreezingpointvaries with


the number of solute particles for a fixedsolvent only and
its a characteristic feature of the nature of solvent also.
DTf =kf m
For different solvents, value of kf is also different. So, for
twodifferentsolventstheextentofdepressionmayvaryeven
ifnumberofsoluteparticlesbedissolvedinthem.

27

Solutions

22. (b): In solutionsshowing positivedeviation, theobserved


vapourpressureofeachcomponentandtotalvapourpressure
aregreaterthanpredictedbyRaoult'slaw,i.e.
pA >p
AxA
pB >pBxB p>pA +pB
In solution of methanol and benzene, methanol molecules
areheldtogetherduetohydrogenbondingasshownbelow:

26. (a): Foridealsolutions, DHmix =0,neitherheatisevolved


norabsorbedduringdissolution.
27. (b):Ba(OH)2 HCl
M1V1 = M2V2
M1 25=0.135
or, M1 =

CH3

CH3

CH3

OHOHOH

On addingbenzene, the benzene molecules get in between


themoleculesofmethanol,thusbreakingthehydrogenbonds.
Astheresultingsolutionhasweakerintermolecularattractions,
theescapingtendencyofalcoholandbenzenemoleculesfrom
thesolutionincreases.Consequentlythevapourpressureof
thesolutionisgreaterthanthevapourpressureasexpected
fromRaoultslaw.
23. (c):H3PO3 isadibasicacid.
N1V1 (acid)=N2V2 (base)
0.1220=0.1 1V2
0.1 2 20
\ V2 = 0.1 1 = 40mL
6.02 1020 = 10 -3moles
24. (b):Molesofurea=
6.02 10 23
Concentration (molarity) of solution
=

no.ofmolesofsolute
10-3 1000 =0.01M
=
no.oflitresofsolution
100

25. (a):Elevationinboilingpointisacolligativepropertywhich
dependsupon the number of solute particles.
Greaterthenumberofsoluteparticles in a solution,higher
the extent of elevation in boiling point.
Na2SO4 2Na+ +SO42

0.1 35
= 0.14
25

28. (a):HX
H+ +X
10 0
10.30.30.3
Totalnumberofmolesafterdissociation
=10.3+0.3+0.3=1.3
Kf (observed)
no.ofmolesafterdissociation
=
Kf (experimental) no.ofmolesbeforedissociation
or,

Kf (observed) 1.3
=
1.85
1

or, Kf (observed)=1.851.3=2.405
DTf =Kf molality=2.4050.2=0.4810
Freezingpointofsolution=00.481=0.481 C
29. (b,d):Fornegativedeviation,fromRaoult'slaw, DVmix <0
and DHmix <0.HereAB attractive force is greater than
AAandBBattractiveforces.
30. (b): DTb = Kb
DT f = Kf

WB
1000
M B W A

WB
1000
M B WA

DTb K b
DTb
=
or
= 0.512 or, DTb =0.0512C
DT f K f
0.186
1.86

28

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

CHAPTER

EQUILIBRIUM

7
1.

2.

Howmanylitresofwatermustbeaddedto1litreofanaqueous
solutionofHClwithapHof1tocreateanaqueoussolution
withpHof 2?
8.
(a) 9.0L
(b) 0.1L
(c) 0.9L
(d) 2.0L
(2013)
The equilibrium constant (Kc) for the reaction
N2(g) +O2(g) 2NO(g) attemperature T is4104.Thevalueof
Kc for thereaction, NO(g)
temperatureis
(a) 2.5102
(c) 50.0

3.

4.

5.

1
1
N + O2(g) at the same
2 2(g)
2

(b) 4 104
(d) 0.02

(2012)

ThepHofa0.1molarsolutionoftheacidHQis3.Thevalue
of theionizationconstant,Ka ofthis acidis
9.
(a) 1103
(b) 1 105
(c) 1107
(d) 3101
(2012)

(a) 5.0108 g
(c) 1.2109 g

(b) 1.21010 g
(d) 6.2105 g

(2010)

Inaqueoussolutiontheionisationconstantsforcarbonicacid
are
K1 =4.2107 and K2 =4.81011
Selectthecorrectstatementforasaturated0.034Msolutionof
thecarbonicacid.
(a) The concentrationofH+ isdoublethatof CO32.
(b) TheconcentrationofCO32 is0.034M.
(c) TheconcentrationofCO32 isgreaterthanthatofHCO3.
(d) The concentration of H+ and HCO3 are approximately
equal.
(2010)
Thecorrectorderofincreasingbasicityofthegivenconjugate
bases(R=CH3)is
(a) RCOO <HC
C <NH2 < R
(b) RCOO <HC
C <R <NH2

C <RCOO <NH2
(c) R <HC

(d) RCOO <NH2 <HC


C < R
(2010)

Avesselat1000KcontainsCO2 withapressureof0.5atm.
Some of the CO2 is converted into CO on the addition of
graphite.Ifthetotalpressureatequilibriumis0.8atm,thevalue
ofK is
10. SolidBa(NO3)2 isgraduallydissolvedina1.0104MNa2CO3
(a) 1.8atm
(b) 3atm
solution.AtwhatconcentrationofBa2+ willaprecipitatebegin
(c) 0.3atm
(d) 0.18atm
(2011)
toform?(Ksp forBaCO3 =5.1109 )
(a) 4.1105 M (b) 5.1105 M
At25C,thesolubilityproductofMg(OH)2 is1.01011.At
2+
(c) 8.1108 M (d) 8.1107 M
(2009)
which pH, will Mg ions start precipitating in the form of
Mg(OH)2 fromasolutionof 0.001M Mg2+ ions?
(a) 8
(b) 9
(c) 10
(d) 11

6.

11. Fourspeciesarelistedbelow:
+
(i) HCO3
(ii) H3O

(2010)
(iii) HSO4
(iv) HSO3F

Which one of the following is the correct sequence of their


Threereactionsinvolving H2PO4 aregiven below:
acidstrength?
(i) H3PO4 +H2O
H3O+ + H2PO4

2
+
(a) iii<i<iv<ii
(ii) H2PO4 +H2O
HPO4 + H3O
(b) iv<ii<iii<i
(iii) H2PO4 +OH
H3PO4 + O2

(c) ii<iii<i<iv
In whichoftheabovedoes H2PO4 actasanacid?
(d) i<iii<ii<iv
(2008)
(a) (i)only
(b) (ii) only
(2010) 12. ThepKa ofaweakacid,(HA),is4.80.ThepKbofaweakbase,
BOH is 4.78. The pH of an aqueous solution of the
Solubilityproductofsilverbromideis5.01013.Thequantity
correspondingsalt,BA,willbe
ofpotassiumbromide(molarmasstakenas120gmol1)tobe
(a) 9.22
(b) 9.58
addedto1litreof0.05Msolutionofsilvernitratetostartthe
(c) 4.79
(d) 7.01
(2008)
precipitationofAgBr is
(c) (i)and(ii)

7.

(d) (iii) only

29

Equilibrium

13. Forthefollowingthreereactions(i),(ii)and(iii),equilibrium 20. Phosphorus pentachloride dissociates as follows in a closed


constantsaregiven
reactionvessel,
(i) CO(g) +H2O
CO2(g) +H2(g)K1
PCl5(g)
PCl3(g) +Cl2(g)
(g)
CO(g) +3H2(g)K2
(ii) CH4(g) +H2O(g)
IftotalpressureatequilibriumofthereactionmixtureisPand
(iii) CH4(g) +2H2O(g)
CO2(g) +4H2(g)K3
degreeofdissociationofPCl5 isx,thepartialpressureofPCl3
Whichofthefollowingrelation is correct?
willbe
x
2 x
(a) K3 K23 =K12 (b) K1 K 2 = K3
(a)
P
(b)
P
x + 1
1- x
(c) K2 K3 =K1
(d) K3 =K1K
(2008)
2
x
x
14. The equilibrium constants Kp1 and KP2 for the reactions
(c)
P
(d)
P
(2006)
x - 1
1- x
X
2Y andZ
P +Q,respectivelyareintheratioof
1 :9. Ifdegreeof dissociationof XandZ beequal then the 21. AnamountofsolidNHHSisplacedinaflaskalreadycontaining
4
ratiooftotalpressuresat theseequilibriais
ammoniagasatacertaintemperatureand0.50atm.pressure.
(a) 1:9
(b) 1:36
AmmoniumhydrogensulphidedecomposestoyieldNH3 and
(c) 1:1
(d) 1:3
(2008)
H2Sgasesintheflask.Whenthedecompositionreactionreaches
15. Inasaturatedsolutionofthesparinglysolublestrongelectrolyte
equilibrium,thetotalpressureintheflaskrisesto0.84atm.The
AgIO3 (molecularmass=283)theequilibriumwhichsetsinis
equilibrium constant for NH4HS decomposition at this
AgIO3(s)
Ag+(aq) +IO3(aq).
temperatureis
If the solubility product constant Ksp of AgIO3 at a given
(a) 0.30
(b) 0.18
temperatureis1.0108,whatisthemassofAgIO3 contained
(c) 0.17
(d) 0.11
(2005)
in100mLofitssaturatedsolution?
22. AmongthefollowingacidswhichhasthelowestpKa value?
(a) 1.0104 g
(b) 28.3102 g
(a) CH3COOH
(b) (CH3)2CHCOOH
(c) 2.83103 g (d) 1.0107 g
(c) HCOOH
(d) CH3CH2COOH
(2005)
(2007)

16. ThepKa ofaweakacid(HA)is 4.5.ThepOHof anaqueous 23. WhatistheconjugatebaseofOH ?


(a) O2
(b) H2O
bufferdsolutionofHAinwhich50%oftheacidisionizedis

(c) O
(d) O2
(2005)
(a) 7.0
(b) 4.5
(c) 2.5

(d) 9.5

24. Hydrogenionconcentrationinmol/LinasolutionofpH=5.4
willbe
(a) 3.98108
(b) 3.88106
17. ThefirstandseconddissociationconstantsofanacidH2Aare
(c) 3.68106
(d) 3.98106
(2005)
1.0105 and5.01010 respectively.Theoveralldissociation
25. Forthereaction,
constantoftheacidwillbe
2NO2(g)
2NO(g) +O2(g)
(a) 0.2105
(b) 5.0105
6 at184C)
15
15
(K
=1.810
c
(c) 5.010
(d) 5.010
(2007)
(R = 0.0831 kJ/(mol.K)). When Kp and Kc are
18. Giventhedataat25C,
comparedat184Citisfoundthat
Ag+I AgI+e E=0.152V
+

(a) Kp isgreaterthanKc
Ag Ag +e E=0.800V
(b) Kp islessthanKc
WhatisthevalueoflogKsp forAgI?
(c) Kp =Kc
RT

2.303
=
0.059V
(d) whether Kpisgreaterthan,lessthanorequalto Kcdepends

F
uponthetotalgaspressure.
(a) 8.12
(b) +8.612
(2005)
(c) 37.83
(d) 16.13
(2006)
26. TheexothermicformationofClF3isrepresentedbytheequation:
19. Theequilibriumconstantfor the reaction,
Cl2(g) +3F2(g)
2ClF3(g) DH=329kJ
1
WhichofthefollowingwillincreasethequantityofClF
3 inan
SO3(g)
SO2(g) + O2(g)
2
equilibriummixtureofCl2,F2 andClF3?
isKc =4.9102.ThevalueofKc forthereaction
(a) Increasingthetemperature
(b) RemovingCl2
2SO2(g) +O2(g)
2SO3(g) willbe
(c) Increasingthevolumeofthecontainer
(a) 416
(b) 2.40103
(d) AddingF2
(2005)
(c) 9.8102
(d) 4.9102
(2006)
(2007)

30

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

27. ThesolubilityproductofasalthavinggeneralformulaMX2,in
CuSO4 solutiondeposits 1gramequivalentof copperat
12
2+
the cathode.
(2003)
wateris410 .Theconcentrationof M ionsintheaqueous
solutionofthesaltis
36. Thecorrectrelationshipbetweenfreeenergychangeinareaction
(a) 2.0106 M (b) 1.0104 M
andthecorrespondingequilibriumconstantKc is
(c) 1.6104 M (d) 4.01010 M
(2005)
(a) DG=RTlnKc (b) DG=RTlnKc
28. Consideran endothermic reactionX Ywiththe activation
(c) DG=RTlnKc (d) DG=RTlnKc
(2003)
energies Eb and Ef for the backward and forward reactions,
37. The solubility in water of a sparingly soluble salt AB2 is
respectively.Ingeneral
1.0105 molL1.Itssolubilityproductwillbe
(a) Eb <Ef
(b) Eb >Ef
(a) 41015
(b) 41010
(c) Eb =Ef
15
(c) 110
(d) 11010
(2003)
(d) thereisnodefiniterelationbetweenEbandEf.(2005)
38. Forthereactionequilibrium,
29. Themolarsolubility(inmolL1)ofasparinglysolublesalt MX4
N2O4(g)
2NO2(g)
iss.ThecorrespondingsolubilityproductisKsp.sisgivenin
the concentrations of N2O4 and NO2 at equilibrium are
termsofKsp bytherelation
4.8102 and1.2102 molL1 respectively.Thevalueof Kc
(a) s=(Ksp/128)1/4 (b) s=(128Ksp)1/4
forthereactionis
(c) s=(256Ksp)1/5 (d) s=(Ksp/256)1/5
(2004)
(a) 3.3102 molL1
30. Theequilibriumconstantfor the reaction,
(b) 3101 molL1
N2(g) +O2(g)
2NO(g)
(c) 3103 molL1
4
attemperatureTis410 .ThevalueofKc forthereaction:
(d) 3103 molL1
(2003)
NO(g)

1
1
N + O atthesametemperatureis
2 2(g) 2 2(g)

39. Considerthereactionequilibrium:
(a)
(b) 50
2SO2(g) +O2(g)
2SO3(g) DH=198kJ.
OnthebasisofLeChatelier'sprinciple,theconditionfavourable
(c) 4104
(d) 0.02
(2004)
fortheforwardreactionis
Forthereaction,CO(g) +Cl2(g)
COCl2(g),the Kp/Kc isequal
(a) loweringoftemperatureaswellaspressure
to
(b) increasingtemperatureaswellaspressure
(a) 1/RT
(b) RT
(c) loweringthetemperatureandincreasingthepressure
(c)
(d) 1.0
(2004)
RT
(d) anyvalueoftemperatureandpressure.
Whatistheequilibriumexpressionforthereaction
(2003)
P4 (s) +5O2(g)
P4O10(s)?
40. Inwhichofthefollowingreactions,increaseinthevolumeat
[P4O10]
[P4O10]
constant temperature does not affect the number of moles at
K
=
K
=
c
(a)
(b) c 5[P ][O ]
[P4 ][O 2]5
4
2
equilibrium?
1
K
=
(a) 2NH3 N2 +3H2
5
(2004)
(c) Kc =[O2]
(d) c [O ]5

2
(b) C(g) +(1/2)O2(g) CO(g)
Theconjugatebase ofH2PO4 is
(c) H2(g) +O2(g) H2O
2(g)
(a) PO43
(b) P2O5
(d) Noneof these.
(2002)
2
(c) H3PO4
(d) HPO4
(2004)
41. Changeinvolumeofthesystemdoesnotalterthenumberof
Whenrainisaccompaniedbyathunderstorm,thecollectedrain
molesinwhichofthefollowingequilibria?
waterwillhaveapHvalue
(a) N2(g) +O2(g)
2NO(g)
(a) slightlylowerthanthatofrainwaterwithoutthunderstorm
(b) PCl5(g)
PCl3(g) +Cl2(g)
(b) slightlyhigherthanthatwhenthethunderstormisnotthere
2.5102

31.

32.

33.

34.

(c) uninfluenced by occurrence of thunderstorm


(d) whichdependsontheamountofdustinair.

(c) N2(g) +3H2(g)


(2003)

35. Whichoneofthefollowingstatements isnottrue?

2
(a) TheconjugatebaseofH2PO

4 is HPO4 .
(b) pH+pOH=14forallaqueoussolutions.
(c) ThepHof1108 MHClis8.
(d) 96,500 coulombs of electricity when passed through a

(d) SO2Cl2(g)

2NH3(g)
SO2(g) +Cl2(g)

42. Forthereaction
CO(g) +(1/2)O2(g) =CO2(g),Kp /Kc is
(a) RT
(b) (RT)1
1/2
(c) (RT)
(d) (RT)1/2

(2002)

(2002)

31

Equilibrium

43. LetthesolubilityofanaqueoussolutionofMg(OH)2 be xthen


itsKsp is
(a) 4x3
(b) 108x5
(c) 27x4
(d) 9x
(2002)
44. SpeciesactingasbothBronstedacidandbaseis
1
(a) (HSO4)
(b) Na2CO

3
(c) NH3
(d) OH1

45. 1MNaCland1MHClarepresentinanaqueoussolution.The
solutionis
(a) nota buffersolutionwithpH<7
(b) nota buffersolutionwithpH>7
(c) abuffersolutionwithpH<7
(d) abuffersolutionwithpH>7.
(2002)

(2002)

Answer Key

1.
7.

(a)
(c)

2.
8.

(c)
(d)

3.
9.

(b)
(a)

4. (a)
10. (b)

5. (c)
11. (d)

6. (b)
12. (d)

13. (d)

14. (b)

15. (c)

16. (d)

17. (d)

18. (d)

19. (a)

20. (a)

21. (d)

22. (b)

23. (d)

24. (d)

25. (a)

26. (d)

27. (b)

28. (a)

29. (d)

30. (b)

31. (a)

32. (d)

33. (d)

34. (a)

35. (c)

36. (d)

37. (c)
43. (a)

38. (c)
44. (a)

39. (c)
45. (a)

40. (d)

41. (a)

42. (c)

32

1.

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

(a) :Initialconcentrationofaq.HClsolutionwithpH1=101 M
Finalconcentrationof thissolution afterdilution= 102 M
MV=M1(V1 +V2)
101 1=102 (1+V2)

7.

0.1
= 1+V2
0.01

10=1+V2
V2 =9L

2NO(g),Kc =4104

2. (c):N2(g) +O2(g)

By multiplyingtheequation(i)by
1
1
N + O
2 2(g) 2 2(g)

...(i)

...
...(ii)

1 10 -11 =

8.

H+ +HCO3K1 =4.2107

(d): H2CO3

(b):pH=3
Molarity=0.1M

HCO3
H+ +CO3 K2 =4.810111
... K >>K ,soH CO ionisesmorethanHCO andhence,

[H + ] = K a C

contributionofH+ ismostlyduetoionisationofcarbonicacid,

thus the concentrations of H+ and HCO3 are approximately


equal.

10 -3 = K a 0.1
\

or

10 -6 = K a 0.1

Ka =105

(a):CO2(g) +C(s)

2CO(g)

0.5atm
0.5P
2P
Totalpressure=0.5P+ 2P= 0.8
P=0.3
P 2
(2 P )2
(0.6)2
K P = CO =
=
= 1.8atm
PCO
(0.5 - P ) (0.5 -0.3)
2

(c):(Ksp)Mg(OH)2 =[Mg2+][OH]2

11011 =[0.001][OH ]2
[OH - ]2 =

10-11
10 -3

= 10-8

[OH ]=104

9.

(a):Theorderofaciditycanbeexplainedonthebasisofthe
acidityoftheacidsofthegivenconjugatebase.Strongeristhe
acid, weaker is the conjugate base. Since RCOOH is the
strongestacidamongstall, RCOO istheweakestbase.Dueto
sp hybridisedcarbon,acetyleneisalsoacidicandhenceaweak
base but stronger than RCOO. As sp3 carbon is less
electronegativethansp3 nitrogen,R ismorebasicthanNH2.

10. (b):Ksp forBaCO3 =[Ba2+][CO2


3 ]
4
given,[CO2
3 ]=110 M(fromNa2CO3)
Ksp =5.1109
\ 5.1109 =[Ba2+][104]
[Ba2+]=5.1105 M
Thus,when[Ba2+]=5.1105M,BaCO3precipitatewillbegin
to form.

11. (d): HSO3Fisthesuperacid.Itsacidicstrengthisgreaterthan

anygiven species.The pKa value ofother species are given


below:

HCO3
10.25
(b): Inequation(ii),H2PO4 actsasaprotondonorandthus,
+
H3O
1.74

actsasanacid.

HSO4
1.92
pOH=4
Thus,pH=144=10

6.

w KBr / 120
(Mol.wt.ofKBr = 120)
1

wKBr =1.2109 g

H+ =10pH =103

5.

nKBr
VSolution(L)

wKBr =11011 120=1201011

NO(g)

4.

= 1 10 -11M

[K+]=[Br]=[KBr]

Molarity =

By reversingtheequation(ii),we get

3.

5 10 -2

\ [KBr]=11011 M

K c = K c = 4 10 -4 = 2 10 -2
1
1
N + O
2 2(g) 2 2(g)
1
1
K c =
=
= 50.0
K c 2 10 -2

5 10-13

[Br - ] =

1
2

NO(g)

(c):Given,(Ksp)AgBr =5.01013
Therequired equationis,
KBr+AgNO3
AgBr+KNO3
Given,[AgNO3]=0.05M

[Ag+]=[NO3]=0.05M

[Ag+][Br ]=(Ksp)AgBr
0.05[Br]=51013

33

Equilibrium

LesserthepKa value,higherwillbeitsacidicstrength.Hence
sequenceofacidicstrength willbe
+ >HSO >HCO
HSO3F>H

3O

4
3
12. (d):Giventhat pKa = 4.8and pKb =4.78
\ pH=7+1/2(pKa pKb)
=7+1/2(4.804.78)=7.01

1.0 10 4 283 100


g/100mL
1000
=28.3104 g/100mL
=2.83103 g/100mL
=

[A]
[HA]
Whentheacidis50%ionised,[A]=[HA]
or pH=pKa +log1orpH=pKa
GivenpKa =4.5 \pH=4.5
\ pOH=144.5=9.5

16. (d):Foracidicbuffer, pH = pKa + log

13. (d):CO(g) +H2O(g)


CO2(g) +H2(g)
[CO2 ][H 2]
K1 =
....(i)
[CO][H 2O]
CH4(g) +H2O(g)
CO(g) +3H2(g)
K 2 =

[CO][H 2]
[CH 4 ][H 2O]

....(ii)

K1 =

CH4(g) +2H2O(g)
CO2(g) +4H2(g)
K3 =

[CO 2 ][H 2]4

....(iv)

2Y Z
P + Q
X

Initial mol. 1
At equilibrium 1 a

0
2a

1
1a

0 0
a a

KP

2a

1+ a P1

=
=
PX
1- a
1+ a P1

PY2

K=

KP =
2

PZ

a
a

1 + a P2 1+ a P2

=
KP =
2
PZ
1- a
1+ a P2

4a 2 P1
K P =
... (i)
1
1- a2
4a 2 P1
K P =
...(ii)
1
1- a2
KP 1
Givenis 1 =
...(iii)
K P 9

[H ] [A ]
= K1 K2= 110 5 5 10 10 = 5 1015
[H 2A]
=51015

Ag+ +IO3 [S=Solubility]


S
S

=S2

Ksp
or,S2 =1.0108 or,S=1.0 104 mol/L
=1.0104 283 g/L
=

1.0 10 4 283
g/L
1000

... (i)

SO3(g) +1/2O2(g) SO3(g)


[SO3]
[SO 2 ][O 2]1/ 2

= K c =

...(ii)

4.9 10-2

For2SO2(g) +O2(g) 2SO3(g)


[SO 3]2
2

[SO 2 ] [O 2]

[HA]

[SO 2 ][O 2 ]1/ 2


= K c = 4.9 10-2
[SO 3]

Substitutingvaluesoffromequation(i)and(ii)into(iii),we
get
20.
4a 2 P1
1- a 2 = 1 4P1 = 1 P1 = 1
P2
9
P2 36
a 2 P2 9
1- a2

[H + ][A2]

18. (d):AgI(s) +e Ag(s) +I,E=0.152V


Ag(s) Ag+ +e,E=0.800V
AgI(s) Ag+ +I,E=0.952V
0.059
0.059
E cell =
logK i.e. -0.952 =
logK sp
n
1
0.952
= -16.135
or, log K sp = 0.059
19. (a):SO3(g) SO2(g) +1/2O2(g)

PP PQ

15. (c): AgIO

H+ +A2 K2 =51010 =

HA

Fromequations(i),(ii)and(iii)K3 = K1 K2
14. (b):

[H + ][H A ]
=1105
[H 2 A]

+ 2

[CH 4 ][H 2O]2

H+ +HA

17. (d): H2A

= K c 2 =

4.9 4.9 10-4


10000
=
= 416.49
24.01

(a):GivenPCl5(g) PCl3(g) +Cl2(g)


t=0 1 00
teq
1x x x

Totalnumberofmoles=1x+x+x =1+x
x
P
ThuspartialpressureofPCl3 =
1+ x

21. (d):

NH 4 HS ( s ) NH 3 ( g ) + H 2S

( g)

Initial pressure 0 0.5


0
Atequi. 0
0.5+ x x

Totalpressure=0.5+2x=0.84 \ x=0.17atm
Kp =pNH3 pH2S =(0.5+0.17)(0.17)=0.11atm2
22. (b): HigherthepKa value,weakeristheacid.Hence,strongest
acidhaslowestpKa value.

34

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

23. (d):ConjugatebaseofOH isO2.


OH O2 + H+

33. (d):ConjugatebaseisformedbytheremovalofH+ fromacid.

2
+
H2PO

4 HPO4 +H

24. (d):pH=log[H+]
[H+]=antilog(pH)=antilog(5.4)=3.98106

34. (a): Duetothunderstorm,temperatureincreases.Astemperature


increases,[H+]alsoincreases,hencepHdecreases.

25. (a):Kp =Kc(RT)Dn


Dn=32=1
Kp =Kc (0.0831457)1
\ Kp >Kc

35. (c): pHofanacidcannotexceed7.Hereweshouldalsoconsider


[H+]thatcomesfromH2O.
Now[H+]=[H+]fromHCl +[H+]from H2O
=108 +107 =108 +10108 =11108
\ pH=log(11108)=6.9587

26. (d):Cl2(g) +3F2(g) 2ClF3(g) DH=329kJ


36. (d): DG= DG+2.303RTlogKc
Favourableconditions:
Atequilibrium, DG=0
(i) As the reaction is exothermic, hence decrease in
DG=2.303RTlogKc
temperature willfavour theforward reaction.
(ii) Additionofreactants or removal of product willfarour 37. (c):AB2
A2+ +2B
the forwardreaction.
S=1.0105 molL1
(iii) Here Dn =24=2(i.e.,ve)hencedecreaseinvolume
Ksp =[A2+][B]2 =1.0105 (1.0105)2
orincreaseinpressurewillfavourtheforwardreaction.
=1.01015
27. (b):MX2(s) M2 +(aq) +2X(aq)
s

2s

Ksp =s(2s)2 =4s3


41012 =4s3 or, s3 = 1 1012
or, s=1104 M [M2 +]=1104 M
28. (a):Forendothermicreaction, DH=+ve
DH=Ef Eb,itmeansEb <Ef
M4+ (aq) +4X (aq)
s
4s
Solubilityproduct,Ksp =s(4s)4 =256s5.

29. (d):MX4 (solid)

1/ 5

s =

K sp Ksp
=
256 256

30. (b):N2(g) +O2(g)


2NO(g)
2
[NO]
K c =
= 4 10-4
[N 2 ][O 2]
NO(g)

1
1
N + O
2 2(g) 2 2(g)

[N 2 ]1/ 2 [O 2]1/2
1
= 1 =
[NO]
Kc
4 10-4
1
100
=
=
= 50
2 10 -2 2

Kc =

31.(a):CO(g) +Cl2(g)
Dn=12=1

COCl2(g)

Kp
1
-1
Kp =Kc(RT)Dn, \ K = ( RT) = RT
c

38. (c): [N 2O4] = 4.8 10-2 molL-1


[NO 2] = 1.2 10-2 molL-1
K c =

[NO 2]2 1.2 10 -2 1.2 10-2


=
[N 2 O 4]
4.8 10- 2

=0.3102 =3103 molL1


39. (c):TheconversionofSO2 toSO3 isanexothermicreaction,
hencedecreasethetemperaturewillfavourtheforwardreaction.
Thereisalso a decreaseinvolumeormoles inproductside.
Thus the reaction is favoured by low temperature and high
pressure.(LeChatelier'sprinciple).
40. (d):Forthosereactions,where Dn=0,increaseinvolumeat
constant temperature does not affect the number of moles at
equilibrium.
41. (a):Inthisreactiontheratioofnumberofmolesofreactants
toproductsissamei.e.2:2,hencechangeinvolumewillnot
alterthenumberofmoles.
1
3
1
42. (c):Kp =Kc (RT)Dn Dn= 1 - 1 + = 1- =
2
2
2
Kp
- 1/ 2
\ K = ( RT)
c
43. (a):Mg(OH)2 [Mg2+]+2[OH]
x
2x
Ksp =[Mg2+][OH]2
or,Ksp =(x)(2x)2 =x4x2 =4x3

44. (a): AccordingtoBronstedLowryconcept,aBronstedacidis


asubstancewhichcandonateaprotontoanyothersubstance
32. (d):P4(s) +5O2(g)
P4O
10(s)
andaBronstedbaseisasubstancewhichcanacceptaproton
[P4O10 ( s)]
fromanyothersubstance.
K c =
(HSO4) canacceptanddonateaproton.
[P4 ( s ) ] [O 2( g)]5

+
(HSO4)
+H H2SO

4
We know that concentration of a solid component is always
2

+
(HSO4)
H SO4
takenasunity.
Kc =

1
[O 2]5

45. (a): HClisastrongacidanditssaltdonotformbuftersolution.


Astheresultantsolutionisacidic,hencepHislessthan7.

35

RedoxReactionsandElectrochemistry

CHAPTER

8
1.

REDOXREACTIONS
ANDELECTROCHEMISTRY

xMnO4 +yC2O42 +zH+ xMn 2+

z
+ 2 yCO2 + H 2O
2

The valuesofx,y and z in thereactionare,respectively


(a) 5,2and8
(b) 5,2and16
(c) 2,5and8
(d) 2,5and16
(2013)
2.

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Consider the following reaction.

8.

Given
ECr3+/Cr =0.74V EMnO4/Mn2+ = 1.51V
ECr2O72/Cr3+ =1.33V ECl/Cl = 1.36V
Basedonthedatagivenabove,strongestoxidisingagentwill
be
(a) MnO4
(b) Cl
9.
3+
(c) Cr
(d) Mn2+
(2013)

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

ThestandardreductionpotentialsforZn2+/Zn,Ni2+/Ni,and
Fe2+/Fe are 0.76, 0.23 and 0.44 V respectively.The
reactionX+ Y2+ X2+ + Ywill bespontaneous when
(a) X=Ni,Y=Zn(b) X=Fe,Y=Zn
(c) X=Zn,Y=Ni(d) X=Ni, Y=Fe
(2012)

oxidisesoxalic acidtocarbondioxide and water


getsoxidisedbyoxalic acidto chlorine
furnishesH+ ionsinadditiontothosefromoxalicacid
reducespermanganatetoMn2+.
(2008)

GivenECr 3+ /Cr =0.72V, EFe 2+ /Fe =0.42V


The potential for the cell
Cr|Cr3+(0.1M)||Fe2+(0.01M)|Feis
(a) 0.26V
(b) 0.26V
(c) 0.339V
(d) 0.339V
(2008)
The cell,
Zn|Zn2+ (1M)||Cu2+ (1M)|Cu(Ecell =1.10V)
wasallowedtobecompletelydischargedat298K.Therelative
[Zn 2+ ]
concentrationofZn2+ to Cu2+
2+ is
[Cu ]

(a) 9.65104
(c) 37.3

(b) antilog(24.08)
(d) 1037.3

Thereductionpotentialofhydrogenhalfcellwillbenegative
(2007)
if
10. Theequivalentconductancesoftwostrongelectrolytesatinfinite
(a) p(H2)=1atmand[H+]=2.0 M
dilutioninH2O(whereionsmovefreelythroughasolution)at
+]=1.0 M
(b) p(H2)=1atmand[H

25Caregivenbelow:
+]=1.0 M
(c) p(H2)=2atmand[H

LCH3COONa =91.0Scm2/equiv.
+]=2.0 M
(d) p(H2)=2atmand[H
(2011)

LHCl = 426.2Scm2/equiv.
TheGibbsenergyforthedecompositionofAl2O3 at500C
Whatadditionalinformation/quantityoneneedstocalculate L
isasfollows:
ofan aqueoussolutionofaceticacid?
4/3Al+O2, DrG=+966kJmol1.
2/3Al2O3
(a) Lofchloroaceticacid(ClCH2COOH)
Thepotentialdifferenceneededforelectrolyticreductionof
(b) LofNaCl
(c) LofCH3COOK
Al2O3 at500Cisatleast
(d) ThelimitingequivalentconductanceofH+ (lH+).
(a) 5.0V
(b) 4.5V
(2007)
(c) 3.0V
(d) 2.5V
(2010)
Given:EFe 3+ /Fe =0.036V,EFe2+/Fe =0.439V.Thevalue 11. Resistance of a conductivity cell filled with a solution of an
electrolyteofconcentration0.1Mis100 W.The conductivity
of standard electrode potential for the change,
ofthissolutionis1.29Sm1.Resistanceofthesamecellwhen
Fe3+(aq) +e Fe2+(aq) willbe
filled with 0.2 M of the same solution is 520 W. The molar
(a) 0.072V
(b) 0.385V
conductivityof0.02Msolutionoftheelectrolyte willbe
(c) 0.770V
(d) 0.270V
(2009)
(a) 124104 Sm2 mol1
Amountofoxalicacidpresentinasolutioncanbedetermined
(b) 1240104 Sm2 mol1
byitstitrationwithKMnO4solutioninthepresenceofH2SO4.
(c) 1.24104 Sm2 mol1
Thetitrationgivesunsatisfactoryresultwhencarriedoutin
(d) 12.4104 Sm2 mol1
(2006)
the presence ofHCl, because HCl

36

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

12. Themolarconductivities LNaOAc and LHCl atinfinitedilution 19. Thelimitingmolarconductivities LforNaCl,KBrandKClare


inwaterat25Care91.0and426.2Scm2/molrespectively.To
126,152and150Scm2 mol1 respectively.The LforNaBris
calculate LHOAc,theadditionalvaluerequiredis
(a) 128Scm2 mol1
(b) 176Scm2 mol1
2
1
(a) LH2O
(b) LKCl
(c) 278Scm mol
(d) 302Scm2 mol1
(2004)
(c) LNaOH
(d) LNaCl.
(2006)
20. Thestandarde.m.f.ofacell,involvingoneelectronchangeis
13. Whichofthefollowingchemicalreactionsdepictstheoxidising
foundtobe0.591Vat25C.Theequilibriumconstantofthe
behaviour of H2SO4?
reactionis(F=96,500Cmol1,R=8.314JK1mol1)
(a) 2HI+H2SO4 I2 +SO2 +2H2O
(a) 1.0101
(b) 1.0105
10
(b) Ca(OH)2 +H2SO
CaSO
+2H
O
(c)
1.010
(d) 1.01030
(2004)

4
4
2
(c) NaCl+H2SO

4 NaHSO4 +HCl
21. ConsiderthefollowingEvalues.
(d) 2PCl5 +H2SO

4 2POCl3 +2HCl+SO2Cl2.
E 3+ 2+ = +0.77V E 2+ = -0.14V
Fe /Fe
Sn /Sn
(2006)
Understandardconditionsthepotentialforthereaction
14. Electrolyte
KCl KNO3 HCl NaOAc NaCl
Sn(s) +2Fe3+(aq) 2Fe2+(aq) +Sn2+(aq) is
(S cm2 mol1) 149.9 145.0 426.2 91.0
126.5
(b) 1.40V
(a) 1.68V
Calculatemolarconductance of acetic acidusingappropriate
(c) 0.91V
(d) 0.63V
(2004)
molarconductances oftheelectrolytes listedabove atinfinite
22. Inahydrogenoxygenfuelcell,combustionofhydrogenoccurs
dilutioninH2Oat25C.
to
(a) 517.2
(b) 552.7
(a) generateheat
(c) 390.7
(d) 217.5
(2005)
(b) createpotential differencebetween thetwo electrodes
(c) producehighpuritywater
15. Aluminium oxide may be electrolysed at 1000C to furnish
(d) remove adsorbedoxygen fromelectrode surface.
aluminium metal (At. Mass = 27 amu 1 Faraday = 96,500
(2004)
Coulombs).Thecathode reactionis
3+
0
Al +3e Al
23. Among the properties (A) reducing (B) oxidising
Toprepare5.12kgofaluminiummetalbythismethodwould
(C)complexing,thesetofpropertiesshownbyCN iontowards
require
metalspeciesis
7
(a) A,B
(b) B,C
(a) 5.4910 Cof electricity
(c) C,A
(d) A,B,C.
(2004)
(b) 1.83107 Cof electricity
(c) 5.49104 Cof electricity
24. Standardreductionelectrodepotentialsofthreemetals A, B and
(d) 5.491010 Cof electricity
(2005)
C are +0.5V, 3.0V and 1.2V respectively.The reducing
powerofthesemetalsare
16. The highest electrical conductivity of the following aqueous
(a) B>C>A
(b) A>B>C
solutionsisof
(c)
C>B>A
(d) A>C>B
(2003)
(a) 0.1Maceticacid
(b) 0.1Mchloroaceticacid
(c) 0.1Mfluoroacetic acid
(d) 0.1Mdifluoroacetic acid.

25. Foracellreactioninvolvingatwoelectronchange,thestandard
e.m.f.ofthecellisfoundtobe0.295Vat25C.Theequilibrium
constantofthereactionat25Cwillbe
(2005)
(a) 11010
(b) 29.5102
17. The E M 3 + /M2+ valuesforCr,Mn,FeandCoare0.41,+1.57,
(c) 10
(d) 11010
(2003)
0.77and+1.97Vrespectively.Forwhichoneofthesemetals
26. Fortheredoxreaction:
thechangeinoxidationstatefrom+2to+3iseasiest?
Zn(s) +Cu2+ (0.1M) Zn+(1M)+Cu(s)
(a) Cr
(b) Mn
takingplaceinacell,Ecell is1.10volt.Ecell forthecellwillbe
(c) Fe
(d) Co
(2004)
2.303 RT =0.0591
F
18. Inacellthatutilizesthereaction,
+
2+
(a)
2.14V
(b) 1.80V
Zn(s) +2H (aq) Zn (aq) +H2(g)
(c)
1.07V
(d) 0.82V
(2003)
additionofH2SO

4 to cathodecompartment,will
(a) lowertheEandshiftequilibriumto theleft
27. WhenduringelectrolysisofasolutionofAgNO3,9650coulombs
(b) lowertheEandshifttheequilibriumtotheright
ofchargepassthroughtheelectroplatingbath,themassofsilver
depositedonthecathodewillbe
(c) increasetheEandshifttheequilibriumtotheright
(a) 1.08g
(b) 10.8g
(d) increasetheEandshifttheequilibriumtotheleft.
(c)
21.6g
(d) 108g
(2003)
(2004)

37

RedoxReactionsandElectrochemistry

28. Theheat requiredto raise the temperature of body by 1Cis 32. Conductivity(unitSiemen'sS)isdirectlyproportionaltoarea
ofthevesselandtheconcentrationofthesolutioninitandis
called
inverselyproportionaltothelengthofthevesselthentheunit
(a) specific heat
oftheconstant ofproportionalityis
(b) thermalcapacity
(a) Smmol1
(b) Sm2 mol1
(c) waterequivalent
2
2
(c) S m mol
(d) S2 m2 mol2
(2002)
(d) none of these.
(2002)
29. Whichofthefollowing reactionis possibleat anode?
(a) 2Cr3+ +7H2O Cr2O72 +14H+
(b) F2 2F
(c) (1/2)O2 +2H+ H2O
(d) Noneof these.
(2002)
30. Whatwillbetheemfforthe givencell,
Pt | H2 (P1) | H+(aq) | | H2 (P2) | Pt
RT P1
P
(b) 2F logP
(a) RTlog 1
2
F
P2
RTlogP2
(d) none of these.
(c) F
P1

33. Whichofthefollowingisaredoxreaction?
(a) NaCl+KNO3 NaNO3 +KCl
(b) CaC2O4 +2HCl CaCl2 +H2C2O4
(c) Mg(OH)2 +2NH4Cl MgCl2 +2NH4OH
(d) Zn+2AgCN 2Ag+Zn(CN)2

34. WhenKMnO4 actsasanoxidisingagentandultimatelyforms


[MnO4]1, MnO2, Mn2O3, Mn2+ then the number of electrons
transferredineachcaserespectivelyis
(2002)

31. If fdenotesreductionpotential,thenwhich istrue?


(a) Ecell = fright fleft
(b) Ecell = fleft + fright
(c) Ecell = fleft fright
(d) Ecell =(fleft + fright)
(2002)

(a) 4,3,1,5

(b) 1,5,3,7

(c) 1,3,4,5

(d) 3,5,7,1

(2002)

35. EMFofacellintermsofreductionpotentialofitsleftandright
electrodesis
(a) E=Eleft Eright (b) E=Eleft +Eright
(c) E=Eright Eleft (d) E=(Eright +Eleft)
(2002)

Answer Key

1.
7.
13.
19.
25.
31.

(d)
(d)
(a)
(a)
(d)
(a)

2.
8.
14.
20.
26.
32.

(a)
(b)
(c)
(c)
(c)
(b)

(2002)

3.
9.
15.
21.
27.
33.

(c)
(d)
(a)
(c)
(b)
(d)

4.
10.
16.
22.
28.
34.

(c)
(b)
(d)
(b)
(b)
(c)

5.
11.
17.
23.
29.
35.

(d)
(a)
(a)
(c)
(a)
(c)

6.
12.
18.
24.
30.

(c)
(d)
(c)
(a)
(b)

38

1.
2.

3.

4.

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

+
2+
TitrationcannotbedoneinthepresenceofHClbecauseKMnO4
(d) :2MnO4 +5C2O42
+16H 2Mn +10CO2 +8H2O
beinga strongoxidizingagentoxidisesHCltoCl2 and get
\ x=2,y=5,z= 16
itself reduced toMn2+.So actual amount ofoxalic acid in
(a) :Greaterthereductionpotentialofasubstance,stronger
solution cannotbe determined.
is theoxidisingagent.
\ MnO4 isthe strongestoxidisingagent.
8. (b):Cr Cr3+ +3e
Ered =0.72V
2+ +2e Fe
Fe
E
(c) : The elements with high negative value of standard
red =0.42V
2+
3+
reductionpotentialaregoodreducingagentsandcanbeeasily
2Cr+3Fe 2Cr +3Fe
oxidised.
Ecell = Ec athode Ea node =0.42(0.72)
Thus X shouldhavehighnegativevalueofstandardpotential
Ecell =0.3
thanYsothatitwillbeoxidisedtoX2+ byreducingY2+ toY.
Accordingto Nernstequation,
X=Zn, Y=Ni
[Cr3+ ]2
Zn+Ni2+ Zn2+ +Ni
Ecell = Ecell -0.059log10 2 + 3
ncell
[Fe ]
Alternatively,foraspontaneousreaction Emustbepositive.
E=Er educedspecies Eoxidisedspecies
(0.1)2
Ecell = 0.3 - 0.059log10
=0.23(0.76)
6
(0.01)3
E=+0.53V
H2 (g)
(c) :2H+ (aq) +2e
Ecell = 0.3 -0.059log10104
6
p
H2
0.0591
Ec ell =0.30.039
Ered = Ered
-
log
n
[H + ]2
\ Ec ell =0.261V

Ered = 0 -

5.

Ered willonlybenegativewhenpH2 >[H+].Sooption(c)is


correct.
(d) :The ionic reactions are :

4/3Al
2/3Al23+
+4e
2
2/3O3
O2 +4e
Thus,no.ofelectronstransferred = 4= n
DG=nFE=496500 E
or 966103 =496500 E

6.

7.

0.0591
2
log
2
(1)2

E=-

966 103
= - 2.5 V
4 96500

(c) : Given,
Fe3+ +3e
Fe E
1 = 0.036V
Fe2+ +2e
Fe E
2 = 0.439V
Requiredequation is
Fe3+ +e
Fe2+ E
3 =?
Applying DG=nFE
\ DG
3 = D G
1 D G
2
(n3FE
3)= (n1FE
1) (n2FE
2)
E
3 =3E
1 2E
2 =3( 0.036)2 (0.439)
E3 =0.108+0.878= 0.77V
(d):Oxalicacidpresentinasolutioncanbedeterminedby
itstitrationwithKMnO4 solutioninthepresenceofH2SO4.
COOH
2KMnO4+3H2SO4+5

COOH
K2SO4+2MnSO4 +10CO2+5H2O

9.

Zn2+ +Cu

2+
(d): Zn+Cu

0.059
[Zn 2+]
log
2
[Cu 2+]
Whenthecelliscompletelydischarged,Ecell =0


Ecell = Ecell

0 = 1.1

or log

0.059
[Zn 2+ ]
log
2
[Cu 2+]

[Zn 2+ ]
2+

[Cu ]

2 1.1
Zn2+
or, log
= 37.3
0.059
Cu2+

2+

Zn
= 1037.3
Cu2+
10. (b):AccordingtoKohlrauschslaw,themolarconductivity
atinfinitedilution(L)forweakelectrolyte,CH3COOHis

or

CH3COOH = CH3COONa + HCl - NaCl

So,forcalculatingthevalueof CH3COOH ,valueof NaCl


shouldalsobeknown.
11. (a): k =

1 l
1 l
i.e., 1.29=

R a
100 a

l/a =129m1
R=520 W for0.2M, C =0.02M
lm = k

1000
1 129 1000
=

10-6 m3
molarity
520
0.02

=124104 Sm2 mol1

39

RedoxReactionsandElectrochemistry

12. (d):CH3COONa+HCl
CH3COOH+
NaCl

Fromthereaction,
LCH3COONa + LHCl = LCH3COOH + LNaCl
or, LCH3COOH = LCH3COONa + LHCl - LNaCl
Thustocalculatethevalueof LCH3COOH oneshouldknow
the valueof LNaCl along with LCH3COONa and LHCl.
13. (a): Inthe reaction,
2 H I + H2S O4 I2 + S O2 + 2 H2O
+11 +1 +62 0 +4 +1 2

+
OnaddingH2SO

4 the [H ]willincrease thereforeEcell will


alsoincreaseandtheequilibriumwillshifttowardstheright.

19. (a): LNaCl = L


LKBr = L

Na +

K+

LKCl = L

K+

+ L

Cl

...(i)

+ L

...(ii)

+ L

...(iii)

Br

Cl

Equation(i)+(ii)(iii)
LNaBr = L + + L
Na

Br

=126+152150=128Scm2 mol1

0.0591
20. (c): Ecell = E cell - n logKc
InthisreactionoxidationnumberofIincreasesbyone,thus
0.0591
0 = 0.591 logKc
thisisanoxidationreactionandHIbehaves asareducing
1
agent.
0.591=0.0591logKc
IInd halfreaction : H2SO4 SO2
+6 +4
0.591
log K c = 0.0591= 10
In this reaction oxidation number of S decreases by two,
thusthisisareductionreactionandH2SO

4behavesasoxidising
\ Kc =antilog10=11010
agent.
21. (c): E cell = E
+ E 3+ 2+
14. (c): LAcOH = LAcONa + LHCl LNaCl
Sn/Sn 2+
Fe /Fe
=91.0 +426.2 126.5
=0.14+0.77=0.91V
=390.7S cm2 mol1
22. (b): Direct conversion of chemical energy to electric energy
15. (a): FromFaraday's1stlaw,
canbemadeconsiderablymoreefficient(i.e.upto75%)than
W=ZQ [W= weight,Z = electrochemical
the40%maximumnowobtainablethroughburningoffueland
equivalent, Q = quantity of electricity]
usingtheheattoformsteamfordrivingturbines.Furthermore,
Now E=ZF
[E=equivalentweight,F=Faraday]
thewaterobtainedasabyproductmaybeusedfordrinkingby
E
or W = Q
theastronauts.
F
Atanode:2H2(g) +4OH(aq) 4H2O(l) +4e
W F
W F

or Q=
Atcathode:O2(g) +2H2O
(l) +4e 4OH (aq)
or Q=
A
E
2H2(g) +O2(g) 2H2O(l)
n
[A =Atomicweight , n= valency of ion]
23. (c) : CN ions act both as reducing agent as well as good
n w F
complexing agent.
or Q=
A
24. (a):
A
B
C
3 5.12 103 96500
7
E

+0.5V
3.0V
1.2V
=
=5.49 10 C
red
27
Moreisthevalueofreductionpotential,moreisthetendency
16. (d): Highertheacidity,higherwillbethetendencytorelease
togetreduced,i.e.lessisthereducingpower.
protonsandhencelighterwillbetheelectricalconductivity.
Thereducingpowerfollowsthefollowingorder:
Difluoroacetic acid will be strongest acid due to electron
B>C>A.
withdrawingeffectoftwofluorineatomssoasitwillshow
0.0591logK
maximumelectrical conductivity.
25. (d): E cell =
c
Ist halfreaction:2HI I2
1 0

17. (a):Cr2+ |Cr3+ =+0.41V


0.0591
0.295 =
logKc
Mn2+ |Mn3+ =1.57V
2
2+
3+
Fe |Fe =0.77V
or, 0.295=0.0295logKc
Co2+ |Co3+ =1.97V
or, Kc =antilog10or Kc =11010
Moreisthevalueofoxidationpotentialmoreisthetendency
1
toget oxidised.
0.0591
26. (c): Ecell = Ecell - n log
AsCrwillhavemaximumoxidationpotentialvalue,therefore
0.1
Heren=2,E cell =1.10V
itsoxidationwillbe easiest.
18. (c):Zn(s) +2H+ (aq)

Zn2+ (aq) +H2 (g)

2+
0.059 [Zn ] pH2
Ecell = E cell -
log
2
[H + ]2

Ecell = 1.10-0.0591log10
2

Ecell =1.100.0295=1.0705V

40

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

27. (b):Themassofsilverdepositedonthecathode
=

108 9650=10.8g
96500

28. (b):Itisalsoknownas heatcapacity.

or

S = K

or

K =

AC
[K =constantofproportionality]
L

SL
AC

\ Unitof K =

2
29. (a):HereCr3+ isoxidisedtoCr2O
7 .

30. (b):2H+ +2e


H2(P1)

H2(P2)
2H+ +2e

Overallreaction:H2(P1)

Smm3
S m
= 2
mol m mol
m 2 3
m
=Sm2 mol1

33. (d):Theoxidationstatesshowachangeonlyinreaction(d).
2 e

H2(P
2)

P
P
P
RT
RT
RT
E = E log 2 = 0 og 2 =
log 1
nF
P1
nF
P1 nF
P2

31. (a):Ecell =Eright (cathode) Eleft(anode).

+1

Zn+2AgCN

+2 e

34. (c):

+3

Mn2O3

4 e

+7
e
[KMnO4]

32. (b):S A(A=area)


S C(C=concentration)
1
S ( L=length)
L
AC
Combiningweget, S
L

+2

2Ag+Zn(CN)2

5 e

Mn2+

[MnO4]1

3 e

+4

MnO2

35. (c):Ecell =Reductionpotentialofcathode(right)reduction


potential ofanode (left)
=Eright Eleft.

41

Chemical Kinetics

CHAPTER

CHEMICALKINETICS

9
1.

2.

Therateofareactiondoubleswhenitstemperaturechanges
from300Kto310K.Activationenergyofsuchareaction
willbe(R=8.314J K1 mol1 and log2 =0.301)
(a) 60.5kJmol1 (b) 53.6kJmol1
7.
(c) 48.6kJmol1 (d) 58.5kJmol1
(2013)
Forafirstorderreaction,(A) products,theconcentration
ofA changesfrom0.1Mto0.025Min40minutes.Therate
ofreactionwhenthe concentration ofAis0.01 Mis
(a) 3.47104 M/min (b) 3.47105 M/min
(c) 1.73104 M/min (d) 1.73105 M/min (2012)

3.

4.

Therateofachemicalreactiondoublesforevery10Crise
oftemperature.Ifthetemperatureisraisedby50C,therate
ofthe reactionincreases by about
(a) 10times
(b) 24times
(c) 32times
(d) 64times
(2011) 8.
Considerthe reaction :
+

Cl2(aq) +H2S(aq)
S(s) +2H (aq) + 2Cl (aq)
The rate of reaction for thisreaction is
rate=k[Cl2][H2S]
Which of these mechanism is/are consistent with this rate
9.
equation?

+
+
H +Cl +Cl +HS (slow)
A. Cl2 +H2S

Cl+ +HS
H+ +Cl +S (fast)

+
B. H2S
H +HS (fastequilibrium)

Cl2 +HS
2Cl + H+ +S (slow)
(a) Aonly
(b) B only
(c) BothAandB (d) NeitherA nor B
5.

6.

(2010)

(log2=0.301)
(a) 230.3minutes (b) 23.03minutes
(c) 46.06minutes (d) 460.6minutes

(2009)

Forareaction 1 A 2B rateofdisappearanceof A isrelated


2
tothe rateofappearance of B by the expression
(a) -

d [ A]
d [ B]
=4
dt
dt

(b) - d [ A] = 1 d [ B]
dt
2 dt
(c) - d [ A] = 1 d [ B]
dt
4 dt
(d) - d [ A] = d [ B]
dt
dt

(2008)

Considerthereaction,2A + B products.Whenconcentration
of Balonewasdoubled,thehalflifedidnotchange.Whenthe
concentrationof A alonewasdoubled,therateincreasedbytwo
times.Theunitofrateconstantforthisreactionis
(a) s1
(b) Lmol1 s1
(c) nounit
(d) molL1 s1.
(2007)
Theenergiesofactivationforforwardandreversereactionsfor
A2 + B2 2AB are180kJmol1 and200kJmol1 respectively..
Thepresenceofacatalystlowerstheactivationenergyofboth
(forwardandreverse)reactionsby100kJmol1.Theenthalpy
changeofthereaction(A2 + B2 2AB)inthepresence of a
catalystwillbe(inkJmol1)
(a) 20
(b) 300
(c) 120
(d) 280
(2007)

The time for half life period of a certain reaction


10. Thefollowingmechanismhasbeenproposedfor thereaction
A
Products is1 hour.When theinitial concentration
ofNOwithBr2 toformNOBr.
ofthereactantAis2.0molL1,howmuchtimedoesittake
NO(g) +Br2(g)
NOBr2(g)
foritsconcentrationtocome from 0.50to0.25molL1 if it
NOBr2(g) +NO(g) 2NOBr(g)
isazeroorderreaction?
Ifthesecondstepistheratedeterminingstep,theorderofthe
(a) 1h
(b) 4 h
reactionwithrespecttoNO(g) is
(c) 0.5h
(d) 0.25h
(2010)
(a) 1
(b) 0
(c)
3
(d) 2
(2006)
The halflife period of a first order chemical reaction is
6.93minutes.The timerequiredforthecompletionof99% 11. RateofareactioncanbeexpressedbyArrheniusequationas:
of thechemical reaction will be
k=AeE/RT.Inthisequation,Erepresents

42

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

(a) theenergy above which all the colliding moleculeswill


react
(b) theenergybelowwhichcollidingmoleculeswillnotreact
(c) thetotalenergyofthereactingmoleculesatatemperature, T
(d) the fraction of molecules with energy greater than the 18.
activationenergy of the reaction.
(2006)

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

kisequilibriumconstant.
Aisadsorptionfactor.
Ea isenergyofactivation.
RisRydbergconstant.

(2003)

Forthereactionsystem:
2NO( g) +O2(g) 2NO2(g),
volumeissuddenlyreducedtohalfitsvaluebyincreasingthe
pressureonit.IfthereactionisoffirstorderwithrespecttoO2
andsecondorderwithrespecttoNO2,therateofreactionwill
(a) diminishtoonefourthofitsinitialvalue
(b) diminishtooneeighthofitsinitialvalue
(c) increasetoeighttimesofitsinitialvalue
(d) increasetofourtimesofits initialvalue.
(2003)

12. A reactionwas found to be second order with respectto the


concentrationofcarbonmonoxide.Iftheconcentrationofcarbon
monoxideisdoubled,witheverythingelsekeptthesame,the
rateofreactionwillbe
(a) remainunchanged
(b) tripled
(c) increasedbya factorof 4
(d) doubled.
(2006) 19. TheratelawforareactionbetweenthesubstancesAandBis
givenbyrate=k[A]n [B]m.Ondoublingtheconcentrationof
13. t1/4 can be taken as the time taken for the concentration of a
AandhalvingtheconcentrationofB,theratioofthenewrate
reactanttodropto3/4ofitsinitialvalue.Iftherateconstantfor
totheearlierrateofthereactionwillbeas
afirstorderreactionisk,thet1/4 canbewrittenas
1
(a) m +n
(b) (m+n)
(a) 0.10/k
(b) 0.29/k
2
(c) (nm)
(d) 2(nm)
(2003)
(c) 0.69/k
(d) 0.75/k
(2005)
14. A reactioninvolvingtwodifferentreactants canneverbe
(a) unimolecular reaction
(b) firstorder reaction
(c) secondorder reaction
(d) bimolecular reaction.
(2005)

20. Theformationofgasatthesurfaceoftungstenduetoadsorption
isthereactionoforder
(a) 0
(b) 1
(c) 2
(d) insufficient data.
(2002)

21. Thedifferentialratelaw forthereaction,


H2 +I2 2HIis
15. Therateequationforthereaction2A+B Cisfoundtobe:
d [H 2 ]
d[I2] d[HI]
rate= k[A][B].Thecorrectstatementinrelationtothisreaction
== -
(a) dt
dt
dt
isthatthe
1
(a) unitofkmustbes
d [H 2 ] d[I2] 1d[HI]
(b)
=
=
(b) t1/2 isaconstant
dt
dt
2 dt
(c) rateofformationofCistwicetherateofdisappearance
d [H 2 ] 1d[I2] d[HI]
(c) 1
=
= -
ofA
2 dt
2 dt
dt
(d) valueofkisindependentof theinitial concentrationsof
d [H 2 ]
d[I ] d[HI]
AandB.
(d) -2
= -2 2 =
(2002)
dt
dt
dt
(2004)
22. ForthereactionA +2B C,rateisgivenby R=[A][B]2 then
16. In a first order reaction, the concentration of the reactant,
theorderofthereactionis
decreasesfrom0.8Mto0.4Min15minutes.Thetimetaken
(a) 3
(b) 6
fortheconcentration tochangefrom0.1Mto 0.025Mis
(c) 5
(d) 7
(2002)
(a) 30minutes
(b) 15minutes
(c) 7.5minutes
(d) 60minutes.
(2004) 23. Unitsofrateconstantoffirstandzeroorderreactionsinterms
ofmolarityMunitarerespectively
17. Intherespectoftheequationk=AeEa/RT inchemicalkinetics,
(a) s1,Ms1
(b) s1,M
whichoneofthefollowing statements is correct?
(c) Ms1,s1
(d) M,s1
(2002)

Answer Key

1.

(b)

2.

(a)

3.

(c)

4.

(a)

7.

(c)

8.

(b)

9.

(a)

10. (d)

11. (b)

12. (c)
18. (c)

5.

(d)

13. (b)

14. (a)

15. (d)

16. (a)

17. (c)

19. (d)

20. (a)

21. (d)

22. (a)

23. (a)

6.

(c)

43

Chemical Kinetics

1.

0.693
6.93
Since reactionfollows1storder kinetics,

(b): As r = k[A]n
r2
r1

k2

k1

r2

Since r = 2
1
\

t =

(Given)

k2
= 2
k1

where[A0]= initialconcentration
and[A]=concentrationof A attimet.
[ A0] 100
Q Reactionis99%complete, \
=
[ A]
1

Ea T2 - T1
k
log10 2 =

k1 2.303R T1T2
Ea
310 - 300
log 2=
-3 310 300
2.303 8.314 10

Ea =

0.3010 2.303 8.314 10 -3 93 103


10

2.303 6.93
log(100)
0.693
=23.032log(10)=46.06minutes.
or t=

7.

Ea =53.6kJmol1
2.

2.303
a
log
t
a -x

a=0.1M, ax=0.025M, t=40 min

8.

2.303
0.1
2.303
k=
log
=
log 4=0.0347min1
40
0.025
40

[A]
product
Thus,rate=k[A]
rate=0.03470.01Mmin1
=3.47104 M min1
50

3.

(c): Rateat50C = 2 10 = 2 5 =32times.

4.

(a):The rate equationdependsupon the rate determining


step. The given rate equation is only consistent with the
mechanismA.

5.

(d):Forazeroorder reaction,t1/2 is given as


[ A0]
2k

or k =

[ A0 ]
2t1/2

Given, t1/2 =1hr, [A0]= 2M


\

k=

2
= 1 molL-1 hr-1
2 1

Integratedratelaw for zero orderreaction is


[A]=kt +[A0]
Here,[A0]=0.5Mand[A]= 0.25M
0.25=t +0.5 t =0.25 hours
6.

(c): Given,t1/2 =6.93min


0.693
l =
(for1st order reaction)
t1/ 2

1 d [ A] 1 d [ B]
=
1/ 2 dt
2 dt

d [ A] 1 d [ B]
=
dt
4 dt

(b): Rate = k[A]x [B]y


When [B] is doubled, keeping [A] constant halflife of the
reactiondoesnotchange.
0.693
Now,fora firstorder reaction t1/ 2 =
k
i.e.t1/2 isindependentoftheconcentrationofthereactant.
Hence the reaction is first order with respect to B. Now
when [A] is doubled, keeping [B] constant, the rate also
doubles.HencethereactionisfirstorderwithrespecttoA.
\ Rate = [ A]1 [ B ]1 \order=2
Now for a nth order reaction, unit of rate constant is
(L)n1 (mol)1n s1 when n = 2, unit of rate constant is
Lmol1 s1.

RateatT1C

t1/ 2 =

(c): Forthisreaction,
Rate= -

(a):Forthe first order reaction


k=

2.303 [ A0]
log
l
[ A]

(a):DH R = E f - Eb = 180 - 200 = -20 kJ mol1


The correct answer for this question should be
20kJmol1.Butnooptiongiveniscorrect.Hencewe can
ignoresignandselectoption(a).
10. (d):NO(g) +Br2(g) NOBr2(g)
NOBr2(g) +NO(g) 2NOBr(g) [ratedeterminingstep]
Rateofthereaction(r)= K[NOBr2][NO]

where[NOBr2]=
KC [NO][Br2]

r= KKC [NO][Br2][NO]

r=K[NO]2 [Br2]
TheorderofthereactionwithrespecttoNO(g) = 2
11. (b):k=AeE/RT
where E = activation energy, i.e. the minimum amount of
energy required by reactant molecules to participate in a
reaction.
9.

44

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

dx
= k[CO]2
dt
r2 =k[2CO]2 = 4k[CO]2
Thus, according to the rate law expression doubling the
concentrationofCO increases therate bya factorof4.

12. (c):Given r1 =

13. (b): t1/ 4 =

2.303
4
0.29
log =
k
3
k

Therefore,theconcentrationofreactantwillfallfrom0.1 M
to0.025Mintwohalflives.
i.e.2t1/2 =215=30minutes.
17. (c):InArrheniusequation,k=AeEa/RT
k=rateconstant,A=frequencyfactor
T=temperature,R=gasconstant,Ea =energyofactivation.
Thisequationcanbeusedforcalculationofenergyofactivation.

14. (a):Generally, molecularity of simple reactions isequalto 18. (c):Rate1 =k[NO]2 [O2]
thesumofthenumberofmoleculesofreactantsinvolvedin
Whenvolumeis reducedto1/2,concentration becomes two
the balanced stoichiometric equation. Thus, a reaction
times.
involvingtwodifferentreactantscanneverbeunimolecular.
Rate2 =k[2NO]2 [2O2]
Butareactioninvolvingtwodifferentreactantscanafirstorder
Rate1
k [NO]2 [O 2]
Rate1 1
=
=
reaction.Forexample, for the following reaction
Rate2 k[2NO]2 [2O 2] or Rate 2 8
RCl+H2O
ROH+HCl

\ Rate2 =8Rate1
Expectedratelaw:
19. (d):Rate1 =k[A]n [B]m
Rate=k[RCl][H2O]expectedorder=1+1=2

On doubling the concentration of A and halving the


Butactualratelaw:
concentration of B
Rate=k[RCl]
actualorder=1
Rate2 =k[2A]n [B/2]m
Herewateristakeninexcess,henceitsconcentrationmaybe
Ratiobetweennewandearlierrate
takenconstant.
Herethemolecularityofthereaction=2andtheorderofthe
k[2 A]n [ B/ 2]m n 1 m n - m
=2
=2
=
2
reaction=1.
k [ A]n [ B]m

( )

15. (d):2A+B C
rate=k[A][B]
Thevalueof k (velocityconstant)isalwaysindependentofthe
concentration of reactant and itis a function of temperature
only.
For a second order reaction, unit of rate constant,
kisLmol1 sec1 forasecondorderreaction,
1
t1/ 2 =
ka
i.e.t1/2 isinverselyproportional toinitial concentration.
2A+B C
1 d [ A]
d [ B ] d [C]
==
Rate = 2 dt
dt
dt
i.e. rate of formation ofC is half the rate of disappearance
ofB.

20. (a)
21. (d):H2 +I2 2HI
When1moleofH2 and1moleofI2 reacts,2molesofHIare
formedinthesametimeinterval.
Thustheratemaybeexpressedas
-d [H 2 ]
- d[ I2]
1 d[ HI]
=
=
dt
dt
2 dt
Thenegativesignsignifiesadecreaseinconcentrationofthe
reactantwithincreaseoftime.
22. (a):Orderisthesumofthepoweroftheconcentrationsterms
inratelawexpression.
R=[A] [B]2
Thus,orderofreaction=1+2=3

23. (a):UnitofK=(molL1)1n s1,


wheren=orderofreaction
16. (a):Theconcentrationofthereactantdecreasesfrom0.8M
n=0 zeroorderreaction
to0.4Min15minutes,
n=1 firstorderreaction
i.e.t1/2 =15minute.

45

SurfaceChemistry

CHAPTER

SURFACECHEMISTRY

10
1.

ThecoagulatingpowerofelectrolyteshavingionsNa+,Al3+
andBa2+ forarsenic sulphide solincreases in theorder:
(a) Al3+ <Na+ <Ba2+ (b) Al3+ <Ba2+ <Na+
(c) Na+ <Ba2+ <Al3+ (d) Ba2+ <Na+ <Al3+

5.

InLangmuirsmodelofadsorptionofagasonasolidsurface
(a) the rate of dissociation of adsorbed molecules from the
surfacedoesnotdependonthesurfacecovered
(b) theadsorptionatasinglesiteonthesurfacemayinvolve
multiplemoleculesatthesametime
(c) the mass of gas striking a given area of surface is
proportionaltothepressureofthegas
(d) the mass of gas striking a given area of surface is
independentofthepressureofthegas.
(2006)

6.

The d+isperse phase in colloidal iron (III) hydroxide and


colloidalgoldispositivelyandnegativelycharged,respectively.
WhichofthefollowingstatementsisNOTcorrect?
(a) Magnesiumchloridesolutioncoagulates,thegoldsolmore
readilythantheiron(III)hydroxidesol
(b) Sodiumsulphatesolutioncausescoagulationinbothsols
(c) Mixingofthesolshasnoeffect
(d) Coagulation in both sols can be brought about by
electrophoresis
(2005)

(2013)

2.

AccordingtoFreundlich adsorptionisotherm, whichofthe


following is correct?
(a)

x
p1
m

(c)

x
p 0
m

(b)

x
p1/ n
m

(d) Alltheabovearecorrectfordifferentrangesofpressure.
(2012)
3.

4.

Which of the following statements is incorrect regarding


physisorption?
(a) Itoccursbecause of van derWaalsforces.
(b) More easilyliquefiablegases are adsorbed readily.
(c) Underhighpressureitresultsintomultimolecularlayer
on adsorbent surface.
(d) Enthalpyofadsorption(DHa dsorption)islowandpositive. 7.
(2009)
GoldnumbersofprotectivecolloidsA,B,CandDare0.50,
0.01,0.10and0.005,respectively.Thecorrectorderoftheir
8.
protective powers is
(a) B<D<A< C
(b) D<A<C< B
(c) C< B< D< A
(d) A<C< B< D
(2008)

Thevolumeofacolloidalparticle, Vc ascomparedtothevolume
ofasoluteparticleinatruesolutionVs couldbe
(a) ~1
(b) ~1023
3
(c) ~10
(d) ~103
(2005)
Which one of the following characteristics is not correct for
physical adsorption?
(a) Adsorptiononsolids isreversible
(b) Adsorptionincreaseswithincreaseintemperature
(c) Adsorptionisspontaneous
(d) Bothenthalpyand entropyofadsorptionare negative.
(2003)

Answer Key

1.
7.

(c)
(d)

2.
8.

(d)
(b)

3.

(d)

4.

(d)

5.

(c)

6.

(c)

46

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

1.

(c): Foranegativelychargedsol,likeAs2S
3,greaterthepositive

chargeoncations, greateristhecoagulatingpower.

2.

(d):AccordingtoFreundlichadsorptionisotherm
x
=kp1/ n
m

1/ncanhavevaluesbetween0to1overdifferentrangesof
6.
pressure.
3.

(d) : Physical adsorption is an exothermic process (i.e.,


7.
DH=ve)butitsvalueisquitelowbecausetheattractionof
gasmoleculesandsolidsurfaceisweakvanderWaalsforces.

4.

(d): Thedifferentprotectingcolloidsdifferintheirprotecting
powers. Zsigmondy introduced aterm calledGold number
todescribetheprotectivepowerofdifferentcolloids.Smaller
thevalueofgoldnumbergreaterwillbeprotectingpowerof
8.
the protective colloid. Thus
1
protective power of colloid
Gold number

5.

(c):Assumingtheformationofamonolayeroftheadsorbate
on thesurface ofthe adsorbent, itwas derived by Langmuir

thatthemassofthegasadsorbedpergramoftheadsorbentis
relatedtotheequilibriumpressureaccordingtotheequation:
x
aP
=
m 1+bP
wherex is the mass of the gas adsorbed on m gram of the
adsorbent,Pisthepressureand a,bareconstants.
(c) : Opposite charges attract each other. Hence on mixing
coagulationoftwosolsmaybetakeplace.
(d):Fortruesolutionthediameterrangeis1to10andfor
colloidalsolutiondiameterrangeis10to1000.
3

Vc (4 / 3)prc 3 rc
=
=
Vs (4 / 3)prs3 rs
Ratioofdiameters=(10/1)3 =103
Vc /Vs ; 103
(b) : During adsorption, there is always decrease in surface
energywhichappearsasheat.Thereforeadsorptionalwaystakes
placewithevolutionofheat, i.e. itisanexothermicprocessand
since the adsorption process is exothermic, the physical
adsorptionoccursreadilyatlowtemperatureanddecreaseswith
increasingtemperature.(LeChatelier'sprinciple).

47

CHEMISTRY

CHAPTER

NUCLEARCHEMISTRY*

11
1.

2.

3.

4.

Which of the following nuclear reactions will generate an 6.


isotope?
(a) bparticleemission
(b) Neutronparticleemission
(c) Positronemission
(d) aparticleemission
(2007) 7.
Aradioactiveelementgetsspilledoverthefloorofaroom.Its
halflifeperiodis30days.Iftheinitialvelocityistentimesthe
permissiblevalue,afterhowmanydayswillitbesafetoenter
the room?
8.
(a) 100days
(b) 1000days
(c) 300days
(d) 10days
(2007)
234
Inthetransformationof 238
92 Uto 92 U ,ifoneemissionisan a
particle,whatshouldbetheotheremission(s)?
(a) Two b
(b) Two b andone b+
(c) One b andone g
(d) One b+ andone b
(2006)

24
Aphotonofhardgammaradiationknocksaprotonoutof12
Mg
nucleustoform
(a) theisotopeof parentnucleus
(b) theisobarofparentnucleus
23
(c) thenuclide 11
Na

5.

23
(d) theisobarof 11
Na

(2005)

Hydrogenbombisbased onthe principleof


(a) nuclearfission (b) naturalradioactivity
(c) nuclear fusion (d) artificial radioactivity.

(2005)

9.

Thehalflifeofaradioisotopeisfourhours.Iftheinitialmass
oftheisotopewas200g, themassremainingafter 24 hours
undecayedis
(a) 1.042g
(b) 2.084g
(c) 3.125g
(d) 4.167g
(2004)
Considerthefollowingnuclearreactions:
X
A
+
YXN +2 4
2He Y N B L + 2b
ThenumberofneutronsintheelementLis
(a) 142
(b) 144
(c) 140
(d) 146
238
92 M

Thehalflifeofaradioactiveisotopeisthreehours.Iftheinitial
mass of the iosotope were 256 g, the mass of it remaining
undecayedafter18hourswouldbe
(a) 4.0g
(b) 8.0g
(c) 12.0g
(d) 16.0g
(2003)
Theradionucleide 234
90Th undergoestwosuccessive bdecays
followed by one adecay.The atomic number and the mass
numberrespectivelyoftheresultingradionucleide are
(a) 92and234
(b) 94and230
(c) 90and230
(d) 92and230
(2003)

10. bparticleisemittedinradioactivityby
(a) conversion of proton to neutron
(b) formoutermost orbit
(c) conversion of neutron to proton
(d) bparticleisnotemitted.

(2002)

11. If halflife of a substance is 5 yrs, then the total amount of


substanceleftafter15years,wheninitialamountis64grams
is
(a) 16g
(b) 2g
(c) 32g
(d) 8g
(2002)

Answer Key

1.

(b)

2.

(a)

3.

(a)

4.

7.

(b)

8.

(a)

9.

(c)

10. (c)

*Not included in the syllabusof JEE Main since 2008.

(2004)

(c)

5.

(c)

11. (d)

6.

(c)

48

1.

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

(b) : The atoms of the some elements having same atomic


numberbutdifferentmassnumbersarecalledisotopes.
A
X
Z

A
X
Z

2.

1 n
0

A 4
Z 2 Y

A
X
Z

+b+

A
X
Z

A 1
Z X

A
Y
Z+ 1

6.

( )

A
Z1Y

(a):Let Abethe activityfor safeworking.


GivenA0 =10A
A0 N0 andAN
2.303
N
2.303
A
t =
log 0 =
log 0
l
N
l
A

or,
7.

3.

(a):

92

234

2.303 30
=
log 10
0.693

90A

234

91

=3.125g

(b): 238
92 M

230
4
88 N +2 2He
230
+
86L + 2b

Therefore,numberofneutronsinelementL
=23086=144
(a):t1/2 =3hours,n=T/t1/2 =18/3=6

9.
234

92U

Thusinordertoget92U234 asendproduct1a and2b particles


shouldbeemitted.
4.

24
(c): 12
Mg + g

23
1
11 Na + 1p

5.

(c) : Hydrogen bomb is based on the principal of nuclear


fusion.Inhydrogenbomb,amixtureofdeuteriumoxideand
tritiumoxideisenclosedinaspacesurroundinganordinary
atomicbomb.Thetemperatureproducedbytheexplosionof

( 2)

( )

N = N 0 1
2

2.303 30
= 99.69 days 100days
0.693
238

( 12)

N = 200

230
88 N

8.
2.303
10A
=
log
0.693/ 30
A

the atomic bomb initiates the fusion reaction between


3
2
.
1 H and 1H releasing hugeamount ofenergy.
(c):t1/2 =4hours
n
n= T = 24=6 N = N 0 1
t1/ 2 4
2

1
N = 256

N=4.0g

-2b
-a Th230
(c): 90 Th 234
92 X 234
90
Eliminationof1a and2b particlesgiveisotope.

10. (c): Sincethenucleusdoesnotcontain bparticles,itisproduced


by theconversion of a neutron to a proton at the moment of
emission.
1
1
0
0n +1p + 1e
11. (d):t1/2 =5years,
n

n=
3

T
t1/ 2

1
1
n = N0 = 64 = 8 g
2
2

15
=3
5

ClassificationofElementsandPeriodicityinProperties

CHAPTER

12

CLASSIFICATIONOFELEMENTS
ANDPERIODICITYIN
PROPERTIES

1.

The firstionisation potentialof Na is 5.1 eV.The valueof 7.


electrongainenthalpy ofNa+ will be
(a) +2.55eV
(b) 2.55 eV
(c) 5.1eV
(d) 10.2 eV
(2013)

2.

Which of the following represents the correct order of


increasingfirstionizationenthalpyforCa,Ba,S,SeandAr?
(a) Ca<Ba<S <Se<Ar
8.
(b) Ca<S<Ba <Se<Ar
(c) S<Se<Ca <Ba<Ar
(d) Ba<Ca<Se <S<Ar
(2013)
Theincreasingorderoftheionicradiiofthegivenisoelectronic 9.
speciesis
(a) S2,Cl,Ca2+,K+
(b) Ca2+,K+,Cl,S2
(c) K+,S2,Ca2+,Cl
(d) Cl,Ca2+,K+,S2
(2012)

3.

4.

5.

6.

49

ThedecreasingvaluesofbondanglesfromNH3 (106)toSbH3
(101)down group15oftheperiodictableisdueto
(a) increasingbondbondpairrepulsion
(b) increasingporbitalcharacterinsp3
(c) decreasinglonepairbondpairrepulsion
(d) decreasing electronegativity.
(2006)
The increasing order of the first ionisation enthalpies of the
elementsB,P,SandF(lowestfirst)is
(a) F<S<P<B (b) P<S<B<F
(c) B<P<S<F (d) B<S<P<F
(2006)
Whichoneofthefollowingsetsofionsrepresentsacollection
of isoelectronic species?
(a) K+,Cl,Ca2+,Sc3+
(b) Ba2+,Sr2+,K+,S2
(c) N3,O2,F,S2
(d) Li+,Na+,Mg2+,Ca2+
(2006)

Whichoneofthefollowingorderspresentsthecorrectsequence
ofthe increasingbasic nature of the given oxides?
10. In which of the following arrangements the order is NOT
(a) Al2O
3 <MgO<Na2O<K2O
accordingtothepropertyindicatedagainstit?
(b) MgO<K2O<Al

2O3 <Na2O
(a) Al3+ <Mg2+ <Na+ <F increasingionicsize
(c) Na2O<K2O<MgO<Al2O
3
(b) B<C<N<Oincreasingfirstionisationenthalpy
(d) K2O<Na
(2011)

2O<Al2O
3 <MgO
(c) I<Br<F<Clincreasingelectrongainenthalpy
The correctsequence which shows decreasing orderof the
(withnegativesign)
ionicradii ofthe elementis
(d) Li<Na<K<Rbincreasingmetallicradius
(a) O2 >F >Na+ >Mg2+ >Al3+
(2005)
(b) Al3+ >Mg2+ >Na+ >F >O2
11. Basedonlatticeenergyandotherconsiderationswhichoneof
(c) Na+ >Mg2+ >Al3+ >O2 >F
+

2+
2
3+
the following alkali metal chlorides is expected to have the
(d) Na >F >Mg >O >Al
(2010)
highestmeltingpoint?
Followingstatementsregardingtheperiodictrendsofchemical
(a) LiCl
(b) NaCl
reactivityofthealkalimetalsandthehalogensaregiven.Which
(c) KCl
(d) RbCl
(2005)
ofthesestatements gives thecorrectpicture?
(a) Thereactivitydecreasesinthealkalimetalsbutincreases 12. Latticeenergyofanioniccompounddependsupon
(a) chargeontheiononly
inthehalogenswithincreaseinatomicnumberdownthe
(b) sizeoftheiononly
group.
(c) packingoftheiononly
(b) Inboththealkalimetalsand the halogens thechemical
reactivitydecreaseswithincreaseinatomicnumberdown
(d) chargeand sizeoftheion.
(2005)
thegroup.
13. Which amongthe following factorsis the mostimportant in
(c) Chemical reactivity increases with increase in atomic
makingfluorinethestrongestoxidisingagent?
number down the group in both the alkali metals and
(a) Electron affinity
halogens.
(b) Ionization energy
(d) Inalkalimetalsthereactivityincreasesbutinthehalogens
(c) Hydration enthalpy
it decreases with increase in atomic number down the
(d) Bonddissociation energy
(2004)
group.
(2006)

50

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

14. TheformationoftheoxideionO2(g) requiresfirstanexothermic 16. Whichoneofthefollowingionshasthehighestvalueofionic


radius?
andthenanendothermicstepasshownbelow.
(a) Li+
(b) B3+

1
O(g) +e =O (g) DH=142kJmol
2
(c) O
(d) F
(2004)
O (g) +e =O2 (g) DH=844kJmol1
17. Whichoneofthefollowinggroupingsrepresents acollection
Thisisbecause
of isoelectronic species?
(a) oxygenis more electronegative
(At.nos.:Cs55,Br35)
(b) oxygenhashigh electron affinity
+,Ca2+,Mg2+ (b) N3,F,Na+
(a)
Na
(c) O ionwilltendtoresisttheadditionofanotherelectron
(c) Be,Al3+,Cl
(d) Ca2+,Cs+,Br
(2003)
(d) O ionhascomparativelylargersizethanoxygenatom.
18. According to the periodic law of elements, the variation in
(2004)
propertiesofelementsisrelatedtotheir
(a) atomicmasses
15. Whichoneofthefollowingsetsofionsrepresentsthecollection
(b) nuclearmasses
of isoelectronic species?
(c) atomicnumbers
(a) K+,Ca2+,Sc3+,Cl
(d) nuclearneutronprotonnumberratios.
(2003)
(b) Na+,Ca2+,Sc3+,F
19. Whichisthecorrectorderofatomicsizes?
(c) K+,Cl,Mg2+,Sc3+
(a) Ce>Sn>Yb>Lu
(b) Sn>Ce>Lu>Yb
(d) Na+,Mg2+,Al3+,Cl.
(c) Lu>Yb>Sn>Ce
(Atomicnos.:F= 9,Cl=17,Na=11,Mg=12,
(d) Sn>Yb>Ce>Lu.
Al=13,K=19, Ca=20,Sc=21)
(At.Nos.:Ce=58,Sn=50,Yb=70andLu=71)
(2004)
(2002)

Answer Key

1.
7.
13.
19.

(c)
(c)
(d)
(a)

2. (d)
8. (d)
14. (c)

3. (b)
9. (a)
15. (a)

4. (a)
10. (b)
16. (c)

5. (a)
11. (b)
17. (b)

6. (d)
12. (d)
18. (c)

51

ClassificationofElementsandPeriodicityinProperties

1. (c): Electrongainenthalpy=Ionisationpotential
= 5.1eV
2. (d) : Ionization enthalpy decreases from top to bottom in a
groupwhile itincreases fromleft toright in a period.
3.

4.

bondanglesgraduallydecreaseduetodecreaseinbondpair
lone pairrepulsion.
8.

(b) : For isoelectronic species as effective nuclear charge


increases,ionicradiidecreases.Nuclearchargeismaximum
ofthespeciewithmaximumprotons.Orderofnuclearcharge:
Ca2+ >K+ >Cl > S2
Protons :
20
19
17
16
Electrons : 18
18
18
18
9.
Thusincreasing orderof ionic radii
2+
+

2
Ca <K <Cl <S
(a) : Whilemovingfromlefttorightinperiodictablebasic
characterof oxide of elements will decrease.

(d): Element: B
S P
F
I.E.(eV): 8.3 10.4 11.017.4
In general as we move from left to right in a period, the
ionisationenthalpyincreaseswithincreasingatomicnumber.
Theionisationenthalpydecreasesaswemovedownagroup.
P(1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p3) has a stable half filled electronic
configuration than S (1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4). For this reason,
ionisationenthalpyofPishigherthanS.
(a): K+ =191=18 e
Cl =17+1=18 e
Ca2+ =202=18e
Sc3+ =213=18e
Thusallthe speciesare isoelectronic.

10. (b): Aswemovefromlefttorightacrossaperiod,ionisation


enthalpyincreases withincreasingatomic number. So the
order of increasing ionisation enthalpy should be
\
B<C<N<O.
But N(1s2 2s2 2p3) has a stable half filled electronic
\Correctorderis
configuration.So,ionizationenthalpyofnitrogenisgreater
Al2O
3 <MgO<Na2O<K2O
than oxygen.
(a) : All the given species are isoelectronic. Among
So,thecorrectorderofincreasingthefirstionizationenthalpy
isoelectronicspecies,anionsgenerallyhavegreatersizethan
cations.
isB<C<O<N.
Alsogreater,the nuclear charge(Z) of the ion, smallerthe
11. (b): Incaseofhalidesofalkalimetals,meltingpointdecreases
size.Thustheorder is :
goingdownthegroupbecauselattice enthalpiesdecreases
2

+
2+
3+
O >F >Na >Mg >Al
assizeofalkalimetalincreases.ButLiClhaslowermelting
(d):Allthealkalimetalsarehighlyreactiveelementssince
pointincomparisontoNaClduetocovalentnature.Thus,
they have a strong tendency to lose the single valence s
NaClisexpectedtohavethehighestmeltingpointamong
electrontoformunipositiveionshavinginertgasconfiguration.
givenhalides.
Thisreactivityarisesduetotheirlowionisationenthalpies
And while descending in the group basic character of
correspondingoxides increases.

5.

6.

andhighnegativevaluesoftheirstandardelectrodepotentials. 12. (d): Thevalueoflatticeenergydependsonthechargespresent


However,thereactivityofhalogensdecreaseswithincrease
onthe twoionsandthe distancebetweenthem.
inatomic number due to following reasons:
(a) Asthesizeincreases,theattractionforanadditional 13. (d):ThebonddissociationenergyofFFbondisverylow.
TheweakFFbondmakesfluorinethestrongestoxidising
electronby the nucleus becomes less.
halogen.
(b) Due todecrease in electronegativityfrom FtoI,the
bond between halogen and other elements becomes 14. (c) : The addition of second electron in an atom or ion is
weakerandweaker.
alwaysendothermic.
7.

(c):
NH3 PH3 AsH3
SbH3
15. (a): Isoelectronicspeciesarethosewhichhavesamenumber
Bondangle106.5 93.5 91.5
91.3
of electrons.
The bond angle in ammonia is less than 109 28 due to
K+ =191=18Ca2+ =202=18
repulsionbetweenlonepairspresentonnitrogenatomand
Sc3+ =213=18Cl =17+1=18
bondedpairsofelectrons.Aswemovedownthegroup,the
Thusallthese ionshave 18electronsinthem.

52

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

16. (c) : This can be explained on the basis of z/e


nuclearcharge
,
no.ofelectrons whereas z/e ratio increases, the size
decreasesandwhenz/eratio decreasesthe sizeincreases.

z 3
= =1.5
e 2
z 5
ForB3+, = =2.5
e 2
z 8
ForO2, = =0.8
e 10
9
z
ForF , = =0.9
e 10

ForLi+,

electronsbutdifferentnuclear charge.Numberofelectrons
inN3 =7+3=10.
NumberofelectronsinF =9+1=10
NumberofelectronsinNa+ =111=10

18. (c): Accordingtomodifiedmodernperiodiclaw,theproperties


ofelementsareperiodicfunctionsoftheiratomicnumbers.
19. (a) : Generally as we move from left to right in a period,
thereisregulardecreaseinatomicradiiandinagroupasthe
atomicnumberincreasestheatomicradiialsoincreases.Thus
the atomic radius of Sn should be less than lanthanides.
La>Sn.Butduetolanthanidecontraction,incaseoflanthanides
Hence,O2 hashighest value of ionic radius.
thereisacontinuousdecreaseinsizewithincreaseinatomic
number.Hencethe atomicradiusfollowthe giventrend :
17. (b): Isoelectronic species arethe neutralatoms,cationsor
Ce>Sn>Yb>Lu.
anionsofdifferentelementswhichhavethesamenumberof

53

GeneralPrinciplesandProcessesofIsolationofMetals

GENERALPRINCIPLES
ANDPROCESSESOF
ISOLATIONOFMETALS

CHAPTER

13

(a) Magnetite
(c) Galena

1. Whichmethodofpurificationisrepresentedbythefollowing
equation?
Ti(s) +2I2(g)
TiI4(g)
Ti(s) + 2I2(g)

2.

3.

(a) Cupellation

(b) Poling

(c) VanArkel

(d) Zone refining

(2004)
5.

(2012)

Whichofthefollowingfactorsisofnosignificanceforroasting
sulphideorestothe oxidesand notsubjecting thesulphide
ores to carbon reduction directly?
(a) CO2 ismorevolatilethan CS2.
(b) Metalsulphidesarethermodynamicallymorestablethan
CS2.
6.
(c) CO2 isthermodynamicallymorestable thanCS2.
(d) Metalsulphidesarelessstablethanthecorresponding
oxides.
(2008)
7.
Duringtheprocessofelectrolyticrefiningofcopper,somemetals
presentasimpuritysettleasanodemud.Theseare
(a) SnandAg
(b) PbandZn
8.
(c) AgandAu
(d) FeandNi.
(2005)

4.

(b) Cassiterite
(d) Malachite.

Whichoneofthefollowingoresisbestconcentratedbyfroth
flotation method?

Whenthesampleofcopperwthzincimpurityistobepurified
byelectrolysis,theappropriateelectrodesare
cathode
anode
(a) purezinc
pure copper
(b) impuresample
pure copper
(c) impurezinc
impuresample
(d) pure copper
impuresample.
(2002)
Cyanideprocessisusedfortheextractionof
(a) barium
(b) aluminium
(c) boron
(d) silver.
(2002)
Themetalextractedbyleachingwithacyanideis
(a) Mg
(b) Ag
(c) Cu
(d) Na.
Aluminiumisextractedbytheelectrolysisof
(a) bauxite
(b) alumina
(c) aluminamixedwithmoltencryolite
(d) molten cryolite.
(2002)

Answer Key

1.
7.

(c)
(b)

2.
8.

(a)
(c)

3.

(c)

(2002)

4.

(c)

5.

(d)

6.

(d)

54

1.

2.

3.

4.

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

(c):VanArkelmethodwhichisalsocalledasvapourphase
refiningisusedforpreparingultrapuremetalsliketitanium,
zirconium,thoriumand uranium.
5.
(a):Oxidisingroastingisaverycommontypeofroasting
inmetallurgyandiscarriedouttoremovesulphurandarsenic
intheformoftheirvolatileoxides.CS2 ismorevolatilethan
CO2.Sooption(a)isofnosignificanceforroastingsulphide 6.
ores to their oxides. The reduction process is on the
thermodynamic stability of the products and not on their
7.
volatility.

propertieswiththefrothingagentandwater.Heregalena(PbS)
istheonlysulphideore.

(c) : In the electrolytic refining of copper the more


electropositiveimpuritieslikeFe,Zn,Ni,Co,etc.dissolve
in the solution and less electropositive impurities such as
Ag,AuandPtcollectbelowtheanodeintheformofanodic
mud.

Zn
Ag2S+2NaCN Na[Ag(CN)2]
Na2[Zn(CN)4]+Ag

(c) : Frothflotation method is used for the concentration of


sulphideores.Themethodisbasedonthepreferentialwetting

(d):Theimpuremetalismadeanodewhileathinsheetof
puremetalactsascathode.Onpassingthecurrent,thepure
metalisdepositedonthecathodeandequivalentamountof
themetalgetsdissolved fromtheanode.
(d):Goldandsilverareextractedfromtheirnativeoresby
MacArthurforrestcyanideprocess.
(b): SilveroreformsasolublecomplexwithNaCNfromwhich
silverisprecipitatedusingscrapzinc.

sod. argentocyanide
(soluble)

8.

(c) : Aluminium is obtained by the electrolysis of the pure


alumina(20parts)dissolvedinabathoffusedcryolite(60parts)
andfluorspar(20parts).

55

Hydrogen

CHAPTER

HYDROGEN

14
1.

Very pure hydrogen(99.9%) can be made by which ofthe


following processes?
(a) Mixingnaturalhydrocarbonsofhighmolecularweight.
(b) Electrolysis of water.
(c) Reactionofsalt like hydrideswith water.
(d) Reactionofmethane withsteam.
(2012)

2.

Incontextwiththeindustrialpreparationofhydrogenfrom
watergas(CO+H2), whichof the followingisthe correct
statement?
(a) COisoxidisedtoCO2 withsteaminthepresenceofa
catalystfollowed byabsorptionof CO2 in alkali.

(b) COandH2 arefractionallyseparatedusingdifferences


intheirdensities.
(c) COisremovedbyabsorptioninaqueousCu2Cl
2solution.
(d) H2 isremovedthrough occlusionwithPd.
(2008)
3.

Answer Key

1.

(b)

2.

(a)

3.

(c)

Whichoneofthefollowingprocesseswillproducehardwater?
(a) SaturationofwaterwithCaCO3.
(b) SaturationofwaterwithMgCO3.
(c) SaturationofwaterwithCaSO4.
(d) AdditionofNa2SO4 towater.
(2003)

56

1.

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

(b): Dihydrogen of high purity is usually preparedby the


electrolysis ofwater using platinum electrodes in presence
ofsmallamountofacid oralkali.

CO+H2O

Fe2O 3,CoO
673K

CO2+H2

NaOH

CO2 alkali Na2CO3


CO2 isabsorbedinalkali(NaOH).
The entirereactioniscalled watergasshiftreaction.

Dihydrogen iscollected at cathode.


2.

(a): Carbonmonoxideisoxidisedtocarbondioxidebypassing 3.
thegasesandsteamover aniron oxide
orcobaltoxideorchromiumoxidecatalystat673Kresulting
in the production of more H2.

(c):Permanenthardnessisintroducedwhenwaterpassesover
rockscontainingthesulphatesorchloridesofbothofcalcium
andmagnesium.

57

sBlock Elements

CHAPTER

sBLOCKELEMENTS

15
1.

Whichofthe following on thermal decompositionyields a


basicaswellasanacidic oxide?
(a) KClO3
(b) CaCO3
7.
(c) NH4NO3
(d) NaNO3
(2012)

2.

The set representingthe correctorder of ionic radiusis


(a) Li+ >Be2+ >Na+ >Mg2+
(b) Na+ >Li+ >Mg2+ >Be2+
(c) Li+ >Na+ >Mg2+ >Be2+
(d) Mg2+ >Be2+ >Li+ >Na+
(2009)

3.

Theionicmobilityofalkalimetalionsinaqueoussolutionis
maximumfor
(a) K+
(b) Rb+
+
(c) Li
(d) Na+
(2006)

4.

Beryllium and aluminium exhibit many properties which are


similar.But,thetwo elementsdifferin
9.
(a) exhibitingmaximum covalencyincompounds
(b) formingpolymeric hydrides
(c) formingcovalenthalides
(d) exhibitingamphotericnature intheiroxides.
(2004) 10.

5.

6.

8.

(c) preventactionofwaterandsalt
(d) preventpuncturingbyundersearocks.

(2003)

Incuringcementplasterswaterissprinkledfromtimetotime.
Thishelpsin
(a) keepingitcool
(b) developing interlocking needlelike crystals of hydrated
silicates
(c) hydratingsandandgravelmixedwithcement
(d) convertingsandintosilicicacid.
(2003)
Thesolubilities ofcarbonatesdecreasedown the magnesium
groupduetoadecreasein
(a) latticeenergiesofsolids
(b) hydrationenergiesofcations
(c) interionic attraction
(d) entropy of solution formation.
(2003)
ThesubstancenotlikelytocontainCaCO3 is
(a) amarblestatue
(b) calcinedgypsum
(c) seashells
(d) dolomite.

(2003)

A metal M readily forms its sulphateMSO4 which is water


soluble.Itformsitsoxide MOwhichbecomesinertonheating.
It forms an insoluble hydroxide M(OH)2 which is soluble in
NaOHsolution.Then Mis
(a) Mg
(b) Ba
(c) Ca
(d) Be.
(2002)

Onemoleofmagnesiumnitrideonthereactionwithanexcess
ofwatergives
(a) onemoleofammonia
(b) onemoleofnitric acid
(c) twomolesofammonia
(d) twomolesofnitric acid.
(2004) 11. KO2(potassiumsuperoxide)isusedinoxygencylindersinspace
andsubmarinesbecauseit
Severalblocksofmagnesiumarefixedtothebottomofaship
(a) absorbsCO2 andincreasesO2 content
to
(b) eliminatesmoisture
(a) keepawaythesharks
(c) absorbsCO2
(b) maketheshiplighter
(d) produces ozone.
(2002)

Answer Key

1.
7.

(b)
(b)

2.
8.

(b)
(b)

3.
9.

(b)
(b)

4. (a)
10. (d)

5. (c)
11. (a)

6.

(b)

58

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

magnesiummakestheshiplighterwhenitisfixedtothebottom
oftheship.

1. (b) :
7.

(b): Waterdevelopsinterlockingneedlelikecrystalsofhydrated
silicates.Thereactionsinvolvedarethehydration of calcium
aluminates and calcium silicates which change into their
colloidalgels.Atthesametime,somecalciumhydroxideand
aluminium hydroxides are formed as precipitates due to
hydrolysis.Calcium hydroxidebindstheparticles of calcium
silicatetogetherwhilealuminiumhydroxidefillstheinterstices
renderingthemassimpervious.

(b):ThealkalimetalionexistashydratedionsM+(H2O)
n in
theaqueoussolution.Thedegreeofhydration,decreaseswith
ionicsizeaswegodownthegroup.HenceLi+ ionismostly
hydrated e.g. [Li(H2O)6]+.Sincethemobilityofionsisinversely
proportionaltothesizeofthe theirhydrated ions,hencethe
increasing orderof ionicmobility is
Li+ <Na+ <K+ <Rb+

8.

(b):Thestabilityofthecarbonatesofthealkalineearthmetals
increasesonmovingdownthegroup.Thesolubilityofcarbonate
ofmetalsinwaterisgenerallylow.Howevertheydissolvein
watercontainingCO2 yieldingbicarbonates,andthissolubility
decreasesongoingdowninagroupwiththeincreaseinstability
ofcarbonatesofmetals,anddecreaseinhydrationenergyofthe
cations.

4. (a):Berylliumhasthevalency+2whilealuminiumexhibits
itsvalencyas+3.

9.

2. (b) : Moving from left to right in a period, the ionic radii


decrease due to increase in effective nuclear charge as the
additionalelectronsareaddedtothesameshell,howeverfrom
toptobottomtheionicradiiincreasewithincreasingatomic
number and presence of additionalshells.Also Li andMg
are diagonallyrelated andhence the orderis
Na+ >Li+ >Mg2+ >Be2+.
3.

5. (c):Mg3N2 +6H2O 3Mg(OH)2 +2NH3


6.

(b):Magnesium,onaccountofitslightness,greataffinityfor
oxygenandtoughnessisusedinship.Beingalighterelement,

(b):ThecompositionofgypsumisCaSO42H

2O.Itdoesnot

haveCaCO3.
10. (d):BeformswatersolubleBeSO4,waterinsolubleBe(OH)2
andBeO.Be(OH)2isinsolubleinNaOHgivingsodiumberyllate
Na2BeO

2.

11. (a):4KO2 +2CO2 2K2CO3 +3O2

59

pBlock Elements

CHAPTER

16

pBLOCKELEMENTS

1.

Whichofthefollowingexistsascovalentcrystalsinthesolid
state?
(a) Phosphorus
(b) Iodine
(c) Silicon
(d) Sulphur
(2013)

2.

Whichof the followingis the wrong statement?


(a) Ozoneisdiamagneticgas.
(b) ONClandONO are not isoelectronic.
(c) O3 molecule is bent.
(d) Ozoneisvioletblackin solid state.

7.

Whichoneof the followingreactionsof xenon compounds


isnot feasible?
(a) XeO3 +6HF XeF6 +3H2O
(b) 3XeF4 +6H2O 2Xe+XeO3 +12HF+1.5O2
(c) 2XeF2 +2H2O 2Xe+4HF+O2
(d) XeF6 + RbF Rb[XeF7]
(2009)

8.

Inwhichofthefollowingarrangements,thesequenceisnot
strictlyaccordingtothe propertywrittenagainstit?
(a) CO2 <SiO2 <SnO2 <PbO2 :increasingoxidisingpower
(b) HF<HCl<HBr<HI: increasingacidstrength
(c) NH3 <PH3 <AsH3 <SbH3 :increasingbasic strength
(d) B<C<O<N:increasingfirstionization enthalpy
(2009)

(2013)

3.

Boroncannot form which one of the following anions?


3

(a) BF6
(b) BH4

(c) B(OH)4
(d) BO2
(2011)

4.

9.
Whichof thefollowing statement is wrong?
(a) ThestabilityofhydridesincreasesfromNH3 toBiH3 in
group15of the periodic table.
(b) Nitrogen cannot form dppp bond.
(c) SingleNNbondisweakerthanthesinglePPbond.
(d) N2O4 hastworesonance structure.
(2011)
Which of the following statements regarding sulphur is 10.
incorrect?
(a) S2 molecule isparamagnetic.
(b) The vapourat200Cconsists mostly ofS8 rings.
(c) At600Cthegasmainly consistsofS2 molecules.
(d) Theoxidationstateofsulphurisneverlessthan+4in
11.
itscompounds.
(2011)

5.

6.

Whichoneof the following isthecorrectstatement?


(a) B2H62NH3 isknownasinorganic benzene.
(b) Boric acidisa protonic acid.
(c) Beryllium exhibitscoordinationnumberof six.
(d) Chloridesofbothberylliumandaluminiumhavebridged
chloride structuresinsolidphase.
(2008)
Amongthefollowingsubstitutedsilanestheonewhichwill
give riseto crosslinkedsiliconepolymer onhydrolysisis
(a) R3SiCl
(b) R4Si
(c) RSiCl3
(d) R2SiCl2
(2008)
ThestabilityofdihalidesofSi,Ge,SnandPbincreasessteadily
inthesequence
(a) PbX2 = SnX2 = GeX2 = SiX2
(b) GeX2 = SiX2 = SnX2 = PbX2
(c) SiX2 = GeX2 = PbX2 = SnX2
(2007)
(d) SiX2 = GeX2 = SnX2 = PbX2.

ThebonddissociationenergyofBFinBF3 is646kJmol1
whereas thatof C Fin CF4 is 515 kJ mol1. The correct
reasonforhigherB Fbonddissociationenergyascompared
tothatofC Fis
(a) smallersizeof Batomascompared tothatofCatom 12. Identifytheincorrectstatementamongthefollowing.
(b) stronger s bondbetweenBandFinBF3 ascomparedto
(a) Br2reactswithhotandstrongNaOHsolutiontogiveNaBr
thatbetweenCandFinCF4
andH2O.

(c) significant pp pp interaction between B and F in BF3


(b) OzonereactswithSO2 togiveSO3.
whereasthereisnopossibilityofsuchinteractionbetween
(c) SiliconreactswithNaOH(aq) inthepresenceofairtogive
CandFinCF4.
Na2SiO3 andH2O.
(d) lowerdegree of pppp interaction between Band F in
(d)
Cl2 reactswithexcessofNH3 togiveN2 andHCl.
BF3 thanthatbetweenC andFinCF4.
(2007)
(2009)

60

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

13. Regularuseofthefollowingfertilizersincreasestheacidityof 22. Thecorrectorderofthethermalstabilityofhydrogen halides


(HX)is
soil?
(a) HI>HBr>HCl>HF
(a) Ammoniumsulphate
(b) HF>HCl>HBr>HI
(b) Potassiumnitrate
(c) HCl<HF>HBr<HI
(c) Urea
(d) HI>HCl<HF>HBr
(2005)
(d) Superphosphate of lime
(2007)
23. Insilicondioxide
14. Ametal, M formschloridesin+2and+4oxidationstates.Which
(a) eachsiliconatomissurroundedbyfouroxygenatomsand
of thefollowingstatements aboutthesechlorides iscorrect?
eachoxygenatomisbondedtotwosiliconatoms
(a) MCl2 ismorevolatilethan.MCl4.
(b) eachsiliconatomissurroundedbytwooxygenatomsand
(b) MCl2 ismoresolubleinanhydrousethanolthanMCl4.
eachoxygenatomisbondedtotwosiliconatoms
(c) MCl2 ismoreionicthanMCl4.
(c) siliconatomisbondedtotwooxygenatoms
(d) MCl2 ismoreeasilyhydrolysedthanMCl4.
(2006)
(d) therearedoublebondsbetweensiliconandoxygenatoms.
(2005)
15. Whatproductsareexpectedfromthedisproportionationreaction
of hypochlorous acid?
24. Whichofthefollowingoxidesisamphotericincharacter?
(a) HClO3 andCl2O
(b) HClO2 andHClO4
(a) CaO
(b) CO2

(c) HClandCl2O
(d) HClandHClO3
(2006)
(c) SiO2
(d) SnO2
(2005)
16. Whichofthefollowingstatements istrue?
25. ThesoldiersofNapolean armywhileatAlpsduringfreezing
wintersufferedaseriousproblemasregardstothetinbuttons
(a) H3PO3 isastrongeracidthanH2SO3.
oftheiruniforms.Whitemetallictinbuttonsgotconverted to
(b) InaqueousmediumHFisastrongeracidthanHCl.
greypowder.Thistransformationisrelatedto
(c) HClO4 isaweakeracidthanHClO3.
(a) an interaction with nitrogen of the air at very low
(d) HNO3 isastrongeracidthanHNO2.
(2006)
temperatures
17. Heatinganaqueoussolutionofaluminiumchloridetodryness
(b) achangeinthecrystallinestructureoftin
willgive
(c) achangeinthepartialpressureofoxygenintheair
(a) AlCl3
(b) Al2Cl6
(d) aninteractionwithwatervapourcontainedinthehumid
(c) Al2O3
(d) Al(OH)Cl2
(2005)
air.
(2004)
18. Thenumberandtype ofbonds betweentwo carbonatomsin 26. Aluminiumchlorideexistsasdimer,Al2Cl6 insolidstateaswell
as in solution of nonpolar solvents such as benzene. When
calciumcarbideare
dissolvedinwater,itgives
(a) onesigma,onepi
3+ +3Cl
(a) Al3+ +3Cl
(b) [Al(H2O)
(b) onesigma,twopi
6]

3
(c) [Al(OH)6] +3HCl (d) Al2O3 +6HCl.
(2004)
(c) twosigma,onepi
(d) twosigma,twopi.
(2005) 27. AmongAlO, SiO , P O and SO the correct order of acid
2 3
2
2 3
2
strengthis
19. Thestructureofdiborane (B2H6) contains
(a) SO2 <P2O3 <SiO2 <Al2O3
(a) four2c2ebondsandtwo3c2ebonds
(b) SiO2 <SO2 <Al2O3 <P2O3
(b) two2c2ebondsandfour3c2ebonds
(c) Al2O3 <SiO2 <SO2 <P2O3
(c) two2c2ebondsandtwo3c3ebonds
(d) Al2O3 <SiO2 <P2O3 <SO2.
(2004)
(d) four2c2ebondsandfour3c2ebonds
(2005)
28. Thestatesofhybridisationofboronandoxygenatomsinboric
20. ThemolecularshapesofSF4,CF4 andXeF4 are
acid(H3BO3)arerespectively
(a) thesame with2, 0 and 1 lone pairs of electrons onthe
(a) sp2 andsp2
(b) sp2 andsp3
central atomrespectively
3
2
(c) sp andsp
(d) sp3 andsp3.
(2004)
(b) thesamewith1,1and1lonepairofelectronsonthecentral
atomsrespectively
29. Which one of the following statements regarding helium is
incorrect?
(c) different with 0, 1 and 2 lone pairs of electrons on the
(a) Itisusedtofillgasinballoonsinsteadofhydrogenbecause
central atomrespectively
itislighterandnoninflammable.
(d) different with 1, 0 and 2 lone pairs of electrons on the
(b)
Itisusedasacryogenicagentforcarryingoutexperiments
central atomrespectively
(2005)
atlowtemperatures.
21. Thenumberofhydrogenatom(s)attachedtophosphorusatom
(c) Itisusedtoproduceandsustainpowerfulsuperconducting
inhypophosphorous acidis
magnets.
(a) zero
(b) two
(d) Itisusedingascoolednuclearreactors.
(2004)
(c) one
(d) three.
(2005)

61

pBlock Elements

30. Glassisa
(a) microcrystalline solid
(b) supercooled liquid
(c) gel
(d) polymeric mixture.

(c) PCl5 andHClareformedandthemixturecoolsdown


(d) PH3Cl
(2003)

2 isformedwithwarmingup.

(2003)

31. Graphite is a soft solid lubricant extremely difficult to melt.


Thereasonforthisanomalousbehaviouristhatgraphite
(a) isanoncrystallinesubstance
(b) isanallotropic formof diamond
(c) hasmoleculesofvariablemolecularmasseslikepolymers
(d) has carbon atoms arranged in large plates of rings of
stronglyboundcarbonatomswithweakinterplatebonds.
(2003)

37. Whichoneofthefollowingstatementsiscorrect?
(a) Manganesesaltsgiveavioletboraxtestinthereducing
flame.
(b) From a mixed precipitate ofAgCl andAgI, ammonia
solutiondissolvesonlyAgCl.
(c) Ferric ions give a deep green precipitate on adding
potassiumferrocyanide solution.
(d) OnboilingasolutionhavingK+,Ca2+ andHCO3 ionswe
getaprecipitateofK2Ca(CO3)2.
(2003)

38. Alumhelpsinpurifyingwaterby
(a) formingSicomplexwithclayparticles
(b) sulphatepartwhichcombineswiththedirtandremoves
it
(c) coagulatingthemudparticles
(d) makingmudwatersoluble.
33. Whichoneofthefollowingsubstanceshasthehighestproton
(2002)
affinity?
(a) H2O
(b) H2S
39. Incaseofnitrogen,NCl3 ispossiblebutnotNCl5 whileincase
(c) NH3
(d) PH3
(2003)
ofphosphorus,PCl aswellasPCl arepossible.Itisdueto
32. Which one of the following pairs of molecules will have
permanentdipolemomentsfor bothmembers?
(a) SiF4 andNO2 (b) NO2 andCO2
(c) NO2 andO3
(d) SiF4 andCO2
(2003)

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

34. Whichoneofthefollowing isan amphoteric oxide?


(a) ZnO
(b) Na2O

(c) SO2
(d) B2O
(2003)
3

availabilityofvacantdorbitalsinPbutnotinN
lowerelectronegativityofPthanN
lowertendencyofHbondformationinPthanN
occurrenceofPinsolidwhileNingaseousstateatroom
temperature.
(2002)

35. Concentratedhydrochloricacidwhenkeptinopenairsometimes
producesacloudofwhitefumes.Theexplanationforitisthat
(a) concentratedhydrochloricacidemitsstronglysmellingHCl
gasallthetime
40. In XeF2, XeF4, XeF6 the number of lone pairs on Xe are
(b) oxygeninairreacts withthe emittedHClgastoforma
respectively
(a) 2,3,1
(b) 1,2,3
cloudofchlorine gas
(c) strong affinity of HCl gas for moisture in air results in
(c) 4,1,2
(d) 3,2,1.
(2002)
formingofdropletsofliquidsolutionwhichappearslike
41. Whichofthefollowingstatementsistrue?
acloudysmoke
(a) HFislesspolarthanHBr.
(d) duetostrongaffinityforwater,concentratedhydrochloric
(b) Absolutelypurewaterdoesnotcontainanyions.
acid pulls moisture of air towards itself. This moisture
(c) Chemical bond formation takes place when forces of
formsdropletsof waterand hencethe cloud.
attraction overcomethe forcesof repulsion.
(2003)
(d) Incovalencytransferenceof electrontakes place.
36. Whatmaybeexpectedtohappenwhenphosphinegasismixed
(2002)
withchlorinegas?
42. WhenH2SispassedthroughHg2Sweget
(a) Themixtureonly cools down
(a) HgS
(b) HgS+Hg2S
(b) PCl3 andHClareformedandthemixturewarmsup
(c) Hg2S+Hg
(d) Hg2S.
(2002)

Answer Key

1. (c)

2.

(None)

3.

(a)

4.

(a)

5.

(d)

6.

(c)

7. (a)
13. (a)
19. (a)
25. (b)
31. (d)
37. (b)

8.
14.
20.
26.
32.
38.

(c)
(c)
(d)
(b)
(c)
(c)

9.
15.
21.
27.
33.
39.

(d)
(d)
(b)
(d)
(c)
(a)

10.
16.
22.
28.
34.
40.

(c)
(d)
(b)
(b)
(a)
(d)

11.
17.
23.
29.
35.
41.

(c)
(b)
(a)
(a)
(c)
(c)

12.
18.
24.
30.
36.
42.

(d)
(b)
(d)
(b)
(c)
(c)

62

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

1.

(c)

2.

(None): Allthestatementsare correct.

3.

(a):Duetononavailabilityofdorbitals,boronisunableto
expanditsoctet.Therefore,themaximumcovalencyofboron
cannot exceed 4.
(a): ThermalstabilitydecreasesgraduallyfromNH3 toBiH3.
Sothestabilityalsodecreases.
NH3
PH3 AsH3
SbH3 BiH3

4.

Decomposition
temperature

5.

1300C 440C

280C

150C

7.

Borazine

ThesizeofthecentralatomincreasesfromNtoBitherefore,
itiscalledinorganic benzene.Henceoption(d) is correct.
thetendencytoformastablecovalentbondwithsmallatom
like hydrogendecreases and therefore, stabilitydecreases. 10. (c): RSiCl3 onhydrolysisgivesacrosslinked silicone.
The formationcanbe explained inthree steps
(d):Sulphurexhibits2,+2,+4,+6oxidationstatesbut+4
Cl

,Bissp2 hybridisedandhasavacant2porbital

(c):InBF3
whichoverlapslaterallywithafilled2porbitalofFforming
strong pppp bond. However in CF4, C does not have any
vacantporbitalsto undergo pbonding.
ThusB.E.BF >B.E.CF.

3H2O

(i) R SiCl 3HCl


Cl
R

XeO3 + 3H2F2.

(c): Ingroup15hydrides, the basiccharacterdecreaseson


goingdownthegroupduetodecreaseintheavailabilityof
the lonepairofelectrons becauseof the increaseinsizeof
elementsfromNto Bi.Thus, correctorder of basicityis
NH3 >PH3 >AsH3 > SbH3.
(d):Boricacidisa weakmonobasic acid
(Ka =1.0109).Itisanotablepartthatboricaciddoesnot
actasaprotonicacid (i.e.,proton donor) butbehavesasa
LewisacidbyacceptingapairofelectronsfromOH ions.

+
B(OH)3 +2H2O [B(OH)4]
+ H3O

BeCl2 likeAl2Cl
6 hasabridgedpolymericstructureinsolid
phasegenerallyas shownbelow.
Cl
ClBe
Cl
Cl

Cl

Cl

Cl

Al

Al
Cl

PolymericstructureofAl2Cl6

OH
R

(ii) HOSiOH+HOSiOH+HOSiOH
OH

OH
R

H2O

HOSiOSiOSiOH
OH

OH

R
OH

OH

(iii) HOSiOSiOSiOH
3H2O

OH
OH
OH
HO
HO
HO

HOSiOSiOSiOH

R
R

OSiOSiOSiO
O

OSiOSiOSiO

Crosslinkedsilicone

BeCl

PolymericstructureofBeCl2

OH
R SiOH
R

(a):Thereactionisnot feasiblebecauseXeF6 formedwill


XeF6 +3H2O

9.

2B3N3H6+12H2

Borazine has structuresimilartobenzene andtherefore,

furtherproduce XeO3 by getting hydrolysed.


8.

B2H62NH3 Heat,450K

room temp.

and+6aremore common.
6.

Berylliumexhibitscoordinationnumberoffourasithasonly
fouravailableorbitalsinitsvalencyshell.
Also,
3B2H6+6NH3
3[BH2(NH3)2]+BH4
or
B2H62NH3
or

Cl

11. (c):Duetotheinertpaireffect(thereluctanceof ns2 electrons


of outermost shell to participatein bonding) the stability of
M2+ ions(ofgroupIVelements)increasesaswegodownthe
group.
12. (d):3Br2 +6NaOH 5NaBr+NaBrO3 +3H2O
O3 +SO2 O2 +SO3
Si+2NaOH+O2 Na2SiO

3 +H2O

63

pBlock Elements

Cl2 reacts with excess of ammonia to produce ammonium


chlorideandnitrogen.
2NH3 +3Cl2

N2 +6HCl

6NH3 +6HCl

6NH4Cl

8NH3 +3Cl2

N2 +6NH4Cl

13. (a): (NH4)2SO4 +2H2O

(2H+ +SO42)+2NH4OH
Strongacid

Weakbase

(NH4)
2SO

4 onhydrolysisproducesstrongacidH2SO

4,which

increasestheacidityof thesoil.

thefourorbitalsofeachoftheboronatomoverlapwithtwo
terminalhydrogenatomsformingtwonormalB H sbonds.
Oneoftheremaininghybridorbital(eitherfilledorempty)of
oneoftheboronatoms,1sorbitalofhydrogenatoms(bridge
atom)andoneofhybridorbitalsoftheotherboronatomoverlap
toformadelocalisedorbitalcoveringthethreenucleiwitha
pairofelectrons. Sucha bondisknown asthree centre two
electron(3c2e)bonds.
H
.
H.
H.
. .
H
H .
H
.
.

.
.H

. .

H.
.H
H
14. (c):Theelementsofgroup14showanoxidationstateof+4
Structure
of
diborane
and +2.The compounds showing an oxidation state of +4
arecovalentcompoundandhavetetrahedralstructures.e.g. 20. (d): SF4(sp3d,trigonalbipyramidalwithoneequatorialposition
SnCl4,PbCl

4,SiCl

4,etc.whereasthosewhichshow+2oxidation

occupiedby1lonepair),CF4 (sp3,tetrahedral,nolonepair),
stateareionic innatureandbehaveasreducingagent.e.g.
XeF4 (sp3d2,squareplanar,twolonepairs).
SnCl2,PbCl2,etc.
F
F
Furtheraswemovedownthegroup,thetendencyoftheelement
F
F
F
to form covalent compound decreases but the tendency to
C
S
Xe
form ionic compound increases.
F
F F
F

F
F
15. (d):3HClO4(aq) HClO3(aq) +2HCl(aq)
(CF4)
(SF4)
Itisadisproportionationreactionofhypochlorousacidwhere

theoxidationnumberofClchangesfrom+1(inClO )to+5
21. (b):Hypophosphorousacid
(inClO3)and1(inCl).

(XeF4)

16. (d):Higheristheoxidationstateofthecentralatom,greater
P
istheacidity.
HO H H
Hence,HClO4 isastronger acidthanHClO3.
HNO3 isastronger acidthanHNO2.
Numberofhydrogenatom(s)attachedtophosphorusatom=2.
Now,greateristheelectronegativityandhigheristheoxidation
stateofthecentralatom,greateristheacidity.HenceH2SO3 22. (b):Asthe size ofthe halogen atomincreases from FtoI,
H X bond length in HX molecules also increases from
isastrongeracidthanH3PO3.
HFtoHI(HF<HCl<HBr<HI).
DuetohigherdissociationenergyofHFbondandmolecular
Theincreasein H Xbondlengthdecreases the strength of
associationdue to hydrogen bondingin HF, HF isaweaker
HXbondfromHFtoHI(HF>HCl>HBr
acidthanHCl.
>HI).ThedecreaseinthestrengthofH X bondisevident
17. (b):Aluminiumchlorideinaqueoussolutionexistsasion
fromthefactthat HXbonddissociationenergiesdecrease
pair.
fromH FtoH I.Duetosuccessivedecreaseinthestrength
+

2AlCl3 +aq. [AlCl2(H


2O)
4]
(aq) +[AlCl4(H
2O)
2]
(aq)
ofHX bondfromH F toH I,thermalstability of HX
ThecrystallisationofAlCl3 fromaqueous solution,therefore,
moleculesalsodecreasesfromHFtoHI(HF>HCl>HBr>
yields an ionic solid of composition [AlCl2(H2O)4]+
HI).

[AlCl4(H2O)
This compound decomposes at about
2]
xH2O.

23. (a) : Silicondioxide exhibitspolymorphism. Itis a network


190CtogivethenonionicdimerAl2Cl
6.

heat
solidinwhicheachSiatomissurroundedtetrahedrallybyfour
+

[AlCl2(H
2O)4] [AlCl4(H2O)2] xH2O 190C
oxygen atoms.
Al2Cl6 +H2O
.
.. 2.
O
O
18. (b):Calciumcarbideisioniccarbidehaving [CC]
.
.

1 s

. 2

.
.
Ca2+ [CC]
2 p

O SiO SiO
O

19. (a):According to molecular orbital theory, each of the two


boronatomsisinsp3 hybridstate.Ofthefourhybridorbitals, 24. (d):CaObasic,CO2 andSiO2acidic,SnO

2amphoteric,asit

threehaveoneelectroneachwhilethefourthisempty.Twoof
reactsbothwithacidsandbases.

64

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

SnO2 +4HCl SnCl4 + 2H2O

SnO2 +2NaOH Na2SnO3 +H2O


25. (b): Greytin isvery brittle and easily crumbles downto a
powderinvery coldclimates.
Greytin

Whitetin

(cubic)

(tetragonal)

33. (c) : Ammonia is a Lewis base, accepting proton to form


ammoniumionasithastendencytodonateanelectronpair.
H
.
+
HN+H
.
H

HNH
H

Thechangeofwhitetintogreytinisaccompaniedbyincrease
in volume.Thisiscalledtin disease ortin plague.
34. (a):ZnOisanamphotericoxideanddissolvesreadilyinacids
3+

formingcorrespondingzincsaltsandalkaliesformingzincates.
26. (b):Al2Cl6 +12H2O
2[Al(H2O)6] + 6Cl
ZnO+H2SO4 ZnSO4 +H2O
27. (d) :Acidity of the oxides of non metals increases with the
zincsulphate
electronegativityand oxidation number of the element.
ZnO+2NaOH Na2ZnO2 +H2O
Al2O
3 <SiO2 <P2O
3 <SO2
sodiumzincate
Al2O
3 isamphoteric.SiO2 isslightlyacidicwhereasP2O
3 and
35. (c):HClgasinpresenceofmoistureinairformsdropletsof
SO2 aretheanhydridesoftheacidsH3PO3 andH2SO3.
liquidsolutionintheformofcloudysmoke.
H
...
36. (c):Phosphineburnsintheatmosphereofchlorineandforms
sp3 O.
phosphorus pentachloride.
PH3 + 4Cl2 PCl5 + 3HCl

Bsp

28. (b):
H ..
3O
. .
sp

.. H
O
..sp3

29. (a):Heliumistwiceasheavyashydrogen,itsliftingpoweris
92percentofthatof hydrogen.
Heliumhasthelowestmeltingandboilingpointsofanyelement
whichmakesliquidheliumanidealcoolantformanyextremely
lowtemperatureapplicationssuchassuperconductingmagnets,
and cryogenic research where temperatures close to absolute
zeroareneeded.

37. (b):ThesolubilityproductofAgCl,AgBrandAgIattheroom
temperatureare2.81010,5.01013and8.51017respectively.
Thus,AgIistheleastsolublesilverhalide.
ThelatticeenergiesofAgBrandAgIareevenhigherbecause
ofgreater numberof electronsin theiranions. Consequently,
theyareevenlesssolublethanAgCl.Duetogreatersolubility
ofAgClthanAgI,ammoniasolutiondissolvesonlyAgCland
formsa complex.
AgCl+2NH4OH
[Ag(NH3)

2]Cl+2H

2O

Diammine silver chloride

30. (b): Glassisatransparentortranslucentamorphoussupercooled 38. (c):Thenegativelychargedcolloidalparticlesofimpuritiesget


neutralisedbytheAl3+ ionsandsettledownandpurewatercan
solid solution (supercooled liquid) of silicates and borates,
be decanted off.
havingageneralformulaR2OMO6SiO2 whereR=NaorK
39.
(a): 7N=1s2 2s2 3p3
andM=Ca,Ba,ZnorPb.
2
2
6
2
3
15P=1s 2s 2p 3s 3p
31. (d):Graphitehasatwodimensionalsheetlikestructureand
Inphosphorusthe3dorbitalsareavailable.
eachcarbonatommakesauseofsp2 hybridisation.
40. (d): XeF2
sp3d 3lonepairs
Theabovelayerstructureofgraphiteislesscompactthanthat
XeF4
sp3d2 2lonepairs
of diamond. Further, since the bonding between the layers
XeF6
sp3d3 1lonepair
involvingonlyweakvanderWaal'sforces,theselayerscanslide
overeachother.Thisgivessoftness,greasinessandlubricating 41. (c):DuetothehigherelectronegativityofF,HFismorepolar
thanHBrpurewatercontainsH+ andOH ions.Incovalency,
characterofgraphite.
sharingofelectronsbetweentwononmetalatomstakesplace.
32. (c):NO2 andO3 bothhaveunsymmetricalstructures,sothey
42. (c)
havepermanentdipolemoment.

65

dandfBlockElements

CHAPTER

17

dandfBLOCKELEMENTS

1.

Whichofthefollowingarrangementsdoesnotrepresentthe 7.
correctorderofthe propertystated against it?
(a) Sc<Ti<Cr <Mn :numberofoxidation states
(b) V2+ <Cr2+ <Mn2+ <Fe2+ :paramagneticbehaviour
(c) Ni2+ <Co2+ <Fe2+ <Mn2+ :ionicsize
(d) Co3+ <Fe3+ <Cr3+ <Sc3+ :stabilityinaqueoussolution.
(2013)

2.

Foursuccessivemembersofthefirstrowtransitionelements
arelistedbelowwithatomicnumbers.Whichoneofthemis
expectedtohave the highest EM3+
/M2+ value?
(a) Co(Z =27)
(b) Cr(Z =24)
(c) Mn(Z=25)
(d) Fe(Z=26)
(2013)
Ironexhibits+2and+3oxidationstates.Whichofthefollowing
statementsaboutiron isincorrect?
(a) Ferrous compounds are relatively more ionic than the 8.
corresponding ferric compounds.
(b) Ferrous compounds are less volatile than the
corresponding ferric compounds.
(c) Ferrouscompounds are more easily hydrolysedthan the
corresponding ferric compounds.
(d) Ferrousoxideismorebasicinnaturethantheferricoxide.
(2012)

3.

4.

5.

6.

The outerelectronic configuration of Gd (Atomic No: 64)


is
(a) 4f 35d56s2
(b) 4f85d06s2
4
4
2
(c) 4f 5d 6s
(d) 4f 75d16s2
(2011)

9.

Incontextwiththetransitionelements,whichofthefollowing
statementsisincorrect?
(a) In addition to the normal oxidation states, the zero
oxidation state is also shown by these elements in
complexes.
(b) Inthehighestoxidationstates,thetransitionmetalsshow
basiccharacter andform cationiccomplexes.
(c) Inthehighestoxidationstatesofthefirstfivetransition
elements(SctoMn),allthe4s and3d electronsareused
for bonding.
(d) Oncethed5 configurationisexceeded,thetendencyto
involveallthe3d electronsin bondingdecreases.
(2009)
Knowingthatthechemistryoflanthanoids(Ln)isdominated
byits+3oxidationstate,whichofthefollowingstatements
is incorrect?
(a) BecauseofthelargesizeoftheLn(III)ionsthebonding
initscompoundsispredominantlyionicincharacter.
(b) The ionic sizes of Ln(III) decrease in general with
increasingatomicnumber.
(c) Ln(III)compoundsare generallycolourless.
(d) Ln(III)hydroxidesaremainlybasicincharacter.
(2009)
In which of the following octahedral complexes of
Co(At.no.27),willthemagnitudeof Doct be thehighest?
(a) [Co(NH3)6]3+
(b) [Co(CN)6]3
3
3+
(c) [Co(C2O
(d) [Co(H2O)
(2008)
4)
3]

6]

Incontextofthelanthanoids,whichofthefollowingstatement
is not correct?
(a) Thereisagradualdecreaseintheradiiofthemembers
10. Largernumberofoxidationstatesareexhibitedbytheactinoids
withincreasing atomicnumberinthe series.
thanthosebythelanthanoids,themainreason being
(b) Allthe membersexhibit +3 oxidationstate.
(a) morereactivenatureoftheactinoidsthanthelanthanoids
(c) Becauseofsimilarpropertiestheseparationoflanthanoids
(b) 4forbitalsmore diffusedthanthe5f orbitals
isnoteasy.
(c) lesserenergydifferencebetween5f and6d thanbetween
(d) Availabilityof4f electrons results in theformation of
4f and5d orbitals
compoundsin+4stateforallthemembersoftheseries.
(2011)
(d) moreenergydifferencebetween5fand6d thanbetween
4fand5dorbitals.
The correct order of EM2+
values
with
negative
sign
for
/M
(2008)
the foursuccessive elements Cr,Mn, Fe andCo is
(a) Cr>Mn>Fe>Co (b) Mn>Cr>Fe>Co
11. Theactinoidsexhibitmorenumberofoxidationstatesingeneral
(c) Cr>Fe>Mn>Co (d) Fe>Mn>Cr>Co
thanthelanthanoids.Thisisbecause
(2010)

66

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

(a) the5forbitalsextendfurtherfromthenucleusthanthe4f
orbitals
(b) the5forbitalsaremoreburiedthanthe4forbitals
(c) there is a similarity between 4f and 5f orbitals in their
angularpartofthe wavefunction
(d) theactinoidsaremorereactivethanthelanthanoids.
(2007)

19. HeatingmixtureofCu2OandCu2Swillgive
(a) Cu+SO2
(b) Cu+SO3
(c) CuO+CuS
(d) Cu2SO

(2005)

20. The correct order of magnetic moments (spin only values in


B.M.)amongis
(a) [MnCl4]2 >[CoCl4]2 >[Fe(CN)6]4
(b) [MnCl4]2 >[Fe(CN)6]4 >[CoCl4]2
12. Identifytheincorrectstatementamongthe following:
(c) [Fe(CN)6]4 >[MnCl4]2 >[CoCl4]2
(a) 4fand5forbitalsareequallyshielded.
(d) [Fe(CN)6]4 >[CoCl4]2 >[MnCl4]2.
(b) dBlock elements show irregular and erratic chemical
(Atomicnos.:Mn=25,Fe=26,Co=27)
propertiesamongthemselves.
(2004)
(c) La and Lu have partially filled dorbitals and no other
21. Cerium(Z =58)isanimportantmemberofthelanthanoids.
partiallyfilled orbitals.
Whichofthefollowingstatementsaboutceriumisincorrect?
(d) Thechemistryofvariouslanthanoidsisverysimilar.
(a) Thecommonoxidationstatesofceriumare+3and+4.
(2007)
(b) The+3oxidationstateofceriumismorestablethan+4
13. Thespinonlymagneticmoment[inunitsofBohrmagneton,
oxidationstate.
(mB)]ofNi2+ inaqueoussolutionwouldbe(atomicnumberof
(c) The+4oxidationstateofceriumisnotknowninsolutions.
(d) Cerium(IV)actsasanoxidisingagent.
(2004)
Ni=28)
(a) 2.84
(b) 4.90
22. Excess of KI reacts with CuSO4 solution and then Na2S2O3
(c) 0
(d) 1.73
(2006)
solutionisaddedtoit.Whichofthestatementsisincorrectfor
this reaction?
14. Nickel(Z =28)combineswithauninegativemonodentateligand

2
(a) Cu2I
(b) CuI2 isformed.
X to form a paramagnetic complex [NiX4] . The number of
2 isformed.
(c)
Na
S
O
isoxidised.(d)
EvolvedI2 isreduced.
unpairedelectron(s)inthenickelandgeometryofthiscomplex
2 2 3
(2004)
ionare, respectively
(a) one,tetrahedral
(b) two,tetrahedral
23. Ofthefollowingouterelectronicconfigurationsofatoms,the
(c) one,squareplanar (d) two,squareplanar.
highestoxidationstateisachievedbywhichone ofthem?
(2006)
(a) (n1)d8ns2
(b) (n1)d5ns1
3
2
(c) (n1)d ns
(d) (n1)d5ns2.
(2004)
15. Whichofthe following factors may be regarded as themain
causeof lanthanide contraction?
24. Formakinggoodqualitymirrors,platesoffloatglassareused.
(a) Poor shielding of one of 4felectron by another in the
Theseareobtainedbyfloatingmoltenglassoveraliquidmetal
subshell.
whichdoesnotsolidifybeforeglass.Themetalusedcanbe
(b) Effectiveshieldingofoneof4felectronsbyanotherinthe
(a) mercury
(b) tin
subshell.
(c) sodium
(d) magnesium.
(2003)
(c) Poorershieldingof 5d electrons by 4felectrons.
25. Whichoneofthefollowingnitrateswillleavebehindametal
(d) Greatershieldingof5delectronsby 4felectrons.
onstrongheating?
(2006)
(a) Ferricnitrate
(b) Coppernitrate
16. Thelanthanidecontractionis responsiblefor thefactthat
(c) Manganesenitrate
(a) ZrandYhaveaboutthesameradius
(d) Silvernitrate.
(2003)
(b) ZrandNbhavesimilaroxidationstate
(c) ZrandHfhaveaboutthesameradius
26. TheradiusofLa3+ (AtomicnumberofLa=57)is1.06.Which
(d) ZrandZnhavethesameoxidationstate.
(2005)
oneofthefollowinggivenvalueswillbeclosesttotheradius
17. Calomel(Hg2Cl2)onreactionwithammoniumhydroxidegives
(a) HgNH2Cl
(b) NH2 HgHgCl
(c) Hg2O
(d) HgO
(2005)

ofLu3+ (AtomicnumberofLu=71)?
(a) 1.60
(b) 1.40
(c) 1.06
(d) 0.85

(2003)

18. Theoxidationstateofchromiuminthefinalproductformedby 27. Whatwouldhappenwhenasolutionofpotassiumchromateis


treatedwithanexcessofdilutenitricacid?
the reaction between KI and acidified potassium dichromate
2
(a) Cr3+ andCr2O
7 areformed.
solutionis
2
(b) Cr2O7 andH2Oareformed.
(a) +4
(b) +6
(c) CrO42
isreducedto+3stateofCr.
(c) +2
(d) +3
(d) CrO42
(2003)
isoxidisedto+7stateofCr.
(2005)

67

dandfBlockElements

28. Thenumberofdelectrons retained inFe2+ (At. no. Fe=26)


ionsis
(a) 3
(b) 4
(c) 5
(d) 6
(2003)

32. HowdowedifferentiatebetweenFe3+ andCr3+ ingroupIII?


(a) BytakingexcessofNH4OHsolution.
(b) ByincreasingNH4+ ionconcentration.
(c) BydecreasingOH ionconcentration.
29. The atomic numbers of vanadium (V), chromium (Cr),
(d) Both(b)and(c).
(2002)
manganese(Mn)andiron(Fe)arerespectively23,24,25and
26.Which oneofthese may be expected to have thehighest 33. Themoststableionis
(a) [Fe(OH)3]3
(b) [Fe(Cl)6]3
secondionisation enthalpy?
3
3+
(c) [Fe(CN)6]
(d) [Fe(H2O)
(2002)

6]

(a) V
(b) Cr
(c) Mn
(d) Fe
(2003) 34. ArrangeCe3+,La3+,Pm3+ andYb3+ inincreasingorderoftheir
ionicradii.
(a) Yb3+ <Pm3+ <Ce3+ <La3+
(b) Ce3+ <Yb3+ <Pm3+ <La3+
(c) Yb3+ <Pm3+ <La3+ <Ce3+
(d) Pm3+ <La3+ <Ce3+ <Yb3+

30. Areductioninatomicsizewithincreaseinatomicnumberisa
characteristicof elements of
(a) highatomicmasses
(b) dblock
(c) fblock
(d) radioactiveseries.
(2003)

(2002)

35. MostcommonoxidationstatesofCe(cerium)are
31. Aredsolidisinsolubleinwater.Howeveritbecomessoluble
(a) +2,+3
(b) +2,+4
ifsomeKIisaddedtowater.Heatingtheredsolidinatesttube
(c) +3,+4
(d) +3,+5
(2002)
resultsinliberationofsomevioletcolouredfumesanddroplets
ofametalappearonthecoolerpartsofthetesttube.Thered 36. Which of the following ions has the maximum magnetic
moment?
solidis
(a) Mn2+
(b) Fe2+
(a) (NH4)2Cr2O7
(b) HgI2
2+
(c) Ti
(d) Cr2+
(2002)
(c) HgO
(d) Pb3O4.
(2003)

Answer Key

1.
7.
13.
19.
25.
31.

(b)
(b)
(a)
(a)
(d)
(b)

2.
8.
14.
20.
26.
32.

(a)
(c)
(b)
(a)
(d)
(d)

3.
9.
15.
21.
27.
33.

(c)
(b)
(a)
(c)
(b)
(b)

4.
10.
16.
22.
28.
34.

(d)
(c)
(c)
(b)
(d)
(a)

5.
11.
17.
23.
29.
35.

(d)
(a)
(a)
(b)
(b)
(c)

6.
12.
18.
24.
30.
36.

(b)
(a)
(d)
(a)
(c)
(a)

68

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

7.

8.

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

(b):NumberofunpairedelectronsinFe2+ islessthanMn2+, 13. (a): 28Ni [Ar]3d8 4s2


soFe2+ islessparamagneticthanMn2+.
3d
4p
4s
(a)
(c): Ferrous oxide is morebasic, more ionic, less volatile
andlesseasilyhydrolysed than ferric oxide.
Numberofunpairedelectrons(n)=2
(d): The electronic configuration of
m = n(n + 2) = 2(2 + 2) = 8 2.84
54
7
1
2
64Gd=[Xe] 4f 5d 6s
(d): Availabilityof4f electronsdoesnotresultintheformation
3d
4s
ofcompoundsin+4stateforallthemembersoftheseries.
14. (b):Ni
(b):EMn2+/Mn =1.18V
ECr2+/Cr =0.91V
EFe2+/Fe =0.44V
Ni2+
ECo2+/Co =0.28V
(b): Whenthetransitionmetalsareintheirhighestoxidation
state, theynolongerhave tendencytogiveawayelectrons,
thustheyare notbasicbutshow acidic characterandform
anionic complexes.
(c): Ln3+ compoundsaregenerallycolouredinthesolidstate
aswellasinaqueoussolution.Colourappearsduetopresence
ofunpaired felectrons whichundergo ff transition.

[NiX4]2

4p

sp3 hybridisation

Numberofunpairedelectrons=2
Geometry=tetrahedral.

(b): Strongfieldligand suchas CN, usuallyproducelow


spin complexes and large crystal field splittings. H2O is a 15. (a):Asweproceedfromoneelementtothenextelementin
thelanthanideseries,thenuclearcharge,i.e.atomic number
weakerfieldligand than NH3 andC2O42
therefore
3+
3
3+
increasesbyoneunitandtheadditionofoneelectronoccurs
Doct [Co(H2O)6] < Doct[Co(C2O4)] <[Co(NH3)6]
at the sametime in 4fenergy shell. On account of the very
Commonligandsinorderofincreasingcrystalfieldstrength
diffusedshapesof forbitals,the4felectronsshieldeachother
are givenbelow:
quitepoorlyfromthenuclearcharge.Thus,theeffectofnuclear
I <Br <Cl <F <OH <C2O42 <H2O<NH3 <en <NO2
chargeincreaseissomewhatmorethanthechangedshielding
<CN
effect.Thisbringsthevalenceshellnearertothenucleusand
10. (c):Actinoidsshow different oxidation states such as+2,
hencethesizeofatomoriongoesondecreasingaswemove
+3,+4,+5,+6and+7.However+3oxidationstateismost
intheseries.Thesumofthesuccessivereactions isequalto
commonamongalltheactinoids.
thetotal lanthanidecontraction.
Thewiderangeofoxidationstatesofactinoidsisattributed
9.

tothefactthatthe5f,6d and7s energylevelsareofcomparable 16. (c): Ineachverticalcolumnoftransitionelements,theelements


energies.Thereforeallthesethreesubshellscanparticipate.
ofsecondandthirdtransitionseriesresembleeachothermore
11. (a) : As the distance between the nucleus and 5f orbitals
closelythantheelementsoffirstandsecondtransitionseries
(actinides)ismorethanthedistancebetweenthenucleusand
on account of lanthanide contraction.The pairs of elements
4forbitals(lanthanides)hencetheholdofnucleusonvalence
such as ZrHf, MoW, NbTa, etc possess almost the same
electrondecreasesinactinides.Forthisreasontheactinoides
properties.
exhibitmorenumberof oxidationstates ingeneral.
17. (a) : Calomel on reaction with ammonium hydroxide turns
12. (a) : The decrease in the force of attraction exerted by the
black.Theblacksubstanceisamixtureofmercuryandmercuric
nucleusonthevalencyelectronsduetopresenceofelectrons
amino chloride.
in the innershells iscalled shielding effect.An 4f orbitalis
NH2
Hg2Cl
Hg
+Hg+NH4Cl+2H2O
2 +2NH4OH

nearertothenucleusthan5forbitals.Henceshieldingof4fis
Cl
{
morethan5f.
Black

69

dandfBlockElements

28. (d): 26Fe=1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d6 4s2


Fe2+ =1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d6
ThenumberofdelectronsretainedinFe2+ =6.

18.(d):
+6

+3

Cr2O7 +14H++6I

2Cr3+ +7H2O+3I2

29. (b):ThesecondionisationpotentialvaluesofCuandCrare
sufficientlyhigherthanthoseofneighbouringelements.Thisis
becauseoftheelectronic configurationofCu+ which is 3d10
(completelyfilled)and ofCr+ whichis3d5 (halffilled), i.e.,
forthesecondionisationpotentials,theelectronistoberemoved
fromvery stableconfigurations.

19. (a):Cu2S+2Cu

2O
6Cu+SO2
Thisisan example ofautoreduction.
20. (a):
[MnCl4]2 -

3d

4s

.
.

4p

.
.

.
.

.
.

144244
3
sp3

Numberofunpaired electrons=5
.
.
[CoCl4]2

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

144244
3
sp3

Numberofunpaired electrons=3

. ..
.

[Fe(CN)6]4

.
.

.
.

144244
3
d2sp3

Numberofunpaired electrons=0

30. (c):Withincrease in atomicnumber i.e. inmoving down a


group,thenumberoftheprincipalshellincreasesandtherefore,
thesizeoftheatomincreases.Butincaseoffblockelements
thereisasteadydecreaseinatomicsizewithincreaseinatomic
numberduetolanthanidecontraction.
Aswemovethroughthelanthanideseries,4f electronsarebeing
addedoneateachstep.Themutualshieldingeffectof f electrons
is very little.This is due to the shape of the f orbitals. The
nuclearcharge,howeverincreasesbyoneateachstep.Hence,
theinwardpullexperiencedbythe4felectronsincreases.This
causesareductioninthesizeoftheentire4fn shell.

Magneticmoment= n n +2
31. (b):Theprecipitateofmercuriciodidedissolvesinexcessof
wheren=numberof unpairedelectrons.
potassiumiodideformingacomplex,K2HgI

4.
i.e.greaterthenumberofunpairedelectrons,greaterwillbethe
HgI2 +2KI K2HgI4
paramagneticcharacter.
HgI2 onheatingliberatesI2 gas.
21. (c):+4oxidationstateofceriumisalsoknowninsolutions.
Hg+I2
HgI2
1

22. (b): 4KI+2CuSO4


0

I2 +Cu2I2 +2K2SO4
+2.5

+2

I2 +2Na2S2O3

Na2 S4O6 +2NaI

(n1)d

ns

23. (b):

violetvapours

32.

(d):NH4+ ionsareincreasedtosuppressreleaseofOH ions,


hence solubility product of Fe(OH)3 is attained. Colour of
precipitate is different.

33. (b): Amorebasicligandformsstablebondwithmetalion,Cl


ismostbasicamongstall.

(n1)d5 ns2 canachievethemaximumoxidationstateof+7. 34. (a):Accordingtotheirpositionsintheperiods, thesevalues


areintheorder:
24. (a):Mercuryissuchametalwhichexistsasliquidatroom
temperature.
Yb3+ <Pm3+ <Ce3+ <La3+
25. (d):Whenheatedatredheat,AgNO3 decomposestometallic
At.Nos.
70
61
58
57
silver.
Ionicradii(pm) 86
98
103 106
2AgNO3 2Ag+2NO2 +O2
Ionic size decreases from La3+ to Lu3+ due to lanthanide
26. (d) : Due to lanthanide contraction, the ionic radii of Ln3+
contraction.
(lanthanideions)decreasesfromLa3+ toLu3+.Thusthelowest 35. (c):Thecommonstableoxidationstateofallthelanthanides
value(here0.85)istheionicradiusofLu3+.
is+3.Theoxidationstatesof+2and+4arealsoexhibitedand
27. (b):Dilutenitricacidconvertschromateintodichromateand
H2O.

2K2CrO

4 +2HNO3 K2Cr2O
7 +2KNO3 +H2O
or,

2CrO42
yellow

H+

Cr2O7 +H2O
orange

theseoxidationstatesareonlystableinthosecaseswherestable
4f0,4f7 or4f14 configurationsareachieved.Ce4+ is stable
dueto4f0 configuration.
36. (a):Mn2+ (3s23p63d5)hasthemaximumnumberofunpaired
electrons(5)andthereforehasmaximummoment.

70

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

CHAPTER

18 COORDINATIONCOMPOUNDS

1.

Whichofthe following complex species is not expectedto 9.


exhibitoptical isomerism?
(a) [Co(en)(NH3)2Cl2]+ (b) [Co(en)3]3+
(c) [Co(en)2Cl2]+
(d) [Co(NH3)3Cl3]
(2013)

2.

Whichamongthefollowingwillbenamedasdibromidobis
(ethylenediamine)chromium(III bromide?
10. Whichofthefollowinghasasquareplanargeometry?
2
2
(a) [Cr(en)2Br2]Br
(b) [Cr(en)Br4]
(a) [PtCl4]
(b) [CoCl4]

(c) [Cr(en)Br2]Br
(d) [Cr(en)3]Br3
(2012)
(c) [FeCl4]2
(d) [NiCl4]2.
2 is
(At.nos.:Fe=26,Co=27,Ni=28,Pt=78)
The magnetic moment (spinonly) of [NiCl4]

(2007)
(a) 1.82BM
(b) 5.46BM

3.

(c) 2.82BM
4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

(d) 1.41BM

Thecoordinationnumberandtheoxidationstateoftheelement
Einthecomplex[E(en)2 (C2O4)]NO2 (where(en)isethylene
diamine) are,respectively
(a) 6and3
(b) 6and2
(c) 4and2
(d) 4and3
(2008)

(2011)

11. HowmanyEDTA(ethylenediaminetetraaceticacid)molecules
Whichofthefollowingfactsaboutthecomplex[Cr(NH3)6]Cl3
arerequiredtomakeanoctahedralcomplexwithaCa2+ ion?
is wrong?
(a) Six
(b)Three
(a) The complex involves d2sp3 hybridisation and is
(2006)
(c) One
(d)Two
octahedralinshape.
12. InFe(CO)5,theFeCbondpossesses
(b) The complexis paramagnetic.
(a) pcharacteronly (b) both sand pcharacters
(c) The complex is an outer orbital complex.
(c) ioniccharacter (d) scharacter only.
(2006)
(d) Thecomplexgiveswhiteprecipitatewithsilvernitrate
solution.
(2011) 13. TheIUPACnameforthecomplex[Co(NO2)(NH3)5]Cl2 is
(a) nitritoNpentaamminecobalt(III)chloride
Whichone ofthe following has an opticalisomer?
(b) nitritoNpentaamminecobalt(II)chloride
(a) [Zn(en)2]2+
(b) [Zn(en)(NH3)2]2+
(c) pentaamminenitritoNcobalt(II)chloride
(c) [Co(en)3]3+
(d) [Co(H2O)4(en)]3+
(2010)
(d) pentaamminenitritoNcobalt(III)chloride.
(2006)
A solution contains 2.675 g of CoCl36NH3 (molar mass
=267.5gmol1)ispassedthroughacationexchanger.The 14. Thevalueofthespinonlymagneticmomentfor oneof the
followingconfigurationsis2.84BM.Thecorrectone is
chlorideionsobtainedinsolutionweretreatedwithexcessof
1
(a) d4 (instrongligandfield)
AgNO3 togive4.78gofAgCl(molarmass=143.5gmol ).
(b) d4 (inweakligandfield)
Theformula ofthecomplexis (At.mass ofAg = 108u)
(c) d3 (inweakaswellasinstrongfields)
(a) [CoCl(NH3)5]Cl2
(b) [Co(NH3)6]Cl3
(d) d5 (instrongligandfield)
(2005)
(c) [CoCl2(NH3)
(d) [CoCl3(NH3)3]
(2010)
4]Cl
Whichofthe following pairs represents linkage isomers?
15. Whichoneofthefollowingcyanocomplexeswouldexhibitthe
(a) [Cu(NH3)4][PtCl
lowestvalueofparamagneticbehaviour?

4] and [Pt(NH3)4][CuCl4]
3
3
(b) [Pd(PPh3)2(NCS)2]and [Pd(PPh3)2(SCN)2]
(a) [Cr(CN)6]
(b) [Mn(CN)6]

3
3
(c) [Co(NH3)5(NO3)]SO4 and[Co(NH3)5(SO4)]NO3
(c) [Fe(CN)6]
(d) [Co(CN)6]
(2005)
(d) [PtCl2(NH3)4]Br2 and [PtBr2(NH3)4]Cl2
(2009)
16. Whichofthefollowingcompoundsshowsopticalisomerism?
Whichof the following has an opticalisomer?
2+
2
(a) [Cu(NH3)
(b) [ZnCl4]
4]

(a) [Co(NH3)3Cl]+
(b) [Co(en)(NH3)2]2+
(c) [Cr(C2O4)3]3 (d) [Co(CN)6]3
(2005)
3+
3+
(c) [Co(H2O)
(d) [Co(en)2(NH
(2009)
4(en)]

3)
2]

71

CoordinationCompounds

17. TheIUPACnameofthecoordinationcompoundK3[Fe(CN)6]
is
(a) potassiumhexacyanoferrate (II)
(b) potassiumhexacyanoferrate(III)
(c) potassiumhexacyanoiron(II)
(d) tripotassiumhexacyanoiron(II)
(2005)

(c) thenumberofligandsaroundametalionbondedbysigma
andpibondsboth
(d) thenumberofonlyanionicligandsbondedto the metal
ion.
(2004)

23. OnemoleofthecomplexcompoundCo(NH3)5Cl3,gives3moles
ofionsondissolutioninwater.Onemoleofthesamecomplex
reactswithtwomolesofAgNO3 solutiontoyieldtwomolesof
(2005)
AgCl(s).Thestructureofthecomplexis
(a) [Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2
Whichoneofthefollowinghas largestnumber ofisomers?
(b) [Co(NH3)3Cl2]2NH3
+
2+
(a) [Ru(NH3)
(b) [Co(NH3)
4Cl
2]

5Cl]

(c) [Co(NH3)4Cl2]ClNH3
2+
+
(c) [Ir(PR3)
(d) [Co(en)2Cl
2H(CO)]

2]

(d) [Co(NH3)4Cl]Cl2NH3
(2003)
(R= alkylgroup,en= ethylenediamine)
(2004) 24. Ammoniaformsthecomplexion[Cu(NH3)4]2+ withcopperions
in alkaline solutions but notin acidic solutions. What is the
Coordinationcompounds havegreat importanceinbiological
reasonfor it?
systems.Inthis contextwhich of the following statementsis
(a) Inacidicsolutionshydrationprotectscopper ions.
incorrect?
(b) In acidic solutions protons coordinate with ammonia
(a) Chlorophylls are green pigments in plants and contain
moleculesformingNH4+
ionsandNH3 moleculesarenot
calcium.
available.
(b) Haemoglobinistheredpigmentofbloodandcontainsiron.
(c) In alkaline solutions insoluble Cu(OH)2 is precipitated
(c) CyanocobalamineisB12 andcontainscobalt.
whichissolubleinexcessofanyalkali.
(d) CarboxypeptidaseAisanenzymeandcontainszinc.
(d) Copperhydroxideisanamphotericsubstance.
(2004)
(2003)
Which one of the following complexes is an outer orbital
25. Inthecoordinationcompound,K4[Ni(CN)4],theoxidationstate
complex?
ofnickelis
4
4
(a) [Fe(CN)6]
(b) [Mn(CN)6]

(a) 1
(b) 0
(c) [Co(NH3)6]3+ (d) [Ni(NH3)6]2+
(c) +1
(d) +2
(2003)
[Atomicnos.: Mn=25,Fe= 26,Co= 27,Ni=28]
(2004) 26. Thetypeofisomerismpresentinnitropentaminechromium(III)
chlorideis
Thecoordinationnumberofacentralmetalatominacomplex
(a) optical
(b) linkage
isdeterminedby
(c) ionization
(d) polymerisation.
(2002)
(a) thenumberofligandsaroundametalionbondedbysigma
bonds
27. CH3 MgBrisanorganometalliccompounddueto
(b) thenumberofligandsaroundametalionbondedbypi
(a) MgBrbond (b) CMgbond
bonds
(c) CBrbond (d) CHbond.
(2002)

18. Theoxidationstateof Crin[Cr(NH3)4Cl2]+ is


(a) +3
(b) +2
(c) +1
(d) 0
19.

20.

21.

22.

Answer Key

1.
7.
13.
19.
25.

(d)
(b)
(d)
(d)
(b)

2.
8.
14.
20.
26.

(a)
(d)
(a)
(a)
(b)

3.
9.
15.
21.
27.

(c)
(a)
(d)
(d)
(b)

4.
10.
16.
22.

(c)
(a)
(c)
(a)

5.
11.
17.
23.

(c)
(c)
(b)
(a)

6.
12.
18.
24.

(b)
(b)
(a)
(b)

72

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

1.

(d):[Co(NH3)3Cl3]willnotexhibitopticalisomerismdueto
8.

presence of plane of symmetry.

2.

(a)

3.

(c) : In the paramagnetic and tetrahedral complex


2
[NiCl4]
,thenickelisin+2oxidationstateandtheionhas
the electronic configuration 3d8. The hybridisation scheme
isasshowninfigure.

(d) : Optical isomerism is usually exhibited by octahedral


compoundsofthetype[M(AA)2B2],where(AA)isasymmetrical
bidentateligand.Squareplanarcomplexesrarelyshowoptical
isomerismonaccout of presence ofaxis of symmetry.
Thus among the given options, [Co(en)2(NH3)2]3+ exhibits
opticalisomerism.
en

en

Ni2+,[Ar]3d8 :

NH3
3+
Co

[NiCl4]2 :

3+
Co

NH3
m=

H3N

H3N
en

en

n( n + 2) BM

= (2(2 + 2) = 8

Nonsuperimposable
mirrorimages

=2.82BM

(a) : In the given complex [E(en)2(C2O4)]+NO2 ethylene


diamineisabidentateligandand(C2O42)oxalateionisalso
bidentate ligand. Therefore coordination number of the
complex is6i.e.,itisanoctahedralcomplex.
Oxidationnumberof Einthe givencomplexis
x +20+1(2)=+1
\ x=3

4.

(c): Thecomplex[Cr(NH3)6]Cl3 involves d2sp3 hybridization 9.


asitinvolves(n 1)dorbitalsforhybridization.Itisaninner
orbitalcomplex.

5.

(c): Opticalisomersrarelyoccurinsquareplanarcomplexes
due tothe presence of axis of symmetry.
Opticalisomerismiscommoninoctahedralcomplexesofthe
general formula, [Ma2b2c2]n, [Mabcdef] n, [M(AA)3]n,
[M(AA)2a2]n,[M(AA)2ab]n and[M(AB)3]n.Thus,amongthe
10. (a): In4coordinatecomplexesPt,thefourligandsarearranged
givenoptions,only [Co(en)3]3+ shows optical isomerism.
about the central 2valent platinum ion in a square planar
configuration.

6.

(b): No. ofmoles of CoCl36NH3 =


No.ofmoles ofAgCl =

7.

2.675
= 0.01
267.5

4.78
= 0.03
143.5

11. (c): EDTA,whichhasfourdonoroxygenatomsandtwodonor


nitrogenatomsineachmoleculeformscomplexwithCa2+ ion.
The free acid H4EDTA is insoluble and the disodium salt
Na2H2EDTAisthemostusedreagent.
Ca2+ +[H2EDTA]2 [Ca(EDTA)]2 +2H+

12. (b): Inametalcarbonyl,themetalcarbonbondpossessesboth


the sand pcharacter.A sbondbetweenmetal and carbon
Since0.01molesofthecomplexCoCl36NH

3gives0.03moles
atomisformedwhenavacanthybridbondofthemetalatom
ofAgClontreatmentwithAgNO3,itimpliesthat3chloride

overlaps with an orbital of C atom of carbon monoxide


ionsareionisable,inthecomplex.Thus,theformulaofthe
containing a lonepairofelectrons.
complexis [Co(NH3)6]Cl3.
Formationof pbondiscausedwhenafilledorbitalofthemetal
(b): Linkageisomerismisexhibitedbycompoundscontaining
atomoverlapswithavacantantibonding p*orbitalofCatom
ambidentateligand.
ofCO.Thisoverlapisalsocalledbackdonationofelectrons
In[Pd(PPh3)2(NCS)2],thelinkageofNCSandPdisthroughN.
bymetalatomtocarbon.
In[Pd(PPh3)2(SCN)2],thelinkageofSCNandPdisthroughS.

73

CoordinationCompounds

+ +

ox

(a)
+

.
.C

ox

.
O.

Cr

Cr
ox

(b)

ox

ox

ox

.
O.

+
(a)The formation of the metal carbon sbond using an unshared

17. (b):K3[Fe(CN)6]
Potassiumhexacyanoferrate(III)

18. (a):Letthe oxidationstateofCrin


[Cr(NH3)4Cl2]+ = x
The poverlapisperpendiculartothenodalplaneof sbond.
x+4(0)+2(1)=+1
13. (d):[Co(NO2)(NH3)5]Cl2
x2=+1or, x=+1+2=+3
pentaaminenitritoNcobalt(III) chloride
19. (d) : [Co(en)2Cl2]+ shows geometrical as well as optical
14. (a):Spinonlymagneticmoment = n(n +2) B.M.
isomerism.
Wheren= no.ofunpaired electron.
20. (a) : Chlorophyll are green pigments in plants and contains
Given, n(n + 2) =2.84
magnesiuminsteadofcalcium.
or, n(n+2)=8.0656
pair of the C atom. (b) The formation of the metal carbon pbond.

or, n=2
21. (d): Complex ion Hybridization ofcentral ion
Inanoctahedralcomplex,forad4 configurationinastrongfield
[Fe(CN)6]4
d 2sp3 (inner)
4
ligand,numberofunpairedelectrons= 2
[Mn(CN)6]
d 2sp3 (inner)
3+
[Co(NH3)6]
d 2sp3 (inner)
15. (d):[Co(CN)6]3
2+
[Ni(NH3)
sp3d2 (outer)
Co [Ar]3d7 4s2
6]

3+
6
0
Co [Ar]3d 4s
22. (a): Thenumberofatomsoftheligandsthataredirectlybound
3d

4s

4p

InpresenceofstrongfieldligandCNpairingofelectronstakes
place.

14444444444442
444444444444434
d2sp3

tothecentralmetalatomorionbycoordinatebondsisknown
asthecoordinationnumberofthemetalatomorion.
Coordinationnumberofmetal=numberof sbondsformedby
metalwithligands.
23. (a):Givenreactionscanbeexplainedasfollows:
[Co(NH3)5Cl]2+ +2Cl 3ions.
[Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2
[Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2 +2AgNO3 [Co(NH3)5Cl](NO3)2 +2AgCl

There is no unpaired electron, so the lowest value of 24. (b):Inacidicsolution,NH formsabondwithH+ togiveNH+
3
4
paramagneticbehaviourisobserved.
ionwhichdoesnothavealonepaironNatom.Henceitcannot
actasaligand.
16. (c):Opticalisomersrarelyoccurinsquareplanarcomplexes
on account of the presence of axis of symmetry. Optical 25. (b):LettheoxidationnumberofNiinK [Ni(CN) ]=x
4
4
isomerism is very common in octahedral complexes having
14+x(1)4=0 4+x4=0 x=0
generalformulae:
[Ma2b2c2]n, [Mabc def]n, [M(AA)3]n, [M(AA)2a2]n, 26. (b) : The nitro group can attach to metal through nitrogen
n
n
as(NO2)orthroughoxygenasnitrito(ONO).
[M(AA)2ab]
and [M(AB)3]

(where AA = symmetrical bidentate ligand and AB = 27. (b):Compoundsthatcontainatleastonecarbonmetalbond


unsymmetricalbidentateligand).
arecalledorganometalliccompounds.

74

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

CHAPTER

19

ENVIRONMENTALCHEMISTRY

1.

The gas leaked from a storage tank of the Union Carbide


plantinBhopalgastragedywas
(a) phosgene
(b) methylisocyanate
(c) methylamine
(d) ammonia
(2013)

2.

Identifythe wrongstatement in the following.


(a) Acidrainismostly because of oxides of nitrogenand
sulphur.
(b) Chlorofluorocarbons are responsible for ozone layer
depletion.

(c) Greenhouse effectisresponsible for global warming.


(d) Ozonelayerdoesnotpermitinfraredradiationfromthe
suntoreachtheearth.
(2008)
3.

Answer Key

1.

(b)

2.

(d)

3.

(c)

Thesmogisessentiallycausedbythepresenceof
(a) O2 andO3
(b) O2 andN2
(c) oxidesofsulphurand nitrogen
(d) O3 andN2.

(2004)

75

Environmental Chemistry

1.

(b)

violet raysfromsun toreachtheearth.

2.

(d):Thethicklayerofozonecalledozoneplanketwhichis 3.
effectiveinabsorbingharmfulultraviolet raysgivenoutby
thesunactsasaprotectiveshield.Itdoesnotpermittheultra

(c):Photochemicalsmogiscausedbyoxidesofsulphurand
nitrogen.

76

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

PURIFICATIONAND
CHARACTERISATIONOF
ORGANICCOMPOUNDS

CHAPTER

20
1.

2.

29.5 mg ofan organic compound containing nitrogenwas


digested according to Kjeldahls method and the evolved
ammoniawasabsorbedin20mLof0.1MHClsolution.The
excessoftheacidrequired15mLof0.1MNaOHsolution
for complete neutralization. The percentage of nitrogen in
the compoundis
3.
(a) 29.5
(b) 59.0
(c) 47.4
(d) 23.7
(2010)
The ammonia evolved from the treatment of
0.30gofanorganiccompoundfortheestimationofnitrogen
waspassedin100mLof0.1Msulphuricacid.Theexcessof

Answer Key

1.

(d)

2.

(c)

3.

(c)

acidrequired20mLof0.5Msodiumhydroxidesolution for
completeneutralization.Theorganiccompoundis
(a) acetamide
(b) benzamide
(c) urea
(d) thiourea.
(2004)
In a compound C, H and N atoms are present in
9:1:3.5byweight.Molecularweightofcompoundis108.
Molecularformulaofcompoundis
(a) C2H
(b) C3H
6N
2
4N

(c) C6H8N2
(d) C9H12N3.
(2002)

77

PurificationandCharacterisationofOrganicCompounds

1.

(d): The%ofNaccordingtoKjeldahlsmethod =

N1 =Normalityofthestandardacid= 0.1N
w=Massofthe organic compound taken
=29.5mg=29.5103 g
V=Volumeof N1 acidneutralised byammonia
=(2015)=5mL.

2.

%N =

1.4 0.1 5
29.5 10 -3

Percentageofnitrogeninurea(NH2)2CO
14 2
= 60 100 = 46.6
\
Thecompoundmustbeurea.

1.4 N1 V

= 23.7

(c):Equivalentsof NH3 evolved


100 0.1 2 - 20 0.5 = 1
=
1000
1000 100
Percent of nitrogen in the unknown organic compound =
1 14 100 =46.6
100 0.3

3.

(c): CHN
9:1:3.5
9
1
3.5
:
:
12
1
14
3
1
1
:
:
4
1
4
3:4:1
Empiricalformula=C3H4N
(C3H4N)n =108
(12 3+1 4+14)n =108
54n=108 n=108/54=2
Molecularformula=C6H8N2

78

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

CHAPTER

21
1.

SOMEBASICPRINCIPLES
OFORGANICCHEMISTRY

The orderof stability of the following carbocationsis


CH2
CH2

II
III

(a) III>I>II
(c) II>III>I
2.

3.

4.

5.

(b) III>II>I
(d) I>II>III

The correct decreasing order of priority for the functional


groups of organic compounds in the IUPAC system of
nomenclature is
(a) CONH2,CHO,SO3H,COOH
(b) COOH,SO3H,CONH2,CHO
(c) SO3H,COOH,CONH2,CHO

CHCH2;CH3CH2CH2;
I

9.

(2013)

Howmanychiralcompoundsarepossibleonmonochlorination 10. Theelectrophile,E attacksthebenzeneringtogeneratethe


of 2methyl butane?
intermediate scomplex.Ofthefollowing,which scomplex
(a) 2
(b) 4
isoflowest energy?
(c) 6
(d) 8
(2012)
NO2
NO2
Identifythe compound thatexhibits tautomerism.
+
(a)
(b)
(a) 2Butene
(b) Lactic acid
+
H
(c) 2Pentanone (d) Phenol
(2011)
E
H E
Outofthefollowing,thealkenethatexhibitsopticalisomerism
is
NO2
H
(a) 2methyl2pentene (b) 3methyl2pentene
H
(c) 4methyl1pentene (d) 3methyl1pentene (2010)
(c)
(d) +
E
+
E
TheIUPACnameofneopentane is
(a) 2methylbutane
(b) 2,2dimethylpropane
(c) 2methylpropane (d) 2,2dimethylbutane

(2008)
11. The absolute configuration of
HO2C

(2009)
6.

7.

8.

(2008)

(d) CHO,COOH,SO3H, CONH2

Thenumberofstereoisomerspossible fora compound of the


molecularformulaCH3 CH
CH CH(OH) Me is
(a) 3
(b) 2
(c) 4
(d) 6
(2009)

CO2H

is
HO H H

(a) S, R
(c) R, R

(b) S, S
(d) R, S

OH

(2008)
Thealkenethatexhibits geometricalisomerismis
12. Whichoneofthefollowing conformationsofcyclohexaneis
(a) propene
(b) 2methylpropene
chiral?
(c) 2butene
(d) 2methyl2butene
(2009)
(a) Boat
(b) Twistboat
Arrangethe carbanions,
(c) Rigid
(d) Chair
(2007)
(CH3 )3 C , CCl3 , (CH 3 ) 2CH , C6 H 5CH2
13. Increasingorderofstabilityamongthethreemainconformations
inorderof theirdecreasing stability
(i.e.eclipse,anti,gauche)of2fluoroethanolis
(a) eclipse,gauche,anti
(a) C6 H5 CH 2 > CCl3 > (CH3 )3C >(CH 3 ) 2CH
(b) gauche,eclipse,anti
(c) eclipse,anti,gauche
(b) (CH3 ) 2 CH > CCl3 > C6 H5 CH 2 > (CH3 )3C
(d) anti,gauche,eclipse.
(2006)
(c) CCl3 > C6 H 5 CH 2 > (CH 3 ) 2CH >(CH 3 )3C
14. Theincreasingorderofstabilityofthefollowingfreeradicals
(d) (CH3 )3C > (CH 3 )2 CH > C6 H 5 CH 2 >CCl3
(2009)
is

79

SomeBasicPrinciplesofOrganicChemistry

.
.
.
.
(a) (CH3)2CH<(CH3)3C<(C6H5)2CH<(C
CH<(C6H5)3C
.
.
.
.
(b) (C6H5)3C<(C6H5)2CH<(CH3)3C<(CH3)2CH
.
.
.
.
(c) (C6H5)2CH<(C6H5)3C< (CH3)3C<(CH
C<(CH3)2CH
.
.
.
.
C<(C6H5)2CH
(d) (CH3)2CH<(CH3)3C<(C6H5)3C<(C

H
CH3

HC

C2H5 CHC2H5

H
(III)

(2006)

(IV)

itistruethat
(a) allfourarechiralcompounds
(b) onlyIandIIarechiralcompounds
(c) onlyIIIisachiralcompound
(d) onlyIIandIVarechiralcompounds.

15. CH3Br+Nu CH3 Nu+Br


The decreasing order of the rate of the above reaction with
nucleophiles(Nu)AtoDis
[Nu =(A)PhO,(B)AcO, (C)HO,(D)CH3O]
(a) D>C>A>B (b) D>C>B>A
(c) A>B>C>D (d) B>D>C>A.
(2006) 20. Thereaction:

16. TheIUPACnameofthe compoundshownbelowis


Cl

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Br

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

(CH3)3CBr

2bromo6chlorocyclohex1ene
6bromo2chlorocyclohexene
3bromo1chlorocyclohexene
1bromo3chlorocyclohexene.

H2O

(2003)

(CH3)3COH

elimination reaction
substitutionreaction
freeradical reaction
displacementreaction.

(2002)

21. Whichofthefollowingdoesnotshowgeometricalisomerism?
(a) 1,2dichloro1pentene
(2006)
(b) 1,3dichloro2pentene
17. Thedecreasingorderofnucleophilicityamongthenucleophiles
(c) 1,1dichloro1pentene
is
(d) 1,4dichloro2pentene.
(2002)
(1) CH3C O
(2) CH3O
22. Asimilaritybetweenopticalandgeometricalisomerismisthat
O
(a) eachformsequalnumberofisomersforagivencompound
O
(b) ifinacompoundoneispresentthensoistheother

H
C
S
O

(c) bothareincludedinstereoisomerism
(3) CN
(4) 3
(d) theyhavenosimilarity.
(2002)
O
(a) 1,2,3,4
(b) 4,3,2,1
23. Racemicmixtureisformedbymixingtwo
(c) 2,3,1,4
(d) 3,2,1,4
(a) isomeric compounds
(2005)
(b) chiral compounds
18. Duetothepresence ofanunpaired electron,free radicalsare
(c) mesocompounds
(a) chemically reactive
(d) opticalisomers.
(2002)
(b) chemically inactive
(c) anions
24. Arrangementof(CH3)3C,(CH3)2CH,CH3CH2 whenattached
(d) cations
(2005)
tobenzyloranunsaturatedgroupinincreasingorderofinductive
effect is
19. Amongthefollowingfour structuresItoIV,
(a) (CH3)3C<(CH3)2CH<CH3CH2
CH3
O CH3
(b) CH3CH2 <(CH3)2CH<(CH3)3C
C2H5 CHC3H7
CH3 CCHC2H5
(c) (CH3)
2CH<(CH

3)
3C<CH

3CH

2
(I)
(II)
(d) (CH3)
C<CH
CH
<(CH
)
CH.
(2002)
3
3
2
3 2

Answer Key

1. (a)
7. (c)
13. (a)

2. (a)
8. (c)
14. (a)

3.
9.
15.

(c)
(c)
(a)

4. (d)
10. (c)
16. (c)

5.
11.
17.

(b)
(c)
(d)

6. (c)
12. (b)
18. (a)

19. (b)

20. (b)

21.

(c)

22. (c)

23.

(d)

24. (b)

80

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

1.

(a): Greaterthenumberofresonatingstructuresacarbocation 6.
possess,greaterisitsstability.

(c): ThegivencompoundhasaC
(*) carbon,

2.

(a):

*
H3CHC CHC
H(OH)Me
H

H3C

Cgroupandonechiral

H
H
C
C
CH(OH)Me Me(OH)CH

H
CH3

d,l isomersofcisform

\ Totalstereoisomers=4.

7.

(c):Whentwogroupsattachedtoadoublebondedcarbon
atomare same,thecompounddoesnotexhibitgeometrical
isomerism.
Compounds in whichthe two groups attached to a double
bondedcarbonaredifferent,exhibitgeometricalisomerism,
thus,only2buteneexhibits cistrans isomerism.

Outoffourpossible isomersonly I and III are chiral.


3.

(c):The type ofisomerismin which a substance existsin


tworeadilyinterconvertibledifferentstructuresleadingtoa 8.
dynamicequilibriumisknownastautomerism.
2pentanone exhibits tautomerism.

9.
4.

(d):3Methyl1penteneexhibitsopticalisomerismasithas
anasymmetricCatom inthe molecule.

(c):Thegroupshaving+Ieffectdecreasethestabilitywhile
groupshavingIeffectincreasethestabilityofcarbanions.
Benzylcarbanionisstabilizedduetoresonance.Also,outof
2and3carbanions,2carbanionsaremorestable,thusthe
decreasingorderofstabilityis:
CCl3 > C6 H5 CH 2 > (CH3 ) 2 CH > (CH 3 )3C.
(c): Theorderofpreferenceoffunctionalgroupsisasfollows:
SO3H>COOH>COOR>COX>COCl>CONH2
>CHO>CN> C O >OH>SH>NH2
> C C

>C

C>NO2 >NO>X

10. (c):
5.

(b):

neopentane or 2,2dimethylpropane

This structure will be of lowest energy due to resonance


stabilisationof+vecharge.Inallotherthreestructures,the
presenceofelectronwithdrawingNO2 groupwilldestabilize
the +ve chargeandhence theywillhavegreater energy.

81

SomeBasicPrinciplesofOrganicChemistry

11. (c):
COOH

COOH
HO2C

CO2H HO

HO

HH

OH

C
C

HO

OH

Cl

OH

COOH

COOH

>HO >PhO >AcO


CH3O

Here, the nucleophilic atom i.e. O is the same in all these


species.This order can be easily explained on the general
conceptthataweakeracidhasa strongerconjugatebase.

(1)

16. (c):

(6)

(2)

(5)

(3)
(4)

3bromo1chlorocyclohexene

Br

(R,R)

17. (d):Strongbasesaregenerallygoodnucleophile.
Ifthenucleophilicatomorthecentreisthesame,nucleophilicity
12. (b):Thetwistboatconformation ofcyclohexaneisoptically
parallelsbasicity,i.e.,morebasicthespecies,strongeris the
activeasitdoesnothave any planeofsymmetry.
nucleophile.Hencebasicityaswellasnucleophilicityorderis
2

5
1

CH3O >CH3

4
6

O >H3C

S
O

NowCN isabetternucleophilethanCH3O
.

13. (a):

Hencedecreasingorder ofnucleophilicityis

CH2 CH2
F

CN >CH3O >CH3

OH

O > H3C

O
S

2fluoroethanol

F
H

F
H

HO
HO
H

OH

H H H
eclipsed

antiorstaggered

F
OH

H
H

H H

F
H

18. (a) : Free radicalsare highlyreactive dueto presence of an


unpairedelectron.Theyreadilytrytopairuptheoddelectrons.

19. (b): Achiralobjectorcompoundcanbedefinedastheonethat


isnotsuperimposableonitsmirrorimage,orwecansaythat
allthefourgroupsattachedtoacarbonatommustbedifferent.
OnlyIandIIarechiralcompounds.

H
skeworgauche

CH3
CH3
* H
* H (II) CH COCC
(I) C2H5 CC
3
2 5
3 7
H

20. (b):Thisisanexampleofnucleophilicsubstitutionreaction.

Br + OH
(CH3)3C OH + Br
(CH3)3C
TheanticonformationismoststableinwhichFandOHgroups
Nucleophile
Leavinggroup
Substrate
arefarapartaspossibleandminimumrepulsionbetweentwo
Cl H
groups occurs.
InfullyeclipsedconformationFandOHgroupsaresoclose 21. (c): CCCH2 CH2 CH3
thatthestericstrainismaximum,hencethisconformationis
Cl
mostunstable.Theorderofstabilityoftheseconformationsis
Conditionforgeometricalisomerismispresenceoftwodifferent
anti>gauche>partiallyeclipsed>fullyeclipsed
atomsofgroupsattachedtoeachcarbonatomcontainingdouble
14. (a): Onthebasisofhyperconjugationeffectofthealkylgroups,
bond.
the orderofstabilityof freeradicalis as follows:
Identical groups(Cl) onC l willgive onlyone compound.
tertiary>secondary>primary.
Henceitdoesnotshowgeometricalisomerism.
Benzylfreeradicalsarestabilisedbyresonanceandhenceare
morestablethanalkylfreeradicals.Furtherasthenumberof 22. (c):Bothinvolvescompoundshavingthesamemolecularand
structuralformulae,butdifferentspatialarrangementofatoms
phenyl group attached to the carbon atom holding the odd
orgroups.
electron increases, the stability of a free radical increases
23. (d): Anequimolarmixtureoftwo i.e. dextroandlaevorotatory
accordingly.
.
.
.
.
opticalisomersistermedasracemicmixtureordlformor()
(CH
)
CH<(CH
)
C<(C
H
)
CH<(C
H
)
C
i.e.
3 2
3 3
6 5 2
6 5 3
mixture.
15. (a) : If the nucleophilic atom or the centre is same, 24. (b) : CH3 group has +I effect, as number of CH3 group
nucleophilicityparallels basicity, i.e. more basic the species
increasestheinductive effectincreases.
strongeristhe nucleophile.
fullyeclipsed

82

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

CHAPTER

HYDROCARBONS

22
1.

Agaseoushydrocarbongivesuponcombustion0.72gofwater 8.
and3.08gofCO2.Theempiricalformulaofthehydrocarbon

is
(a) C7H8
(b) C2H4
(c) C3H4
(d) C6H5
(2013)

2.

Which branched chain isomer of the hydrocarbon with


molecularmass72ugivesonlyoneisomerofmonosubstituted
alkylhalide?
(a) Neopentane
(b) Isohexane
9.
(c) Neohexane
(d) Tertiary butyl chloride
(2012)

3.

4.

5.

2Hexyne givestrans2hexene on treatment with


(a) Li/NH3

(b) Pd/BaSO4

(c) LiAlH4

(d) Pt/H2

(d) CH3 C

7.

Presenceofa nitrogroupina benzenering


(a) deactivatestheringtowardselectrophilicsubstitution
(b) activatestheringtowardselectrophilicsubstitution
(c) renderstheringbasic
(d) deactivatestheringtowardsnucleophilicsubstitution.
(2007)

Onemole ofasymmetricalalkeneonozonolysis givestwo


molesofanaldehydehavingamolecularmassof44u.The 10. The reaction of toluene with Cl2 in presence of FeCl3 gives
predominantly
alkeneis
(a) mchlorobenzene
(a) ethene
(b) propene
(b) benzoyl chloride
(c) 1butene
(d) 2butene.
(2010)
(c) benzyl chloride
C Hproduces
ThetreatmentofCH3MgXwithCH

3C

(d) oand pchlorotoluene.


(2007)
(a) CH4
(b) CH3 CH
CH2
11. Which of the following reactions will yield
(c) CH3C
C CH3
2,2dibromopropane?
H

6.

(2012)

Tolueneisnitratedandtheresultingproductisreducedwith
tinandhydrochloricacid.Theproductsoobtainedisdiazotised
andthenheatedwithcuprousbromide.Thereactionmixture
soformed contains
(a) mixture of oand mbromotoluenes
(b) mixture of oand pbromotoluenes
(c) mixture of oand pdibromobenzenes
(d) mixture of oand pbromoanilines.
(2008)

(a) CH3 CH

(2008)

C CH3

(b) CH3 C

CH2 +HBr
CH+2HBr

(c) CH3CH CHBr+HBr


The hydrocarbon which can react with sodium in liquid
(d) CH CH+2HBr
(2007)
ammoniais
(a) CH3CH2C
CCH2CH3
12. Which of the following molecules is expected to rotate the
(b) CH3CH2CH
C
CCH2CH
planepolarisedlight?

2CH3
(c) CH3CH2C
CH

CHO
COOH
CHCH3
(d) CH3CH
(2008)
H (b) HO
H
(a) H2N
In the following sequence of reactions, the alkene affords
CH2OH
H
thecompound B
O

H O

B.
CH3CH CHCH3 3 A 2
Zn
Thecompound B is
(a) CH3CHO
(b) CH3CH

2CHO

(c) CH3COCH3
(d) CH3CH2COCH

(c)
(2008)

(d)
SH

H2N

NH2

H
Ph

H
Ph

(2007)

83

Hydrocarbons

13. TheIUPACnameof
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

19. 2Methylbutane on reacting with bromine in the presence of


sunlightgivesmainly
(a) 1bromo2methylbutane
(b) 2bromo2methylbutane
(c) 2bromo3methylbutane
(d) 1bromo3methylbutane.
(2005)

is

3ethyl44dimethylheptane
1,1diethyl2,2dimethylpentane
4,4dimethyl5,5diethylpentane
5,5diethyl4,4dimethylpentane.

(2007)

14. Thecompoundformedasaresultofoxidationofethylbenzene
byKMnO4 is
(a) benzyl alcohol (b) benzophenone
(c) acetophenone (d) benzoic acid.
(2007)

15.

Me
Me
N
Et
OH nBu

20. Which one of the following is reduced with zinc and


hydrochloricacid togivethe correspondinghydrocarbon?
(a) Ethylacetate (b) Aceticacid
(c) Acetamide
(d) Butan2one
(2004)
21. Amongstthefollowingcompounds,theopticallyactivealkane
havinglowestmolecularmassis
(a) CH3 CH2 CH2 CH3
CH3

(b) CH3 CH2 CHCH3

Thealkeneformedasamajorproductintheaboveelimination
reactionis
(a)

(b) CH2

Me

Me

(c) CH3 C

CH2

C2H5

Me

(d) CH3 CH2 C

(2006)

(d)

(c)

CH

(2004)

16. Acidcatalyzedhydrationofalkenesexceptetheneleadstothe 22. Whichoneofthefollowinghastheminimumboilingpoint?


(a) nButane
(b) 1Butyne
formation of
(c)
1Butene
(d) Isobutene
(2004)
(a) primaryalcohol
(b) secondaryortertiary alcohol
23. Onmixingacertainalkanewithchlorineandirradiatingitwith
(c) mixtureofprimaryand secondaryalcohols
ultraviolet light, it forms only one monochloroalkane. This
(d) mixtureofsecondary andtertiary alcohols.
(2005)
alkanecouldbe
(a) propane
(b) pentane
17. Ofthefiveisomerichexanes, the isomerwhich cangivetwo
(c) isopentane
(d) neopentane.
(2003)
monochlorinatedcompounds is
(a) nhexane
(b) 2,3dimethylbutane
24. Butene1maybeconvertedtobutanebyreactionwith
(c) 2,2dimethylbutane (d) 2methylpentane.
(2005)
(a) ZnHCl
(b) SnHCl
(c) ZnHg
(d) Pd/H2.
(2003)
18. Reactionof onemolecule of HBr withone moleculeof 1,3
butadieneat40Cgivespredominantly
25. Whatistheproductwhenacetylenereactswithhypochlorous
(a) 3bromobutene under kinetically controlled conditions
acid?
(b) 1bromo2butene under thermodynamically controlled
(a) CH3COCl
(b) ClCH2CHO
(c) Cl2CHCHO
(d) ClCHCOOH.
(2002)
conditions
(c) 3bromobutene under thermodynamically controlled
26. Whichofthesewillnotreactwithacetylene?
conditions
(a) NaOH
(b) ammonicalAgNO3
(d) 1bromo2buteneunderkineticallycontrolledconditions.
(c) Na
(d) HCl
(2002)
(2005)

Answer Key

1.

(a)

2.

(a)

3.

(a,c)

7.
13.
19.
25.

(a)
(a)
(b)
(c)

8.
14.
20.
26.

(b)
(d)
(d)
(a)

9. (a)
15. (d)
21. (c)

4.

(d)

10. (d)
16. (b)
22. (d)

5.

(a)

11. (b)
17. (b)
23. (d)

6.

(c)

12. (b)
18. (b)
24. (d)

84

1.

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

(a): Molesofwaterproduced=
MolesofCO2 produced=

0.72
=0.04
18

5.

oracidichydrogen atom togive alkane.

3.08
=0.07
44

Equationforcombustionofanunknownhydrocarbon,CxHy

(a):Grignardreagentreactswithcompoundshavingactive
CH CH4 +CH3C

CH3MgX+CH3C
6.

is

CMgX

(c):Terminalalkynesreactwithsodiuminliquidammonia
toyieldioniccompounds i.e. sodiumalkylides.

y
y
C x H y + x + O 2 xCO 2 + H 2O

4
2

7.

(a): The complete reactionsequenceisasfollows


H

y
= 0.04
x=0.07and
2

O3

C C
CH3

H3C

O
C

C
H3C

\ y=0.08

CH3
O

Monoozonide

x 0.07 7
=
=
y 0.08 8

ZnH2O
Cleavage

2CH3CHO+ZnO

\ The empirical formula of the hydrocarbon is C7H8.

2.

(a): Asthemolecular massindicates itshouldbe pentane

8.

(b):The reactionsequence isasfollows:

and neopentane can only form one mono substituted alkyl

CH3

halideasallthehydrogensareequivalentin neopentane.

CH3
HNO3/H 2SO4

CH3
Sn/HCl

Nitration
Toluene

NO2

NH2

p nitrotoluene

CH3

3.

(a,c):FortransproductsweshouldtakeNaorLimetalin

1.NaNO2/HCl
2.CuBr/D

NH3 orEtNH2 atlowtemperatureorLiAlH4asreducingagent


(antiaddition).

CH3

Br

p bromotoluene

9.

O
NO

(d):

o bromotoluene

(a):
O

4.

Br

O O
N

O O

O O

O
N

From the resonating structures +


of it can be seen that the
MolecularmassofRCHO= 44
nitrogroup withdrawn electrons from the rings and hence it
deactivatesthebenzeneringforfurtherelectophilicsubstitution.
R+12+1+16= 44
10.
(d):
Mol.massofR=44 29= 15
CH3
CH3
CH3
Thisispossible,only whenRisCH3 group.
FeCl3
Cl
\ ThealdehydeisCH3CHOandthe symmetricalalkeneis
+Cl2
+
CH3HCCHCH3.
ochlorotoluene
Cl
pchlorotoluene

85

Hydrocarbons

11. (b):
CH3

Br
HCCH

HBr

HBr

HCCH2

HCCH3

Br

16. (b): CH3

H+

CH2

CH

CH3

Br
1,1dibromoethene

CH3

CH3 CHCH2

HBr

CH3 CHCH3

CH3

Br

CH

CH3
migration

CH3

(2)

CH3

2bromopropane

CH3

OH

Br
CH3 CCH

HBr

CH3 CCH2

CH3 CCH3

Br

Br
2,2dibromopropane

CH3CHCHBr

OH

CH3
CH3

OH
CH

CH3

CH3

Br

CH3

CH3 CH3
(tertiaryalcohol)

17. (b): Thenumberofmonohalogenationproductsobtainedfrom


any alkane depends upon the number of different types of
hydrogenitcontains.

CHO
12. (b): HOC*H

CH3 CH3
H3C C CCH3

CH2OH

2,3dimethylbutane has two types of hydrogen atoms so on


monochlorinationgivesonlytwomonochlorinatedcompounds.

CH3
5

2,3dimethylbutane

Duetothepresenceofchiralcarbonatom,itisopticallyactive,
henceitisexpectedto rotateplane ofpolarized light.
6

CH

CH3 CHCH2Br
1,2dibromopropane

CH3 OH
(secondaryalcohol)

HBr

CH3

CH3 CH3 (3)

HBr

CH

CH3 CH3

13. (a): CH3 CH2 CH2 C CCH2 CH3

H3CC C CH3

CH3CH2CH3
3ethyl4,4dimethylheptane

Cl2

CH2Cl CH3
H3CC C CH3

COOH

CH2 CH3

H
+

CH3 CH3

KMnO4

14. (d):

H3C C CCH3
Ethylbenzene

Benzoicacid

Cl

WhenoxidiseswithalkalineKMnO4 oracidicNa2Cr
18. (b): 1,2additionproductiskineticallycontrolledproductwhile
2O
7,the

1,4additionproductisthermodynamicallycontrolledproduct
entiresidechain(inbenzenehomologues)withatleastoneH
andformedat comparativelyhighertemperature.
at acarbon,regardlessof lengthisoxidisedtoCOOH.
CH2

morehindered bH

15. (d):

CH3

CH CHCH2

HBr
40

CH3

Me
N Et

OH
nBu

InHofmanneliminationreaction,itisthelessstericallyhindered
bhydrogenthatisremovedandhencelesssubstitutedalkene
isthemajorproduct.

1,4addition

+ CH3CH(Br)CHCH2

lesshindered bH

CH2(Br)CHCHCH3

1,2addition

Therefore,1bromo2butenewillbethemainproductunder
thermodynamically controlled conditions.
19. (b) : The reactivity orderofabstraction of Hatoms towards
brominationofalkaneis3H>2H>1H.
Br2/hu

So,(CH3)
2CHCH

2CH

3 127C
2methylbutane

(CH3)
2C(Br)CH

2CH

3
2bromo2methylbutane

86

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

20. (d) : Butan2one will get reduced into butane when treated
withzincandhydrochloricacidfollowingClemmensenreaction
whereasZn/HCldonotreduceester,acidandamide.
O
CH3 CH2 CCH3

ZnHg

Butan2one

HCl

CH3 CH2CH2 CH3


Butane

CH3
CH3 CHCH2 CH3
isopentane

CH3
H3C CCH3
CH3

H
21. (c): CH3 C*

threetypesofhydrogen
(threemonohalogenation
product)

onetypeofhydrogen
(onemonohalogenationproduct)

neopentane

Thusthegivenalkaneshouldbeneopentane.

C2H5

Opticallyactivedueto presenceof chiralcarbon atom.

24. (d): H3C CH2 CHCH2

Pd/H2

Butene1

22. (d): Amongtheisomericalkanes,thenormalisomerhasahigher


H3C CH2 CH2 CH3
boilingpointthanthebranchedchainisomer.Thegreaterthe
Butane
branchingofthechain,theloweris theboilingpoint.
CH(OH)
CHOH
2
HOCl
HOCl
Thenalkaneshavelargersurfaceareaincomparisontobranched 25. (c): CHCH
CHCl
CHCl
2
chainisomers(astheshapeapproachesthatofasphereinthe
CHO
branchedchainisomers).Thus,intermolecularforcesareweaker
H2O
inbranchedchainisomers,therefore,theyhavelowerboiling
CHCl2
pointsincomparisontostraightchainisomers.
23. (d):Thenumberofmonohalogenationproductsobtainedfrom 26. (a): AcetylenedoesnotreactwithNaOHbecauseproductwould
any alkene depends upon the number of different types of
hydrogenitcontains.
Compound containing only one type of hydrogen gives only
one monohalogenation product.
CH3CH2CH3
twotypesofhydrogen
(twomonohalogenationproduct)
propane
CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3
pentane

twotypesofhydrogen
(twomonohalogenation product)

bethestrongeracidH2Oandthe strongerbase CH3

C .

Acetylenereactswiththeotherthreeas:
CH
CNa

Na
NH3(l)

CH HCl
CH

CH2 HCl
CHCl

CH3
CHCl2

[AgNO3 +NH4OH] CAg

CAg+NH4NO3
whiteppt.

87

OrganicCompoundsContainingHalogens

ORGANICCOMPOUNDS
CONTAININGHALOGENS

CHAPTER

23
1.

Compound(A),C8H
7.
9Br,givesawhiteprecipitatewhenwarmed

withalcoholicAgNO3. Oxidation of (A) gives anacid(B),


C8H6O4.(B)easilyformsanhydrideonheating.Identifythe
compound(A).

WhichofthefollowingonheatingwithaqueousKOHproduces
acetaldehyde?
(a) CH3COCl
(b) CH3CH

2Cl
(c) CH2ClCH2Cl
(d)
CH
CHCl
(2009)

3
2

8.

The organic chloro compound, which shows complete


stereochemicalinversionduringaSN2reaction, is
(a) CH3Cl
(b) (C2H5)2CHCl
(c) (CH3)3CCl
(d) (CH3)2CHCl
(2008)

9.

WhichofthefollowingisthecorrectorderofdecreasingSN2
reactivity?
(a) R2CH
X>R3CX>RCH

2X
(b) RCH X>R3CX>R2CH X
(c) RCH2 X>R2CH
X>R3CX

(d) R3CX>R2CH X>RCH2 X


(Xisahalogen)
(2007)

CH2Br

CH2Br

(a)

(b)
CH3

CH3
CH2Br

C2H5

(c)

(2013)

(d)
Br
CH3

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Asolutionof()1chloro1phenylethaneintoluene
racemisesslowlyinthepresenceofasmallamountofSbCl5,
due to the formation of
10. Reaction of trans2phenyl1bromocyclopentane on reaction
(a) free radical
(b) carbanion
withalcoholicKOHproduces
(c) carbene
(d) carbocation.
(2013)
(a) 4phenylcyclopentene
AnunknownalcoholistreatedwiththeLucasreagentto
(b) 2phenylcyclopentene
determinewhetherthealcoholisprimary,secondaryortertiary.
(c) 1phenylcyclopentene
Whichalcoholreacts fastestandbywhatmechanism?
(d) 3phenylcyclopentene.
(2006)
(a) Tertiary alcohol by SN2.
(b) Secondaryalcohol by SN1.
11. Fluorobenzene(C6H5F)can besynthesisedinthelaboratory
(c) Tertiary alcohol by SN1.
(a) byheatingphenolwithHFandKF
(d) Secondaryalcohol by SN2.
(2013)
(b) from aniline by diazotization followed by heating the
Iodoform can be prepared from all except
diazoniumsaltwithHBF4
(a) isopropyl alcohol (b) 3methyl2butanone
(c) bydirectfluorinationofbenzenewithF2 gas
(c) isobutyl alcohol (d) ethyl methyl ketone. (2012)
(d) byreactingbromobenzenewithNaFsolution.
WhatisDDTamongthefollowing?
(2006)
(a) Afertilizer
(b) Biodegradable pollutant
12. Thestructureofthecompoundthatgivesatribromoderivativeon
(c) Nonbiodegradable pollutant
treatmentwithbrominewateris
(d) Greenhousegas
(2012)
CH3

Considerthe following bromides :

CH2OH

(a)

(b)
OH

The correct orderof SN1 reactivity is


(a) A> B> C
(b) B> C> A
(c) B> A>C
(d) C> B>A

CH3

CH3
OH

(c)
(2010)

(d)
OH

(2006)

88

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

13. The structure of the major product formed in the following


reactionis
NaCN
DMF

Cl

CN

(b)

Cl
NC

CN

Cl

(c)

CN

(d)

(2006)
I

CN

(2004)

18. Acetyl bromide reacts with excess of CH3MgI followed by


treatmentwithasaturatedsolutionofNH4Clgives
(a) acetone
(b) acetamide
(c) 2methyl2propanol
(d) acetyl iodide.
(2004)

(a)

(c) 1chloro2methylpentane
(d) 3chloro2methylpentane

19. Whichofthefollowingwillhavea mesoisomeralso?


(a) 2chlorobutane
(b) 2,3dichlorobutane
(c) 2,3dichloropentane
(d) 2hydroxypropanoic acid
(2004)

14. Elimination of bromine from 2bromobutane results in the 20. Thecompoundformedonheatingchlorobenzenewithchloral


formation of
inthepresenceofconcentratedsulphuricacidis
(a) equimolarmixtureof 1and2butene
(a) gammexene
(b) DDT
(b) predominantly 2butene
(c) freon
(d) hexachloroethane.
(2004)
(c) predominantly 1butene
(d) predominantly 2butyne.
(2005) 21. BottlescontainingC6H5IandC6H5CH2Ilosttheiroriginallabels.
Theywerelabelled A and B fortesting. A and B wereseparately
15. Alkylhalidesreactwithdialkylcopperreagentstogive
takeninatesttubeandboiledwithNaOHsolution.Theend
(a) alkenes
(b) alkylcopperhalides
solutionineachtubewasmadeacidicwithdiluteHNO3 and
(c) alkanes
(d) alkenylhalides.
(2005)
then someAgNO3 solution was added. Substance B gave a
16. Tertiary alkyl halides are practically inert to substitution by
yellow precipitate.Which one of the following statements is
SN2mechanismbecauseof
trueforthis experiment?
(a) insolubility
(b) instability
(a) AwasC6H5I
(c) inductive effect (d) sterichindrance.
(2005)
(b) AwasC6H5CH2I
(c) BwasC6H5I
17. Whichofthefollowing compounds isnotchiral?
(d) AdditionofHNO3 wasunnecessary.
(2003)
(a) 1chloropentane
(b) 2chloropentane

Answer Key

1.

(a)

7. (d)
13. (d)
19. (b)

2.

(d)

8. (a)
14. (b)
20. (b)

3.

(c)

4.

(c)

5.

(c)

6.

(b)

9.
15.
21.

(c)
(c)
(a)

10.
16.

(d)
(d)

11.
17.

(b)
(a)

12. (a)
18. (c)

89

OrganicCompoundsContainingHalogens

9.

(c): SN2mechanismoccursas
a

1.

(a):

OH +C

b
(nucleophile)

2.
3.

(d): Acarbocationintermediateisformedduringracemisation.
(c): InLucastest,turbidityappearsimmediatelywithtertiary
alcoholbySN1mechanism.

4.

(c):Thecompoundswith
form iodoform.

a
d
HO

or

d
X

(transitionstate)

a
C +X
b
d

HO

group

InSN2reaction,inthetransitionstatetherewillbefivegroups
attached to the carbon atom at which reaction occurs. Thus
therewillbecrowdinginthetransitionstate,andthebulkier
the group, the more the reaction will be hindered sterically.
HenceSN2reactionisfavouredbysmallgroupsonthecarbon
atomattachedtohalogens.Sothedecreasingorderofreactivity
ofhalide is
RCH2X > R2CHX > R3CX
(primary) (secondary)

(tertiary)

Thus all the compounds except isobutyl alcohol will form


Br
H
iodoform.
H
10. (d):
KOH
5. (c)
H
Ph
Ph
6. (b) : SN1 reaction rate depends upon the stability of the
3phenylcyclopentene
carbocation,ascarbocationformationistheratedetermining
ItfollowsE2mechanism.
step.Compound(B),formsa2allyliccarbocationwhichis
Hughes and Ingold proposed that bimolecular elimination
the moststable,thenextstablecarbocationisformedfrom
reactionstakeplacewhenthetwogroupstobeeliminatedare
(C), it is a 2 carbocation, (A) forms the least stable 1
transandlieinoneplanewiththetwocarbonatomstowhich
carbocation, the order of reactivity is thus,
theyareattachedi.e.E2reactionsarestereoselectivelytrans.
11. (b):
7. (d):

NNCl

NH2
0C

HBF4

NaNO2 +HCl

HCl

aniline diazotization

benzene
diazonium
chloride

C6H5N2BF4
benzenediazonium
tetrafluoroborate

C6H5F+BF3 +N2
fluorobenzene

8. (a):InSN2reactions,thenucleophileattacksfrombackside
resultingintheinversionofmolecule.Also,aswemovefrom
1alkylhalideto3alkylhalide,thecrowdingincreasesand 12. (a):SincethecompoundontreatmentwithBr2watergivesa
tribromoderivative,thereforeitmustbe mcresol,becauseithas
+Ieffectincreases which makes the carbon bearing halogen
lesspositivelypolarisedandhencelessreadilyattackedbythe
twoortho andoneparapositionfreewithrespecttoOHgroup
nucleophile.
andhencecangive tribromoderivative.

90

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

CH3

CH3
Br2H2O

Br

OH
mcresol

18. (c):

Br

13. (d):

CH3

KOH(alc.)

2bromobutane

Cl

OMgI

+
CH3CH2CHCH2

1
2

CH3

HCH

HCCl

CH3

CH3

2chlorobutane

2,3dichlorobutane

CH3

15. (c) : In CoreyHouse synthesis of alkane, alkylhalide reacts


withlithiumdialkylcuprate.
R2CuLi+RX RR+ RCu+LiX

1
2

Ineliminationreactionofalkylhalidemajorproductisobtained
accordingtoSaytzeffsrule,whichstatesthatwhentwoalkenes
may be formed, the alkene which is most substituted one
predominates.

Nu CX

HCCl
3

OH

HCCl
4

CH3 CCOOH

HCH

CH3
2,3dichloropentane

2hydroxypropanoicacid

2,3dichlorobutanehavemesoisomerduetothepresenceofplane
of symmetry.
20. (b): DDT is preparedby heating chlorobenzene and chloral
withconcentratedsulphuricacid.

d
H

a
C
Nu

+ X
d

Cl

CCl3CHO+
H

Cl

InanSN2reaction,inthetransitionstate,therewillbefivegroups
attachedtothecarbonatomatwhich reaction occurs.
Thustherewillbecrowdinginthetransitionstate,andpresence 21. (a):
of bulkygroupsmake thereactionstericallyhindered.
17. (a) :To be optically active the compound or structure should
possesschiralorasymmetriccentre.
H Cl H H H

*
HCCCCCH HCCCCCH

H H H H H

H H H H H

1chloropentane

2chloropentane

A
C6H5I
NaOH

C6H5ONa
HNO3/H+

C6H5OH
AgNO3

Cl CH3 H H H

H CH3Cl H H

*
* *
HCCCCCH
HCCCCCH

H H H H H

H H H H H

1chloro2methylpentane

3chloro2methylpentane

Cl
H2SO4
H2O

CCl3CH
Cl
1,1,1trichloro2,2bis
(pchlorophenyl)ethane
orDDT

Cl H H H H

OMgI

CH3

OH

CH3

1butene(20%)

HCCl

CH3CHCHCH3

CH3

NH4Cl

HCCl

2butene(80%)

CH3

CH3

CH3

2methyl2propanol

19. (b):

14.(b): CH3CH2CHCH3

CH3

CH2CN

NaCN
Cl DMF

Br

CH3

CH3MgI

CH3MgI

16. (d): Nu +

OH
Br

Cl

2,4,6tribromo3methylphenol

CH2

CH3

Noyellowprecipitate

ThusAmustbeC6H5I.

B
C6H5CH2I
NaOH

C6H5CH2ONa
HNO3/H+

C6H5CH2OH
AgNO3
Yellowprecipitate

91

Alcohols,PhenolsandEthers

ALCOHOLS,PHENOLS
ANDETHERS

CHAPTER

24
1.

Arrangethefollowingcompoundsinorderofdecreasingacidity. 6.
OH

OH
;

3.

4.

5.

OH
;

Fromamongstthefollowingalcoholstheonethatwouldreact
fastestwithconc.HClandanhydrousZnCl2,is
(a) 1Butanol
(b) 2Butanol
(c) 2Methylpropan2ol (d) 2Methylpropanol. (2010)

7.

The major product obtained on interaction of phenol with


sodiumhydroxide and carbondioxideis
(a) benzoic acid (b) salicylaldehyde
(c) salicylic acid (d) phthalicacid.
(2009)

8.
Orthonitrophenol is less soluble in water than p and
mnitrophenols because
(a) onitrophenolshows intramolecular Hbonding
(b) onitrophenolshows intermolecular Hbonding
(c) melting point of onitrophenol is lower than those of 9.
mandpisomers
(d) onitrophenol is more volatile in steam than those of
mandpisomers.
(2012)

Phenol,whenitfirstreactswithconcentratedsulphuricacid
andthenwithconcentrated nitricacid,gives
(a) nitrobenzene (b) 2, 4,6trinitrobenzene
(c) onitrophenol (d) pnitrophenol.
(2008)

Cl

CH3

(I)

(II)

(a) IV>III>I>II
(c) I>II>III>IV
2.

OH

NO2
(III)

OCH3
(IV)

(b) II>IV>I>III
(d) III>I>II>IV

(2013)

Inthefollowingsequenceofreactions,
CH3CH2OH

P+I2

Mg
ether

HCHO

H2O

thecompoundDis
(a) propanal
(b) butanal
Sodium ethoxide has reacted with ethanoyl chloride. The
(c) nbutyl alcohol (d) npropyl alcohol.
(2007)
compoundthatis producedin thisreaction is
(a) diethyl ether
(b) 2butanone
10. HBrreactswithCH2 CH OCH3underanhydrousconditions
(c) ethyl chloride
(d) ethyl ethanoate.
(2011)
atroomtemperaturetogive
PhenolisheatedwithasolutionofmixtureofKBrandKBrO3.
(a) CH3CHOandCH3Br
The majorproductobtained in the above reactionis
(b) BrCH2CHOandCH3OH
(a) 2bromophenol (b) 3bromophenol
(c) BrCH2 CH2 OCH3
(c) 4bromophenol (d) 2, 4, 6tribromophenol.
(d) H3CCHBrOCH3.
(2006)
(2011)
The mainproduct of the followingreaction is

ONa+

OH

11.

+CHCl3 +NaOH

CHO

The electrophileinvolvedintheabove reaction is


(a)

(a) dichloromethyl cation (CHCl2)


(b) dichlorocarbene (:CCl2)

(b)

(c) trichloromethyl anion (CCl3)

(d) formylcation (CHO)


(c)

(d)

(2010)

(2006)

12. Phenylmagnesiumbromidereactswithmethanoltogive
(a) amixtureofanisoleandMg(OH)Br
(b) amixtureofbenzeneandMg(OMe)Br
(c) amixtureoftolueneandMg(OH)Br
(d) amixtureofphenolandMg(Me)Br.
(2006)

92

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

13. pcresolreactswithchloroforminalkalinemediumtogivethe
compound A which adds hydrogen cyanide to form the
compound B. The latter on acidic hydrolysis gives chiral
carboxylicacid.The structure of thecarboxylic acidis

(d) CH3CH2CHCH2CH2OH

16. TheIUPACnameofthecompound
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

CH(OH)COOH

(a)

(b)

CH(OH)COOH
OH

OH

is

HO

CH3

CH3

(2004)

CH3

3,3dimethyl1hydroxy cyclohexane
1,1dimethyl3hydroxy cyclohexane
3,3dimethyl1cyclohexanol
1,1dimethyl3cyclohexanol.

(2004)

CH3

17. Forwhichofthefollowingparametersthestructural isomers


C2H5OHand CH3OCH3 would beexpectedtohave the same
(d)
(c)
values?(Assumeidealbehaviour)
CH2COOH (2005)
OH
(a) Heat of vaporisation
OH
(b) Vapourpressureatthesametemperature
14. The best reagent to convert pent3en2ol into
(c) Boilingpoints
pent3en2oneis
(d) Gaseousdensitiesatthesametemperatureandpressure
(a) acidicpermanganate
(2004)
(b) acidicdichromate
CH3

CH2COOH

(c) chromicanhydrideinglacialaceticacid
(d) pyridinium chlorochromate.

18. During dehydration of alcohols to alkenes by heating with


concentratedH2SO4 theinitiationstepis
(a) protonation of alcohol molecule
15. Amongthefollowingcompoundswhichcanbedehydratedvery
(b) formation of carbocation
easily?
(c) eliminationofwater
(a) CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2OH
(d) formationofan ester.
(2003)
(2005)

OH

19. An ether is more volatile than an alcohol having the same


molecularformula.Thisisdueto
(a) dipolarcharacterofethers
(b) alcoholshavingresonancestructures
(c) intermolecularhydrogenbondinginethers
(d) intermolecularhydrogenbondinginalcohols.
(2003)

(b) CH3CH2CH2CHCH3
CH3

(c) CH3CH2CCH2CH3
OH

Answer Key

1. (d)

2.

(a)

7. (c)
12. (b)
18. (a)

8.
13.
19.

(None of the option is correct)


(b)
14. (d)
(d)

3.

(d)

4.

(d)

5.

(b)

6.

(c)

9.
15.

(d)
(c)

10.
16.

(d)
(c)

11. (b)
17. (d)

93

Alcohols,PhenolsandEthers

1.

2.

(d):Electrondonatinggroups(CH3 andOCH3) decrease


whileelectronwithdrawinggroups(NO2andCl)increase
theacidity.
Since OCH3 is a stronger electron donating group than
CH3 and NO2 is stronger electron withdrawing group
than Cl, therefore order of decreasing acidity is
III>I>II>IV.
(a):oNitrophenolisstableduetointramolecularhydrogen
bonding.
7.

3alcohol+Lucasreagent
Immediate turbidity..
2alcohol+Lucasreagent
Turbidityafter 5 mins.
1alcohol+Lucasreagent
Noreaction.
Thus,therequired alcoholis2methylpropan2ol,i.e.,

(c):ThereactionofphenolwithNaOHandCO2 isknownas
KolbeSchmidtor Kolbes reaction.The product formed is
salicylic acid.

ItisdifficulttobreaktheHbondingwhendissolvedinwater
thuslesssoluble.
3.

(d):

4.

(d):KBr(aq) +KBrO3(aq)
Br2(aq)
Thisbrominereactswithphenolgives2,4,6tribromophenol.
8.

: (None ofthe optionis correct)


OH
OH
SO3H
+

Conc.H2 SO4
373K

Phenol

5. (b):

OH

2Phenolsulphonic
acid

SO3H
4Phenolsulphonic
acid
OH

Conc.HNO3
D

NO2

O2N

NO2

Picricacid

9. (d): CH3CH2OH

CH3CH2I

I2

CH3CH2MgI
(B)

(A)

The preferential formation of this compound is due to


conjugation in the compound.
6. (c): Thereagent,conc.HClandanhydrousZnCl2isLucasreagent,
whichisusedtodistinguishbetween1,2and3alcohols.

Mg

H C OH
CH2CH3
n propyl
alcohol
(D)

H2O

HCHO

H C OMgI
CH2CH3
(C)

94

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

10. (d):Methylvinyletherisaveryreactivegas.Itishydrolysed
rapidlybydiluteacids atroom temperature togive methanol
andaldehyde.
However,underanhydrousconditionsatroomtemperature,it
undergoesmanyaddition reactionsat the doublebond.
H2CCHOCH3

H+

H2C CHOCH3
H
Br

OH

11. (b):

ONa

+CHCl3 +NaOH

CHO
(ReimerTiemannreaction)

The electrophile is dichlorocarbene, : CCl2 generated from


chloroform bytheaction of a base.
OH +CHCl3 HOH+ :CCl3 Cl + :CCl2
12. (b):CH3OH+C
C6H

6H
5MgBr

6 + Mg(OCH3)Br

CH3

13. (b):

CH3

CHO
OH

3,3dimethyl1cyclohexanol

Molecularweight
2
Asboththecompoundshavesamemolecularweights,bothwill
havethesamevapourdensity.Hence,gaseousdensityofboth
ethanol and dimethyl ether would be same under identical
conditionsoftemperatureandpressure.Therestofthesethree
propertiesvapourpressure,boilingpointandheatofvaporization
willdifferasethanolhashydrogenbondingwhereasetherdoes
not.

17. (d):Vapourdensity =

18. (a): Dehydrationofalcoholtoalkeneinpresenceofconcentrated


H2SO4 involvesfollowingsteps:
H+

CC

H2O

H OH

H OH2

alcohol

protonated
alcohol

CC
+

H
carbonium
ion
H+

CC
alkene

CH(CN)OH
OH

CH3
H+/H2O

HCN

OH

CH3

Themorestablecarbocationisgeneratedthusmoreeasilyitwill
bedehydrated.

CC

+CHCl3 +KOH

CH3 CH2 CCH2 CH3

OH

HO

H3C CH OCH3

H+

CH3 CH2 CCH2 CH3

16. (c):

Br

CH3

CH3

CH(OH)COOH
OH

14. (d) : Pyridinium chlorochromate oxidises an alcoholic group


selectivelyinthepresence of carboncarbon double bond.

Thus,theinitiationstepisprotonationofalcohol.
19. (d):Thereasonforthelesservolatilityofalcoholsthanethers
istheintermolecularassociationofalargenumberofmolecules
duetohydrogenbondingasOHgroupishighlypolarised.
R

OHOHOHO H

15. (c) : The ease of dehydration of alcohols is


tertiary>secondary>primaryaccordingtotheorderofstability
of the carbocations.

hydrogenbonding

Nosuchhydrogenbondingispresentinethers.

95

Aldehydes,KetonesandCarboxylicAcids

ALDEHYDES,KETONES
ANDCARBOXYLICACIDS

CHAPTER

25
1.

AnorganiccompoundAuponreactingwithNH3 gives B.On


heating,BgivesC.CinpresenceofKOHreactswithBr2 to
giveCH3CH

2NH2.Ais

(a) CH3CH2COOH
(b) CH3COOH

7.
(c) CH3CH2CH2COOH
(d) CH3CHCOOH

(2013)

In the given transformation, which of the following is the


mostappropriate reagent?

(a) ZnHg/HCl
(c) NaBH4
3.

(b) Na,liq.NH3
(d) NH2 NH2, OH

(2012)

2,2,2trichloroethanol
trichloromethanol
2,2,2trichloropropanol
chloroform

InCannizzaroreactiongivenbelow

2 PhCHO :OH

PhCH2OH + PhCOO

8.

Aliquidwasmixedwithethanolandadropofconcentrated
H2SO4wasadded.Acompoundwithafruitysmellwasformed.
Theliquidwas
(a) CH3OH
(b) HCHO
(c) CH3COCH3
(d) CH3COOH
(2009)

9.

Thecompoundformedasaresultofoxidationofethylbenzene
byKMnO4 is
(a) benzyl alcohol (b) benzophenone
(c) acetophenone (d) benzoic acid.
(2007)

Silver mirror test is given by which one of the following


compounds?
10. Thecorrectorderofincreasingacidstrengthofthecompounds
(a) Acetaldehyde (b) Acetone
(A) CH3CO2H
(B) MeOCH2CO2H

(c) Formaldehyde (d) Benzophenone


(2011)
Me

4.

5.

6.

(2011)

the sloweststepis
(a) the attackof:OH atthe carboxylgroup
(b) the transferof hydride to thecarbonyl group
(c) the abstraction of proton from the carboxylic group
(d) the deprotonation of PhCH2OH.
(2009)

CH3

2.

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

CO2H is
(C) CF3CO2H
(D) Me
Ozonolysisofanorganiccompound givesformaldehydeas
one ofthe products.This confirms the presence of
(a) B<D<A<C (b) D<A<C<B
(a) two ethylenic double bonds
(c) D<A<B<C (d) A<D<C<B.
(2006)
(b) avinylgroup
11. Amongthefollowingtheonethatgivespositiveiodoformtest
(c) anisopropylgroup
uponreactionwithI2 andNaOHis
(d) anacetylenic triple bond.
(2011)
(a) CH3CH2CH(OH)CH2CH3
(b) C6H5CH2CH2OH
The strongestacid amongst the following compoundsis
CH3
(a) CH3COOH
(c) H3C
(d) PhCHOHCH3
(2006)
(b) HCOOH
OH
(c) CH3CH2CH(Cl)CO2H
12. TheincreasingorderoftherateofHCNadditiontocompounds
(d) ClCH2CH2CH2COOH
(2011)
ADis
TrichloroacetaldehydewassubjectedtoCannizzarosreaction
A. HCHO
B. CH3COCH

3
byusingNaOH.Themixtureoftheproductscontainssodium
C. PhCOCH3
D. PhCOPh.
(a) A<B<C<D (b) D<B<C<A
trichloroacetate ion and another compound. The other
(c) D<C<B<A (d) C<D<B<A
(2006)
compoundis

96

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

13. Whichoneofthefollowingundergoesreactionwith50%sodium
(c) CH3 CH2 CH2OH
hydroxidesolutiontogivethecorrespondingalcoholandacid?
(d) CH3 CH2 CHO.
(2003)
(a) Phenol
(b) Benzaldehyde
20. TheIUPACnameofCH3COCH(CH3)2 is
(c) Butanol
(d) Benzoic acid
(2004)
(a) isopropylmethyl ketone
14. On mixing ethyl acetate with aqueous sodium chloride, the
(b) 2methyl3butanone
compositionoftheresultantsolution is
(c) 4methylisopropyl ketone
(a) CH3COOC2H5 +NaCl
(d) 3methyl2butanone.
(2003)
(b) CH3COONa+C2H5OH
21. On vigorous oxidation by permanganate solution,
(c) CH3COCl+C2H5OH+NaOH
(CH3)2C
CHCH2 CHOgives
(d) CH3Cl+C2H5COONa.
(2004)
OH OH

15. Considertheacidity of the carboxylic acids:


(i) PhCOOH
(ii) oNO2C
6H
4COOH

(iii) pNO2C
6H
4COOH

(iv) mNO2C
6H
4COOH

Whichofthefollowing order is correct?


(a) i>ii>iii>iv (b) ii>iv>iii>i
(c) ii>iv>i>iii (d) ii>iii>iv>i

(a) CH3 CCHCH2CH3


CH3
CH3

(b)

CH3

(2004)

(c) CH
3

16. Rateofthereaction,

CH3

R C

CH3

R C

+Nu

(d)

+Z
Nu

isfastestwhenZis
(a) Cl
(b) NH2
(c) OC2H5
(d) OCOCH3.

CH3

COOH+CH3CH2COOH

CHOH+CH3CH2CH2OH

CO+CH3CH2CHO.
Cl2

22. CH3CH2COOH

redP

A alc.KOH

(2002)

WhatisB?
(a) CH3CH2COCl
(b) CH3CH2CHO
(c) CH2
CHCOOH (d) ClCH2CH2COOH

(2004)

17. IntheanionHCOO thetwocarbonoxygenbondsarefoundto


(2002)
beofequal length.Whatisthe reasonforit?
(a) Electronicorbitals ofcarbon atomare hybridised.
23. WhichofthefollowingcompoundshaswrongIUPACname?
ObondisweakerthantheCObond.
(b) TheC
(a) CH3 CH2 CH2 COOCH2CH3
(c) TheanionHCOO hastworesonatingstructures.
(d) The anion is obtained by removal of a proton from the
ethylbutanoate
acid molecule.
(b) CH3 CHCH2 CHO 3methylbutanal
(2003)
CH
3

18. Thegeneral formulaCnH2nO2 couldbe foropen chain


(a) diketones
(b) carboxylic acids
(c) diols
(d) dialdehydes.
(2003)

(c) CH3 CHCHCH3 2methyl3butanol


OH

CH3
O

19. When CH2


CH COOH is reduced with LiAlH4, the
compoundobtainedwillbe
(a) CH3 CH2 COOH
(b) CH2
CHCH2OH

(d) CH CHCCH CH 2methyl3pentanone


3
2
3
CH3

(2002)

Answer Key

1.
7.
13.
19.

(a)
(b)
(b)
(b)

2.
8.
14.
20.

(d)
(d)
(a)
(d)

3.
9.
15.
21.

(a,c)
(d)
(d)
(b)

4.
10.
16.
22.

(b)
(c)
(a)
(c)

5.
11.
17.
23.

(c)
(d)
(c)
(c)

6. (a)
12. (c)
18. (b)

97

Aldehydes,KetonesandCarboxylicAcids

1. (a): CH3CH2COH

NH3

(A)

7.

+
CH3CH2CONH4
(B)
D

O
CH3CH2NH2

Br2/KOH

(b): Rate determining step is always the slowest step. In


caseofCannizzaroreaction,Htransfertothecarbonylgroup
istherate determiningstepandhencethe slowest.
Mechanism:

C6H5C O+OH

CH3CH2CNH2
(C)

Fast

2. (d) :

C6H5CO+O

CC6H5

Slow,
Hydridetransfer

OH
H
C6H5C

O+O CC6H5

OH

to CHOH only.

3. (a,c): Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde can be oxidised by


Tollensreagent togive silver mirror.

Rearrangement

OH group and alkene are acidsensitive groups so


ClemmensenreductioncannotbeusedandNaBH4 reduces

8.

C6H5 CH2OH+ C6H5COO


(d):Sincethecompoundformedhasafruitysmell,itisan
ester,thustheliquidtowhichethanolandconc.H2SO4 are
addedmustbeanacid.

\ CH3COOH + C2H5OH conc.H2SO4

CH3COOC2H5+ H2O.
COOH

CH2 CH3
KMnO4

9.(d):
Ethylbenzene

4. (b) :

Benzoicacid

WhenoxidiseswithalkalineKMnO4 oracidicNa2Cr2O7,the
entiresidechain(inbenzenehomologues)withatleastoneH
at acarbon,regardlessoflengthisoxidisedtoCOOH.
R

10. (c): Effectofsubstituentontheacidstrengthofaliphaticacids:


(i) Acidity decreases as the +Ieffect of the alkyl group
increases.
5. (c): CH3CH2CH(Cl)COOHisthestrongestacidduetoI effect
HCOOH>CH3COOH>(CH

3)
2CHCOOH>(CH

3)
3CCOOH

of Cl.
(ii) Aciditydecreasesasthe Ieffectaswell as number of
6. (a): In Cannizzaros reaction one molecule is oxidised to
halogenatomsdecreases.
carboxylate ion and the otheris reduced to alcohol.
FCH2COOH>ClCH

2COOH>BrCH

2COOH>

ICH2COOH>CH

3COOH

F3CCOOH>F2CHCOOH>FCH2COOH>CH3COOH
(iii) Electrondonatingsubstituentslike R, OH, NH2
etc.tendtodecreasewhileelectronwithdrawingsubstituents
likeNO2, CHO,etc. tend toincrease the acid strength of
substitutedacid.
Onthebasisofgiveninformationtherelativeorderofincreasing
acidstrengthofthe givencompoundsis
(CH3)2COOH<CH3COOH<CH3OCH2COOH<CF3COOH
Vinylgroup(CH2

CH)onozonolysisgivesformaldehyde.

98

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

11. (d):Iodoformtestisgivenbyonlythecompoundscontaining
CH3CO orCH3CHOH group.
D
PhCHOHCH3 +4I2 +6NaOH

CHI3 +PhCOONa+5NaI+5H2O

p isomerduetoorthoeffect.
As M group (i.e. NO2) at pposition have more pronounced
electronwithdrawingeffectthanasNO2 groupatmposition
(I effect)
\ Correctorderofacidityisii>iii>iv>i.

12. (c): AdditionofHCNtocarbonylcompoundsisacharacteristic


O
O

nucleophilic addition reaction of carbonyl compounds.


16. (a): R C
R C
+Z
+Nu
Order of reactivity:
Nu
Z
H
R
Reactivityoftheacidderivativesdecreasesasthe basicity of
R
CO >
CO
CO >
theleavinggroupincreases.Thebasicityoftheleavinggroup
H
R
H
increasesas
The lowerreactivity of ketones over aldehydes is dueto+I

Cl <RCOO <RO <NH2


effectofthealkyl(R)groupandsterichindrance.Asthesize
Secondly least stabilization by resonance due to ineffective
ofthealkylgroupincreases,thereactivityoftheketonesfurther
overlappingbetweenthe3p orbitalofCland2p orbitalofcarbon.
decreases.
CH3
CH3

(CH3)3
(CH3)2CH
CO >
CO >
(CH3)3
(CH3)2CH

17. (c):HCOO existsas


CO

HC
O
H C O
Thearomaticaldehydesandketonesarelessreactivethantheir
So,thetwocarbonoxygenbondsarefoundtobeofequallength.
aliphaticanalogous.Thisisduetothe+R effectofthebenzene
ring.
18. (b):DiketonesCnH
2n2O2,CarboxylicacidC

nH
2nO2
PhCHO>PhCOCH3 >PhCOPh
DiolsCnH3nO2,DialdehydesC

nHnO2.
Fromtheaboveinformation,itisclearthatincreasingorderof
19. (b):LiAlH4 isastrongreducingagent,itreducescarboxylic
therateofHCNadditiontocompoundsHCHO,CH3COCH3,
groupintoprimaryalcoholicgroupwithoutaffectingthebasic
PhCOCH3 andPhCOPhis
skeleton of compound.
PhCOPh<PhCOCH3 <CH3COCH3 <HCHO.

13. (b) : Benzaldehyde will undergo Cannizzaro reaction on


treatment with 50% NaOH to produce benzyl alcohol and
benzoicacidasitdoesnotcontain ahydrogen.
CHO

CH2OH
50%NaOH

Benzaldehyde

Benzylalcohol

COONa
+
Sodiumbenzoate

CH2

CHCOOH
H O H
1

LiAlH4
[H+]

CH2

CHCH2OH

H
4

20. (d): HCCCCH


H

CH3 H

3methyl2butanone

21. (b):Aldehydicgroupgetsoxidisedtocarboxylicgroup.
Double bond breaks and carbon gets oxidised to carboxylic
group.

14. (a):CH3COOC

2H
5 +NaCl(aq) noreaction
i.e., the resultant solution contains ethyl acetate and sodium
22. (c):CH3CH2COOH
chloride.
COOH COOH
COOH
COOH
NO2
<
<
<
15. (d):
NO2
1

Cl2
redP
HCl

CH3CHClCOOH
(A)
alc.KOH
HCl

CH2
(B)

NO2
23. (c): CH3 CHCHCH3
Electronwithdrawinggroupincreasestheacidityofbenzoicacid,
OH CH3
oisomer will have higher acidity then corresponding m and
3methyl2butanol

CHCOOH

99

CHEMISTRY

ORGANICCOMPOUNDS
CONTAININGNITROGEN

CHAPTER

26
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

A compound with molecular mass 180 is acylated with 8.


CH3COCltogetacompoundwithmolecularmass390.The
numberofaminogroupspresentpermoleculeoftheformer
compoundis
(a) 6
(b) 2
(c) 5
(d) 4
(2013)

Whichofthefollowingisthestrongestbase?
(a)

NH2 (b)

(c)

NH2 (d)
CH3

NHCH3
CH2NH2

(2004)

Inthechemicalreaction,
9.
CH3CH2NH2 +CHCl3 +3KOH (A)+(B)+3H2O,
thecompounds(A)and(B)arerespectively
(a) C2H5NCand3KCl (b) C2H5CNand3KCl
10.
(c) CH3CH2CONH2 and3KCl
(d) C2H5NCandK2CO3.
(2007)

Whichoneofthefollowingdoesnothave sp2hybridizedcarbon?
(a) Acetone
(b) Aceticacid
(c) Acetonitrile
(d) Acetamide
(2004)

Which oneof thefollowing is the strongest base in aqueous


solution?
(a) Methylamine
(b) Trimethylamine
(c) Aniline
(d) Dimethylamine
(2007)

(a) H3C

CN

(b) H3C

N2Cl

ThereactionofchloroformwithalcoholicKOHand p toluidine
forms

An organiccompound havingmolecularmass 60 isfoundto


NHCHCl2
(c) H3C
containC=20%, H = 6.67%and N = 46.67% whilerestis
oxygen.OnheatingitgivesNH3 alongwithasolidresidue.The
solidresiduegivesvioletcolourwithalkalinecoppersulphate
NC
(d) H3C
(2003)
solution.Thecompound is
(a) CH3NCO
(b) CH3CONH2
11. Ethylisocyanideonhydrolysisinacidicmediumgenerates
(c) (NH2)2CO
(d) CH3CH2CONH2
(2005)
(a) ethylaminesaltandmethanoicacid
(b) propanoicacidandammoniumsalt
Reactionofcyclohexanonewithdimethylamineinthepresence
(c) ethanoicacidandammoniumsalt
ofcatalyticamountofanacidformsacompoundifwaterduring
(d) methylaminesaltandethanoicacid.
(2003)
thereactioniscontinuouslyremoved.Thecompoundformedis
generallyknownas
(a) a Schiffsbase (b) anenamine
(c) animine
(d) anamine

6.

7.

12. ThecorrectorderofincreasingbasicnatureforthebasesNH3,
CH3NH2 and(CH3)2NHis
(2005)
(a) CH3NH2 <NH3 <(CH3)
2NH
(b) (CH3)2NH<NH3 <CH3NH2
Amongstthefollowingthemostbasiccompoundis
(a) benzylamine (b) aniline
(c) NH3 <CH3NH

2 <(CH3)
2NH

(c) acetanilide
(d) pnitroaniline
(2005)
(d) CH3NH2 <(CH3)2NH<NH3
(2003)
Whichoneofthefollowingmethods is neither meantforthe 13. WhenprimaryaminereactswithchloroforminethanolicKOH
synthesisnorforseparationof amines?
thentheproductis
(a) Hinsbergmethod (b) Hofmann method
(a) an isocyanide (b) analdehyde
(c) Wurtzreaction
(d) Curtiusreaction
(2005)
(c) acyanide
(d) an alcohol.
(2002)
Answer Key

1. (c)
7. (c)
13. (a)

2.
8.

(a)
(d)

3.
9.

(d)
(c)

4. (c)
10. (d)

5. (b)
11. (a)

6. (a)
12. (c)

100

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

390 -180
= 5
42

1.

(c):No.ofaminogroups =

2.

(a):CH3CH

2NH

2 +CHCl3 +3KOH
C2H
5NC+3KCl+3H

2O

Thisiscalledcarbylaminereaction.

7.

(c):InWurtzreactionalkylhalidereactswithsodiummetal
inthe presenceofdryethertogivealkane.

8.

(d): Inthiscompound,thenonbondingelectronpairofnitrogen
doesnottakepartinresonance.Inotherthreecompounds,the
nonbondingelectronpairofnitrogenisdelocalizedintobenzene
ringbyresonance,asaresulttheelectrondensityontheNatom
decreases,duetowhichbasicitydecreases.

3. (d):Theincreasingorderofbasicityofthegivencompounds
is
(CH3)2NH>CH3NH2 >(CH3)3N>C6H5NH2
Dueto the +Ieffect of alkylgroups, the electron densityon
sp3
sp3
sp2
sp3
sp2
nitrogenincreasesandthustheavailabilityofthelonepairof 9. (c): CH3 COCH3 CH3 COOH
Aceticacid
electronstoprotonincreasesandhencethebasicityofamines
Acetone
3
3
alsoincreases.Soaliphaticaminesaremorebasicthananiline.
sp
sp2
sp
sp

CH
CONH
CH
CN
Incaseoftertiaryanine(CH3)
N,thecoveringofalkylgroups
3
2
3
3
Acetonitrile
Acetamide
over nitrogen atom from all sides makes the approach and
bonding by a proton relatively difficult, hence the basicity
10. (d): H3C
NH2 +CHCl3 +3KOH
decreases. Electron withdrawing (C6H5 ) groups decreases
electrondensityonnitrogenatomandtherebydecreasingbasicity.
4.

H3C

(c):
Element Simplest Percentage Relative no.
ratio
of atom
C
H
N
O

20.00
6.67
46.67
26.66

1.67
6.67
3.33
1.67

C2H5NC+2H2O
Ethylisocyanide

NH2CONHCONH2 +NH3-
biuret

Biuretgivesvioletcolourwithalkalinecoppersulphatesolution.
N(CH3)2

O
+(CH3)2NH

The above reaction is known as carbylamine reaction and is


generallyusedtoconvertprimaryamineintoisocyanide.
11. (a):Alkylisocyanidesarehydrolysedbydilutemineralacids
toformprimaryamines.

1
4
2
1

Themolecularformula is CH4N2O.
So,thecompoundisH2NCONH2.
2NH2CONH2

NC+3KCl+3H2O

(i)H+

H+

C2H5NH2 +HCOOH
Ethylamine Methanoic
acid

12. (c): Excepttheaminescontainingtertiarybutylgroup,alllower


aliphaticaminesarestrongerbasesthanammoniabecauseof+I
(inductive)effect.Thealkylgroups,whichareelectronreleasing
groups,increasetheelectrondensityaroundthenitrogenthereby
increasingtheavailabilityofthelonepairofelectronstoproton
orLewisacidsandmakingtheaminemorebasic.Theobserved
order in the case of lower members is found to be as
secondary > primary > tertiary.This anomalous behaviour of
tertiaryaminesisduetostericfactors i.e. crowdingofalkylgroups
covernitrogenatomfromallsidesandthusmakesitunablefor
protonation.
Thustherelativestrengthisinorder
(CH3)2NH>CH3NH2 >NH3.

5.

(b):

6.

(a): Duetoresonanceofelectronpairinaniline,basicstrength
decreases. In benzylamine electron pair is not involved in
resonance.Furtherthepresenceofelectrondonatinggroupsin
the benzene ring increase the basic strength while electron
withdrawinggroupdecreasethebasicstrengthofsubstituted
aniline.
13. (a) : When a primary amine reacts with chloroform with
..
..
. .
..
NHCOCH3
NH2
CH2NH2 NH2
ethanolic KOH, then a bad smell compound isocyanide is
formed.Thisiscalledcarbylaminereactionandthisreactionis
usedasatestofprimaryamines.
D
RNH2 +CHCl3 +3KOH

RNC+3KCl+3H2O
NO

(ii)dehydration
enamine

II

III

IV

DecreasingorderofbasicstrengthisII>I>IV>III.

Primary amine

Isocyanide

101

Polymers

CHAPTER

POLYMERS

27
1.

2.

Thespecieswhichcanbestserveasaninitiatorforthecationic 5.
polymerization is
(a) HNO3
(b) AlCl3
(c) BuLi
(d) LiAlH4
(2012) 6.
The polymer containing strong intermolecular forces e.g.,
hydrogenbonding is
(a) naturalrubber (b) teflon
(c) nylon6,6
(d) polystyrene.
(2010)

3.

Bakelite is obtained fromphenol by reaction with


(a) HCHO
(b) (CH2OH)2
(c) CH3CHO
(d) CH3COCH3
(2008)

4.

Whichof thefollowing is fully fluorinated polymer?


(a) Neoprene
(b) Teflon
(c) Thiokol
(d) PVC
(2005)

7.

Whichofthefollowingisa polyamide?
(a) Teflon
(b) Nylon6,6
(c) Terylene
(d) Bakelite

(2005)

Nylonthreadsaremadeof
(a) polyvinyl polymer
(b) polyester polymer
(c) polyamide polymer
(d) polyethylene polymer.

(2003)

Polymerformationfrommonomersstartsby
(a) condensationreaction betweenmonomers
(b) coordinatereaction betweenmonomers
(c) conversionofmonomerto monomerionsby protons
(d) hydrolysisof monomers.
(2002)

Answer Key

1.
7.

(b)
(a)

2.

(c)

3.

(a)

4.

(b)

5.

(b)

6.

(c)

102

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

1. (b) :CationicpolymerisationisinitiatedbyuseofstrongLewis 5.
acidssuch asH2SO

4,HF,AlCl

3,SnCl4 or BF3 in H2O.

2.

(c): Nylon6,6involvesamide(CONH)linkagetherefore,itwill
alsohaveverystrongintermolecularhydrogenbondingbetween

(b): Polymershavingamidelinkages(CONH)areknownas
polyamides.
n(H2N(CH2)6NH2)+n(HOOC(CH2)4COOH)
Hexamethylene diamine Adipic acid
amidelinkage

group oftwo polyamidechains.


3.

Cl

4.

(HN (CH2)6 NHCO (CH2)4 CO)n

(a):Bakeliteisathermosetting polymerwhichismadeby
reactionbetweenphenol and HCHO.

Nylon6,6

6.

(b):Neoprene: CH2 CHCCH2

(c):Nylonthreadsarepolyamides.Theyarethecondensation
polymersofdiaminesanddibasicacids.

n HOOC(CH2)4COOH+ n H2N(CH2)6NH2

Teflon : CF2 CF2

Adipicacid

Thiokol :

Nylon(polyamide)

Cl

Hexamethylene
diamine

HOOC(CH2)4 CONH(CH2)6NH

CH2 CH2 S S CH2 CH2 S S CH2CH2

PVC: CH2 CH

280C
highpressure

7.

(a) : Polymerisation takes place either by condensation or


additionreactions.

103

Biomolecules

CHAPTER

28

BIOMOLECULES
Thetermanomersofglucoserefersto
(a) isomersofglucosethatdifferinconfigurationsatcarbons
oneandfour(C1andC4)
(b) amixtureof(D)glucoseand(L)glucose
(c) enantiomersof glucose
(d) isomersofglucosethatdifferinconfiguration at carbon
one(C1).
(2006)

1.

Synthesis of each molecule of glucose in photosynthesis 9.


involves
(a) 6 moleculesofATP
(b) 18 molecules ofATP
(c) 10 molecules ofATP
(d) 8 moleculesofATP
(2013)

2.

Which of the following compounds can be detected by


Molischs test?
10. InbothDNAandRNA,heterocyclicbaseandphosphateester
(a) Sugars
(b) Amines
linkagesareat
(c) Primaryalcohols (d) Nitro compounds (2012)
(a) C5andC2respectivelyofthesugarmolecule
Whichoneof the following statementsis correct?
(b) C2andC5respectivelyofthesugarmolecule
(a) Allaminoacidsare opticallyactive.
(c) C1andC5respectivelyofthesugarmolecule
(b) Allaminoacids except glycine are opticallyactive.
(d) C5andC1respectivelyofthesugarmolecule
(c) Allaminoacidsexceptglutamicacidareopticallyactive.
(2005)
(d) Allaminoacidsexceptlysineareopticallyactive.
(2012) 11. Insulinproductionanditsactioninhumanbodyareresponsible
forthelevelofdiabetes.Thiscompoundbelongs towhich of
Thepresenceorabsenceofhydroxygrouponwhichcarbon
the following categories?
atomofsugardifferentiates RNAand DNA.
(a) 1st
(b) 2nd
(a) Acoenzyme (b) Ahormone
rd
th
(c) 3
(d) 4
(2011)
(c) An enzyme
(d) Anantibiotic
(2004)

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Thetwofunctionalgroupspresentinatypicalcarbohydrate 12. WhichbaseispresentinRNAbutnotinDNA?


are
(a) Uracil
(b) Cytosine
(a) OHandCOOH
(c) Guanine
(d) Thymine
(2004)
(b) CHOandCOOH
13. Identifythecorrectstatementregardingenzymes.
(c)
COandOH
(a) Enzymesarespecificbiologicalcatalyststhatcannormally
(d) OHandCHO
(2009)
functionatveryhightemperatures(T~1000K).
aD(+)glucoseand bD(+)glucoseare
(b)
Enzymesarenormallyheterogeneouscatalyststhatarevery
(a) enantiomers (b) conformers
specificin action.
(c) epimers
(d) anomers.
(2008)
(c) Enzymesarespecificbiological catalyststhat cannotbe
Thesecondarystructure ofa proteinrefers to
poisoned.
(a) fixed configuration of the polypeptide backbone
(d) Enzymesarespecificbiologicalcatalyststhatpossesswell
(b) ahelical backbone
definedactivesites.
(c) hydrophobic interactions
(2004)
(d) sequenceof aamino acids.
(2007)
ThepyrimidinebasespresentinDNAare
(a) cytosineand adenine
(b) cytosineandguanine
(c) cytosineand thymine
(d) cytosineand uracil.

(2006)

14. ThereasonfordoublehelicalstructureofDNAisoperationof
(a) vanderWaal'sforces
(b) dipoledipole interaction
(c) hydrogen bonding
(d) electrostatic attractions.
(2003)

104

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

15. Completehydrolysis of cellulose gives


(a) Dfructose
(b) Dribose
(c) Dglucose
(d) Lglucose.

(2003)

16. Thefunctionalgroup,whichisfoundin aminoacidis


(a) COOHgroup (b) NH2 group
(c) CH3 group (d) both(a)and(b).
(2002)

17. RNAisdifferentfromDNAbecauseRNAcontains
(a) ribosesugarandthymine
(b) ribosesugaranduracil
(c) deoxyribosesugarandthymine
(d) deoxyribosesugaranduracil.
(2002)

Answer Key

1. (b)
7. (b)
13. (d)

2. (a)
8. (c)
14. (c)

3. (b)
9. (d)
15. (c)

4. (b)
10. (c)
16. (d)

5. (c)
11. (b)
17. (b)

6. (d)
12. (a)

105

Biomolecules

1.

2.

3.

4.

(b): 6CO2 +18ATP+12NADPH+6RuBP


6RuBP+Glucose+18ADP+18P+12NADP+
One moleculeofglucose isformedfrom 6CO2 byutilising
18ATPand12NADPH.
(a): Molischstestisasensitivechemicaltestforthepresence
ofcarbohydrates,basedonthedehydrationofcarbohydrate
bysulphuricacidtoproduceanaldehyde,whichcondenses 8.
withtwomoleculesofphenolresultinginredorpurplecoloured
compound.
9.
(b):Glycineisopticallyinactivewhileallotheraminoacids
are opticallyactive.

(b) :ThesugarmoleculefoundinRNAisDribosewhile
the sugar in DNA is D2deoxyribose. The sugar
D2deoxyribosediffersfromriboseonlyinthesubstitution
of hydrogen for an OH group at 2position as shown in
figure.

aminoacidcoilsasarighthandedscrew(called ahelix)
becauseoftheformationofhydrogenbondsbetweenamide
groupsofthesamepeptidechain.
(ii) bplated sheet : In this structure the chains are held
togetherbyaverylargenumberofhydrogenbondsbetween
C O andNH ofdifferent chains.
(c):DNAcontainscytosineandthymineaspyrimidinebases
andguanineandadenineaspurinebases.

(d): Duetocyclichemiacetalorcyclichemiketalstructures,
allthepentosesandhexosesexistintwostereoisomericforms
i.e. a forminwhichtheOHatC1 inaldosesandC2 inketoses
liestowardstherightand b forminwhichitliestowardsleft.
Thusglucose,fructose,ribose,etc.,allexistin a and b form.
Glucoseexistsintwoforms aDglucoseand bDglucose.
aD(+)glucose equilibriummixture
b(D)(+)glucose
Asaresultofcyclizationtheanomeric(C1)becomesasymmetric
andthenewlyformedOHgroupmaybeeitheronleftoron
rightinFischerprojectionthusresultingintheformationoftwo
isomers(anomers).TheisomershavingOHgrouptotheleft
of the C1 is designated bDglucose and other having
OHgroupontherightas aDglucose.
HOCH

HCOH

HCOH

HCOH

5.

(c): Carbohydrates are essentially polyhydroxy aldehydes

HOCH

and polyhydroxy ketones. Thus the two functional groups


presentare CO(aldehyde orketone)and OH.
6.

(d): Structuresof aD(+)glucoseand bD(+)glucoseare:


6
5
H
4
HO

H
OH
3

a
4
H 1
OH HO
2

H
OH
3

HCOH

HCOH

HC

HC
CH2OH
bDglucose

aDglucose
O

OH

H 1
OH
2

10. (c):

NH2
N

OH

aD(+)glucopyranose

H
OH
bD(+)glucopyranose

A pair of stereoisomers which differ in configuration at


C1areknownasanomers.
7.

(b):Secondary structureof proteinsis mainlyof twotypes.


(i)

OH
5

HOCH

CH2OH

6
5

O and

HOPO CH2

C H

O
H

H C

C2

HO

OH

ahelix:This structure isformedwhenthe chainof a 11. (b):Insulinisaproteinaceoushormonesecretedby bcellsby


isletofLangerhansofpancreasinourbody.

106

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

12. (a): RNAcontainscytosineanduracilaspyrimidinebaseswhile


DNAhascytosineandthymine.Bothhavethesamepurinebases
i.e.guanineandadenine.

Cellulose is a straight chain polysaccharide composed of


Dglucose units which are joined by b glycosidic linkages.
HencecelluloseonhydrolysisproducesonlyDglucoseunits.

13. (d):Enzymesareshapeselectivespecificbiologicalcatalysts 16. (d) : An amino acid is a bifunctional organic molecule that
whichnormally functions effectively at body temperature.
containsbothacarboxylgroup,COOH,aswellasanamino
group,NH2.
14. (c): ThetwopolynucleotidechainsorstrandsofDNAarelinked
upbyhydrogenbondingbetweenthenitrogenousbasemolecules 17. (b):
DNA
RNA
of theirnucleotide monomers.
(a) Pyrimidine Cytosine
Cytosine
AdenineThymine

CytosineGuanine

twohydrogen
bonds

15. (c):(C6H
10O5)
n +nH2O

Cellulose

threehydrogen
bonds
H +

nC6H
12O6
Dglucose

derivatives
(b) Purine
derivatives
(c) Sugar

Thymine
Adenine
Guanine
Deoxyribose

Uracil
Adenine
Guanine
Ribose

107

ChemistryinEverydayLife

CHEMISTRYIN
EVERYDAYLIFE

CHAPTER

29
1.

Aspirininknownas
(a) phenyl salicylate
(b) acetyl salicylate
(c) methylsalicylicacid (d) acetylsalicylicacid (2012)

2.

BunaNsynthetic rubberis a copolymerof

(a)

3.

Whichoneofthefollowingtypesofdrugsreduces fever?
(a) Analgesic
(b) Antipyretic
(c) Antibiotic
(d) Tranquiliser
(2005)

4.

Whichofthefollowingcouldactasapropellantforrockets?
(a) Liquidhydrogen+liquidnitrogen
(b) Liquidoxygen+liquidargon
(c) Liquidhydrogen+liquidoxygen
(d) Liquidnitrogen+liquidoxygen.
(2003)

(b)

OCOCH3

(c) H2C CHCN and


H2C CHCH CH2

5.

and
(d) H2C CHCN
H2C CHC CH2

(a) antiseptic
(c) analgesic

(2009)

COOH

Thecompound

(b) antibiotic
(d) pesticide.

Cl

Answer Key

1.

(d)

2.

(c)

3.

(b)

4.

(c)

5.

isusedas

(c)

(2002)

108

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

3.

(b): Anantipyreticisadrugwhichisresponsibleforlowering
temperatureofthefeverishorganismtonormalbuthasnoeffect

1.

(d):Aspirin

2.

(c):BunaNisacopolymerofbutadieneandacrylonitrile.

onnormaltemperaturestates.
4.

(c): Liquidhydrogen(becauseofitslowmassandhighenthalpy
ofcombustion)andliquidoxygen(asitisastrongsupporterof
combustion)areusedasanexcellentfuelforrockets.

5.

(c) : The compound is acetyl salicylic acid (Aspirin). Drugs


whichrelieveordecreasepainaretermedanalgesics.

109

PrinciplesRelatedtoPracticalChemistry

CHAPTER

30
1.

2.

PRINCIPLESRELATEDTO
PRACTICALCHEMISTRY

Whichofthefollowingreagentsmaybeusedtodistinguish 3.
between phenol and benzoic acid?
(a) AqueousNaOH (b) Tollens reagent
(c) Molischreagent(d) NeutralFeCl3
(2011)
Biuret testisnotgivenby
(a) proteins
(b) carbohydrates
(c) polypeptide
(d) urea
(2010)

Answer Key

1.

(d)

2.

(b)

3.

(a)

Thecompoundformedinthepositivetestfornitrogenwiththe
Lassaignesolutionofan organiccompoundis
(a) Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3
(b) Na3[Fe(CN)

6]

(c) Fe(CN)3
(d) Na4[Fe(CN)
(2004)

5NOS.

110

1.

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

(d): Phenolgivesvioletcolourationwithneutralferricchloride 2.
solution.
Benzoicacidgivesbuffcoloured(paledullyellow)precipitate 3.
with neutralferric chloride solution.

(b) : Biuret test is used to characterise the presence of


CONHgroupinacompound.
(a):3Na4[Fe(CN)6]+4Fe3+ Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3 +12Na+
Prussianblue

MATHEMATICS

Sets,RelationsandFunctions

SETS,RELATIONS
ANDFUNCTIONS

CHAPTER

1
1.

2.

Let A and B betwosetscontaining2elementsand4elements 6.


respectively. The number of subsets of A B having 3 or
moreelementsis
(a) 211
(b) 256
(c) 220
(d) 219
(2013)
LetX={1,2,3,4,5}.Thenumberofdifferentorderedpairs
(Y,Z)thatcanbeformedsuchthatY X,Z XandY Z
isemptyis
(a) 25

(b) 53

(c) 52

(d) 35
(2012)

3.

4.

Let R bethesetof real numbers.


7.
Statement1:A ={(x , y) R R : y xisaninteger}isan
equivalence relation on R.
Statement2:B={(x,y) RR:x= ayforsomerational
number a}isanequivalence relation on R.
8.
(a) Statement1 istrue, Statement2is false.
(b) Statement1 isfalse, Statement2is true.
(c) Statement1istrue,Statement2istrueStatement2is a
correct explanation for Statement1.
(d) Statement1is true,Statement2is trueStatement2is
not a correct explanation for Statement1.
9.
(2011)

(a) ( ,0)
(c) ( , )
5.

1
is
| x |- x
(b) ( , ){0}
(d) (0, )

The domain ofthe function f ( x) =

(2011)

Consider the following relations:


R ={(x,y)|x, y arerealnumbersandx = wyforsomerational
numberw}
m p
S = , m, n, p andqareintegerssuchthat
n q
10.
n, q 0 and qm = pn}.
Then
(a) RisanequivalencerelationbutSisnotanequivalence
relation
(b) neither Rnor Sisan equivalence relation
(c) SisanequivalencerelationbutRisnotanequivalence
relation
(d) Rand Sboth are equivalence relations
(2010)

Let f (x) = (x + 1)2 1, x 1.

Statement1 :Theset{x:f (x)=f 1(x)}={0,1}.


Statement2 :f isbijection.
(a) Statement1istrue,Statement2isfalse.
(b) Statement1isfalse,Statement2istrue.
(c) Statement1istrue,Statement2istrueStatement2 is a
correct explanation for Statement1.
(d) Statement1istrue,Statement2istrue Statement2 is
not a correctexplanation for Statement1.
(2009)
If A, B and C are three sets such that
A B = A C and A B = A C, then

(a) A= C
(c) A B= f

(b) B= C
(d) A= B

(2009)

For real x, let f (x) = x + 5x + 1, then

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

f isonto R butnotoneone
f isoneone andonto R
f is neitheroneone nor onto R
f isoneone but notonto R

(2009)

LetRbetherealline.Considerthefollowingsubsetsofthe
planeR R :
S={(x,y): y = x+1and0< x <2}
T={(x,y): x yisaninteger}.
Whichone ofthe following is true?
(a) Tisanequivalence relationon R but S is not
(b) NeitherS nor T isanequivalence relation on R
(c) BothS and Tare equivalencerelationson R
(d) S isanequivalence relationon R but T is not
(2008)
Let f : N Ybeafunctiondefinedas
f (x)=4x +3where
Y={y N: y=4x +3forsomex N}.
Showthat f isinvertible anditsinverseis
(a) g ( y )=

y- 3
4

(c) g ( y ) = 4+

y+ 3
4

(b) g ( y )=

3 y+ 4
3

(d) g ( y )=

y+ 3
4

(2008)

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

11. ThesetS ={1,2,3,.....,12}istobe partitionedintothree


(a) f(x)
(b) f(x)
sets A, B, C of equal size. Thus A B C = S,
(c) f(x)
(d) f(a)+ f(a x).
(2005)
A B = B C =A C = f.Thenumberofwaystopartition
17. LetR={(1,3),(4,2),(2,4),(2,3),(3,1)}bea relationon
Sis
the set A = {1, 2, 3, 4}.The relation R is
12!
12!
(a) not symmetric
(b) transitive
(a) (4!)3
(b) (4!)4
(c) a function
(d) reflexive.
(2004)
12!
(c) 3!(4!)3

12!
(d) 3!(4!)4 .

(2007)

18. The range of the function F(x) = 7 xPx 3 is

(a) {1, 2, 3, 4}
(b) {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}
12. LetWdenotethe wordsintheEnglishdictionary.Definethe
(c) {1, 2, 3}
(d) {1, 2,3, 4, 5}.
(2004)
relation R by :
19. If f : R S, defined by f ( x ) = sin x - 3 cos x +1,
R= {(x, y) W W | the words x and y have at least one
is onto, then the interval of S is
letter in common}.
(a) [0, 1]
(b) [1, 1]
Then R is
(c) [0, 3]
(d) [1, 3].
(2004)
(a) not reflexive, symmetric and transitive
(b) reflexive, symmetric and not transitive
20. Thegraphofthe functiony= f(x)issymmetricalabout the
(c) reflexive, symmetric and transitive
line x = 2, then
(d) reflexive, not symmetric and transitive.
(2006)
(a) f(x)= f(x)
(b) f(2+ x)= f(2 x)
(c) f(x + 2)= f(x 2)
(d) f(x)= f(x).
(2004)
13. LetR={(3,3)(6,6)(9,9),(12,12),(6,12),(3,9),(3,12),
(3,6)}bearelationonthesetA={3,6,9,12}.Therelation
- 1
is
21. The domain of the function f ( x) = sin ( x- 3) is
9-x 2
(a) reflexive and symmetric only
(a) [1, 2] (b) [2, 3)
(c) [2, 3]
(d) [1, 2).
(b) an equivalence relation
(2004)
(c) reflexive only
(d) reflexive and transitive only.
(2005)
22. The function f ( x) = log( x + x 2 +1) is
14. Let f : (1, 1) B, be a function defined by
(a) an odd function
2x
(b) a periodic function
f ( x) = tan -1
,
1- x 2
(c) neither an even nor an odd function
then f is both oneone and onto when B is the interval
(d) an even function.
(2003)
0, p
p
(b) 0, 2
(a) 2
23. Afunction f fromthesetofnaturalnumberstointegersdefined

n- 1, whennisodd
p p
p p .

(c) -2 , 2
(d) - 2 , 2
(2005)
is
by f (n)= 2

- n, when n iseven
2
15. A function is matched below against an interval whereitis
supposed to be increasing. Which of the following pairs is
(a) onto but not oneone
incorrectly matched?
(b) oneone and onto both
Interval
Function
(c) neither oneone nor onto
(a) [2, )
2x3 3x2 12x + 6
(d) oneone but not onto.
(2003)
(b) (, )
x3 3x2 + 3x + 3
24. Domain of definition of the function
(c) (, 4]
x3 + 6x2 + 6
f ( x ) = 3 2 + log10( x3 - x),is
1
4-x

(d) - , 3
3x2 2x + 1
(2005)

(a) (1, 0) (1, 2)

( )

16. A realvalued function f(x) satisfies the functional equation


f(x y)= f(x)f(y) f(a x)f(a + y) where ais a given
constantand f(0) = 1. f(2a x) is equal to

(b) (1,2) (2, )


(c) (1,0) (1,2) (2, )
(d) (1, 2).

(2003)

Sets,RelationsandFunctions

25. Iff:R Rsatisfies f(x+y)=f(x) +f(y),forallx,y R


n

27. The period of sin2q is


(a) p2
(b) p

(c) p3

(d) p/2.
(2002)

and f (1) = 7, then f ( r ) is


r = 1

7( n +1)
(a)
2
7n(n +1)
(c)
2

( )

(b) 7n(n + 1)

x
28. The domain of sin -1 log3
is

7n.
(d)
2

(2003)

26. Which one is not periodic?


(a) |sin3x| + sin2x
(b) cos x +cos2 x
2
(c) cos4x + tan x
(d) cos2x + sinx.

(a) [1, 9]

(b) [1, 9]

(c) [9, 1]

(d) [9, 1].


(2002)

(2002)

Answer Key

1.
7.
13.
19.
25.

(d)
(b)
(d)
(d)
(c)

2.
8.
14.
20.
26.

(d)
(b)
(c)
(c)
(b)

3.
9.
15.
21.
27.

(a)
(a)
(d)
(b)
(b)

4.
10.
16.
22.
28.

(a)
(a)
(b)
(a)
(a)

5.
11.
17.
23.

(c)
(a)
(a)
(b)

6.
12.
18.
24.

(b)
(b)
(c)
(c)

1.

2.
3.

4.

5.

6.

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

(d):ABwillhave 2 4= 8elements.
The numberofsubsetshavingatleast3 elements
= 8C3 + 8C4 + 8C5 + 8C6 + 8C7 + 8C8
=28 (8C0 + 8C1 + 8C2)=2561828=219

(b):Let x C
Supposex A x A C

x A B (Q A C = A B)
Thus x B
Againsupposex / A x C A
(d): X={1,2,3,4,5} Y X ,Z X, Y Z= f
x B A
x B
Numberofways =35.
Thusinbothcasesx
C x B
(a):yx=integerandz y= integer
HenceC

B
....(1)
zx =integer
Similarlywe canshowthatB C
....(2)
\
(x,y) Aand(y,z) A (x,z)
Combining(1)and(2)wegetB=C.
Transitive
8. (b):Thefunctionis f: R R
Also(x,x) A istrue Reflexive
f(x)= x3 +5x+1
As(x,y) A (y,x) Symmetric
Lety R theny= x3 +5x+1
HenceAisaequivalence relation but B is not.

x3 +5x +1y =0
(0,y)isinBbut(y,0)isnotinB.
Asapolynomialofodddegreehasalwaysatleastonereal
1
root,correspondingtoanyy codomainthere $ somex
(a): f ( x)=
| x |- x
domainsuchthat f (x)= y.Hencef is ONTO.
|x| x >0 |x|> x
Also fiscontinuouson R,becauseitsapolynomialfunction
Thusxmustbeve. \ x ( , 0).
f (x)=3x2 +5>0
\
f isstrictlyincreasing
(c):Wehave(x, x) R forw =1implyingthatR isreflexive.
Fora 0,(a,0) Rforanywbut(0,a) R.ThusRisnot
Hencef isoneone also.
symmetric.
9. (a):Tobeanequivalencerelationtherelationmustbeall
HenceR isnot anequivalence relation.
reflexive, symmetric and transitive.
T={(x,y): x y Z}is
m m
As , S since mn= mn, Sisreflexive.
reflexivefor(x, x) Z i.e. x x =0 Z
n n
symmetricfor(x,y) Z x y Z
m p
y x Zi.e.(y,x) Z
n , q S qm = pn
transitivefor(x, y) Z and(y,w) Z
Butthiscanbewritten asnp=mq,
x y Zandyw Z,giving
p m

x w Zi.e.(x, w) Z.
giving , S.Thus Sissymmetric.
\
T isanequivalence relationon R.
q n
S={(x,y): y =x +1,0< x <2}isnot
m p
p a
reflexivefor(x, x) S wouldimplyx= x +1
Again, , S and , S
n q
q b
0=1(impossible)
Thus S isnotanequivalence relation
meansqm=pnandbp=aq.
10.
(a): Let f(x1)= f (x2), x1, x2 N
m p
p a
m a
i.e. n = q and q = b . i.e. =
4x1 +3=4x2 +3 x1 = x2
n b
Thusf(x1)=f(x2) x1 =x2.Hencethefunctionisone
m a
one.Lety Ybeanumberoftheformy=4k+3,forsome
Thus , S
n b
k N,then y= f (x)
4k +3=4x +3 x= k N
ThismeansS istransitive.
Thuscorrespondingtoany y Y wehave x N.Thefunction
(b):Thesolution off (x)= f 1(x) aregiven by
thenis onto.
f(x)=x,whichgives(x+1)2 1= x
The function,being bothoneone and ontois invertible.

(x+1)2 (x +1)= 0 (x+1)x = 0


y- 3
x- 3
y=4x+3 x =
\
x=1,0
\ f -1( x )=
4
4
Butasnocodomain off is specified, nothing canbe said
y- 3
or g ( y )=
isthe inverse ofthe function.
aboutf being ONTO ornot.
4
7.

Sets,RelationsandFunctions

R is not reflexive as (1, 1) R


11. (a):Numberof ways = 12 C4 8 C4 4C4 = 12! .
R isnot symmetric as (2,3) R but(3, 2) R
(4!)3
Risnottransitiveas(1,3) Rand(3,1) Rbut(1,1) R.
12. (b): Givenrelation R such that
R={(x,y) W W|the word xand y have atleast
18. (c) : F(x) to be defined for x N.
one letterin common}
(i) \ 7 x > 0 x < 7
whereWdenotes set of words in English dictionary
(ii) x 3 0 x 3
Clearly ( x , x ) R " x W
(iii) x 3 7 x x 5
\ (x, x)hasevery letter common \ R is reflexive
\
from (i), (ii), (iii)
Let (x,y) R then (y,x) R as xand y have atleastone
x = 3, 4, 5
letterincommon. R is symmetric.
\
F(3) = 4P0, F(4) = 3P1, F(5) = 2P2
But R isnottransitive
\
{1, 2, 3} is required range
\ Letx=DON,y =NEST, z= SHE
then(x,y) Rand (y, z) R.But (x,z) R.
19. (d): Let f(x) = g(x) + 1
\ Risreflexive, symmetric but nottransitive.
1

3
where g(x) =2 sin x cosx
13. (d) : For (3, 9) R, (9, 3) R
2
2

\ relationisnotsymmetricwhich meansourchoice(a)and
= 2 sin (x 60)
(b)areoutofcourt.Weneedtoprovereflexivityandtransitivity.
\
2

2 sin (x 60) 2
Forreflexivity a R, (a,a) R whichishold i.e. R isreflexive.
1 2 sin (x 60)+ 1 3
Again,
for transitivity of (a, b) R , (b, c) R
20. (c): If y = f(x) is symmetrical about the line x = a then
(a, c) R
f(x + a)= f(x a)
whichisalsotrueinR={(3,3)(6,6),(9,9),(12,12),(6,12),
(3, 9), (3,12), (3, 6)}.
14. (c) : For x (1, 1) we have
2x x =2 2+x

f ( x) = tan-1 2x2
1- x
2 tanq
\ f (tan q ) = tan -1
2
1 - tan q

21. (b): f(x)=

(By x = tan q )

p ( x)
(say)
q ( x)

then Domain of f(x) is Df p(x) Df q(x), q(x) 0

= tan1 tan2q = 2 tan1x


-

f(x + 2) = f(x 2)

p
p
sin1(x 3)
2
2
p
p
sin x 3 sin
2
2
now Df of p(x) is -

p
2x
p
< tan -1
< .
2
2
1- x 2

15. (d) : f(x)= x3 + 6x2 + 6


f ( x ) = 3 x 2 + 12 x = 3 x ( x +4)

f ( x ) > 0 x < -4 x > 0


the interval x < 4 i.e (, 4] matched correctly
and after checking others we find that f(x) = 3x2 2x + 1
f (x) > 0 for x > 1/3 which is not given in the choice.
16. (b) :Givenf(x y) =f(x)f(y)f(a x)f(a + y)
let x = 0 = y
f (0)= (f (0))2 (f (a))2
1 = 1 (f(a))2 f(a) = 0
\
f(2a x) = f(a (x a))
=f(a) f(x a) f(a + x a)f(0)
By using (*)
=0 f(x)(1) = f(x)

( Q

...(*)

f ( a ) = 0, f (0) = 1)

17. (a) : RisafunctionasA={1,2,3,4}and(2,4) Rand


(2,3) R

3 4

2 x 4

Again 9 x2 > 0

...(i)
x2 < 9

|x|<3
i.e. 3 < x < 3

...(ii)

From (i) and(ii) we have


\ 2 x < 3 is correct Domain
22. (a) : f(x) = log x 2 + 1 +

2
\ f(x) = log 1+ x - x

1+ x 2 +

1
= log
= log
1

1+ x 2 - x

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

= f(x) f(x) + f(x) = 0


f(x) is an odd function.

x =1, y = 2
\
= 7+ 2(7) = 3(7)
and so on.

23. (b) : If n is odd, let n = 2k 1


Let

f(2k1 1) = f(2k2 1)

= 7(1+ 2 + 3+ ...+ n) =

7n(n + 1)
2

p
andperiodofsin2x is p
3
1 -cos 2x
(a) Sameastheperiodof|sinx|or
whoseperiod
2
is p
Nowperiodof|sin3x|+sin2x istheL.C.Moftheirperiods
LCM (p,p)
p
\
L.C.M of , p =
= p
HCF (3,1)
3
(c,d)Similarlywe can saythatcos4x +tan2x and cos2x +
sin x are periodic function.

k1 = k2

26. (b):Periodof|sin3x|is

f(n) is oneone functions if n is odd

Again, If n = 2k (i.e. n is even)


Let f(2k1)= f(2k2)
2k1
2k
=- 2
2
2
k1 = k2
f(n) is oneone if n is even

Againf(n)=

n -1
2

(b) Now cos2x is periodic with period p and for period of

1
f (n) = > 0 [n N if n is odd
2
-1
and f (n) =
< 0 [n N ifn is even
2
Nowallsuchfunctionwhichareeitherincreasingordecreasing
inthestateddomainaresaidtobeontofunction.Finally f(n)
is oneone onto function.
24. (c) : Let g(x) =

4- x 2
\ Df g(x) = R {2, 2}
f(x) = log10(x3 x)
x(x +1) (x 1) > 0

f (r )= f(1)+ f(2)+ f(3)+ .... + f(n)


r = 1

2 k 2 - 1 - 1
2k - 1 -1
1
=
2
2

f(3) = f(1)+ f(2)

\ x 2

cos x let us take.


f(x) = cos x
Let f(x + T)= f(x)
cos T + x = cos x
T + x = 2np x
which gives no value of T independent of x
\ f(x) cannot be periodic

Nowsayg(x)=cos2x+cos x whichissumofaperiodic
andnonperiodicfunctionandsuchfunctionhaveno period.
So, cos x + cos2 x is non periodic function.

\ x3 x > 0

\ x (1, 0) (1, )
1 0 1
\ Domainof f(x) is (1, 0) (1, 2) (2, )

25. (c) : Let x = 0 = y \ f(0) = 0


and x =1, y= 0 \ f(1+ 0)=f(1) + f(0)= 7 (given)
x= 1, y = 1
\ f(1 + 1) = 2f(1) = 2(7)
\ f(2) = 2(7)

27. (b) : Let f(q) = sin2q = |sin q|


Period of |sin q| is p
28. (a) : If y = sin1a, then 1 a 1

x
x
\ 1 log3 1 as y = sin -1 log3
3
3

x
1

31
3
3

1 x 9

ComplexNumbers

CHAPTER

COMPLEXNUMBERS

2
1.

2.

3.

4.

9.

z2
Ifz 1and
isreal,thenthepointrepresentedbythe
z -1
complexnumber zlies
(a) eitherontherealaxisoronacirclenotpassingthrough
the origin.
(b) ontheimaginaryaxis.
(c) eitherontherealaxisoronacirclepassingthroughthe
origin.
(d) onacirclewith centre attheorigin.
(2012)

10. If z1 and z2 are two nonzero complex numbers such that


|z1 + z2|= |z1|+ |z2|, then arg z1 argz2 is equal to

If w( 1) is a cube root of unity, and


(1 + w)7 = A+ Bw.Then (A,B) equals
(a) (1, 0)
(b) (1, 1)
(c) (0, 1)
(d) (1, 1)

12. If the cube rootsof unity are1, w, w2 then the roots of the
equation (x 1)3 + 8 = 0, are
(a) 1, 1, 1
(b) 1, 1+ 2w, 1 2w2
(c) 1,1 +2w, 1+ 2w2
(d) 1, 1 2w, 1 2w2.
(2005)

(2011)

The numberofcomplex numbers z such that


|z1|=|z+1|=|zi| equals
(a) 0
(b) 1
(c) 2
(d)
(2010)

5.

4
=2,thenthe maximumvalueof|Z | isequalto
Z
(c) 2 + 2
(d) 3 +1
5 +1 (b) 2
(2009)

If Z (a)

6.

Ifz2 +z+1=0,wherezisacomplexnumber,thenthevalue

Ifzisacomplex numberof unitmodulus andargument q,


1+ z
equals
then arg
1 +z
p
- q (b) q
(a)
(c) p q
(d) q
2
(2013)

Theconjugateofacomplexnumberis
numberis
1
(a)
i -1

(b)

-1
i -1

(c)

1
.Thenthatcomplex
i -1

1
i +1

(d)

-1
i +1

(2008)
7.

If|z+4| 3,thenthemaximumvalue of|z+1|is


(a) 6
(b) 0
(c) 4
(d) 10.
(2007)

8.

The value of

2k p
2kp

+ i cos
is
11
11
k=1
(b) 1
(c) 1
10

(a) i

sin

(d) i.
(2006)

1 2 1 3 1
6 1
of z + + z + 2 + z + 3 + ....+ z + 6 is
z
z
z
z

(a) 18

(a) p

(b) 54

(b) p/2

(c) 6

(d) 12.
(2006)

(c) p/2

(d) 0.
(2005)

z
and |w| = 1, then z lies on
11. If w =
z -(1/ 3)i
(a) a circle
(b) an ellipse
(c) a parabola
(d) a straightline.

(2005)

13. Let z, w be complex numbers such that z + iw = 0


and zw = p. Then arg z equals
(a) 3p/4
(b) p/2
(c) p/4
(d) 5p/4.
(2004)
1/3

14. Ifz = x iy and z = p + iq, then


(a) 2

(b) 1

(c) 1

) is equal to

x y
+
p q
2

( p +q )

(d) 2.
(2004)

15. If |z2 1| = |z|2 + 1, then z lies on


(a) a circle
(b) the imaginary axis
(c) the real axis
(d) an ellipse.
(2004)
x
16. If 1+ i = 1, then

(1-i )

(a) x = 2n, where n is any positive integer


(b) x = 4n + 1, where n is any positive integer
(c) x = 2n + 1, where n is any positive integer
(d) x = 4n, where n is any positive integer.
(2003)
17. Ifzand waretwononzerocomplexnumberssuchthat|zw|
= 1,andArg(z)Arg(w) = p/2,then zw is equal to
(a) 1

(b) i

(c) i

(d) 1.
(2003)

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

18. Letz1 and z2 betwo rootsof theequationz2 + az+ b =0, z 20. If z - 4 < z -2 , its solution is given by
beingcomplexfurther,assumethattheorigin,z1 andz2 form
(a) Re(z)> 0
(b) Re(z)< 0
an equilateral triangle, then
(c) Re(z)> 3
(d) Re(z)> 2.
(2002)
(a) a2 = 2b
(b) a2 = 3b
21. The locus of the centre of a circle which touches the circle
(c) a2 = 4b
(d) a2 = b.
(2003)
z - z1 = a and z - z 2 = b externally(z, z1& z2arecomplex
19. zand waretwononzerocomplexnumbersuchthat | z| = | w|
numbers)will be
andArg z +Arg w= pthen z equals
(a) an ellipse
(b) a hyperbola
(a) w
(b) w
(c) w
(d) w
(c) a circle
(d) none of these
(2002)
(2002)

Answer Key

1.

(b)

2.

(c)

7.

(a)

8.

(d)

13 (a)
19. (b)

14. (d)
20. (c)

3.
9.
15.
21.

(d)
(d)
(b)
(b)

4. (b)
10. (d)
16. (d)

5. (a)
11. (d)
17. (c)

6.

(d)

12. (d)
18. (b)

ComplexNumbers

1 + z 1+ z
=
= z
1+ z 1+ 1
z
2
Observethat | z | = 1=zz
1+ z
Thenthe argofthe number
is justtheargumentofz
1+z
andthats q.

1. (b) : Notethat

Set|Z|=r>0,then r-

4
2
r
The leftinequality gives
r2 +2r4 0
The corresponding roots are
- 2 r-

z2
isreal.
z -1

2. (c): z 1,

Ifz isarealnumber,then

r=
z2
isreal.
z -1

( x - y + 2 xiy ) (( x - 1) - iy)
isreal
( x - 1)2 + y 2
y(x2 y2)+2xy(x1)=0
y(x2 + y2 2x)=0 y=0orx2 +y2 2x=0

\ zliesonrealaxis oron acirclepassingthroughorigin.

3.

(d):(1+ w)7 =(w2)7 =w14 =w12 w2


=w2 =1+ w =A+Bw given
Henceoncomparison,we have(A, B) = (1,1).

4. (b):1st solution:
|z 1| = |z +1| = |z i| reads that the distance of desired
complexnumberzissamefromthreepointsinthecomplex
plane1,1and i.Thesepointsarenoncollinear,hencethe
desired number isthe centre of the (unique) circle passing
through thesethree noncollinear points.
2nd solution :
We resort todefinition of modulus.
|z1|=|z+1|

|z1|2 =|z+1|2

...(i)

Butr >0,hence r 1 + 5

...(ii)

6. (d): z =

7.

8.

9.

1
1
-1
=
=
i -1 - i - 1 i+ 1
Im

(1,0)

(4,0)

n
2kp
2kp
(d) : sin n + 1 + icosn + 1

k=1

(x1)2 +y2 =x2 +(y1)2

4
4
4
Now | Z | Z | Z | 2
|z|
Z
| Z |

1
i -1

(a):zliesonorinsidethecirclewith
centre(4,0)andradius3units.
Hencemaximumdistanceof zfrom
(1,0)is6units.

Again,|z1|2 =|zi|2

Thus,(0,0)isthedesired point.
5. (a): Wehaveforanytwocomplexnumbers a and b
||a||b|| |a b|

5 - 1 r 5 +1

Wehave z =( z ) giving z=

z + z =0 (z beingpurelyimaginary)

1+y2 =y2 2y +1
\ y=0

r -1 - 5

So,the greatestvalue is 5 +1.

zz - z - z + 1 = zz + z + z +1

1+y2 =(y1)2 (becausex=0)

or

impliesthat r 5 - 1 (As r >0)


Againconsiderthe rightinequality
4
r- 2

r 2 - 2r- 4 0
r
The corresponding roots are
2 20
r=
= 1 5
2
Thus 1 - 5 r 1 + 5

(i)and(ii)gives

( z - 1)( z - 1) = ( z + 1)( z +1)

Thusx=0

-2 20
= 5
2

Thus r 5 - 1

Letz=x+iy
2

4
2
r

10
= sin 2 k p + i cos2kp = - i
11
11
k=1

(d) : z2 + z + 1 = 0

z = w, w2

z + 1 + z 2 + 1 + ..... z6 + 1

z2
z 6

=4 (w + w2)2 + 2(w3 + w3)2


=4 (1)2 + 2(22) = 4+ 8 = 12

Real

10

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

10. (d) : Method I : Let z1 = cosq1 + i sinq1,


z2 = cosq2 + isinq2
\
z1 + z2 = (cosq1 + cosq2) + i(sinq1 + sinq2)
Now|z1 + z2|= |z1| + |z2|
(cos q1 + cos q2 )2 + (sin q1 + sin q2)2 = 1 + 1
2(1+ cos(q1 q2)) = 4 (by squaring)
cos(q1 q2) = 1 q1 q2 = 0

(Q

cos0 = 1)

Argz1 Argz2 = 0.

11. (d) : Given w =

w6(8) + (8)= 0 0 = 0
\
1, 1 2w, 1 2w2 are roots of
(x 1)3 + 8= 0 but onthe other hand theother roots does
not satisfies the equation (x 1)3 + 8 = 0.

13 (a):

3 z
3z
\ w =
3z - i
3z -i

z + iw = 0
z = -iw z = iw
w = iz
\ arg (iz2) = p
arg (i)+ 2arg(z)= p
2arg(z)= p + p/2= 3p/2
arg(z)= 3p/4

x =0Imaginaryaxis

14. (d): z1/3 = p + iq


x iy = (p + iq)3
3 z - i = 3 z
x iy = p3 3pq2 + i(3p2q q3)
3( x ) + i (3 y - 1) = 3( x +iy ) ( z = x + iy )
x = p3 3pq2 and y = (3p2q q3)
x
y
(3x)2 +(3y 1)2 =9(x2 +y2) 6y 1=0whichisstraight
= p2 3q2 and
= (3p2 q2)
(*)
line.
p
q
Adding the equations of (*) we get
12. (d):Method(1) :(By making the equation fromthegiven
x y
roots)
+ = 2(p2 + q2)
Let us consider x = 1, 1, 1
p q
\ Required equation from given roots is
2
2
(x+ 1)(x + 1)(x + 1) = 0 15. (b): |z 1| = |z| + 1

Let
z
=
x
+
iy
(x+ 1)3 = 0which does not match with the given equation
2 + y2

(x

1)
(x1)3 +8=0sox=1,1,1cannotbetheproperchoice.
=(x2 + y2)+ 1
Again consider x = 1, 1 + 2w, 1 2w2
2x = 0
\ Required equation from given roots is
x = 0
(x + 1)(x + 1 2w)(x + 1 + 2w2) = 0
z lies onimaginary axis.
Forrealaxisy=0
(x+1)[(x +1)2 + (x+ 1)(2w2 2w) 4w3] = 0
x
1
+
i

(x + 1)[(x+1)2 + 2(x + 1)(w2 w) 4 ] = 0


16. (d) : Given
= 1
1- i
(x +1)3 +2(x+ 1)2(w2 w) 4(x + 1) = 0
x
2i
whichcannotbeexpressedintheformofgivenequation(x

= 1
1)3 + 8 = 0.Now consider the roots
2
xi = 1,1 2w, 1 2w2 (i =1, 2, 3)
ix = 1 ix = (i)4n
x = 4n, n I+
and the equation withthese roots is given by
3
2
x (sumoftheroots)x +x(Productofrootstakentwoatatime)
1
... (1)
17. (c) : | zw | = 1 | z || w | = 1 So | z |=
Productofroots taken allat a time = 0
| w|
Nowsumof rootsx1 +x2 +x3
p
Again Arg ( z ) Arg (w) =
2
=1+12w + 1 2w2 =3
z
2
z
Product of roots taken two at a time
\
=
i = z i from (1)
w
w
= 1+ 2w 1 + 2w2 + 1 + 2(w2 + w) + 4w3 = 3
z
1
Product of roots taken all at a time
= z z i z w = = -i.
\
w
i
2
= (1)[(1 2w)(1 2w )] = 7
3
2
\ Requiredequation is x 3x + 3x + 7 = 0
18. (b) :As z1, z2 are roots of z2 + az + b = 0
\
z1 + z2 = a, z1z2 = b
x3 3x2 +3x 1+8=0 (x 1)3 +8=0whichmatched
Again 0, z1, z2 are vertices of an equilateral triangle
with given equation.
Method 2 (by taking cross checking)
As (x 1)3 + 8 = 0 ...(*)
and x = 1 satisfies (x 1)3 + 8 = 0
i.e. (2)3 + 8 = 0 0 = 0
Similarly for 1 2w we have (x 1)3 + 8 = 0
(12w 1)3 + 8 = 0
(2w)3 +8=0 8 + 8 = 0 and for 1 2w2
we have (1 2w2 1)3 + 8 = 0

z1

z2

02 + z12 + z22 = 0z1 + z1z2 + z20 = 0

z12 + z22 = z1z2


(z1 + z2)2 = 3z1z2
a2 = 3b

11

ComplexNumbers

19. (b):Let |z| = |w| =r


\ z= reia and w = reib
where a + b = p (given)
-= re
Now Z
eia = rei(p b)
= reip eib
= reib
= w
20. (c):|z 4|< |z 2|
or |a 4 + ib|< |(a 2) + ib| by taking z = a+ib
(a 4)2 + b2 < (a 2)2 + b2
8a+ 4a < 16 + 4
4a > 12 a> 3
Re(z)> 3

21. (b) :
r
a
z1

z3
b
z2

z1z3 z3 z2 = (a + r) (b + r)
= a -b = a constant, which represent a hyperbola
Since,Ahyperbolaisthelocusofapointwhichmovesinsuch
awaythatthedifferenceofitsdistancesfromtwofixedpoints
(foci) is always constant.

12

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

MATRICES
ANDDETERMINANTS

CHAPTER

3
1.

1 a 3
If P= 1 3 3 is the adjoint of a 3 3 matrix A and

2 4 4

7.

|A| = 4, then a is equal to

(a) 11
2.

(b) 5

(d) 4

(b) 2

(c) 3

(d) infinite

1 0 0
Let A = 2 1 0 .If u1 and u2 are columnmatrices such

3 2 1

- 1
- 1
(a)
0

1
- 1
(b)
-1

- 1
- 1
1
1
(c) (d)
0
-1

(b) 1

(c) 2

(d) 1

(2012)

Let A and B be two symmetric matrices of order 3.


Statement1: A (BA ) and (AB )A are symmetric matrices.
Statement2: AB issymmetricmatrixifmatrixmultiplication
of A with B is commutative.

6.

(2010)

Thenumberof33nonsingularmatrices,withfourentries
as 1 and all other entries as 0, is

(a) lessthan4
(c) 6
9.

(b) 5
(d) atleast7

(2010)

Let A be a 2 2 matrix with nonzero entries and let


A2 = I,where Iis22identitymatrix.Define Tr(A)=sum
matrix A.
Statement1 : Tr(A) = 0.

P Q = Q P, then determinant of (P + Q ) is equal to

(a) 0

8.

infinite number of solutions


exactly 3 solutions
aunique solution
no solution

of diagonal elements of A and |A| = determinant of

(2012)

Let P and Q be 3 3 matrices with P Q. If P3 = Q3 and


2

5.

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

(2013)

1
0
that Au1 = 0 and Au 2 = 1 , then u1 + u2 is equal to


0
0

4.

The system has

(2013)

Thenumberofvaluesof k,forwhichthesystemofequations
(k+1)x+8y=4k, kx +(k+ 3)y=3k 1,hasnosolution,is

(a) 1

3.

(c) 0

Consider the system of linear equations


x1 + 2x2 + x3 = 3
2x1 + 3x2 + x3 = 3
3x1 + 5x2 + 2x3 = 1

Statement2 : |A| = 1.

(a) Statement1istrue,Statement2istrueStatement2 is a
correct explanation for Statement1.
(b) Statement1istrue,Statement2istrue Statement2 is
not acorrectexplanationforStatement1
(c) Statement1istrue,Statement2isfalse.
(d) Statement1isfalse,Statement2istrue.
(2010)

(a) Statement1istrue, Statement2is false.


(b) Statement1isfalse, Statement2is true.
10. Let A be a 2 2 matrix
(c) Statement1istrue,Statement2istrueStatement2is
Statement1:adj(adj A)=A
a correctexplanation for Statement1.
Statement2:|adjA|=|A|
(d) Statement1istrue,Statement2istrueStatement2is
(a) Statement1istrue,Statement2istrue Statement2 is
not a correct explanation for Statement1.
(2011)
not acorrectexplanationforStatement1
(b)
Statement1istrue,Statement2isfalse.
The number of values of k for whichthe linear equations
(c) Statement1isfalse,Statement2istrue.
4x + ky + 2z = 0
(d) Statement1istrue,Statement2istrueStatement2 is a
kx + 4y + z = 0
correct explanation for Statement1.
2x+ 2y + z = 0
(2009)
possess a nonzero solution is
(a) 1
(b) zero
(c) 3
(d) 2
(2011) 11. Let a, b, c be such that b(a + c) 0. If

13

MatricesandDeterminants

1 2
a 0
18. Let A =
and B=
, a, b N. Then
-b b + 1 b - 1 + a - 1
b -1
c+ 1 = 0,
3 4
0 b
(a) there cannot exist any B such that AB = BA
c c - 1 c+ 1 (-1)n + 2 a (-1)n +1b (-1)nc
(b) thereexistmorethanonebutfinitenumberBssuchthat
then the value of n is
AB = BA
(a) anyeveninteger
(b) any odd integer
(c) there exists exactly one B such that AB = BA
(c) anyinteger
(d) zero
(2009)
(d) there exist infinitely many Bs such that AB = BA.
12. LetAbea22matrixwithrealentries.LetIbethe22
(2006)
identitymatrix.Denoteby tr(A),thesumofdiagonalentries
2
19. If A A + I = 0, then the inverse of A is
ofA.AssumethatA2 =I.
(a) A
(b) A+ I (c) I A (d) A I.
(2005)
Statement1: IfA IandA I,thendetA=1.
Statement2:IfA IandA I,thentr(A) 0.
1 0
1 0
20. If A =
and I = 0 1 , then which one of the
(a) Statement1 istrue, Statement2is false
1
1

(b) Statemen1 isfalse, Statement2is true


followingholdsforalln 1,bytheprincipleofmathematical
(c) Statement1istrue,Statement2istrueStatement2is
induction
acorrectexplanation for Statement1
(a) An = 2n 1 A (n 1)I
(d) Statement1istrue,Statement2istrueStatement2is
(b) An = nA (n 1)I
(2008)
notacorrectexplanationforStatement1
(c) An = 2n 1A + (n 1)I
(d) An = nA + (n 1)I.
(2005)
13. Leta,b,cbeanyrealnumbers.Supposethattherearereal
2
2
2
numbersx,y, znotallzerosuchthat x=cy+bz,y=az + 21. Ifa + b + c = 2 and
cxand z=bx +ay.Thena2 + b2 + c2 +2abcisequalto
1 + a 2 x (1 + b 2 ) x (1 + c 2)x
(a) 1
(b) 2
(c) 1
(d) 0
(2008)
f ( x ) = (1 + a 2 ) x 1 + b 2 x (1 + c 2)x
14. Let Abe asquare matrixall of whose entries are integers.
(1 + a 2 ) x (1 + b 2 ) x 1+c 2x
Then which one ofthe following is true?
1
(a) IfdetA=1, thenA neednot exist
then f(x) is a polynomial of degree
(b) IfdetA =1,thenA1 existsbutallitsentriesarenot
(a) 0
(b) 1
(c) 2
(d) 3.
(2005)
necessarilyintegers
22. The system of equations a x + y + z = a 1,
(c) IfdetA 1,thenA1 existsandallitsentriesarenon
x+ ay+ z= a 1, x + y + az = a 1has no solutions,
integers
if a is
(d) Ifdet A =1,then A1 existsandallitsentriesareintegers
(a) either 2 or 1
(b) 2
(2008)
(c) 1
(d) not 2.
(2005)
a

a +1 a -1

a +1

b +1

c- 1

15. If D = 1 1 + x 1 for x 0, y 0 then Dis


1 1 1+ y
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

divisible byxbut not y


divisible byybut not x
divisible by neither x nor y
divisibleby bothx and y.

5 5a
16. Let A = 0 a

0 0
(a) 1/5
(b)

(2007)

a
A2 |=25, then|a | equals
5a . If|A

5
5
(c) 52
(d) 1.
(2007)

17. If A and B are square matrices of size n n such that


A2 B2 = (A B)(A + B), then which of the following will
be always true?
(a) A= B
(b) AB = BA
(c) either Aor B is a zero matrix
(d) either Aor B is an identity matrix.
(2006)

0 0 - 1

23. Let A = 0 - 1 0 . Theonlycorrectstatement about


the
- 1 0 0

matrixA is
(a) A1 does not exist
(b) A = (1)I, where I isa unit matrix
(c) A is a zero matrix (d) A2 = I.
(2004)
2 2
4
1 -1 1

24. Let A= 2 1 -3 and 10( B) = -5 0 a . IfBisthe

1 -2 3
1
1 1
inverse of matrix A, then a is

(2004)
determinant
25. If a1, a2, a3,....,an,...areG.P.,thenthevalueofthe
log a n
log a n +1 logan+ 2
log a n +3 log a n + 4 logan+ 5 , is
(a) 2

log a n + 6

(a) 2

(b) 1

log a n + 7

(b) 1

(c) 2

(d) 5.

loga n+8

(c) 0

(d) 2.

(2004)

14

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

26. If 1, w, w2 are the cube roots of unity,


1
n
then D = w

2n

(a) 1

wn

w2n

w2n

(b) w

28. If a > 0 and discriminant of ax2 + 2bx + c is ve, then


a
b

ax + b
bx + c is
ax + b bx +c
0

is equal to

b
c

(c) w2

(2003)

(d) 0.

a b
2 a b
27. If A=
and A = b a , then
b
a

(a) a = a2 + b2, b = 2ab


(b) a = a2 + b2, b = a2 b2
(c) a = 2ab, b = a2 + b2
(d) a = a2 + b2, b = ab.

(b) (ac b2)(ax2 + 2bx + c)


(d) 0.
(2002)

(a) +ve
(c) ve

29. Ifl,m,narethe pth,qth andrth termofaGP,allpositive,then

(2003)

log l
log m

p 1
q 1

log n

r 1

(a) 1

equals

(b) 2

(c) 1

(d) 0.

Answer Key

1.
7.

(a)
(d)

2.
8.

(a)
(d)

3.
9.

(b)
(c)

4. (a)
10. (a)

5.

11. (b)

12. (a)

17. (b)
23. (d)
29. (d)

18. (d)
24. (d)

13. (a)

14. (d)

15. (d)

16. (a)

19. (c)
25. (c)

20. (b)
26. (d)

21. (c)
27. (a)

22. (b)
28. (c)

(d)

6.

(d)

(2002)

15

MatricesandDeterminants

1.

2.

1 a 3
(a): P = 1 3 3

2 4 4
LetP=1(1212) a(4 6)+3(4 6) =2a6
Also,det(adj A)= (detA)2
2a6= 16 2a=22.
\ a = 11
Remark: det(adj A) = (det A)n 1, where A is a matrix of
order n.

(a): P3 =Q3, P2Q =Q2P, PQ2 = P2Q


P(P2 + Q2)=(Q2 + P2)Q
P(P2 + Q2)=(P2 + Q2)Q
P Q P2 + Q2 issingular.
Hence,|P2 + Q2|=0

5.

(d): Let A(BA)= P


ThenPT =(ABA)T =ATBTAT (Transversalrule)
=ABA= P

k + 1
8 x 4k
(a):Theequation is
=

k
k
+
3 y 3k - 1

Fornosolution of AX =B a necessary conditionis


detA=0.
k+ 1 8

= 0
k k + 3
(k+1)(k +3)8k=0 k2 +4k+38k=0
k2 4k+ 3= 0 (k1)(k3)=0 \ k=1,3
Fork=1,the equationbecomes
2x+8y=4,x+4y =2
whichisjustasingle equationin twovariables.
x+4y =2Ithasinfinite solutions.
Fork=3,the equationbecomes
4x+8y=12,3x +6y=8
whichareparallellines.Sonosolutioninthiscase.

3.

4.

ThusPissymmetric.
Again,A(BA)=(AB)Abyassociativity.
Also(AB)T =BTAT =BA=AB
(QAandBarecommutative)

6.

whichonexpansiongives k2 6k +8=0

7.

a
Letu1= b

c
1
a = 1, 2a + b = 0
Au1= 0
b = -2, 3a + 2b + c = 0 c = 1
0

0
p = 0, 2 p + q = 1 q = 1,
Au2 = 1

3 p+ 2q + r = 0 r = -2
0
1 0 1
u1 + u 2 = -2 + 1 = -1

1 -2 -1

(d): Forthe systemtopossessnonzerosolution,


4 k 2
wehave k 4 2 = 0
2 2 1

1 0 0
1
0
2 1 0 , Au = 0 , Au = 1
A
=
(b):
1
2

3 2 1
0
0

p
Letu2 = q

r

ABisalsosymmetric.

8.

(k2)(k4)=0.

\ k =2,4

(d):x1 +2x2 + x3 =3
2x1 +3x2 + x3 =3
3x1 +5x2 +2x3 =1
Aquickobservationtellsusthatthesumoffirsttwoequations
yields
(x1 +2x2 + x3)+(2x1 +3x2 + x3)=3+3
3x1 +5x2 +2x3 =6
Butthiscontradictsthethirdequation,i.e.,
3x1 +5x2 +2x3 =1
Assuchthesystemisinconsistentandhenceithasnosolution.
a1 a2
A = b1 b2

(d):
c1 c2

a3
b3

c3

LetA=(a1b
2c
3 +a2c1b3 +a3b1c2)(a1c2b3 +a2b1c3 + a3c
1b
2)
Ifanyofthetermsbenonzero,thendetAwillbenonzero
andalltheelementsofthattermwillbe 1each.
Numberofnonsingularmatrices= 6C1 6C1 = 36
Wecanalsoexhibitmore than6matricesto pick the right
choice.

16

9.

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

a b
(c):Let A =

g d

a b
12. (a):Let A =
.Wehave
g d

a 2 + bg b (a + d) 1 0
A2 =
=

0 1
g (a + d ) d + bg
Whichgives a+ d =0and a2 + bg =1
Sowe haveTr(A)= 0
detA = ad bg =a2 bg =(a2 + bg)=1
Thusstatement1 istruebutstatement2 isfalse.
10. (a): We have adj(adj A) = |A|n2A
Here n = 2, which gives adj(adj A) = A
The statement1 is true.
Again |adj A| = |A|n 1
Here n = 2, which gives |adj A| = |A|
Thus statement2 is also true. But statement2 doesnt explain
statement1.

11. (b):

a +1 a -1

-b b + 1 b - 1 +
c

c -1 c +1

a +1 a -1

a +1

b +1

c- 1

a -1

b -1

c- 1 = 0

( -1) n + 2 a ( -1)n +1b (-1)nc


a + 1 b + 1 c- 1
n

- b b + 1 b - 1 + ( -1) a - 1 b - 1 c - 1 = 0
c

c - 1 c + 1

-b

a + 1 a - 1 a
D+

( -1)n

b + 1 b - 1 -b = 0

a 2 + bg b ( a + d )
A2 =

g ( a + d ) d + bg
a 2 + bg b ( a + d ) 1
A2 = I =
=
2
0
g ( a + d ) d + bg
2
2
giving a + bg =1= d + bg
and g(a+ d)= b(a + d)=0
As A I,A I,wehave a = d
det A =

1- bg

- 1- bg

0
1

= -1 + bg - bg = -1

Statement1 istherefore true.


tr(A)= a + d=0{a = d}
Statement2isfalsebecause tr(A)=0
13. (a): Systemofequations
x cy bz=0
cx y+ az =0
bx+ ay z =0
hasnontrivialsolutionifthedeterminantofcoefficientmatrix
is zero
1 - c - b
c -1 a = 0
b a -1

c + 1 c -1 c
(Changingrowstocolumns)
1(1a2)+ c( cab)b(ca +b)=0
a a + 1 a- 1
a2 + b2 + c2 +2abc=1
n
D + ( -1) -b b + 1 b- 1 = 0
14. (d):Eachentryof A isaninteger,sothe cofactorof every
c c + 1 c -1
entryisaninteger.Andtheneachentryofadjointisinteger.
(Changingcolumnsincyclicorderdoesntchangethedeter
AlsodetA =1andweknowthat
minant)
n
n
D+(1) D=0 {1+(1) }D= 0
1
A -1 =
( adj A)
det
A
a a + 1 a- 1
ThismeansallentriesinA1 are integers.
Now D = -b b + 1 b- 1 = 0
c c - 1 c +1
1 1
1
a
2 a- 1
15. (d):D = 1 1 + x 1
= - b 2 b- 1
1 1 1+ y
C2 C2 C3
c -2 c +1
(ApplyC2 C2 C1,C3 C3 C1)
a+c
0 a + c
1 0 0
= -b + c 0 b + c
R1 R1 +R3, R2 R2 +R3
= 1 x 0 = 1( xy - 0) = xy
c
-2 c +1
1 0 y
Expandingalong2ndcolumn
HenceDisdivisiblebybothxandy.
D=2{(a+c)(b+c)(a+c)(cb)}

=2(a+c)2b
=4b(a+c) 0 (By hypothesis)
Now{1+(1)n}D=0 1+(1)n = 0
Whichmeann=oddinteger.

5 5a a 5 5a a
16. (a):A2 = 0 a 5a 0 a 5a
0 0 5 0 0 5

17

MatricesandDeterminants

22. (b) : For no solution |A| = 0 and (adj A)(B) 0


25 25a + 5a 2 5a + 5a + 25a 2

A2 = 0
a2
25a + 5a 2

0
0
25

1
2
2
Given|A |=25,625a =25 | a |= .
5

a 1 1
Now | A |= 0 1 a 1 = 0
1 1 a
a3 3a + 2 = 0 (a 1)2 (a + 2) = 0
a = 1, 2.
But for a = 1, |A| = 0 and (adj A)(B) = 0
for a = 1 there exist infintiely many solution.
Also the each equation becomes
x + y + z = 0again for a = 2
|A| =0 but (adj A)(B) 0 $ nosolution.

17. (b): GiveA2 B2 = (A + B)(A B)


0= BA AB
BA= AB
1 2
a 0
18. (d) : A =
and B=

3 4
0 b

23. (d) : (i)|A| = 1 \ A1 does not exist is wrong statement

1 2 a 0 a 2b
=
Now AB=
3 4 0 b 3a 4b

... (i)

and

a 0 1 2 a 2a
BA=
=
0 b 3 4 3b 4b

... (ii)

As

AB= BA 2a = 2b a = b

a 0
B=
= aI2 $ infinite value of a = b N
0 a

-1 0 0

(ii)(1) I = 0 -1 0 A (b) is false

0 0 -1
(iii) A is clearly a non zero matrix \ (c) is false
We left with (d) only.
24. (d) : Given A1 = B = 10 A1 = 10 B

19. (c) : A2 A + I = 0 I = A A A
IA1 = AA1 A(AA1) , A1 = I A.
1 0
20. (b) : A =

1 1
1 0
3 1 0
n 1 0
\ A2 =
, A =
so A =

2
1
3
1

n 1
n 0 n- 1 0
and nA (n 1)I =
-

n - 1
n n 0
1 0
n
=
= A .
n
1

4
-5
1
4
-5
1

2 2
0 a = 10 A1.

-2 3
2 2
0 a (A) = 10I

-2 3

4
-5
1

2 2 1
0 a 2

-2 3 1

10 0 0
= 0 10 0

0 0 10

-1 1
1 -3

1
1
...(*)

5 + a = 0
(equating A21 entry both sides of (*))
a = 5

a2 a3
a
=
=... n = r
a1 a2
an - 1
which means an, an + 1, an + 2 G.P.
an + 12 = an an + 2
2 log an + 1 log an log an + 2 = 0...(i)
Similarly 2 log an + 4 log an + 3 log an + 5= 0...(ii)
and 2 log an + 7 log an + 6 log an + 8 = 0...(iii)
UsingC1 C1 + C3 2C2
weget D = 0
26. (d) :As w is cube root of unity \ w3 = w3n = 1

25. (c):
21. (c) : Applying C2 C2 + C3 + C1
f ( x ) = 1 + 2 x + x ( a 2 + b2 +c 2)
1 + a2 x

1 (1 + c 2)x

(1 + a 2 ) x 1 (1 + c 2)x
(1 + a 2 ) x 1

1+c 2x

Applying R1 R1 R2, R2 R2 R3 and


using a2 + b2 + c2 = 2 we have

(1 + 2 x - 2 x )

1 - x
0

0
0

0
x- 1

= (1 x)2

(1 + a 2 ) x 1 1+c 2x
= x2 2x + 1 \ degree of f(x) is 2.

1
n
w
\
w2n

wn w2n
w2n 1
1

wn

= (w3n 1) wn(w2n w2n) + w2n(wn wn) = 0

18

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

a b a b
27. (a) : A = AA=

b a b a
2

a 2 + b2 2ab a b
=
=
2ab a 2 + b2 b a

28. (c): C1 xC1 + C2 C3


=

1
x

0
0

b
c

ax 2 + 2bx + c bx + c

l = tp = ARp 1
log l = log A + (p 1) log R
Similarly,
log m = log A+ (q 1) log R
and
log n = log A + (r 1) log R
\

ax + b
bx + c
0

(ax 2 + 2bx +c) 2


[b x + bc acx bc]
x
= (b2 ac) (ax2 + 2bx + c)
= (+ve) (ve) < 0
=

29. (d) : Let A be the first term and R be the common ratio of
G. P.

log l
log m
log n

p 1
q 1
r 1

log A + ( p - 1) log R
log A + ( q - 1) log R
log A + ( r - 1) log R

log A - log R
log A - log R
log A -log R
c1 c3

= 0 + 0
= 0

p 1
q 1
r 1

p 1
p log R
q 1 + q log R
r 1
r log R

p 1
q 1
r 1

c1 c2

19

QuadraticEquations

CHAPTER

4
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

QUADRATICEQUATIONS

The realnumber kfor which the equation


2x3 +3x+k=0hastwodistinct realrootsin [0,1]
(a) liesbetween2and 3
(b) liesbetween 1and 0
(c) doesnot exist
(d) liesbetween 1and 2
(2013)
Iftheequationsx2 +2x+3=0andax2 +bx+c=0,a,b,
c Rhaveacommon root,then a : b: cis
(a) 3:2:1

(b) 1: 3: 2

(c) 3:1:2

(d) 1: 2: 3

Theequation esinx esinx 4= 0has


(a) exactly one real root.
(b) exactly four real roots.
(c) infinite numberof real roots.
(d) noreal roots.

(2013)

(2012)

9.

Iftherootsofthequadraticequationx2 +px+q=0aretan30
and tan15, respectively then the value of 2 + q p is
(a) 2
(b) 3
(c) 0
(d) 1.
(2006)

10. All the values of m for which both roots of the equation x2
2mx+ m2 1= 0aregreater than 2butless than 4, lie
in the interval
(a) 2 < m < 0
(b) m > 3
(c) 1 < m < 3
(d) 1< m < 4.
(2006)
11. Thevalueofa forwhichthe sum ofthe squares of the roots
oftheequationx2 (a2)xa1=0assumetheleastvalue
is
(a) 0
(b) 1
(c) 2
(d) 3.
(2005)
12. Iftherootsoftheequationx2 bx+c=0betwoconsecutive
integers, then b2 4c equals
(a) 3
(b) 2
(c) 1
(d) 2.
(2005)

Let a, b be real and z be a complex number. 13. If both the roots of the quadratic equation
If z2 + az + b = 0 has two distinct roots on the line
x2 2kx + k2 + k 5 = 0
Rez=1,thenitis necessarythat
are less than 5, then k lies in the interval
(a) |b|=1
(b) b (1, )
(a) (6, )
(b) (5, 6]
(c) b (0,1)
(d) b (1,0)
(2011)
(c) [4, 5]
(d) ( , 4).
baretherootsoftheequationx2 x+1=0,then

If aand
a2009 + b2009 =
(a) 2
(b) 1

(c) 1

(d) 2

(2010)

anxn

(2005)

an 1xn 1

14. If the equation


+
+ ... + a1x = 0,
a1 0, n 2, has a positive root x = a, then the equation
nanxn1 +(n1)an1 xn2 +...+a1 =0hasapositiveroot,
which is
(a) smallerthan a
(b) greater than a
(c) equal to a
(d) greater than or equal to a.
(2005)
15. Let two numbers have arithmetic mean 9 and geometric
mean 4. Then these numbers are the roots of the quadratic
equation
(a) x2 +18x16=0 (b) x2 18x+16=0
(c) x2 +18x+16=0 (d) x2 18x16=0.
(2004)

6.

Iftherootsoftheequation bx2 +cx+ a=0 be imaginary,


then for all real values of x. The expression
3b2x2 +6bcx +2c2 is
(a) lessthan4ab
(b) greaterthan 4ab
(c) lessthan4ab
(d) greaterthan4ab
(2009)

7.

Thequadraticequationsx2 6x+a=0andx2 cx+6=0


haveonerootincommon.Theotherrootsofthefirstandsecond
equationsareintegersintheratio4:3.Thenthecommonroot
is
2
(a) 2
(b) 1
(c) 4
(d) 3
(2008) 16. If(1p) isa root of quadraticequation x +px+(1 p)= 0
then its roots are
If the difference between the roots of the equation
(a) 0, 1 (b) 1, 1 (c) 0, 1 (d) 1, 2.
(2004)
x2 + ax + 1 = 0 is less than 5, then the set of possible
2
17. If one rootof the equation x + px + 12 =0 is 4, while the
valuesofa is
equationx2 + px+ q =0has equal roots,then the value of
(a) (3, )
(b) ( ,3)
q is
(c) (3,3)
(d) (3, ).
(2007)
(a) 3
(b) 12
(c) 49/4 (d) 4.
(2004)

8.

20

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

(a) 3x2 25x +3 = 0 (b) x2 + 5x 3 = 0


18. The value ofafor which one root of the quadraticequation
2
2
(c) x2 5x +3 = 0
(d) 3x2 19x + 3= 0.
(2002)
(a 5a+3)x + (3a 1)x+ 2= 0istwiceaslargeasthe
other is
22. Difference between the corresponding roots of
(a) 2/3 (b) 1/3
(c) 1/3 (d) 2/3.
(2003)
x2 +ax+b=0andx2 + bx+a=0issameanda b,then
19. If the sum of the roots of the quadratic equation
(a) a + b + 4 = 0
(b) a + b 4 = 0
ax2 +bx+c=0isequaltothe sumof thesquaresoftheir
(c) a b 4 = 0
(d) a b + 4 = 0.
(2002)
a , b and c
2
23. Product of real roots of the equation x + | x | + 9 = 0
reciprocals, then c a
b are in
(a) is always positive (b) is always negative
(a) geometric progression
(c) does not exist
(d) none of these.
(2002)
(b) harmonic progression
2
(c) arithmeticgeometric progression
24. Ifpandqaretherootsoftheequationx +px+q=0,then
(d) arithmetic progression.
(2003)
(a) p = 1, q = 2
(b) p = 0, q = 1
(c)
p
=2,
q
=
0
(d) p = 2, q = 1.
(2002)
20. The number of real solutions of the equation
2
x 3|x| +2 =0 is
25. Ifa,b,caredistinct+verealnumbersanda2 + b2 + c2 =1
(a) 4
(b) 1
(c) 3
(d) 2.
(2003)
thenab + bc + ca is
(a) lessthan 1
(c) greater than 1

21. If a b but a2 = 5a 3 and b2 = 5b 3 then the equation


whose roots are a/b and b/a is

(b) equal to 1
(d) any real no.

Answer Key

1.

(c)

2.

(d)

7.

(a)

8.

(c)

13. (d)
19. (b)
25. (a)

14. (a)
20. (a)

3.
9.
15.
21.

(d)
(b)
(b)
(d)

4.
10.
16.
22.

(b)
(c)
(a)
(a)

5.
11.
17.
23.

(b)
(b)
(c)
(c)

6.
12.
18.
24

(b)
(c)
(d)
(a)

(2002)

21

QuadraticEquations

7. (a): Let a and4b bethe rootof


1. (c): Let f (x)=2x3 +3x+k , f (x)=6x2 +3 >0
Thus fisstrictlyincreasing.Henceithasatmostonerealroot.
x2 6x + a=0
Butapolynomialequationofodddegreehasatleastoneroot.
and aand3b bethoseoftheequation x2 cx +6 = 0
Thustheequationhasexactlyoneroot.Thenthetwodistinct
From the relationbetweenroots and coefficients
roots,inanyintervalwhatsoeverisanimpossibility.Nosuch
a+4b=6and4ab= a
(c)exists.
2
a+3b= c and3ab =6
2. (d) : Intheequation x +2x +3=0,boththerootsareimaginary.
weobtain ab =2giving a=8
a b c
Sincea, b,c R, we have = =
Thefirstequationis x2 6x+8=0 x =2, 4
1 2 3
For a =2,4b =4 3b =3
Hencea:b:c:: 1: 2: 3
For a=4,4b =2 3b=3/2(notaninteger)
sinx
sinx
3. (d):e e
4= 0
Sothecommonrootis a =2.
(esinx)2 4esinx 1=0 t2 4t 1= 0
4 16 + 4
t =
= 2 5
2

8.

i.e., esinx = 2 + 5 or 14
2 4244
- 53 (neglected)

| a - b | = (a + b )2 - 4ab , | a - b | = a 2 -4

- ve

Since, | a - b | < 5 a 2 - 4 < 5

a2 4<5 a2 <9 3<a< 3.

sin x = ln (2 + 5) >1 \ No real roots.


4. (b) : Let rootsbe 1+ ai,1 +bi, thenwe have, (a R)
(1+ai)+(1+ bi)= a 2+ (a+b)i = a
(1+ai)(1+ bi)= b
Comparingwehave, a = 2 anda =b
Now(1+ai)(1 ai) = b
1+ a2 = b b =1 + a2
Asa2 0we have b (1, )
1 i 3
5. (b):Wehavex2 x+1= 0giving x=
.
2

Identifyingthese roots as w and w2,


wehave a = w, b = w2.Wecanalsotaketheotherwayround
that wouldnot affectthe result.
Now a2009 + b2009 = w2009 + w4018
= w3k+2 + w3m+1
(k,m N)
= w2 + w =1.
(... w3k = 1)
6. (b) : The roots of bx2 + cx + a = 0 are imaginary means
c2 4ab <0 c2 < 4ab
Againthe coeff. of x2 in

(c):x2 +ax+1=0
Letrootsbe a and b, then a + b =aand ab =1

9.

(b) : a = tan 30, b = tan 15 are roots of the equation


x2 + px + q = 0
\ tan a +tan b = p andtan a tan b = q
usingtan a + tan b = tan (a + b)
(1 tan a tan b)
p = 1 q q p = 1 2 + q p = 3

10. (c) : Let a, b are roots of the equation


(x2 2mx + m2) = 1

x = m 1= m +1, m 1
Now 2 < m +1 < 4
...... (i)
and 2 < m 1 < 4
....... (ii)
......(A)
-3 < m< 3

and
1
<
m
<
5
.......(B)

By (A) & (B)we get 1 < m < 3 asshown by the number


line.

3b2x2 + 6bcx + 2c2 is +ve, so the minimum value of the


11. (b) : Let f(a) = a2 + b2 = (a + b)2 2ab
expression
= (a 2)2 + 2(a + 1)
2 2
2
2
2 2
36b c - 4(3b )(2c ) 12b c
\ f (a) = 2(a 2) + 2
==
= -c2
ForMaxima | Minima f (a)= 0
(3b 2 )
12b2
2[a 2 + 1] = 0 a = 1
2
2
Asc <4ab wehavec > 4ab
Againf (a)= 2,
Thusthe minimumvalueis 4ab.
f (1) =2 >0 at a =1, f(a) will be least.

22

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

By (i) and (ii) we have

12. (c) : Let a, a + 1 are consecutive integer


\ (x + a)(x + a + 1) = x2 bx + c
Comparing both sides we get b = 2a + 1
c = a2 + a
\ b2 4c = (2a + 1)2 4(a2 + a) = 1.

9a 2

13. (d) : Given x2 2kx + k2 + k 5 = 0


Roots are less than 5 D 0
(2k)2 4(k2 + k 5) k 5

...(A)

Again f(5)>0
25 10k + k2 + k 5 > 0
k2 9k + 20 > 0 (k 4)(k 5) > 0
k < 4 k > 5

...(B)

...(C)
Also sumofroots < 5 k < 5
2
from (A), (B), (C)
we have
k (, 4)as the choice gives number k < 5is (d).
14. (a) : If possible say
f ( x ) = a0 x n + a1x n-1 + ...+anx

a 2 - 5 a+ 3

2
2a2
( a 2 - 5a + 3)2
2
2
9(a 5a + 3) = (1 3a)
2
a =
3
19. (b) : Given a + b
=

(1 - 3a ) 2

( a + b ) 2 - 2 ab

a 2 b2
a 2b 2
2a2c = bc2 + ab2
2a
c b c , a ,b A.P
= +

a b c
b
a c
reciprocals are in H.P
20. (a): Given x2 3|x| + 2 = 0
If
x 0 i.e. |x|= x
\
The given equation can be written as
x2 3x +2 = 0

\ f (0) = 0

(x 1) (x 2) = 0
x = 1, 2
Similarlyfor x < 0, x2 3|x| + 2 = 0
x2 + 3x +2 = 0

Now f ( a ) = 0(\ x = a is root of given equation)

n -1
n- 2
+ ...+ a1 = 0 hasatleast
\ f ( x ) = nan x + ( n - 1) an-1 x

one root in ]0, a[


nan xn1 + (n 1) an1 xn2 + .... + a1 = 0
has a +veroot smaller than a.

Hence1, 1,2, 2 are four solutions of the given equation.


a
b
and
which
21. (d): Weneedtheequationwhoserootsare
b
a
arereciprocalofeachother,whichmeansproductofrootsis
a b
=1.Inourchoice(a)and(d)haveproductofroots1,
b a
sochoices(b)and(d)areoutofcourt.Intheproblemchoice,
None of these is not given. If out of four choices only one
choice satisfiesthat productofrootis1then you selectthat
choiceforcorrectanswer.Nowforproperchoiceweproceed
as,
a b, but a2 = 5a 3 and b2 = 5b 3,
Changing a, b by x
\ a, b are roots of x2 5x + 3 = 0
a + b =5, ab = 3
a
b
a 2 + b 2
19
a b
+
=
andproduct . = 1
now, S=
=
ab
3
b
a
b a
\ Required equation,
x2 (sum of roots) x + product of roots = 0
19
x2
x + 1 = 0
3
2
3x 19x + 3 = 0 is correct answer.

15. (b) : Let the two number be a, b


a + b
= 9 and ab = 4
\
2
\
Required equation
2

x2 2(Average value of a, b)x + G.M = 0


x2 2(9)x + 16 = 0
16. (a) :As 1 p is root of x2 + px + 1 p = 0
(1 p)2 + p(1 p) + (1 p) = 0
(1 p) [1 p + p + 1] = 0
p= 1
\
Given equation becomes x2 + x = 0
x = 0, 1
17. (c):As x2 + px + q = 0 has equal roots \ p2 =4q
and one root of x2 + px + 12 = 0 is 4.
\ 16+ 4p + 12 = 0 \ p = 7
49
\ p2 = 4q q =
4
18. (d) : Let a, 2a are roots of the given equation
\
sum of the roots
1 - 3a
a + 2a = 3a = 2
a - 5a +3
and product of roots
2
a(2a)= 2a2 = 2
a - 5a +3

x = 1, 2

...(i)

...(ii)

22. (a) : Let a, b are roots of x2 + bx + a = 0


\ a + b = b and ab = a
againlet g, d are roots of x2 + ax + b = 0
\ g + d = a and gd = b
Now given

23

QuadraticEquations

Now if q = 0 then p = 0 p = q
If p = 1, then p + q = p
q = 2p
q = 2(1)
q = 2
p = 1 and q = 2

a b= g d
(a b)2 = (g d)2
(a + b)2 4ab = (g + d)2 4gd
b2 4a = a2 4b
b2 a2 = 4(b a)
(b a) (b+ a + 4) = 0
b + a + 4= 0 as (a b)

23. (c): x2 + |x|+ 9 = 0


|x|2 + |x|+ 9 = 0
\ no real roots

( D < 0)

24 (a) : Given S = p + q = p and product pq =q


q(p 1) = 0
q = 0, p = 1

25. (a):Insuchtypeofproblemifsumofthesquaresofnumber
isknownandweneededproductofnumberstakentwo ata
timeorneededrangeoftheproductofnumberstakentwoat
a time.We start square of the sum of the numbers like
(a+ b + c)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + 2(ab + bc + ca)
2(ab + bc + ca)= (a + b + c)2 (a2 + b2 +c2)
( a + b + c) 2 -1
ab + bc + ca =
< 1
2

24

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

PERMUTATIONS
ANDCOMBINATIONS

CHAPTER

5
1.

Let Tnbethenumberofallpossibletrianglesformedbyjoining 6.
vertices of an nsided regular polygon.
IfTn + 1 Tn =10,then the valueof nis
(a) 5
(b) 10
(c) 8
(d) 7
(2013)

2.

Assuming the balls to be identical except for difference in


colours,thenumberofwaysinwhichoneormoreballscan
beselectedfrom10 white,9green and7 blackballsis
(a) 630
(b) 879
(c) 880
(d) 629
(2012) 7.

3.

Statement1 : The number of ways of distributing


10identicalballsin4distinctboxessuchthatnoboxisempty
is 9C3.
Statement2:Thenumberofwaysofchoosingany3places
from 9different places is 9C3.
(a) Statement1istrue, Statement2is false.
(b) Statement1isfalse, Statement2is true.
(c) Statement1istrue,Statement2istrueStatement2is
a correctexplanation for Statement1.
(d) Statement1istrue,Statement2istrueStatement2is
not a correct explanation for Statement1.
(2011)

4.

Let S1 =

10

10

j ( j - 1) 10C j , S 2 =

j =1

10

and S3 =

5.

j 2 10C j .

j 10C j
j=1

8.

From6differentnovelsand3differentdictionaries,4novels
and1dictionaryaretobeselectedandarrangedinarowon
ashelfsothatthedictionaryisalwaysinthemiddle.Then
thenumberofsucharrangementsis
(a) atleast500butlessthan750
(b) atleast750butlessthan1000
(c) atleast1000
(d) lessthan500
(2009)
Inashoptherearefivetypesoficecreamsavailable.Achild
buyssixicecreams.
Statement1 : The number of different ways the child can
buythesixicecreamsis 10C5.
Statement2 : The number of different ways the child can
buy the six icecreams is equal to the number of different
waysofarranging6Asand4 Bsinarow.
(a) Statement1istrue,Statement2isfalse
(b) Statemen1isfalse,Statement2istrue
(c) Statement1istrue,Statement2istrueStatement2is
acorrectexplanationforStatement1
(d) Statement1istrue,Statement2istrueStatement2is
not acorrectexplanationforStatement1
(2008)
How many differentwords can be formedby jumbling the
lettersinthewordMISSISSIPPIinwhichnotwoSareadjacent?
(a) 7 6C4 8C4
(b) 8 6C4 7C4

j=1
(c) 67 8C4
(d) 68 7C4
(2008)
Statement1:S3 =55 29.
9. The sumof the series
Statement2:S1 =9028 andS2 =10 28.
20C 20C + 20C 20C +...........+ 20C is
(a) Statement1is true, statement2 is truestatement2is a
0
1
2
3
10
correct explanation of statement1.
(a) 0
(b) 20C10
(c) 20C10
(d) 1 20C10.
(b) Statement1istrue,statement2istruestatement2isnot
2
acorrect explanation for statement1.
(2007)
(c) Statement1istrue,statement2 isfalse.
(d) Statement1isfalse,statement2 istrue.
(2010) 10. Atanelection,avotermayvoteforanynumberofcandidates,
not greater than the number to be elected. There are 10
Therearetwourns.UrnAhas3distinctredballsandurnB
candidatesand4aretobeelected.Ifavotervotesforatleast
has9distinctblueballs.Fromeachurntwoballsaretaken
onecandidate,thenthenumberofwaysinwhichhecanvote
outatrandomandthentransferredtotheother.Thenumber
is
ofwaysinwhich thiscanbe doneis
(a) 5040
(b) 6210
(c) 385
(d) 1110.
(a) 3
(b) 36
(c) 66
(d) 108
(2006)
(2010)

25

PermutationsandCombinations

11. IfthelettersofthewordSACHINarearrangedinallpossible
(a) 196
(b) 280
(c) 346
(d) 140.
ways and these words are written out as in dictionary, then
(2003)
the word SACHIN appears at serial number
n
17. If Cr denotesthenumberofcombinationsofnthings taken
(a) 602
(b) 603
(c) 600
(d) 601.
(2005)
ratatime,thentheexpressionnCr +1 +nCr 1 +2nCr equals
(a) n+ 2Cr+ 1 (b) n+ 1Cr
(c) n+ 1Cr+ 1 (d) n+ 2Cr .
6
50
56- r
C3 is
12. The value of C4 +
(2003)
r=1
18. Numbergreaterthan1000butlessthan4000isformedusing
(a) 56C4
(b) 56C3
(c) 55C3
(d) 55C4.
the digits 0, 2, 3, 4 repetition allowed is
(2005)
(a) 125
(b) 105
(c) 128
(d) 625.
13. Howmanywaysare there to arrange the letters intheword
(2002)
GARDEN with the vowels in alphabetical order?
(a) 360
(b) 240
(c) 120
(d) 480.
19. Fivedigit numberdivisible by 3is formed using 0, 1, 2, 3,
(2004)
4,6and7withoutrepetition.Totalnumberofsuch numbers
are
14. Then number of ways of distributing 8 identical balls in 3
distinct boxes so that none of the boxes is empty is
(a) 312
(b) 3125
(c) 120
(d) 216.
(a) 38
(b) 21
(c) 5
(d) 8C3.
(2002)
(2004)
20. Thesumofintegersfrom1to100that aredivisible by 2or
15. Thenumberofways inwhich6menand5womencandine
5 is
at aroundtableif notwowomen are tosittogetherisgiven
(a) 3000
(b) 3050
(c) 3600
(d) 3250.
by
(2002)
(a) 30
(b) 5 ! 4 ! (c) 7 ! 5 !
(d) 6 ! 5!.
(2003) 21. Total number of four digit odd numbers that can be formed
using 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 are
16. Astudentistoanswer10outof13questionsinanexamination
(a) 216
(b) 375
(c) 400
(d) 720.
suchthathemustchooseatleast4fromthefirstfivequestions.
(2002)
The number of choices available to him is

Answer Key

1.
7.
13.
19.

(a)
(b)
(a)
(d)

2.
8.
14.
20.

(b)
(a)
(b)
(b)

3.
9.
15.
21.

(c)
(d)
(d)
(d)

4. (c)
10. (a)
16. (a)

5. (d)
11. (d)
17. (a)

6. (c)
12. (a)
18. (c)

26

1.

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

(a)

1st solution: n + 1C3 nC3 = 10

Sincethedictionaryisfixedinthemiddle,weonlyhaveto
arrange4novelswhichcanbe donein4!ways.

( n + 1) n(n - 1) n(n - 1)(n - 2)


=10
6
6

Thenthe numberofways= 6C4 3C1 4!

3n(n1)= 60 n(n 1)=20 n2 n20=

(n5)(n+4) =0

\ n= 5

7.

2nd solution: n + 1C3 nC3 = 10


n (n- 1)
=10
2
2

n n 20 =0.
\ n= 5
Herewehaveused nCr + nCr+1 = n+ 1Cr+ 1
n

2.

3.

4.

C2 = 10

(b): Numberofwaysinwhich one or moreballscanbe


selectedfrom10 white, 9green, 7 blackballs is
=(10+1)(9+1)(7+ 1)1
=8801=879ways
(c):x1 +x2 + x3 + x4 =10
Thenumberofpositive integralsolution is 6+41C4 1
= 9C3 8.
Itisthesameasthenumberofwaysofchoosingany3balls
from 9 differentplaces.

(c): S1=
=

65
0 3 24 =1080=1080
2
(b):Wehavetofindthenumberofintegralsolutions
ifx1 +x2 +x3 +x4 +x5 =6
andthatequals 5+61C51 = 10C4
ThusStatement1isfalse.
Number ofdifferent ways of arranging6As and 4Bs in a
row
10 10
=
= C4 = Numberofdifferentwaysthechildcanbuy
6 4
the sixicecreams.
\ Statement2istrue
So,Statement1isfalse,Statement2istrue.
=

(a):LeavingS,wehave7lettersM,I,I,I,P,P,I.
7
= 7 5 3
wayofarrangingthem=
24
Andfour S canbeputin8placesin 8C4 ways.
Therequirednumberofways=753 8C4 =7 6C4 8C4.

j( j - 1)10C j

9.

10(10 - 1) 8
j ( j - 1)
Cj- 2
j ( j- 1)

(d): Q

20

C0 + 20 C1 x + .......+ 20 C10x10 +

10

= 9 10

....... + 20 C20x 20 = (1 + x )20

Afterputtingx=1,weget
20

8C j- 2 = 90 28

C0 - 20 C1 + 20 C2 - 20 C3 +......
+ 20 C10 - 20 C11 - 20 C12 + ..... + 20 C20 =0

j= 2

10

S2 =

10

10

C j = 10

j =1

10

S3 =

j =1

C j-1= 10 2
j=1

10

j 2 10C j =

( j ( j - 1) + j ) 10C j
j=1

10

j =1

10

j ( j - 1)10C j +

j 10C j
j=1

=9028 +10 29 = (45+10)29 = 5529.


Thenstatement1 istrueandstatement2 isfalse.
5.
6.

9 8
=108
2
(c):Outof6novels,4novelscanbeselectedin 6C4 ways.
Alsooutof3dictionaries,1dictionarycanbeselectedin3C1
ways.

(d):The numberof ways=(3C2)(9C2) = 3

2(20 C0 - 20 C1 + 20 C2 -20 C3 + ...... - 20 C9 ) + 20 C10 =0


20

C0 - 20 C1 + 20 C 2 - 20 C 3 + .....- 20 C 9 + 20 C10 = 1 C10


2
20

10. (a): A votercanvoteonecandidateortwoorthree orfour


candidates
\
Required number of ways
= 10c1 + 10c2 + 10c3 + 10c4 = 385
Fixed

11. (d) : S A C H I N
No. of word start with A = 5!
No. of word start with C = 5!
No. of word start with H = 5!
No. of word start with I = 5!
No. of word start with N = 5!
Total words = 5! + 5!+ 5! + 5! + 5! = 5(5 !) = 600

27

PermutationsandCombinations

Nowaddtherankof SACHINsorequiredrankofSACHIN
= 600 + 1 = 601.
12. (a)

50

C4 +

56- r

C3

r= 1

Putting r = 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 we get
50

C4 +

50

C3 +

51

C3 +

52

C3 + 53C3 +

54

C3 +

55

C3

( Q nCr + n Cr +1 = n+ 1Cr+1)
= 51C4 + 51C3 + 52C3 + 53C3 + 54C3 + 55C3
= 52C4 + 52C3 + 53C3 + 54C3 + 55C3
= 53C4 + 53C3 + 54C3 + 55C3 = 54C4 + 54C3 + 55C3
= 55C4 + 55C3 = 56C4

16. (a): Case (i) :


Required ways for first case = 5C4 8C6 = 140
Case(ii):
No.ofquestion5

No.ofquestion8

No.ofquestion4

No.ofquestion6

No.ofquestion5

No.ofquestion8

C5

C5

\ Required ways for case (ii) = 5C5 8C5

8 7 6
= 56
3 2 1
Total number of ways = 140 + 56
= 196
=

13. (a) : Number of letters = 6

Number of vowels = 2 namely A.E these alphabets can be


arrange themselves by 2! ways
17. (a) : Consider nCr 1 + 2nCr + nCr + 1
6!
= (nCr 1 + nCr) + (nCr + nCr + 1)
\ Number of words =
= 360
2!
=n + 1Cr + n + 1Cr + 1
14. (b) : (i) Each box must contain at least one ballsince no
= n + 2Cr + 1
box remains empty so we have the following cases
18. (c) : Let number of digits formed x.
Box
Numberofballs
\ 1000< x< 4000,whichmeansleftextremedigit willbe
either 2 or 3.
I
1,
1,
1,
2,
2,
\ Required numbers = 2C1 H T U
I
1,
2,
3,
3,
2,
where H = Hundred place
= 2C1 4 4 4
T = Tens place
III
6,
5,
4,
3,
4,
= 128
U = Unit place
\ Number of ways
19. (d)
1 3!
3
+ 3! 2
20. (b) : Set of numbers divisible by 2 are 2, 4, 6, ....100
2!
Set of numbers divisible by 5 are 5, 10, 15, ....100
= 9+ 6 2 = 21
Set of numbers divisible by 10 are 10, 20, 30, ....100
As 1,1,6 2,3,4 2,2,4
have case ways and
Now sum of numbers divisible by 2 is given by
1,2,5 1,3,4 haveequalnumberofwaysofarrangingthe
50
n
S50 =
[2 + 100] using Sn = [a + l]
balls in the
different boxes.
2
2
(ii): Letthenumberofballsintheboxesare x, y, z respectively
S50 = 25[102]
thenx+ y+ z= 8 and no box is empty so eachx, y, z 1
20
l + m + n + 3 = 8 where l = x 1,
Similarly, S20 =
[5 + 100] =10 105 = 1050
2
m= y 1, n = z 1
10
i.e.(l+1)+(m+1)+(n+1)=8arenonnegativeintegers
and S10 =
[10 + 100] = 5 110
2
\
Required number of ways = n + r 1Cr
\
Requiredsum = 25 102+ 1050 550
= 3 + 5 1C5 = 7C5 = 7C2
= 25[102 + 42 22]
M

15. (d) : Number of women = 5

= 25 122
= 3050

Number of men = 6
M
M
21. (d): Odd numbers are 1, 3, 5, 7
Number of ways of 6 men at a
M
We have to fill up four places like TH H T U
roundTable isn 1! = (6 1)!= 5!
(Case: If repetition is allow)
Nowwe leftwith sixplaces between the men andthere are
5C 62 4C = 5 62 4
6
5 women, these 5 women can be arranged themselves by P5
1
1
= 5 36 4
way.
= 720
\ Required number of ways = 5! 6P5 = 5! 6!

28

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

CHAPTER

6
1.

MATHEMATICALINDUCTION
ANDITSAPPLICATION
2.

Statement1:Forevery naturalnumber n 2,
1
1
1
+
+ ... +
> n.
1
2
n
Statement2:Forevery naturalnumber n 2,
n ( n + 1) < n +1.

(a) Statement1 is true, Statement2 is false


(b) Statemen1 is false, Statement2 is true
3.
(c) Statement1istrue,Statement2istrueStatement2isa
correct explanation for Statement1
(d) Statement1 is true, Statement2 is true Statement2 is
not a correct explanation for Statement1
(2008)

Answer Key

1.

(d)

2.

(b)

3.

(b)

Let S(k)=1 +3+5+ ...+(2k 1)= 3+ k2. Then which


of the following is true?
(a) S(k) S(k 1)
(b) S(k) S(k + 1)
(c) S(1) is correct
(d) principleofmathematicalinductioncanbeusedtoprove
the formula.
(2004)
If an = 7 + 7 + 7 +.... having n radical signs then by
methods of mathematical induction which is true
(a) an > 7, " n 1
(b) an > 3, " n 1
(c) an < 4, " n 1

(d) an < 3, " n 1.


(2002)

29

MathematicalInductionandItsApplication

1. (d): Statement1
1
1
1
Let P ( n ) :
+
+ ...+
> n
1
2
n
1
1
+
> 2 istrue
1
2
Step2:AssumeP(n)istrue forn= k, i.e.
1
1
1
+
+ ...+
> k
1
2
k

k>

k+

( k + 1) - 1

k +1

Step1:Forn = 2, P (2) :

Statement2
Forn=k
k ( k + 1) < k +1

k + 1> k

k < k +1

k
k +1

...(iv)

...(i)

...(ii)

...(iii)

1
1
1
1
1
+
+
+ ... +
+
> k + 1
1
2
3
k
k +1
hence(ii)istrue forn= k +1
henceP(n)istrue for n 2
So,Statement1andStatement2 are correctbut
Statement2is notexplanation ofStatement1

2. (b) : S(k) = 1 +3 + .... + (2k 1)= 3 + k2 ...(i)


When k = 1, L.H.S of S(k) R.H.S of S(k)
So S(1) is not true.
Now S(k +1) 1 +3 +5 + ....+ (2k 1) +(2k +1)
=3+(k +1)2
...(ii)
Let S(k) istrue \ 1+ 3 +5 + ....+(2k 1) =k2+3
1 +3 + 5 +... + (2k 1) + (2k + 1)
= 3 + k2 + 2k + 1 = (k+ 1)2 + 3
S(k + 1) true \ S(k) S(k + 1)
7 + a n

an2 an 7 = 0

For k 2

k
k >
k +1
Multiplyingby k
1>

1
> k + 1
k +1

3. (b): an =

k + 1 < k + 1 k +1

1
k +1

From(iii)&(iv)

Step3:For n= k +1,we haveto showthat


1
1
1
1
1
+
+
+ ... +
+
> k + 1
1
2
3
k
k +1
ByAssumptionstep, weget
1
1
1
+
+ ...+
> k
1
2
k
1
Adding
on bothsides, weget
k +1
1
1
1
1
1
+
+ ...+
+
> k +
1
2
k
k +1
k +1

k > k + 1-

\ an =
=

1 + 28
2

1 29
> 3
2

30

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

CHAPTER

BINOMIALTHEOREM

7
1.

The term independent of x in expansion of


10

x +1
x- 1

2/3 1/3
is
x - x + 1 x -x1/2
(a) 120
(b) 210
(c) 310

(d) 4
(2013) 8.

2.

3.

Ifn isapositive integer, then( 3 + 1)2 n - ( 3 -1)2n is


(a) aneven positive integer.
(b) arationalnumberother thanpositive integers.
(c) anirrationalnumber.
(d) anoddpositive integer.
(2012) 9.
7
The coefficient of x in the expansion of (1 x x2+ x3)6
is
(a) 144

4.

(b) 132

(c) 144

(d) 132
(2011)

Theremainderleftoutwhen82n (62)2n+1 isdividedby9is


(a) 2

(b) 7

(c) 8

(d) 0

Statement1:

( r + 1) n Cr = ( n + 2)2n-1
r= 0
n

Statement2:

( )

(2006)

(2006)

11

1
Ifthecoefficientof x7 in ax2 +
equalsthecoefficient
bx

11

1
in ax- 2 , then a and b satisfy the relation
bx

(a) a + b = 1
(b) a b = 1
a = 1.
(2005)
(c) ab = 1
(d)
b
of x7

10. If x issosmallthat x3 andhigherpowersof x maybe neglected,


(2009)

5.

b n - an
a n - bn
(b)
b -a
b -a
a n +1 - bn+1
b n +1 - an+1
(c)
(d)
.
b -a
b -a
For natural numbers m, n if
(1 y)m (1 + y)n =1 + a1y + a2y2 + ...,
and a1 = a2 = 10, then (m, n) is
(a) (20, 45)
(b) (35, 20)
(c) (45, 35)
(d) (35, 45).

(a)

( r + 1) n Cr xr = (1 + x ) n + nx (1 + x )n-1

(1 + x )3/ 2 - 1+ 1x
2
then
1/ 2
(1 -x )
3
2
(a) 3x + x
8

maybeapproximated as
3 2
(b) 1- x
8

r= 0

6.

7.

3
(c) x-3x 2
(a) Statement1 is true, Statement2 is false
(d) - x 2.
(2005)
2 8
8
(b) Statemen1 is false, Statement2 is true
(c) Statement1istrue,Statement2istrueStatement2isa 11. Thecoefficientofthemiddleterminthebinomialexpansion
in powers of x of (1 + ax)4 and of (1 ax)6 is the same if
correct explanation for Statement1
a equals
(d) Statement1 is true, Statement2 is true Statement2 is
(a) 3/10 (b) 10/3
(c) 5/3
(d) 3/5.
not a correct explanation for Statement1
(2004)
(2008)
n
n
12.
The
coefficient
of
x
in
expansion
of
(1
+
x)(1

x)
is
Inthebinomialexpansionof(ab)n,n 5,thesumof5th
n 1
2
n
(a)
(1)
(n

1)
(b)
(1)
(1

n)
and6th termsiszero,then a/b equals
(c) (n 1)
(d) (1)n 1 n.
(2004)
n -5
n -4
5
6
n
(a) 6
(b)
(c) n -4
(d) n -5.
n 1
r
t
5
and tn = n , then n is equal to
13. If sn = n
sn
r= 0 C r
r= 0 C r
(2007)
Iftheexpansioninpowersof x ofthefunction
is a0 + a1x + a2x2 + a3x3 + ..., then an is

1
(1 - ax )(1 -bx)

(a) n 1

(b)

1
n -1
2

(c)

1
n
2

(d)

2n -1
.
2
(2004)

31

BinomialTheorem

14. Ifxispositive,thefirstnegative terminthe expansionof(1


+x)27/5 is
(a) 5th term (b) 8th term (c) 6th term
(d) 7th term.
(2003)
256

15. Thenumberofintegraltermsintheexpansionof ( 3 +8 5)
is
(a) 33
(b) 34
(c) 35
(d) 32.
(2003)
16. The positive integer just greater than (1 + .0001)1000 is
(a) 4
(b) 5
(c) 2
(d) 3.
(2002)

equal, then n equals


(a) 3r
(b) 3r + 1

(c) 2r

(d) 2r + 1.
(2002)

18. The coefficients of xp and xq in the expansion of


(1 + x)p + q are
(a) equal
(b) equal with opposite signs
(c) reciprocals of each other
(d) none of these.
(2002)

19. If the sum of the coefficients in the expansion of (a + b)n


is 4096, then the greatest coefficient in the expansion is
(a) 1594
(b) 792
(c) 924
(d) 2924.
17. r and n are positive integersr > 1,n > 2 and coefficient of
(2002)
th
th
2n
(r+2) termand3r termintheexpansionof(1+x) are

Answer Key

1.
7.
13.
19.

(b)
(d)
(c)
(c)

2. (c)
8. (d)
14. (d)

3. (a)
9. (c)
15. (a)

4. (a)
10. (d)
16. (c)

5. (c)
11. (a)
17. (c)

6. (b)
12. (b)
18. (a)

32

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

10

1.

x +1
x- 1

(b): 2/3 1/3


x - x + 1 x -x1/2

6.
10

7.

( x1/3 + 1)( x 2/3 - x1/3+ 1) ( x + 1)( x - 1)


=

x ( x - 1)
x 2/3 - x1/3+ 1

20 - 5r
6

= ( x1/3 - x -1/2 )10 \


20 - 5r
=0
6

Thus
2.

Tr + 1 = ( -1)r 10Cr x

\ Term = 10C4 =210.

r = 4

(c): ( 3 + 1)2 n - ( 3 -1)2n


= 2 2n C1( 3) 2n -1 + 2 nC3( 3) 2n- 3+ .... ,

=(1 6C1x+ 6C2x2 6C3x3 + 6C4x4 6C5x5 + 6C6x6)


(1 6C1x2 + 6C2x4 6C3x6 + 6C4x8 6C5x10 + 6C6x12)
Coeff.ofx7 =(6C1)(6C3)+ (6C3)(6C2) + (6C5)(6C1)

8.

=6202015+66=120300+36=144
4. (a):UsingModuloArithmetic
Also 62 =1(modulo9)

=[(1)2n (1)2n+1]mod 9

=(1+1)mod9=2mod 9 Remainder= 2
n

5. (c):

( r + 1)n Cr = r n Cr + nCr
r =0

r =0

r= 0

n
n
= r n -1Cr -1 + nCr
r
r =0
r= 0

= n 2n -1 + 2n = 2n-1( n +2)
ThusStatement1is true.
n

n
r
n
r
n
r
Again ( r + 1) Cr x = r Cr x + Crx
r =0

r= 0

= n
r=0

a n- 4
=
.
b
5

C5a n-5 ( -b )5

(d) : From given


1
= (1 - ax ) -1 (1 - bx)-1
(1 - ax )(1 -bx )
= (a0 + a1x + .....+ anxn + .....) (1 bx)1
= (1+ ax+ a2x2 + ....... + an1xn1 + anxn + ......)
(1 + bx + b2x2 .......+ bnxn + .......)
n + .......)
(a0 + a1x
+ ....... + anx

= 1 + x (a + b) + x2 (a2 + ab + b2) + x3
(a3 + a2b + ab2 + b3) + .... + .... + .... + xn
n
(a + an1 b + an2 b2 + .... + abn1 + bn)+ ....

=(1 x)6 (1x2)6

82n (62)2n+ 1

an = an + an1 b + an2 b2 + ...... + a bn1 + bn

(a):(1xx2 + x3)6 =((1 x)(1x2))6

8=1(modulo9)

On comparing the coefficient of xn both sides we have

anirrationalnumber.
3.

n
n -4
4
(b): C4 a ( - b ) = -

Cr -1x r + n Crx r

= nx (1 + x )n -1 + (1 +x )n
Substitutex =1intheabove identity toget
( r + 1) n Cr = n 2n -1 +2n
Statement2isalso true& explainsStatement1 also.

b n +1 - an+1
.
b -a

(d) : (1 y)m (1 + y)n


= 1 + a1y + a2y2 + a3y3 + ...... +
...... (*)
Differentiating w.r.t. y both sides of (*) we have
m(1 y)m1(1 + y)n + (1 y)m n(1 + y)n1
= a1 + 2a2y + 3a3y2 + 4a4y3 + .......
n(1 + y)n1(1 y)m m(1 y)m1(1 + y)n
= a1 + 2a2y + 3a2y2 + 4a4y3 + .......
.....(**)
Again differentiating (**) with respect to y we have
[n(n 1)(1 + y)n2(1 y)m + n(1 + y)n1(m) (1 y)m1]
[m(1+ y)n(m 1)(1y)m2(1y)m1n(1+y)+n1]
=2a2 + 6a3y
....... (***)
+ .......
Now putting y = 0 in (**) and (***) we get
n m = a1 = 10
(A)
and m2 + n2 (m + n)2 mn = 2a2 = 20 ....(B)
Solving (A) and (B)
n =45, m = 35
\

n
n -1

r= 0

( a n + a n -1b + a n - 2 b 2 + ..... + abn -1 + b n)( b - a)


b -a
(Multiplying anddividing byb a)

9.

(m, n) = (35, 45)

(c) : Tr + 1 of ax 2 +

1
bx

11

1
Tr + 1 of ax - 2
bx

11

= 11Cr(ax2)r

11- r

1
Cr ( ax)r - 2
bx

11

2
\ Coeff. of x7 in ax +

11- r

( )
1
bx

11

1
bx

11

C5

a6
b5

33

BinomialTheorem
11

and coefficient of x7 in ax - 2 =
bx

11

Now

a6
=
b5

C5

11

C6

a5
b 6

11

C6

a5
b6

1000

16. (c) : Let R = 1 + 4


10

103

1
2
999 1
1
1
=1+1000 4 + 1000
+....+ 4

4
10
10
2 10

\ ab = 1.
3

(1 + x )3/ 2 - 1+ 1x
2
10. (d) :
1/ 2
(1 - x )
3
1 + x + 3 1 1 x 2 + ... - 1 + 3 1 x + 3 2 1x2 + ....
2
2 2 2!
2
2! 4
=
(1 -x )1/ 2

)(

3
= - x 2 (1 -x )-1/ 2 = - 3 x 2 1 + 1 x + 1 3 1 x 2 + ...
8

8 2
2 2 2!
3
= - x 2 +higher powers of x 2.
8
11. (a):Coefficientof middletermin(1 + ax)4 = coefficientof
middle term in (1 ax)6

3
10
12. (b): (1 + x) (1 x)n = (1 x)n + x(1 x)n
\ Coefficient of xn is = (1)n + (1)n 1 nC1
= (1)n [1 n]
\ 4C2a2 = 6C3( a)3 a =-

13. (c): tn =

r = 0

tn =

n - ( n - r)
n

C n - r

r = 0

tn = n

r =0

nC r - nC r

tn = n

1
n

Cr

10
9
10
\
The positive integer just greater than
is 2.
9
17. (c): Given r > 1, n > 2 and
Coefficient of
Tr + 2 = Coefficient of T3r in (1 + x)2n
2nCr + 1 = 2nC3r 1
R <

2 n - 3r + 1 = r+ 1

2 n = 4r
3r 1 = r+ 1 and

n = 2r

2r = 2

n - r

nC n - r

r = 0

replacing n r by r

r = 0

tn = nsn tn
tn
n
\
=
sn
2

( p + q)!
q !( p + q -q )!

( p + q)!
q ! p !

27

n( n - 1) ..... (n - r + 1) r
x
r !
32
27
\ n r +1 < 0
+ 1 < r r >
5
5
Tr + 1 =

r > 6

15. (a) : (31/2 + 51/8)256


r

Tr + 1 = 256Cr ( 3) 256-r 58

256-r r
, are both positive integer
2
8
\ r = 0, 8, 16, ...256
\ 256 = 0 + (n 1)8 using tn = a + (n 1)d
256
256
\
= n 1 \ n =
+ 1
8
8
n = 32 + 1 n = 33

( p + q)!
( p + q)!
=
p !( p + q - p)!
p ! q !

...(i)

Also coefficient of xq in (1 + x)p + q is


= p + qCq

14. (d) : General term in the expansion of (1 + x )5

For integral terms

10
1
1
1
+
+ 3 + ... =
9
10 10 2
10

Q nCx = n Cy

r= 1 x + y = n

or x = y

18. (a) : In the expansion of (1 + x)p + q


Tr + 1 = p + qCrxr
\ Coefficient of xp = p + qCp

nC r

< 1 +

....(ii)

\
By (i) and (ii)
Coefficient of xp in (1 + x)p + q = Coefficient of xq in
(1 + x)p + q

19. (c): Consider (a + b)n = C0 an + C1an 1b


n
+ C2an 2b2 + .... + Cnb

Putting a= b = 1
\
2n = C0 + C1 + C2 + .... + Cn
2n =4096 = 212
n = 12 (even)
Now(a + b)n = (a + b)12
as n = 12 is even socoefficient of greatest term is
Cn = 12C12 = 12C6

12 11 10 9 .8 7 11 9 . 8 .7
. =
.
= 11 34 7 = 924
6 5 4 3 2 1
3 . 2 .1

34

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

CHAPTER

8
1.

2.

SEQUENCESANDSERIES

The sum of first 20 terms of the sequence 0.7, 0.77,


6.
0.777,...,is
(a)

7
(99 -10 -20)
9

(b)

7
(179 +10-20)
81

(c)

7
(99 +10 -20)
9

(d)

7
(179 -10-20)
81

7.
(2013)

Statement 1 : The sum of the series 1 + (1 + 2 + 4) +


(4+6+9)+(9+12+16)+...+(361+380+400)is8000.
n

Statement2: ( k 3 - ( k - 1)3 ) = n3 foranynaturalnumbern.


k = 1

8.
(a) Statement1is true,Statement2istrueStatement2is
nota correct explanation for Statement 1.
(b) Statement1istrue,Statement2is false.
(c) Statement1isfalse,Statement2is true.
(d) Statement1istrue,Statement2istrueStatement2isa 9.
correct explanation for Statement 1.
(2012)
3.

4.

5.

If100timesthe100th termofanA.P.withnonzerocommon
differenceequals the 50 timesits 50th term, thenthe 150th
termofthisA.P. is
(a) 150
(b) zero
(c) 150
(d) 150timesits50th term
(2012) 10.
Amansaves ` 200 ineach of the firstthreemonthsofhis
service.Ineachofthesubsequentmonthshissavingincreases
by ` 40morethanthesavingofimmediatelypreviousmonth.
His total saving from the start of service will be ` 11040
after
11.
(a) 20months
(b) 21months
(c) 18months
(d) 19months
(2011)

Thesumtoinfinityoftheseries 1 + 2 + 6 + 10 + 14 +...... is
3 32 33 34
(a) 3
(b) 4
(c) 6
(d) 2
(2009)
Thefirsttwotermsofageometricprogressionaddupto12.
Thesumofthethirdandthefourthtermsis48.Iftheterms
of the geometric progression are alternately positive and
negative,then thefirsttermis
(a) 4
(b) 4
(c) 12
(d) 12
(2008)
1 - 1 + 1 -....
uptoinfinity is
The sumof the series
2! 3! 4!
1
(a) e

-
2

(b) e

+1
2

(c) e2

(d) e1.
(2007)

Inageometricprogressionconsistingofpositiveterms,each
termequalsthesumofthenexttwoterms.Thenthecommon
ratioofthisprogressionisequals
(a)

(b) 1 5 -1
2

1
(c) 2 1 - 5

1
(d) 2 5.

(2007)

Let a1, a2, a3, ... be terms of an A.P. If


a1 + a2 + ...+ ap p2
a
=
, p q, then 6 equals
a1 + a2 + ...+aq q 2
a21
(a) 41/11

(b) 7/2

(c) 2/7

(d) 11/41.
(2006)

If a1, a2, ..., an are in H.P., then the expression a1a


2 + a2a
3
+ ...+ an 1an is equal to
(a) n(a1 an)
(b) (n 1)(a1 an)

(c) na1an
(d) (n 1)a1an.
(2006)

Apersonistocount4500currencynotes.Letan denotethe
number of notes he counts in the nth minute.
12. If the coefficients of rth, (r + 1)th and (r + 2)th terms in the
If a1 =a2 =...=a10 =150anda10, a11,....areinanA.P.with
binomialexpansionof(1+ y)m areinA.P.,thenm andr satisfy
commondifference2,thenthetimetakenbyhimtocount
the equation
allnotesis
(a) m2 m(4r 1) + 4r2 +2 = 0
(a) 24minutes
(b) 34minutes
(b) m2 m(4r + 1) + 4r2 2 = 0
(c) 125minutes
(d) 135minutes
(c) m2 m(4r + 1) + 4r2 +2 = 0
(2010)
(d) m2 m(4r 1) + 4r2 2 = 0.
(2005)

35

SequencesandSeries

n=0

n=0

n= 0

(a) are in G.P.


(b) are in H.P.
(c) satisfya+2b+3c = 0 (d) are inA.P.

n
n
n
13. If x = a , y = b , z = c where a,b,c areinA.P..

and|a|< 1, |b|< 1, |c| < 1 then x, y, z are in


(a) H.P.
(b) ArithmeticGeometric progression
(c) A.P.
(d) G.P.

(2005)

14. If a1, a2, a3, ..., an, ... are in G.P., then the determinant
log an

log an + 1

logan+ 2

D = log an + 3

log an + 4

log an + 6

log an + 7

log an+ 5 , is equal to


logan+ 8

(a) 0

(b) 1

(c) 2

(a) loge 2 1
(c) loge (4/e)
(2005)

15. The sum of the series


1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + .... is
4 2! 16 4! 64 6!
e-1
(a) e+1
(b)
(c) e+1
e
e
2 e

20. Let f (x)bea polynomial function ofseconddegree. If f (1)


= f (1) and a, b,c are inA.P., then f (a), f (b) and f (c)
are in
(a) G.P.
(b) H.P.
(c) ArithmeticGeometric Progression
(d) A.P.
(2003)
21. Thesumoftheseries

(d) 4.

(d)

e-1
.
2 e
(2005)

(2003)

1 - 1 + 1 - ...upto
isequalto
1 2 2 3 3 4
(b) loge 2
(d) 2loge 2.
(2003)

22. If x1, x2, x3 and y1, y2, y3 arebothinG.P.withthesamecommon


ratio, then the points (x1, y1), (x2, y2) and (x3, y3)
(a) lie on an ellipse
(b) lie on a circle
(c) are vertices of a triangle
(d) lie on a straight line.
(2003)

23. Let R1 and R2 respectively be the maximum ranges up and


downonan inclinedplaneandRbethemaximumrange on
16. Let Tr be the rth term of an A.P. whose first term is a and
the horizontal plane. Then, R1, R, R2 are in
common difference is d. If for some positive integers m, n,
(a) A.P.
1
1
(b) G.P.
T
=
,
m n, m
and Tn = , then a d equals
n
m
(c) H.P.
1 1
+ .
(d) ArithmeticGeometric Progression (A.G.P.).
(2003)
(a) 1/mn
(b) 1
(c) 0
(d)
m n
(2004) 24. If1,log9(31 x +2),log3[4
3x 1]areinA.P.thenxequals

(a) log34
(b) 1 log34
17. The sum of first n terms of the series
(c)
1

log
3
(d) log43.
(2002)
2
4
12 +2 22 +32 +2 42 +52 +2 62 +....is n( n +1) when
3
3
3
3
3
2
25. 1 2 + 3 4 + ... + 9 =
n is even.When n is odd, the sum is
(a) 425
(b) 425
(c) 475
(d) 475.
2
2
n
(
n
+
1)
n
(
n
+
1)
(2002)
(a)
(b)
4
2
26. SumofinfinitenumberoftermsinGPis20andsumoftheir
2
3n(n +1)
n(n + 1) .
(2004)
(c)
(d)
square is 100.The common ratio of GP is

2
2
(a) 5
(b) 3/5
(c) 8/5
(d) 1/5.
1
1
1
(2002)
+
+
+ .... is
18. The sum of series
2! 4! 6!
27. The value of 21/ 4 41/8 81/6 ... is
(e-1)2
(e2 -1)
(a)
(b)
2e
2e
(a) 1
(b) 2
(c) 3/2
(d) 4.
2 -2)
2
(
e
(2002)
(e -1)
.
(c)
(d)
(2004)
e
2
28. Fifth term of a GP is 2, then the product of its 9 terms is
19. If the system of linear equations x + 2ay + az=0,
(a) 256
(b) 512
(c) 1024
(d) none.
x+3by+bz=0,x+ 4cy+cz= 0has a nonzerosolution,
(2002)
then a, b, c
Answer Key

1.
7.
13.
19.
25.

(b)
(c)
(a)
(b)
(a)

2.
8.
14.
20.
26.

(d)
(d)
(a)
(d)
(b)

3.
9.
15.
21.
27.

(b)
(b)
(c)
(c)
(b)

4.
10.
16.
22.
28.

(b)
(d)
(c)
(d)
(b)

5.
11.
17.
23.

(b)
(d)
(b)
(c)

6.
12.
18.
24.

(a)
(b)
(a)
(c)

36

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

1. (b): tr = 0.77777....7
14444244443

Hence,n =34istheonlyanswer.

r terms

7
7
7
7
=
+
+ .... + r = (1 - 10- r)
10 102
10 9
20

S 20 =

r =1

7
tr = 20 9

20

10- r =

r=1

2 6 10 14
+
+ +
+.....
3 32 33 34
1
1 2 6 10
S = + + + +.....
3
3 31 31 3
Subtracting(2)from(1),weget

6. (a) :Let S = 1 +

7
1

20 - (1 - 10-20)
9
9

1+(1+2+4)+(4+6+9)+....+(361+380+400)is8000
n

3
3
3
Statement2: ( k - (k - 1) )= n
k = 1

Statement1:T1 = 1,T2 =7=81,


T3 =19=278 Tn = n3 (n 1)3

4 1
4 1
4 1
1 + + ......to =
=
= 2
3 3
3 1-1 3 2 / 3
3
2

S = 2 \ S =3
3
7. (c): Letthe G.P.be a, ar,ar2, ar3,...
we havea+ ar =12
ar2 +ar3 =48
on divisionwe have
=

\ Statement2is a correctexplanation of statement1.

4. (b): Letithappens after nmonths.


n- 3
{2 240 + ( n - 4)40} =11040
2

Now a=

n- 3

(480 + 40n - 160) = 11040 - 600 =10440
2
n2 +5n546=0 (n+ 26)(n21) =0

8.

12
12
12
=
=
= -12From(1)
1 + r 1 - 2 -1

2
3
4
(d): Q e - x = 1 - x + x - x + x - ........
2! 3! 4!

upto infinity

\ n=21.

5. (b):Wehave a1 +a2 +...+ an = 4500


a11 +a12 +...+ an =4500 10150 =3000
148+146+....=3000
n- 10

(2 148 + (n - 10 - 1)( -21))=3000


2
Letn10= m
m148m(m1)=3000
m2 149m+3000= 0
(m24)(m125)=0

9.

Thenputx=1,weget
1 1 1 1
e -1 = 1 - + - + -........upto infinity.
.
1! 2! 3! 4!
(b):Given, a=ar+ar2 r2 + r1=0

-1 + 5
.
2
10. (d) : Given a1, a2, a3, ... be terms ofA.P.
a1 + a2 + ....ap
p2
= 2
a1 + a2 + ...aq
q
r =

p
[ 2 a1 + ( p - 1) d]
p2
2
= 2
q
q
[ 2 a1 + ( q - 1) d ]
2

2 a 1 + ( p - 1)d
p
=
2 a1 + ( q - 1)d
q

\ m=24,125,

givingn=34,135
Butfor n =135,we have
a135 =148+(1351)(2) =148268<0
Buta34 ispositive.

...(1)
...(2)

ar 2(1 + r) 48
=
r2 = 4
a (1 + r )
12
\
r=2
Butthe termsarealternatelypositiveandnegative,
\r =2

3. (b):100(a+99d)=50(a +49d)
a+149d=0i.e.,T150 = 0

3 200 +

...(2)

2
1 4
4
4
S = 1 + + 2 + 3 + 4 +.....
3
3 3
3
3

7
(179 +10-20)
81

2. (d):Statement1:

...(1)

37

SequencesandSeries

[2a1 + (p 1)d]q = p[2a1 + (q 1)d]

as a, b,c AP \ 2b= a+ c

2a1(q p) = d[(q 1)p (p 1)q]

2a1(q p) = d(q p) 2a1 = d

y- 1
2
1 1
x - 1 z- 1
2
= x + z y = x + z
y

a6
a + 5d
a + 10a1
= 1
= 1
a21
a1 + 20 d
a1 + 40a1

a6
= 11
a21 41

x , y , z H.P.
14. (a): Let tr denote the rth termof G.P.with first term b and
common ratio R
\ tr = bR r - 1. \ log r = log b + ( r -1)logR

11. (d) : Given a1,


a2,
... an are in H.P.

1
1
1
,
.....
A.P.
a1 a 2
a n

1
1
= d
a2
a1

Now from given determinant we have


log b + ( r - 1)log R
log b + ( r + 5)log R

a - a2
a
a
a1 a2 = 1
= 1 - 2
d
d
d
a2 a3
a2 a3 =
-
d
d

... (i)
... (ii)

an- 1
d

an
d

... (n)

Adding (i), (ii) ............ (n) equations we get


a1 an
-
a1a
2 + a2a3 + a3a4 + .... an 1 an =
d
d
1
1
Also
=
+ ( n - 1)d
an a1
a1 - an
= ( n - 1)a1an
d

a1a
2 + a2a3 + ... an 1 an = (n 1)a1a
n.

12. (b) : Tr+ 1 = mCr y r.

\ mCr 1 + mCr+ 1 = 2 mCr

m!
m!
m!
+
= 2
( r - 1)!( m - r + 1)! ( r + 1)!( m - r -1)!
r !( m -r )!

r ( r + 1)
( m - r + 1)( m - r)
+
( r + 1)!( m - r + 1)! ( r + 1)!( m - r +1)!

r(r+1)+ (m r + 1)(m r) = 2(r + 1)(m r + 1)

r(r+1) + (m r)2 + m r 2(r + 1) (m (r 1))=0


r(r+1)+m2 +r2 2mr+mr+ 2(r2 1)
2m(r+1) = 0
m2 m (4r + 1) + 4r2 2 = 0.

13. (a) : Given|a| < 1, |b| < 1, |c| < 1, a, b, c A.P.

and

n
a =
n=0

1
1
1
, bn =
, cn =
1- a n = 0
1 - b n= 0
1-c

1
1
1
\ x =
, y=
, z=
1- a
1- b
1-c
a =

log b +( r + 6)log R

y- 1
x -1
z- 1
, b=
, c =
x
y
z

log b + ( r + 7)logR

using (applying C2 2C2 (C1 + C3))


log b + ( r - 1) log R 0 log b + log R ( r+ 1)
1
log b + ( r + 2) log R 0 log b + ( r + 4) logR
2
log b + ( r + 5) log R 0 log b + ( r +7) logR
1
= 0 = 0.
2
1
1
1
+
+
+ ....
4(2!) 16(4!) 64(6!)
1
1
1
= 1+ 2 + 4
+
+ ....
2 2! 2 (4!) 26(6!)

15. (c) : 1 +

1
1
1
1
2 1 + 2 + 4
+ 6
+ ....

2

2 2! 2 (4!) 2 (6!)

1
x 2 x 4 x 6
+
+
+ ...
2 1 +
2
2! 4! 6!

= 1 e x + e - x
2

where x = 1/2

= 1 [ e1/ 2 + e-1/ 2] = e+ 1
2
2 e
16. (c): Tm = a + (m 1) d =

2( r + 1)( m - r+1)
=
( r + 1)!( m - r + 1)!

log b + ( r + 1)logR

M
an -1an =

log b + r log R

log b + ( r + 2)log R log b + ( r + 3)log R log b + ( r + 4)logR

1
n

1
m
1 1
Now Tm Tn = -
= (m n) d
n m
1
1
d =
and a =
mn
mn
\ a d = 0
Tn = a + (n 1) d =

17. (b):As Sn is needed for n is odd let n = 2k + 1


\ Sn =S2k+ 1
= Sumupto 2kterms+(2k+1)th term

2k (2k +1)2
+last term
2
( n -1) n 2
n 2( n + 1)
=
+ n2 as n= 2k + 1 =
2
2
=

...(i)
...(ii)

38

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

= [loge2 1]
= 1 loge2
Nows = s1 s2 = (A) (B)
= loge2 1 + loge2 = log(4/e)

x 2 x 4
+
+ ...
18. (a) : ex + ex = 2 1 +
2! 4!

-1
1 1
e +e
1 = + + ...
2
2! 4!
1 1 1
(e-1)2
+ + + ...
=
2! 4! 6!
2e

19. (b):Fornontrivialsolutionthedeterminantofthecoefficient
of various term vanish

1 2a a
i.e. 1 3b b = 0
1 4c c
(3bc 4bc) 2a(c b) + a(4c 3b) = 0
2ac
= b
a +c
a, b, c H.P.

1
1
1
=
(2n - 1)(2n) 2n - 1 2n
1

2 n - 1 - 2n

1 1 1 1
+ - + .....
2 3 4 5
= loge2
= 1-

Agains2 =

1
1
1
+
+
+ ....
2 3 4 5 6 7

1
log3 (31 x + 2), log3(43x 1) A.P..
2
log3(31 x + 2) = log3(43x 1) + 1
31 x + 2
= (43x 1) 3 Q log33 = 1.
1

x
3
+ 2 = 123x 3
x
1
3 [(3 x) + 2]
= 1232x 33x
(multiplying 3x both side)
2
x
12t 5t 3 = 0 where t = 3
(3t + 1) (4t 3) = 0
t = 1/3, t = 3/4
3x = 1/3 which is not possible
3
3
3x =
and t =
4
4
x log33= log33 log34

...(A)

(Bytakinglogarithmat the base 3 both sides)


x = 1 log34

1
(2n) (2n +1)
s2 = tn =
tn =

1
=
(2n )(2 n + 1)

R1, R, R2 H.P.

24. (c) : As1,

1
1
1
+
....
1 2 2 3 3 4
1
1
1
+
+
Let s1 =
+ ....
1 2 3 4 5 6

b(1 - r ) b
=
and
a (1 -r ) a
br (1 - r ) b
=
slope of BC =
ar (1 -r ) a
as slope of AB = slope of BC
\ AB || BC, but point B is common so
A, B, C are collinear.
Now slope of AB =

21. (c): s =

\ sn= tn =

22. (d): Let x1 = a \ x2 = ar, x3 = ar2


and y1 = b \ y2 = br, y3 = br2
Now A(a, b), B(ar, br), C(ar2, br2)

23. (c): Let q be the angleof inclinationof plane tohorizontal


and u be the velocity of projection of the projectile
u2
u2
, R2 =
\
R1 =
g (1 - sin q)
g (1 + sin q)
2 g 2
1
1
+
\
= 2 =
R
u
R1 R2

20. (d) : Let the polynomial be f(x) = ax2 + bx + c


givenf(1) = f(1) b = 0
\ f(x)= ax2 + c
now f (x)= 2ax
\ f (a)=2a2, f (b) = 2ab, f (c) = 2ac
as a, b,c A.P.
a2, ab, ac A.P. 2a2, 2ab, 2ac A.P.
f (a), f (b), f (c) A.P.

\ tn =

...(B)

25. (a) :(13 +33 +53 +.....+93)(23 +43 +63 + 83)


=(13 +33 +53 +.... +93) 23(13 +23 +33 + 43)
1
1

2n 2 n + 1

1 1 1 1
= - + - + ....
2 3 3 4
1 1 1 1

= - - + - + + ...
2
3
4
5

= [13 + 33 + ..... + (2n 1)3]n = odd = 5


23[13 + 23 + .... + n3]n = even = 4
=[2n(n +1) (n + 2) (n + 3) 12n(n +1) (n + 2) + 13n(n
n 2 ( n + 1)2
+ 1) n]n = 5 (odd) 23

n= 4
(even)

(Remember this result)

39

SequencesandSeries
1 2 3 4
+ + + + ...
8 16 32

= [2 5 6 7 8 12 5 6 7 + 13
3 16

5 6 5] 2

= [3750 5(505)] 2 16 25

25

= 1225 800 = 425


26. (b) : Let terms of G.P. are a, ar, ar2, ....
a
\ S =
wherea = first term, r = common ratio
1-r
S = 20
a
According to question
= 20
1-r
a = 20(1 r)
...(i)
2

Also

1-r 2

= 100

Solving (i) and (ii) we have r = 3/5

= 2l(say)

1 2 3
4
+ + +
+ ....
4 8 16 32
l
1 2
3
4
+
+ + ...
=0 + +
2
8 16 32 64
l 1 1 1
1
1
+
+
+...
Now (B) (A) = + +
2 4 8 16 32 64
a
1 2
l
=
=
\ l = 1
1 - r 4 1
2
so S = 21
Where l =

28. (b) : Let first term of a G.P is a and common ratio r


\ t5 = ar4 = 2
9

a
a
.

= 100
1 - r 1+r
a = 5(1 + r)

27. (b) : S = 2 4

ai

= a ar ar2 .....ar8

i= 1
8 9
= a9r 2

...(ii)

= a9r36
= (ar4)9
= 29 = 512

...(*)
... (A)
... (B)

40

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

CHAPTER

9
1.

(1 - cos2 x )(3 + cos x )


lim
isequalto
x 0
x tan4 x

(a) 1/2
2.

DIFFERENTIALCALCULUS

(b) 1

(c) 2

Statement2: a =
(d) 1/4
(2013)

Atpresent,afirmismanufacturing2000items.Itisestimated
thattherateofchangeofproduction P w.r.t.additionalnumber
ofworkers x isgivenby

dP
= 100 -12 x .Ifthefirmemploys
dx

25moreworkers,thenthenewlevelofproductionofitemsis 7.
(a) 3000
(b) 3500
(c) 4500
(d) 2500
(2013)
3.

If y =sec(tan1x), then
(a)

1
2

(b) 1

dy
at x = 1is equalto
dx

(c)

(d)

(a) Statement 1 is true, Statement 2 is true Statement 2 is


not a correct explanation for Statement 1.
(b) Statement 1 is true, Statement 2 is false.
(c) Statement 1 is false, Statement 2 is true.
(d) Statement 1 is true, Statement 2 is true Statement 2 is
a correct explanation for Statement 1.
(2012)
Asphericalballoonisfilledwith4500 p cubicmetresofhelium
gas.Ifaleakintheballooncausesthegastoescapeatthe
rateof72p cubicmetresperminute,thentherate(inmetres
perminute)atwhichtheradiusoftheballoondecreases49
minutesaftertheleakage beganis
(a) 2/9

1
-1
andb =
2
4

(b) 9/2

(c) 9/7

(d) 7/9
(2012)

(2013)
4.

5.

Considerthefunction, f(x )=|x 2|+|x 5|, x R


8.
Statement1: f (4)= 0
Statement 2 : f is continuous in [2, 5], differentiable in
(2,5)and f(2)= f(5).
(a) Statement1is true,Statement2istrueStatement2is
nota correctexplanation for Statement 1.
(b) Statement1istrue,Statement2is false.
(c) Statement1isfalse,Statement2is true.
(d) Statement1is true,Statement2 istrueStatement2
isa correctexplanation for Statement1.
(2012) 9.
If f : R R is a function defined by
2 x - 1
f(x)=[x]cos
p ,where[x ]denotesthegreatestinteger
2
function,then f is

dy2

equals to

d 2y dy -2
(a) 2
dx dx

d 2y dy -3
(b) 2
dx dx

-1

d 2y
(c) 2
dx

-1

(d)

d 2y dy -3
-
(2011)
dx 2 dx

1 - cos {2( x - 2)}

lim

x 2
x-2

(a) equals - 2

(b) equals

1
2

equals 2
(c) doesnot exist (d)
discontinuous onlyat nonzerointegral valuesof x.
continuousonlyat x= 0.
10. The valuesof p and q for which the function
continuous for every real x.
sin( p + 1) x + sinx
, x < 0

discontinuous only at x= 0.
(2012)
x

f (x) =
q
, x = 0
Let a, b R be suchthat the function f given by

2
f ( x ) = ln | x | + bx2 + ax , x 0 has extreme values at
x+x - x
, x>0
x =1and x =2.

x 3/2
Statement1: fhaslocalmaximumat x=1andat x=2.
iscontinuousforall x in R ,are

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
6.

d 2x

(2011)

41

DifferentialCalculus

3
2

1
2
1
3
(c) p = , q = -
2
2

(a) p = - , q =

1
3
2
2
5
1
(d) p = , q =
2
2

17. Let y be an implicit function of x defined by x2x 2xx cot y

(b) p = , q =

1=0.Then y(1) equals

(2011)

11. Let f : (1, 1) R be a differentiable function with


f (0)=1and f (0)=1, g (x )=[f (2f (x )+ 2)]2.Then g(0)
=
(a) 4
(b) 4
(c) 0
(d) 2
(2010)
12. Let f: R R be a positive increasingfunction
with lim

(a) 1

f (3 x )
f (2 x )
= 1. Then lim
=
f (x)
x f ( x)

(b) 2/3

(c) 3/2

(d) 3 (2010)

13. Let f : R R be defined by


k - 2 x , if x -1
f ( x )=
2 x + 3, if x > -1

(a) 1

(b) log2

(c) log2

(d) 1
(2009)

18. Suppose the cubicx3 px + q has threedistinct real roots


where p > 0 and q > 0. Then which one of the following
holds?
p
p
(a) The cubic has maxima at both
and
3
3
p
p
(b) Thecubic has minima at
and maxima at
3
3
p
(c) The cubic has minima at
and maxima
3
p
at
3
p
p
(d) The cubic has minima at both
and
3
3
(2008)

If f hasalocalminimumat x =1,thenapossiblevalueof
k is
(a) 1
(b) 0
(c) 1/2
(d) 1
1

( x - 1)sin
if x 1
(2010) 19. Let f ( x)=
x- 1

0
if x = 1
14. Let f : R R be acontinuous function definedby
Then which one ofthe following is true?
1
(a) f isdifferentiableatx=1butnotat x = 0
f (x) =
.
e x +2 e - x
(b) f isneitherdifferentiableat x =0norat x = 1
Statement1: f (c)= 1/3,forsome c R .
(c) f isdifferentiableatx =0andatx=1
1
(d) f isdifferentiableatx=0butnotat x = 1
Statement2: 0 < f ( x )
, forallx R.

2 2
(2008)
(a) Statement1istrue,Statement2istrueStatement2isa
20. Howmanyrealsolutions doesthe equation
correct explanation of Statement1.
(b) Statement1 is true, Statement2 is true Statement2 is
x7 +14x5 +16x3 +30x560=0have?
not a correct explanation for Statement1.
(a) 5
(b) 7
(c) Statement1 is true, Statement2 is false.
(c) 1
(d) 3
(2008)
(d) Statement1 is false, Statement2 is true.
(2010)
2
2
21. If p and q arepositiverealnumberssuchthat p + q =1,then
15. Let f (x) = x|x| and g(x) = sin x.
themaximumvalueof(p+q)is
Statement1 :
gof is differentiable at x = 0 and its
1
1
(a)
(b)
derivativeiscontinuous at thatpoint.
2
2
Statement2 :
gof is twicedifferentiable atx =0.
(c) 2
(d) 2.
(2007)
(a) Statement1 is true, Statement2 is true Statement2 is
22. The function f : R {0} R given by
not a correct explanation for Statement1.
1
2
(b) Statement1 is true, Statement2 is false.
f ( x)= - 2x
x e -1
(c) Statement1 is false, Statement2 is true.
canbemade continuousat x =0bydefining f(0) as
(d) Statement1istrueStatement2istrueStatement2isa
(a) 0
(b) 1
correct explanation for Statement1.
(2009)
(c)
2
(d) 1.
(2007)
4
3
2
16. GivenP(x) = x + ax + bx + cx + d suchthat x=0istheonly

23. Let f : R R be a function defined by


f(x)=min{x+1,|x|+1}.Thenwhichofthefollowingis
P(1) is not minimum but P(1) is the maximum ofP
true ?
P(1)isthe minimumbutP(1)is notthe maximumofP
neitherP(1)is theminimum norP(1) is the maximum
(a) f(x) is differentiable everywhere
of P
(b) f(x)isnotdifferentiable at x =0
P(1) is the minimum and P(1) is the maximum of P
(c) f(x) 1 forall x R
(d) f(x)isnotdifferentiable at x = 1.
(2007)
(2009)

realroot ofP(x)=0. IfP(1)<P(1),then in theinterval [1, 1] :

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

42

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

24. The function f(x) = tan1 (sin x + cos x) is an increasing 33. Let a and b be the distinct roots of ax2 + bx + c =0, then
function in
1 - cos( ax 2 + bx + c)
lim
is equal to
p
p p
xa
( x - a)2
(b) - 2 , 2
(a) 0, 2

a 2
( a - b)2
(a) 0
(b)
p, p
- p , p .
2
(c) 4 2
(d) 2 4
(2007)

1
2
- a 2
( a - b)2.
(d)
(2005)
(c) ( a - b)
2
2
25. AvalueofcforwhichconclusionofMeanValueTheorem
holdsforthefunctionf(x)=loge x ontheinterval[1,3]is 34. The normal to the curve x = a(cos q + q sin q ),
y = a(sinq qcosq) at any point q issuch that
(a) log3e
(b) loge3
p
1
(a) itmakes angle + q with xaxis
(c) 2log3e
(d) log e 3.
(2007)
2
2
(b)
it
passes
through
the origin
m
n
m
+
n
26 Ifx y = (x+ y)
, then dy/dx is
(c) it is at a constant distance from the origin
x + y
y
p
(a)
(b) xy
(2005)
(d) it passesthrough a 2, -a .
x
x
(c) xy
(d)
.
(2006) 35. If f is a realvalued differentiable function satisfying
y
| f ( x ) - f ( y ) | ( x -y )2,x, y R andf(0)= 0, then f(1)
27. Atriangularparkisenclosedontwosidesbyafenceandon
equals
thethirdsidebya straightriverbank.The twosideshaving
(a) 1
(b) 2
(c) 0
(d) 1.
(2005)
fenceare ofsame lengthx.The maximumarea enclosedby
the park is
36. Letf bethedifferentiablefor " x.Iff(1)=2andf (x) 2
3 2
x3
for [1, 6], then
(b)
(a) x
(a) f(6)<8
(b) f(6) 8
2
8
(c)
f(6)=5
(d) f(6)< 5.
(2005)
1 2
(c) x
(d) px2.
(2006)
2
37. Suppose f(x) is differentiable at x = 1 and
x
28. The set of points where f ( x)=
is differentiable, is
lim 1 f (1 + h) = 5, then f (1) equals
1+| x |
h 0h
(a) 4
(b) 3
(c) 6
(d) 5. (2005)
(a) ( ,0) (0, )
(b) ( , 1) (1, )
(c) ( , )
(d) (0, ).
(2006) 38. Areaofthegreatestrectanglethatcanbeinscribedintheellipse

29. Anglebetween the tangents to the curvey = x2 5x +6 at


the points (2, 0) and (3, 0) is
(a) p/2
(b) p/3
(c) p/6
(c) p/4.
(2006)
30. The function g ( x)=
(a) x= 2
(c) x= 0

x 2
+ has a local minimum at
2 x
(b) x= 2
(d) x= 1.
(2006)

x2 y
+
= 1 is
a 2 b 2
(a) ab
(b) 2ab

(c) a/b

(d)

ab
(2005)

39. If 2a + 3b + 6c = 0, then at least one root of the equation


ax2 + bx + c = 0 lies in the interval
(a) (2, 3) (b) (1, 2) (c) (0, 1)
(d) (1, 3).
(2004)

40. Afunctiony=f(x)hasasecondorderderivativef (x)=6(x


1).Ifitsgraph passesthroughthepoint(2, 1) and at that
pointthetangenttothegraphisy=3x5,thenthefunction
(a) 1/4
(b) 41
is
(a) (x + 1)3
(b) (x 1)3
2
32. A sphericalironball10 cm inradius is coated with a layer
(c) (x 1)
(d) (x + 1)2.
(2004)
3
oficeofuniformthicknessthatmeltsatarateof50cm /min.
p .
p
Whenthethicknessoficeis5cm,thentherateatwhichthe 41. Let f ( x) = 1 - tanx, x , x 0,
2
4
4x - p
thickness of ice decreases, is
p
p
1 cm/min
1 cm/min
f ( x) is continuous in 0, , then f
is
2
4
(b)
(a)
18p
36p
1
1
5 cm/min
1 cm/min.
(a) -
(b)
(c) 1
(d) 1.
(c)
(d)
(2005)
2
2
6p
54p
(2004)
3 x 2 + 9 x+ 17
is
3 x 2 + 9 x +7
(c) 1
(d) 17/7.
(2006)

31. If x is real, the maximum value of

( )

43

DifferentialCalculus

2x
51. If2a+3b+6c=0(a,b,c R)thenthequadraticequation
a b
2
42. If lim 1+ x + 2 = e , then thevalues of a andb,are
ax2 + bx + c =0 has
x
x
(a) At least one in (0, 1)
(a) a R, b = 2
(b) a= 1, b R
(b) At least one root in [2, 3]
(c) a R, b R(d)
a= 1 and b = 2.
(c) At least one root in [4, 5]
(2004)
(d) none of these
(2002)
43. Let f (a) = g(a) = k and their nth derivatives
f n (a), gn (a) exist and are not equal for somen. Further if
x f (2) - 2 f ( x)
52. Letf (2)=4and f (2)=4then lim
equals
x -2
x 2
f (a ) g ( x ) - f ( a ) - g (a ) f ( x ) + g (a)
lim
= 4,
g ( x ) - f ( x )
(a) 2
(b) 2
x a
(c)
4
(d) 3.
(2002)
then the value of k is
1
(a) 2
(b) 1
2
x
(c) 0
(d) 4.
(2003) 53. lim x + 5 x+ 3

2
x x + x +3
1 - tan( x / 2) ][1 - sin x]
[
(a)
e4
(b) e2
lim
44.
is
3
3
xp / 2[1 + tan( x / 2) ][ p -2 x ]
(c) e
(d) 1.
(2002)

(a) 0

(b) 1/32

(c)

(d) 1/8.
(2003)

45. The value of


4
4
4
3
3
3
lim 1 + 2 + 3 5+ .... + n - lim1 + 2 + 3 5+ ....+ n is
n
n
n
n
(a) zero
(b) 1/4
(c) 1/5
(d) 1/30.
(2003)

54. Iff (x+y)= f (x) f (y) " x, yandf (5)=2,f (0)=3,then


f (5)is
(a) 0
(b) 1
(c) 6
(d) 2.
(2002)
1 -cos 2x
is
2x
(a) 1
(c) 0

55. lim

x 0

(b) 1
(d) does not exist.

(2002)
46. Therealnumber x whenaddedtoitsinversegivestheminimum
56.
The
maximum
distance
from
origin
of
a
point
on
the
curve
value of the sum at x equal to
(a) 1
(b) 1
(c) 2
(d) 2.
at
x= a sint b sin
(2003)
b
- 1 + 1
| x| x

, x 0, then f (x) is
47. If f ( x) = xe
0
, x = 0
(a) continuous for all x, but not differentiable at x = 0
(b) neither differentiable not continuous at x = 0
(c) discontinuous everywhere
(d) continuous as well as differentiable for allx.
(2003)

48.

Ifthefunctionf(x)=2x3 9ax2 +12a2x+1,wherea>0,

at
y = a cos t - bcos , both a, b > 0 is
b

(a) a b
(c)

a +b

(b) a+ b
2

(d)

57. If f (1) = 1, f (1) = 2, then Lt

x1

(a) 2
(c) 1

(2002)

a 2 -b 2 .
f ( x) - 1
x -1

is

(b) 4
(d) 1/2.

(2002)
attains its maximum and minumum at p and q respectively
2
such that p = q, then a equals
58. f (x) and g (x) are two differentiable function on [0, 2] such
(a) 1
(b) 2
(c) 1/2
(d) 3.
t h a t f ( x ) - g ( x) = 0, f (1) = 2 g (1) =4 , f (2) = 3g (2) =9
(2003)
then f (x) g(x)at x = 3/2 is
(a) 0
(b) 2
49. If f (x) = xn, then the value of
(c) 10
(d) 5.
f (1) f (1) f (1)
(-1)n fn(1)
(2002)
is
f(1) +
+ ....+
1!
2!
3!
n!
59. f is defined in [5, 5] as
(a) 2n 1
(b) 0
(c) 1
(d) 2n.
x, ifxisrationaland
f ( x)=
(2003)
- x, ifx isrational.Then
log(3 + x) - log(3 - x)
(a)
f(x)
is continuous at everyx, except x = 0
50. If lim
=k, the value of k is
x
x 0
(b) f(x) is discontinuous at every x, except x =0
(a) 1/3
(b) 2/3
(c) 2/3
(d) 0.
(c) f(x) is continuous everywhere
(2003)
(d) f(x) is discontinuous everywhere.
(2002)

44

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

log x n -[ x]
, n N ,([x]denotesgreatestintegerlessthan
[ x ]
x 0
or equal to x)
(a) hasvalue 1
(b) has value 0
(c) has value 1
(d) does not exist
(2002)

60. lim

2
61. If y = ( x + 1 + x 2 ) n, then (1 + x )

(a) n2y
(c) y

d 2y
dy
+ x
is
dx
dx 2

(b) n2y
(d) 2x2y.

Answer Key

1.
7.
13.
19.
25.
31.
37.
43.
49.
55.
61.

(c)
(a)
(d)
(b)
(c)
(b)
(d)
(d)
(b)
(a)
(a)

2.
8.
14.
20.
26.
32.
38.
44.
50.
56.

(b)
(b)
(a)
(c)
(a)
(a)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(a)

3.
9.
15.
21.
27.
33.
39.
45.
51.
57.

(d)
(c)
(b)
(c)
(c)
(b)
(c)
(c)
(a)
(a)

4.
10.
16.
22.
28.
34.
40.
46.
52.
58.

(a)
(a)
(a)
(b)
(c)
(a),(c)
(b)
(a)
(c)
(d)

5.
11.
17.
23.
29.
35.
41.
47.
53.
59.

(c)
(b)
(d)
(a)
(a)
(c)
(a)
(a)
(d)
(b)

6.
12.
18.
24.
30.
36.
42.
48.
54.
60.

(a)
(a)
(b)
(d)
(a)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(c)
(d)

(2002)

45

DifferentialCalculus

(1 - cos2 x )(3 + cos x )


x(tan4 x)

1. (c): xlim
0

1 - cos2x
= lim
(3 + cos x )
x 0 2 tan4 x
x

Integrating,we have, dP = (100 -12 x ) dx


2 3 / 2
x
+ l
3

and

1
1
+ 4 b + a = 0 a =
2
2
1
x2

+ 2b = -

1
x2

1 1
1
= -
+
< 0
x 2 2
2

1
2

+ l

dy
1
= sec(tan -1 x ) tan(tan -1x )
dx
1 + x2
dy
1
1
= 2 1 =
dx x = 1
2
2

4. (a): f(x)=|x2|+|x5|
7 - 2 x ,
x < 2

f ( x ) = 3,
2 x 5
2 x - 7,
x>5

1
4

\Statement2: a = , b = -
7. (a):

P(0)=2000= l. \ l=2000
P(25)=10025 8253/2 +2000= 3500.
3. (d) : y=sec(tan1x)

[Given]

forall x R{0}
f hasalocalmaximumat x=1, x =2
\ Statement1:fhaslocalmaximaatx=1,x=2

dP
= 100 -12 x
2. (b) :
dx

P = 100 x - 8 x

f (1)=0andf(2)=0

f ( x) = -

1
= 2 4 = 2
4

3 / 2

1
+ 2bx + a
x

1
- 1 - 2 b + a = 0 b = -
4

2sin2 x x
= lim
(3 + cos x )

x 0
x2 tan4 x

P = 100 x - 12

f ( x ) =

dv
= - 72 p m 3 / min, v0 = 4500 p
dt

4 3
dv 4
dr
pr \
= p 3r 2
3
dt 3
dt
dv
After49min,v = v0 +49
=4500p 4972p
dt
v=

=4500p 3528p=972p
4 3
pr r3 =2433=36 r = 9
3
dr
dr
18
2
\ - 72 p = 4 p 81

== -
dt
dt
81
9
2
Thus,radiusdecreasesatarateof m/min
9
972p =

-1

d x d dx
d dy
Statement1:f (4)= 0.True

8. (b) : 2 = dy dy =
dy

dy dx
Statement2 : f is continuous in [2, 5], differentiable in
(2,5)and f(2)=f(5).True
-1
-2
-1
d dy dx
dy d 2y dy
ButStatement2isnotacorrectexplanationfor statement1.

=
=-

dy
dx dx

2 x - 1
p
2

5. (c): f: R R, f ( x ) = [ x ] cos

p
= [ x ] cos px - = [x]sin px

Let nbeaninteger.
lim f ( x) =0, lim f ( x ) = 0
x n-

\ f(n)=0
f(x)iscontinuous for every real x.
6. (a): f(x)=ln|x|+bx2 + ax,x 0hasextremevaluesat
x=1,x=2.

dx 2 dx

-3

dy d 2y
=-
dx dx 2

9. (c): Let x=2+ h


lim

h0
x n+

dx

1 - cos 2 h
|sin h |
= lim
h
h
h 0

RHL=1,LHL=1.Thuslimitdoesntexist.

sin( p + 1)x + sinx , x < 0


x

10. (a): f ( x ) =
q,
x = 0

2
x+x - x

,
x>0

x 3/2

46

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

lim f ( x )=
+

x 0

1
2

sin x 2, x < 0
Then H ( x) =
2
sin x , x 0

Again, lim f ( x ) =
-

x 0

sin( p + 1) + sinx
= p +2
x

LH (0) = lim
h 0-

Now,p+2=q= 1/2
\ p=3/2,q =1/2.

= limh 0

11. (b): g(x)={f(2f (x)+2}2


Wehave ondifferentiation with respect tox,
Letx=0
g(0)=2f (2f(0)+2)f (2f (0)+2)2f (0)
=2f (0)f (0)2f (0)=(2)(1)(2)=4.
12. (a):Asfisapositiveincreasing function,we have
f(x)<f(2x)<f (3x)
Dividingbyf (x)leadsto1 <
As lim

f (2 x )
f (3 x )
<
f ( x)
f ( x)

f (3 x )
=1,wehaveby Squeez theorem
f ( x)

f (2 x )
orSandwich theorem, lim
=1.
x f ( x )

13. (d): lim f ( x) =1


x 1+

h 0+

Asf hasalocalmiminumatx=1
f(1+) f (1) f(1) 1 k +2
k 1

Thusk=1isapossiblevalue.
14. (a):UsingA.M.G.M.inequality,
e x + 2e - x
x
-x
e x 2e - x .Thus,e + 2e 2 2
2
1
1

Then x
e +2 e - x 2 2

As
0<

1
e +2 e - x
1
x

e +2 e

-x

isalwayspositive,wehave

H (0 + h) - H(0)
h

sinh2
sin h2 - 0
= lim 2 h

h
h 0+
h 0+ h

= lim

=10=0
Thus H(x)isdifferentiableat x =0
-2 x cos x 2 , x < 0

Also H ( x) =
0
, x = 0
2 x cos x 2 , x > 0

H(x)iscontinuousatx=0for

H(0)=LH(0)= RH(0)
-2 cos x 2 + 4 x 2 sin x 2 , x < 0
Again H ( x) =
2
2
2
, x 0
2 cos x - 4 x sin x

LH(0)=2andRH(0)=2

Asf (1)= k+2

k+2 1. \

- sinh 2
sinh2
= lim- 2 h = 1 0 = 0
-h
h
h 0

RH(0) = lim

g(x)=2f (2f(x)+2)f (2f(x)+2)2f (x)

H (0 - h) - H(0)
-h

1
2 2

Observethat f (0)=1/3.Thussuchthat

ThusH(x)isNOTtwicedifferentiableat x =0
16. (a): P(x)=x4 +ax3 +bx2 +cx+d
P(x)=4x3 +3ax2 +2bx + c
P(0)=0 c =0
AlsoP(x)= x(4x2 +3ax +2b)
AsP(x)=0hasnorealrootsexcept
x =0,wehave
Dof4x2 +3ax +2b islessthanzero
i.e.,(3a)2 442b<0
then4x2 +3ax +2b>0 " x R
(Ifa>0,b2 4ac<0thenax2 +bx+c>0 "x R)
SoP(x)<0ifx [1,0) i.e.,decreasing
andP(x)>0ifx (0,1] i.e.,increasing
Max.of P(x)= P(1)

ButminimumofP(x)doesntoccurat x =1, i.e.,P(1) is


f(c)=1/3.
nottheminimum.
Usingextremevaluetheorem,wecansaythatas f iscontinuous,
17. (d) : x2x 2xx cot y 1=0
.....(i)
f willattaina value 1/3 atsome point.Here weare ableto
Atx =1wehave
identifythe point as well.
12cot y 1=0
15. (b): gof(x)=g(f(x))=sin(x|x|)
cot y =0 \ y= p/2
2
Differentiating(i)w.r.t. x,wehave
- sin x , x < 0
=
2
dy
sin x , x 0
2 x 2 x (1 + ln x ) - 2[ x x ( - cosec 2 y )
+ cot y x x(1 + ln x)] = 0
dx
Let thecomposite function gof (x) be denoted byH(x).
AtP(1, p/2)we have

47

DifferentialCalculus

2(1 + ln1) - 2[1(-1)


2+ 2
\

( )
dy
dx

( )
dy
dx

( )
dy
dx

1
p 2 + q2
pq pq
2
2
(p+q)2 = p2 + q2 +2pq ( p + q ) 2.

ByusingA.M G.M.,

+ 0] = 0

= 0

2
1
22. (b): f(0) = lim x - 2x
x 0
e - 1

= -1

e2x - 1 - 2 x 0

form
x0 x ( e2x -1) 0

= lim

18. (b):Denotex3 px+ qbyf (x)


i.e.f(x)=x3 px +q
Nowforexpression,f (x)= 0,i.e. 3x2 p = 0
p
p
,
3
3
f (x)=6x

ByusingLHospitalrule
2 e2x - 2
0

form
x0( e

- 1) +2xe2x 0

f(0) = lim

x = -

AgainuseLHospitalrule

f < 0 f

Thusmaximaat -

4e2x
= 1.
x0 4 e
+4xe2x
23. (a):f(x)=min{x+1,|x|+1}
f(0) = lim

p
> 0
3

p
andminimaat
3

p
.
3

f (1 + h ) - f (1)
f (1) = lim
, ifthelimitexists.
h
h 0
f (1 + h ) - f (1)
\ lim
h
h 0
1
(1 + h- 1) sin
- 0
1
(1 + h- 1)
= lim
= lim sin
h
h
h0
h 0

Asthelimitdosentexist,
\itisnotdiffentiableatx=1
f ( h ) - f (0)
Again f (0) = lim
,if thelimit exists
h
h 0
1
( h- 1) sin
- sin1
f
(
h
)
f
(0)
h- 1
\ lim
= lim
h
h
h 0
h 0

Butthislimitdosentexist.Henceitisnotdifferentiableat
x=0.
f(x)= x7 +14x5 +16x3 +30x 560

2x

f(x)=x+1,x R
Hencef(x)isdifferentiableforall x R.

19. (b): Bydefinition

20. (c):Let

2x

24. (d): f ( x ) =
f ( x) =

1
.(cos x - sin x)
1 + (sin x +cos x )2

cos x - sinx
2 +sin 2x

Iff (x)>0then f(x)isincreasingfunction


For - p < x < p ,cos x >sinx
2
4
p p
Hencey=f(x)isincreasingin - 2 , 4 .

25. (c):ByLMVT,
f ( c)=

f (b ) - f ( a ) f (3) - f(1)
=
b-a
3 -1

f ( c ) =

log e 3 - log e1 1
= log e3
2
2

1 1
1
= log e3=
\c=2log3e.
c 2
2log3e

26. (a) : xm yn = (x + y)m + n


Taking log both sides we get

\f (x)=7x6 +70x4 +48x2 +30

m log x + n log y = (m + n) log(x + y)

f (x)>0 " x R

Differentiating w.r.t. x we get

i.e.f (x)isanstrictlyincreasing function.

m n dy
m + n dy
+
=
1+
x y dx
x + y dx

soitcanhaveatthemostonesolution.Itcanbeshownthat
ithas exactlyone solution.
21. (c):Letp=cos q,q=sin q

dy n m + n m + n m
=
dx y x + y x + y x

dy nx + ny - my - ny mx + nx - mx - my
=
dx
y(x + y)
x ( x + y )

dy nx - my y
y
dy
y
=
=

= .
dx nx - my x
x
dx
x

0 q p/2
p+q=cos q+sin q
maximumvalueof (p+ q)= 2
Second method

48

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

27. (c): AT= xsin a


BT = x cos a
Area of triangle
1
ABC = baseheight
2
1
= (2 BT )( AT)
2
a
1 2
= (2 x cos a sin a)
B
2
1 2
1 2
= x sin 2 a x as - 1 sin 2 a 1
2
2
1 2
\Maximumareof DABC = x
2
x
28. (c) : Given f ( x) =
1+| x |
x , x < 0
1- x
f ( x) =
x , x 0
1+ x

1 , x < 0
(1 - x)2

f ( x) =
1 , x 0
(1 + x )2
f (x ) is finite quantity " x R

\ f (x ) is differentiable " x ( - , )

K = b2 4ac = 123
i.e., solve 3y2 + 126 + y 123 0
3y2 126y + 123 0
y2 42y + 41 0
(y 1)(y 42) 0
1 y 42
maximum value of y is 42
4
3
32. (a) : v = p( y +10) where y is thickness of ice
3

10

10+y

dy
dv
= 4 p (10 + y)2
dt
dt

dy
50
dv
=

as
=50cm 3 / min.
dt at y = 5 4 p (15)2
dt
= 1 cm/min.
18p
33. (b) : As a is root of ax2 + bx + c = 0
\ aa2 + ba + c = 0. Now

lim

1 - cos( ax 2 + bx + c)
( x - a)2

x a

29.

(a):Givenequationy=x2 5x+ 6,givenpoints(2,0),(3,


0)
dy
= 2 x-5
dx
dy
= 4 - 5 = -1
say m1 = dx
x= 2
\

y= 0

and m2 = dy at x= 3= 6 - 5 = 1
dx y= 0
sincem1m2 = 1
tangentsare at right angle i.e.

p
2

x 2
+
2 x
1
2
g ( x) = - 2
\
2 x
for maxima and minima g(x) = 0 x = 2
4
Again g ( x ) = 3 > 0 for x = 2
x
< 0 for x = 2 \ x = 2 is point of minima

31. (b) : For the range of the expression


= y =

ax 2 + bx + c

2sin2 ax + bx + c
2

= lim
x a
( x - a)2
a ( x - a )(x- b)
2sin2
a 2 ( x- b )2
2

= lim

2
2
4
xa
2 ( x - a ) ( x- b )
a

30. (a) : Let g ( x) =

3 x 2 + 9 x + 17

,
3 x 2 + 9 x + 7
px 2 + qx + r
[find the solution of the inequality
A y2 + B y+ K 0]
where A = q2 4pr = 3, B = 4ar+ 4PC 2bq = 126

a ( x - a )( x- b )

sin
2
2
2
a ( x- b )
= lim
a ( x - a )( x - b )
2
x a

=1

a 2
( a - b) 2.
2

dy
dy dq
=

= tan q = slopeoftangent
dx
d q dx
\ Slope of normal to the curve = cotq
= tan (90 + q).
Now equation of normal to the curve

34. (a),(c) :

[ y - a (sin q - q cos q)]


=-

cosq
( x - a (cos q + a sinq))
sinq

x cos q + y sin q = a (1)


Now distance from (0, 0) to x cosq + y sinq = a is
(0 + 0 - a )
distance(d)=
1
\ distance is constant= a.

49

DifferentialCalculus

2a + 3b +6c
6
= 0given 2a + 3b + 6c = 0
\ x = 0 and x = 1 are roots of

35. (c) : Given f ( x ) - f ( y ) ( x - y )2


lim
x y

f ( x ) - f ( y)
lim x - y
x - y
x y

f ( x ) 0,f (x) = 0

f ( x ) <0, notpossible)

f ( x ) = k
f(x) = 0

ax 3 bx2
+
+cx = 0
3
2
\atleastonerootoftheequation ax2 + bx+ c=0 lies in
(0, 1)
40. (b) : Given f (x) = 6(x 1)
f(x)=

(by integration)
Q f (0) = 0

f ( x ) (" x R ) = 0 \ f(1) = 0.
36. (b) : Let if possible f (x) = 2 for
f(x) = 2x+ c (Integrating both side w.r.t. x)
\f(1)= 2+ c, 2 = 2 + c
c = 4 \ f(x) = 2x 4
\f(6) = 2 6 4 = 8 \ f(6) 8.

f (x)=

so

37. (d) :As f(x) is differenatiable at x = 1


f (1 + h)
5 = lim
assumes 0/0 form
h
h 0
f (1) \ f (1) = 5.
5 = lim
h0 1

1 - tanx
putting 4x p = t
x p/4 4x - p

41. (a) :
\

38. (b) : Any point on the ellipse


2
x2 y
+ 2 = 1
2
a
b
is (acos q , bsinq ) so the area of
rectangleinscribed inthe ellipse is
given by
A= (2acosq)(2bsinq)
\ A = 2 ab sin 2 q dA = 4 abcos 2q
d q
Now for maximum area

6( x -1)2
+ c
2
Q f ( x ) = y = 3 x+ 5
3= 3+ c
f ( x ) = 3" x R
c = 0

2
f (x)= 3(x 1)
f(x)= (x 1)3 + c1 as curvepasses through (2, 1)
1 = (2 1)3 + c1 c1 = 0
f(x) = (x 1)3

Lt

Lt
x p/4

2x

d 2A
dA
p
= 0 q = and 2
= -8 absin 2q
dq
4
d q q = p / 4
2
as d A
< 0. \ Area is maximumfor q = p/4.
d q 2
2 a 2b
,
\ sides of rectangle are
2
2
Required area = 2ab.

2y

(1 - tan x ) (1 + tan x)
p

(1 + tan x) -4 - x

4

tan - x (1 + tan x)
4

Lt = 1/2
x p/4
p

4 - x
4
2x

a b

42. (b) : e2 = 1+ + 2
x x

e2 = e

(1 form)

a b
Lt 1+ + -1 (2 x)
x x2

e2 = e2a
2a=2 \ a = 1 and b R
43. (d) :

Lt
x a

f (a) g ( x ) - f (a) - g (a) f ( x ) + g (a)


= 4
g ( x ) - f ( x )

f (a)[ g ( x) - f ( x)]
ax 3 bx2
Lt
= 4
+
+
cx
39. (c) : Let f(x) =
x a
g ( x ) - f ( x )
3
2
Note:Insuchtypeof problemswealwaysconsiderf(x) as
k = 4
theintegrationofL.H.Softhegivenequationwithoutconstant.
p x
ax 3 bx2
tan - (1 - sin x)
+
+cx called
Here integration of ax2 + bx + c is
4 2
3
2
44. (b) : Lt
itbyf(x). Now use theintervals inf(x)iff(x) satisfies the
xp/2 p - 2x
2
4.
( p - 2 x )
given condition then at least one root of the equation ax2 +
4
bx + c = 0 mustlies in that interval.
p x
p

tan - 1 - cos - x
ax 3 bx2
4 2
2
Now f(x)=
+
+cx
Lt
3
2
xp/2
p x
(
p
2 x )2
4. -
a b
4 2
f(0)= 0and f(1) = + +c
3 2

Lt f(a) = 4

x a

50

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

p x
p x
tan - 2 sin2 -
4
2
1 2
1

4 2
Lt
=
=
2
p
x
xp/2

4 16
32
4. - 42 p - 2x

4 2
4
14 + 24 + 34 + ...+n4 - Lt
45. (c): Lt
n
n
n5

13 + 23 + ...+ n3
n5
2

n( n + 1)(2 n + 1)(3n 2 + 3n- 1) - Lt n (n+ 1)


n 4n 5
n
30n 5

= Lt

n( n + 1)(2 n + 1)(3n 2 + 3n -1)


30
3
n( n + 1)(6n + 9 n 2 + n - 1)
=

30

50. (b) :

f (x)= 1 1/x2 and f (x) =

2
x3

now f (x)= 0
x = 1 \ f (1) > 0
x = 1 is point of minima.
- 1 +
| x |

47. (a): Given f(x) = x e


0

Lt

x 0+

f ( x ) = Lt xe

- 2/x

x 0+

1
x

x = 0

= 0

1 1
- x + x

and Lt - f ( x ) = Lt- e
x0

x 0

x 0

= 0

As LHL = RHL \ f(x) is continuous at x = 0


x 0

x 0

AgainRHD at x = 0 is
-0
= 0
h
also we have L.H.D at x = 0
Lt

(0 +

1 1
- +
h) e h h

x 0+

1 1
- -

(0 - h )e h h - 0
is
= 1
-h
so L.H.D R.H.D at x = 0
\ f(x) is non differentiable at x = 0
48. (b):Formaximum and minima f (x) = 0
6x2 18ax + 12a2 = 0 and f (x) = 12x 18a
f (x)=0
x = a, 2aand f (a) < 0 and f (2a) > 0
Now p= a and q = 2a and p2 = q

fn (1)(-1)n
= (1)n nCn
n!

f (1) f (1) f (1)


(-1) n fn(1)
+
-
=
+ ... +
1!
2!
3!
n !
nC nC + nC ....+ (1)nC
0
1
2
n
Now (1 + x)n = C0 + C1x + C2x2 + ... + Cnxn
...(i)
Putting x = 1 in both side of (i) we get
0= C0 C1 + C2 C3 + ...
\

- 0 Using 14 + 24 + .... + n4

6
-0
30
1
=
5
46. (a) : f(x)= x+ 1/x

49. (b) : f(x)= xn \ f(1)= 1= nC0


\
f (x)= nxn 1 so f (1) = n = nC1
f (1) n(n - 1) n
=
f (x)= n(n 1)xn 2 so
= C2
2!
2!
fn(x)= n(n 1) ...1 \

a2 = 2a a2 2a = 0
a(a 2)= 0 a = 0, a = 2

f(1)

Lt
x 0

log(3 + x ) - log(3 - x)
= k
x

x
x

log 1 + - log 1-
3
3

k= Lt
x 0
x

x
x

log 1 +
log 1-
3
3

+ Lt
k = Lt
x
x
x0
x 0
3
- 3
3
3
1 1 2
k = + =
3 3 3
ax 3 bx 2
+
51. (a): Let us consider f(x) =
+ cx
3
2
a b
\ f(0)= 0and f(1)= + + c
3 2
...(A)
2a + 3b +6c
=
= 0 given.
6
Asf(0)= f(1)=0andf(x)iscontinuousanddifferentiable
...(B)
also in [0, 1].
\ By Rolles theorem f (x) = 0
ax2 +bx+c=0hasatleastonerootinthe interval (0, 1).
xf (2) - 2 f ( x ) + 2 f (2) - 2 f(2)
x -2
( x - 2) f (2) - 2[ f ( x ) - f(2)]
Lt
x 2
x -2

52. (c): Lt

x 2

lim [f(2) 2 f (x)]


= x
2

= 4 2 4= 4
1/x

x 2 + 5 x+ 3
53. (d) : We have lim 2

x x + x + 3
1 /x

1+ 5 + 3
x x2
= lim
1 3
x
1+ + 2
x x

= 10 = 1

51

DifferentialCalculus

54. (c): Given f(x + y) = f(x) f(y)


\ f(0+ 0)= (f(0))2
f(0)= 0or f(0) = 1 but f(0) 0
f ( x ) f (h ) - f ( x)
f ( x + h ) - f ( x)
Now f (x)= Lt
= hLt

0
h
h 0
h
f (h) - 1
f (x)= f(x) Lt
h 0
h
f (h) -1
\
f (0)= f(0) Lt
h 0
h
f (h) -1
3= Lt
( f(0) = 1)
h 0
h
f (h) - 1
h
f (5) = f(5) 3 = 2 3 = 6

Now f (x)= f(x) Lt

h 0

55. (a) : Lt

x 0

56. (a) :
Let

2 sin 2 x
x 2

= Lt

sinx
=1.
x

at

a sin t - b sin b = x
A(0,0), B(x, y) =
at
a cos t - b cos = y
b

x 2 + y 2 = AB =

at
at

+ cos2 - 2 ab cos t -
b
b

a 2 + b 2 - 2 ab cosa (since |cos a| 1)

a 2 + b 2 -2ab = a b.

57. (a) : Lt

x 1

f ( x) - 1
x -1

2 1 2
= 2
2
58. (d):As f (x) g (x) = 0
f (x) g(x)= k
f (1) g(1) = k \ k = 2
So f (x) g(x)= 2
f(x) g(x)= 2x + k1
f(2) g(2) =4 + k1
k1 = 2
So f(x) g(x)= 2x + 2
[ f ( x) - g ( x)] 3 = 2 3 +2 = 5
\
x=
2
2
59. (b)
=

x 0

at
a 2 (sin 2 t + cos2 t ) + b2 sin2
b

2 x
f (x)
x 12 f ( x)
1
Lt

60. (d) :

n log x
log x n - [ x]
- 1
= xLt
0 [ x ]
x 0
[ x ]
Lt

log x
does not exist
x 0 [ x ]

which does not exist as Lt


2
61. (a) : y1 = n x + 1 + x

n- 1

x
1+

1+ x 2

n
1
2
y1 = n x + 1+ x .

1+ x 2
ny
dy

y1 =
y1 =

dx
1+ x 2

y12(1 + x2) = n2y2

(0/0 form)

y12(2x) +(1 + x2) (2y1y2) = 2yy1n2


y2(1 + x2)+ xy1 = n2y

52

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

CHAPTER

INTEGRALCALCULUS

10
1.

6.

If g( x ) = cos 4t dt ,then g(x+ p)equals


0

(a)

1 3
x y( x3 ) - 3 x3 y( x3)dx + C
3

(a) g(x) g(p)

(b)

1 3
x y( x3 ) - x2 y( x 3)dx + C
3

(c) g ( p)

(c)

1 3
x y( x3 ) - x3 y( x 3)dx + C
3

7.

(d) g(x)+ g(p)

(2012)

2
The area bounded between the parabolas x =

y
and
4

x2 =9y andthestraightline y =2is

(2013)

(a)

The intercepts on x axis made by tangents to the curve,


y = | t | dt , x R ,whichareparalleltotheline y=2x,are
0

(b) 3
(d) 1

20 2
3

(b) 10 2

(c) 20 2

equalto
(a) 2
(c) 4

(b) g(x)g(p)

g( x )

1 3
3
2
3
(d) x y( x ) - x y( x )dx + C
3

2.

Iff ( x )dx = y( x ) thenx 5 f ( x 3) dx isequal to

8.

(d)

10 2
3

(2012)

Thepopulation p(t)attime t ofacertainmousespeciessatisfies


thedifferentialequation

(2013)

dp(t )
= 0.5p(t ) -450 .If p (0)=850,
dt

thenthe timeatwhich the populationbecomes zerois


3.

The area (in sq. units) bounded by the curves y = x ,


2y x +3=0, x axisandlying in the firstquadrantis
(a) 36

(b) 18

(c)

27
4

9.

StatementI:The value of theintegral


p/3

1 +

p / 6

dx
tan x

b
a

(a) StatementI is true, StatementII is true, StatementII is


not a correct explanation for StatementI.
(b) Statement1 is true, StatementII is false.
(c) StatementI is false, StatementII is true.
(d) StatementIistrueStatementIIistrue,StatementIIisa
correct explanation for StatementI.
(2013)
5.

Iftheintegral

5 tanx
dx = x + a ln|sin x - 2 cos x |+ k ,then
tan x - 2

a isequalto

(a) 1

(c) 1

(2012)

Let I bethepurchasevalueofanequipmentand V(t)bethe


value after it has been used for t years. The value V (t )
depreciates at a rate given by differential equation

k (T - t )2
2
I
2
(c) T -
k

(d) 2
(2012)

(b) ekT

(a) I -

10. If

(d) I -

kT 2
2

(2011)

dy
= y + 3 > 0 and y(0) =2, then y(ln2)isequalto
dx

(a) 13
(c) 7

(b) 2
(d)
1

11. Thevalue of
(b) 2

(d) ln9

theequipmentis

StatementII: f ( x )dx = f ( a + b - x )dx.


a

(b) ln18

dV ( t )
= - k (T -t); where k >0isaconstantand T isthetotal
dt
lifeinyearsoftheequipment.Thenthescrapvalue V(T)of

is equal to p/6.
b

1
ln18
2

(c) 2ln18

(d) 9
(2013)

4.

(a)

p
(a) log 2
2

8 log (1 + x )
1 + x 2

dx is

(b) log2

5 (2011)

53

IntegralCalculus

(c) plog2

12. Forx 0,
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

(d)

p
log 2
8

(2011)

5p
, define f ( x ) = t sin t dt Then f has
2
0

localminimumat pandlocalmaximumat2p.
localmaximumat pandlocalminimumat2p.
localmaximumat pand2p.
localminimumat p and2p.
(2011)

sin x
cosx
dx andJ =
dx.
x
x
0
0

20. Let I =

Then which one ofthe following is true?


2
2
(a) I > and J < 2
(b) I > and J > 2
3
3
2
2
(d) I < and J > 2
(c) I < and J < 2
3
3

21. Theareaenclosedbetween thecurvesy2 = xand y=|x| is


(a) 1/6
(b) 1/3
(c) 2/3
(d) 1. (2007)

13. The areaoftheregion enclosed by the curves y = x , x = e,


y =1/x andthepositive xaxis is
dx
equals
22.
(a) 3/2square units
(b) 5/2 square units
cos x + 3 sinx
(c) 1/2square units
(d) 1 square units
(2011)
(a) log tan x + p + C
2 12
14. Let p ( x ) be a function defined on R such that
1
x p
p(x)= p(1 x ),for all x [0,1], p (0)= 1and p (1)=41.
(c) log tan + + C
2
2 12
1

x p
(b) log tan - + C
2 12

(d)

Then p( x ) dx equals

1log tan x - p + C .
2 12
2

(2007)
x

(a)

41

(b) 21

(2008)

(c) 41

dt = p
is
2
t
t
- 1 2
2

(d) 42 (2010) 23. The solution for x ofthe equation

15. Theareaboundedbythecurves y =cosx and y =sinx between

3
2

(a)

3p
theordinates x =0 and x =
is
2

(b) 2 2

(c) 2

(d) p .
(2007)
x

logt
1
dt,
24. Let F ( x ) = f ( x ) + f ,where f ( x ) =
1
+t
x
1
(c) 4 2 -1
(d) 4 2 +1
(2010)
Then F(e) equals
(a) 1
(b) 2
(c) 1/2
(d) 0.
16. The area of the region bounded by the parabola
(2007)
(y 2)2 = x 1, the tangent to the parabola at the point
a
25. Thevalueof [ x ] f ( x) dx, a > 1, where[x]denotes thegreatest
(2,3)andthexaxisis

(a) 4 2 -2

(b) 4 2 +2

(a) 6
(c) 12

(b) 9
(d) 3

integernot exceeding x is
(2009)

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

17. [cot x]dx,where [.] denotes the greatest integer function, is


0

equal to

(a) 1
(c) p /2

(b) 1
(d) p/2

(2009)

sinx dx
2
p
sin x -

4
p
p

(a) x - log cos x - + c (b) x + log cos x - + c


4
4

18. Thevalue of is

af (a){f (1)+ f (2)+...+ f ([a])}


[a]f (a){f (1)+ f (2)+...+ f ([a])}
[a]f ([a]){f (1)+ f (2)+...+ f (a)}
af ([a]){f (1)+ f (2)+...+ f (a)}.

(2006)

- p / 2

26.

[( x + p)3 + cos 2( x + 3p)]dx isequalto

- 3 p / 2

(a)

p4
32

(b)

p 4 p
+
32 2

(c)

p
2

(d)

p
-1.
2
(2006)

27. x f (sin x )dx isequalto


0

p
p

(c) x - log sin x - + c (d) x + log sin x - + c


4
4

(2008)
19. The area of the plane region bounded by the curves
x+2y2 =0and x+3y2 =1 isequalto
4
(a)
3

5
(b)
3

1
(c)
3

(a) p f (cos x )dx


0

0
p/2

p p/2
(c)
f (sin x )dx
2 0

(d) p

(2008)

(a) 1/2

(b) 3/2

f (cos x )dx .

(2006)

0
6

28. The value ofthe integral,

2
(d)
3

(b) p f (sin x )dx

x
9- x + x

(c) 2

dx is

(d) 1.
(2006)

54

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

1 sec2 1 + 2 sec2 4 + .... + 1sec21


29. lim
equals
n
n
n2

n2 n2
n2
1
1
(b) sec1
(a) cosec1
2
2
1tan1
(c)
(d) tan1.
2
cos2 x
dx, a> 0, is
x
- p 1+a
(b) ap
(c) 2p

ex
, I 1 =
1+e x

38. If f ( x) =

f ( a)

xg{ x(1 -x )}dx and

f ( - a)

f ( a)

I 2 =

(2005)

I2
g{ x(1 -x)} dx, thenthevalueof I is
1
f ( - a)

(a) 1

(b) 3

(c) 2

(d) 1.
(2004)

30. Thevalueof
(a) p/2

p / 2

39. If x f (sin x) dx = A f (sin x )dx,thenAis

(d) p/a

(2005)

(a) p/4

(b) p

(c) 0

(d) 2p.

(2004)
31. Theparabolas y2 = 4x and x2 = 4ydivide thesquare region
2
p
/
2
(sin
x
+
cos
x
)
boundedbythelinesx=4,y=4andthecoordinateaxes.If
40. Thevalueof I =
dx is
S1,S2,S3 are respectively the areas of thesepartsnumbered
1 +sin 2x
0
fromtoptobottomthenS1 : S2 : S3 is
(a) 2
(b) 1
(c) 0
(d) 3.
(a) 1:2:3
(b) 1:2:1
(2004)
(c) 1:1:1
(d) 2:1:2.
(2005)
3
2
41. Thevalueof |1 - x |dx is
32. Theareaenclosedbetweenthecurvey=loge(x+e)andthe
- 2
coordinateaxes is
(a) 7/3
(b) 14/3
(c) 28/3
(d) 1/3.
(a) 2
(b) 1
(c) 4
(d) 3.
(2004)
(2005)
dx
isequal to
42.
2 3
1
1 3
2 2
cos
x
-sinx
x
x2
x
x
33. If I1 = 2 dx , I 2 = 2 dx , I3 = 2 dx and I 4 = 2 dx
1
0
0
1
1
logtan x - 3p + C
then
(a)
2 8
2
(a) I1 >I2 (b) I2 >I1 (c) I3 >I4
(d) I3 =I4.
1
(2005)
logcot x +C
(b)
2
2
f
(
x
)
34. Let
be a nonnegative continuous function such that
theareaboundedbythecurve y = f ( x ), xaxisandthe ordinates
1
logtan x - p + C
(c)
p
2 8
p
2
p
x
=
b
>
x =
and
is b sin b + cos b + 2b . Then
4
4
4
1
log tan x + 3p + C .
(d)
(2004)
p
2 8
2
f
is
2
sinx
43. If sin( x - a)dx = Ax + B logsin( x - a ) + C, then value of
p
p
(b) 4 + 2 -1
(a) 4 - 2 +1
(A,B)is
p
p
(a) (sina ,cosa )
(b) (cosa,sina )
(c) 1 - 4 + 2
(d) 1 - 4 - 2 .
(2005)
(c) (sina,cosa )
(d) (cosa ,sina )
(2004)
n 1
35. Let F : R R be a differentiable function having
r /n
e
44. nlim
is
f ( x)
3
n

r
=
1
4
t
1 Then lim
dt equals
f (2) = 6, f (2) =
.

(a) 1e
(b) e1
(c) e
(d) e+1.
48
x 2 6 x -2
(2004)
(a) 36
(b) 24
(c) 18
(d) 12.
sin
x
(2005)
e
d
45. Let F ( x) =
, x> 0.
2
dx
x
(log x - 1)
isequalto
36.
4
2 dx
3 sinx
1 + (log x )
dx = F (k ) - F(1), thenoneofthepossiblevalues
If x e
logx
1
x
+ C
(a) 2 + C
(b)
ofkis
(log x ) 2 +1
x +1
(a) 16
(b) 63
x
xex + C.
(c) (log x ) 2 +1+ C
(d)
(2005)
(c)
64
(d) 15.
(2003)
1+ x 2

()
(
(

)
)

( )
( )
( )
( )

(
(

)
)

( )

x2

2
sec tdt
37. The area of the region bounded by the curves
0
46. Thevalueof lim
is
y=|x2|, x=1,x=3andthexaxis is
x0 x sinx
(a) 3
(b) 2
(c) 1
(d) 4.
(a) 2
(b) 1
(c) 0
(2004)

(d) 3 (2003)

55

IntegralCalculus
1

47. Thevalueoftheintegral I = x(1 - x )ndx is

52. lim

1
1
(b) n + 1 - n +2
1
(d) n +1.
b

(c)

a + b b
f (a + b - x )dx
2 a

(b)

b - a b
f ( x)dx
2 a

54.

b
(d) a + b f (b - x) dx.
2 a

1
(b) 1- p
1
(d) p +2.

2 x (1 + sin x)

dx is
1 + cos2 x
(a) p2/4
(b) p2

-p

(2003)

(c) 0

(d) p/2.
(2002)

49. Iff(y)=e y,g(y)=yy>0and

55. Ify= f (x)makes+veinterceptof2and0unitxand yand


encloses an area of 3/4 square unit with the axes then

F( t ) = f ( t - y ) g( y )dy ,then

(a) F (t ) = et - (1 +t )
(c) F (t)=tet

x f ( x )dx

(b) F (t)=te t
(d) F (t)=1e t(1+t).
(2003)

is

(a) 3/2

(b) 1

sin x dx
(a) 20

2
(d) e - e -5.
2 2

(b) 8

(c) 10

(d) 18.
(2002)

p/ 4

2
(c) e + e +5
2 2

(d) 3/4.
(2002)

is

thevalueoftheintegral f ( x ) g ( x)dx is
2
(b) e - e -3
2 2

(c) 5/4

10 p

50. Letf(x)beafunctionsatisfyingf (x)=f(x)with f(0)=1 56.


andg(x)beafunctionthatsatisfiesf(x)+g(x)=x2.Then

2
(a) e + e -3
2 2

57. I n =

tan

x dx , then lim n [ I n + I n- 2] equals


n

(a) 1/2

(b) 1

(c)

(d) 0.
(2002)

(2003)

51. Theareaoftheregionboundedbythecurvesy=|x 1|andy


=3|x|is
(a) 3sq.units
(b) 4sq.units
(c) 6sq.units
(d) 2sq.units.
(2003)

58.

[ x

]dx is

(a) 2 - 2

(b) 2 + 2

(c)

(d)

2 -1

2 -2.

Answer Key

1.
7.
13.
19.
25.
31.
37.
43.
49.
55.

(b)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(b)
(c)
(c)
(b)
(a)
(d)

2.
8.
14.
20.
26.
32.
38.
44.
50.
56.

(d)
(c)
(b)
(c)
(c)
(b)
(c)
(b)
(b)
(d)

(2002)

53. Theareaboundedbythecurves y =lnx, y=ln |x|, y =|lnx|and


y=|ln|x||is
(a) 4sq.units
(b) 6sq.units
(c) 10sq.units
(d) none of these
(2002)

a + b b
f ( x )dx
2 a

is

1
(a) p +1
1
1
(c) p - p -1

(2003)

48. Iff(a+bx)=f(x),then x f ( x)dx isequalto


(a)

n p+ 1

1
(a) n +2
1
1
(c) n + 1 + n +2

1 p + 2 p + 3 p + ...+np

3.
9.
15.
21.
27.
33.
39.
45.
51.
57.

(d)
(d)
(a)
(a)
(d)
(a)
(b)
(c)
(b)
(b)

4.
10.
16.
22.
28.
34.
40.
46.
52.
58.

(c)
(c)
(b)
(c)
(b)
(c)
(a)
(b)
(a)
(c)

5.
11.
17.
23.
29.
35.
41.
47.
53.

(b)
(b)
(c)
(*)
(c)
(c)
(c)
(b)
(a)

6.
12.
18.
24.
30.
36.
42.
48.
54.

(a,d)
(b)
(d)
(c)
(a)
(c)
(d)
(a,c)
(b)

(2002)

56

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

1. (b): Letx3 =u,then3x2dx = du

5 tanx
dx = x + a ln|sin x - 2 cos x |+ k
tan x - 2

5. (b):

Alsosupposef ( x )dx = y( x )

Differentiatingbothsides, weget

1
u f (u)du
3

Now x 5 f ( x 3)dx =

a (cos x + 2 sin x )
5 tanx
= 1+
tan x - 2
sin x -2 cos x

1
= u f ( u)du - ( f ( u))du
3
=

2.

1 3
x y( x3 ) - x 2 y( x 3)dx + C
3

a=2

dy
= | x | = 2. \ x = 2
(d) :
dx

6.

y1 = | t | dt = tdt =
0

-2

and y2 =

t2
= 2
2 0

g( x + p)=

- 2
0

Tangentsarey2=2(x2)andy+2=2(x+ 2)
Thenthexinterceptsareobtainedbyputtingy=0.
Wethengetx=1
3. (d): Solving y = x with2yx +3 = 0,we have
2 x - x + 3 = 0 ( x - 3)( x + 1) = 0

y
4

7. (a): x 2 = ,x2 =9y


Areaboundedbytheparabolasandy =2
2
2
y
= 2 3 y dy = 5 ydy

2
0
0

= 5

\ x=1,9

8. (c):
p

850
3

2
Area= [(2 y + 3) - y2] dy = y + 3y -
0

y
3

( y )3/2
10
20 2
=
2 2 =
3/2
3
3

d( p(t ))
= 0.5 p( t) -450
dt
t

2dp
p - 900
= dt 2ln
=t
p - 900
-50
0

p = 900 -50 e t /2

Ifp = 0,then

=9+99=9
p/ 3

4. (c): I =

p / 3

dx

p/ 61 +

Adding, 2I =

tan x

p / 3

1 +

p / 6
p/ 3

p / 61

1
tan x

1 dx = 3 - 6 =

p / 6

sin 4( x + p) sin 4x
=
4
4

g(p)=0 g(x+ p)=g(x)+g(p)org(x) g(p).

| t | dt = - tdt = - 2
0

sin 4t
sin 4x
g ( x)=
=
4 0
4

(a,d): g( x ) = cos 4t dt
0

Wecansolve for y to get


2

sin x (1 + 2 a) + cos x ( a - 2)
5sinx
=
sin x - 2cos x
sin x - 2 cos x

p
6

AgainStatementIIistrue.

9. (d) :

900 t /2
=e
t =2 ln 18
50

dV
= - k(T -t)
dt

+ cot x

Onintegration, V =
+

tanx
dx
1 + tan x
\ I =

p
12

Att=0, V(t)=I
\ a = I -

kT
2

k(T - t)2
+ a
2

kT 2
+ a
I =
2

kT
Ast = T,wehaveV(T)= a = I 2

57

IntegralCalculus

dy

15. (a) :

dy

10. (c): dx = y + 3 y +3 = dx
Asy(0)=2,wehaveln5= C
Nowln(y+3)=x+ln5
Asx=ln2wehave
ln(y+3)=ln2+ln5 =ln10
y+3=10 y = 7.

Thedesired area=

p/ 4

8 ln (1 + x )
dx
11. (b) : I =
2
0 1 + x
1

Let J =

ln (1 + x )

1 + x 2

p/4

= 2 [ sin x + cos x ]0

dx

ln(1 + tan 4 - q) dq

p/ 4

ln(1 + tan q) + ln 1 + tan 4 - q dq


0

p

= ln (1 + tan q) 1 + tan - q dq
4

0
p /4

2J =

(ln 2)dq =
0

p
p
ln 2 8 J = 4 ln 2
4
4

5 p / 4

+ [ - cos x -sin x ]p / 4

8
2

- 2 = 4 2 -2

16. (b) : (y 2)2 = x 1


Differentiating w.r.t. x, we have 2(y 2)y = 1

y =

1
2( y -2) at (2, 3), y = 1/2

The equation of the tangent to the parabola at (2, 3) is


y 3 =

1
(x 2) x 2y + 4 = 0
2

I = 8 J = pln 2.
x

12. (b) : f ( x ) = t sin tdt


0

f ( x) = x sin x
f ( x ) = x cos x +

1 -1/ 2
x
sinx
2

f ( p) = - p < 0 f (2 p) = 2 p > 0

Thusat p maximumandat2p minimum.

The area of the bounded region


3

= [( y - 2) 2 + 1 - (2 y - 4)]dy
0
3

e
13. (a): Area = 1 + dx = 1 + lnx 1 = 3
2 1 x 2
2
14. (b):p(x)= p(1 x)
Onintegration,
p(x)=p(1x)+ k,
kbeingthe constant of integration.
Setx=0toobtainp(0)= p(1)+ k
1=41+k. \ k= 42

= ( y 2 - 6 y + 9)dy = ( y - 3)2 dy
0

(Let 3 y = t)
3

3
3
t3
33
= (3 - y ) 2 dy = t 2dt = =
= 9
3
0 3
0
0

17. (c): I = [cot x]dx


0

p
0

I = [cot(p - x )]dx = [ - cot x]dx


0

Now, I = p( x )dx = p(1 - x )dx

Adding we have

Onaddingweget

2 I = {[cot x ] + [ - cot x ]}dx

2 I = p( x) + p(1 - x ) dx = kdx = 42 dx = 42.


0

ThusI=21.

(cos x - sin x )dx

1
1
1
1
1
1
= 2
+
- 1 +
+
+
+

2
2
2
2
2

ln(1 + tan q)dq

0
p/ 4

p /4

5 p /4

(Asthe firstandthirdintegralsareequalinmagnitude)

Let x=tan q J =

Adding 2J =

3 p /2

(sin x - cos x )dx +

p /4

p /4

Now J =

5 p /4

(cos x - sin x )dx +

0
p

2 I = ( -1)dx = -p

\ I = p/2

Note that [x] + [x] = 0, x Z = 1, x Z.

58

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

x
p
-1
23. (*): sec t =
2
2

sinx
dx
18. (d): 2
p
sin x -

sec -1 x - sec -1 2 =

p p
sin x- +

4 4
= 2
dx
p

sin x -

4
p
p

p
= 2 cos + cot x - sin dx

4
4
4

x = - 2. There is nocorrectoption.
x

x
x
1
ln t
2
ln t
lnt
F ( x )=
+
dt = dt = (ln x )

2
1
+
t
(1
+
t
)
t
t

1
1

F(e)=1/2.

p
= x + ln sin x - + c

25. (b) : [ x ] f ( x )dx , say [a]= K such that a > 1

c beingaconstant ofintegration.

(a):Solutionx+ 2y2 =0 andx+3y2 = 1we have


13y2 =2y2

(2,1)
A

= [a] f(a) [f(1) + f(2) + ....... + f([a])]


-p
2

26. (c) : Let I = ( x + p )3 + cos 2( x + 3p ) dx


-3p
2

Putting

x + p = z

-p
p
-3p
-p
z = and x =
z=
2
2
2
2
\
dx= dz
and x + 3p = z + 2p
also

31

y
= 2 (1 - y 2)dy = 2 y -
3 0

2 4
= sq.units
3 3

x=

p
2

20. (c): Intheintervalofintegration sin x< x


1

= [f(1)+ f(2)+ ......+ f(K)] + K f(a)


O

( K - 1) f ( x ) dx + Kf ( x )dx

= f(2) f(1)+ 2[f(3) f(2)]+ 3[f(4) f(3)]+...


(K 1) [f(K) f(K 1)] + K[f(a) f(K)]

2
2
Thedesiredarea= 2 [(1 - 3 y ) - ( -2 y )]dy

= 2

K -1

(1,0) x
B
(2,1) x +3y2=1
x +2y2=0 y

= 1 f ( x ) dx + 2 f ( x ) dx + ......+

y2 =1

\ y= 1
y=1 x= 2
y=1 x=2
Thebounded regionis as under

1/x

ln t
lnt
dt +
dt
1
+
t
1
+t
1
1

24. (c): F ( x )=

1
1
p
= 2
x+ 2
ln sin x - + c

4
2
2

19.

p
p p 3p
- 1
sec x = + =
2
2 4
4

l=

[z3

+ cos 2(2p +

z )]dz =

-p
2

-p
2

1
sin x
x
2
2
I=
dx <
dx = xdx= x3/ 2 =
3
0 3

x
x
0
0
0

p
2

z 3dz

p
2

+ cos2 z dz
-p
2

p
2

= 0 (an odd function) +2 cos2 z dz

2
\ I <
3

cos x
1
dx <
dx = [2 x]10 = 2
x
x
0
0

Also J =

\ J<2
21. (a):Requiredarea

Y
y =|x|
x =y2
(1,1)

= ( x - x )dx
0
1

2
x2
2 1 1
= x3/ 2 - = - =
3
2

0 3 2 6.

(0,0)

dx
1
x p
22. (c): 1
= log tan + + c.
2
2
2 12
p

sin x +
6

( )

1 p
= 0 + 2
2 2
p

n
usingfact sin x dx
0

n - 1 n- 3 ...... 1 p if n = 2m
n n- 2

2 2
=

n
1
n
3
2

......
ifn = 2 m+ 1

n n-2
2

p
=
2
p

27. (d) : Let I = xf (sin x)dx


0

..... (i)

59

IntegralCalculus
p

I = ( p - x) f (sin x )dx

..... (ii)

0
a

32. (b) : Required area = log e( x + e )dx

pp
p 2
\ I = f (sin x )dx = 2 f (sin x )dx
20
2 0
0

2 x > 2x

b
f ( x)
= f ( x )dx = b - a
f ( a + b + x ) + f ( x ) a
2

= x sec 2 ( x 2)dx =
0

B( > p / 4)

f ( x ) dx =
p/ 4

p / 4

f ( x)

35. (c) : lim

x 2 6

1tan1.
2

= lim

x 2

-p
p

-p

... (2)

2 f ( x ) = cos 2 x dx = 2 cos2 x dx
= 2 2 cos2 x dx , 2 f ( x ) = 4 1 p
2
2
0

(0/0) form,

= 4 f (2) ( f (2))3 = 1 4 6 6 6 =18.


48
36. (c) : Method by cross check
x
Consider f ( x) =
(log x )2 +1
2 x logx
1 + (log x)2 x
\ f ( x)=
(1 +(log x )2 )2
\ f ( x) =

1 + (log x ) 2 - 2 log x
(1 + log 2 x ) 2

(1 - log x)
=
(1 + log x )2

(1 - log x)2
\
dx = f ( x ) dx = f ( x)
1 + (log x )2

C
y= 4

x
16
dx =
= S1
4
3
0
16
16
\ S2 = 16 2 =
.
3
3
\ S1 : S2 : S3 is 1 : 1 : 1.
S3 =

4t3
dt
x -2

f ( x ) 4( f ( x ))3
1

p/2

p/2

n
Byusing sin x dx

n - 1 n- 3 1 p

..... if niseven
n n-2
2 2

f ( x ) = p
2
31. (c) : Total area = 4 4 = 16 sq. units

( B sin B + p4cos B + B 2)

( )

( ) ( )

a x cos2 x
dx
1+a x

f (b) = sin B + B cos B - p sin B + 2


4
p
p
\ f
= 1 - + 2.
2
4

2
30. (a) : Let f ( x ) = cos xx dx ( a > 0)
...(1)
- p 1+a
p
b
b
cos2 x
\ f ( x ) =
dx \ f ( x ) dx = f ( a + b - x )
- x
- p 1+a
a
a
p

I1 > I2.

\ f ( x ) =

34. (c) : According to question

r = n
2
1 r sec2 r

= lim r2 sec2 r = nlim


n n
n

r
=
0
n
n r= 1 n
1

1
1
2
4
1
sec 2 2 + 2 sec 2 2 + ... + sec 21
29. (c): nlim
n
n 2
n
n
n
2
n
2 n
1
1
2
4
= lim 2 sec 2 2 + 2 sec2 2 + ... + 2 sec 2
n
n n
n
n
n
n

( )

\ 2 x dx > 2x dx

x
dx = 6 - 3 = 3

2
2
3 a - x + x

r = n

\ 2 x > 2x

as 2 x > 2x

Area of

x2 > x3

i.e. 2 x < 2x I 3 <I 4

= 1.

and for1 < x < 2, x3 > x2

28. (b) : Using fact

2
p
= p f sin( - x ) dx = p f (cos x )dx

e
z (log e z - 1)1

33. (a) : For 0 < x < 1,

[using f ( x ) dx = 2 f ( x )dx if f (2a x) = f(x)]

1 e

By (i) & (ii) on adding

p
2

(0,1)

= logz dz

2a

y =loge(x+e)

using f ( x ) dx = f ( a - x )dx
0

1- e

n=4

1 - logx
x
\
dx =
2
1 + (log x )2
1 + (log x )
Hence(c)iscorrectanswerandwecanchecktheotherchoices
bythe similarargument.
x - 2 if x > 2

y
=
if x = 0
37. (c):
0
2 - x if x < 2

Required area =Area of DLAB +Area of DMBC

60

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

2
, x
>

41. (c) :

M(3, 1)

1 - x 2

\ |1 x2| =

1
1
[AL AB+ BC CM] =
[1 1 + 1 1] = 1
2
2
ex
38. (c) :As f(x)=
1+ e x
ea
e- a
andf(a)
=
\
f(a)=
1+e a
1+ e - a
\
f(a)+ f(a) = 1
f ( a)

x g {x(1 - x)}dx =

if

| x|< 1

2
(1 - (1 - x )) if x < -1 and x 1

(1 - x )(1 + x ) dx
-2

- 2

A(1, 0) B(2, 0) C(3, 0)


x = 1, x = 2, x = 3

Now

1- x 2 dx =

Putting 1 x2 = 0 \ x = 1
Points 2, 1, 1, 3

y
=

L(1, 1)
(0, 0)

3
2

y
=

(1 - x

) dx

- 2
-1

( x 2 - 1) dx +

-2

(1 - x 2 ) dx + ( x 2 - 1)dx

-1

4
28
2 20
=
= + 2 +
3
3
3

3

42. (d) :

f ( - a)

a cos x - b sinx dx where a = b = 1

a= r cos q = 1
b= rsin q = 1
\
r = 2
q = tan1(b/a)
let

f ( a)

(1 - x) g {(1 - x)( x)}dx


f ( - a)
b

using

f ( x)dx = f (a + b - x )dx

f ( a)

f ( a)

2I1 = I2

I2 2
=
I1 1

=
=
p
2

x f (sin x )dx

= A f (sin x )dx

p
2

or A f (sin x )dx =
0
p
2

p
f (sin x) dx = xf (sin x)dx
2
p
= 2 f (sin x )dx
2

0
p
2

A f (sin x ) = p f (sin x )dx


A = p
p/2

40. (a) :

(sin x + cos x)2


(sin x + cos x)2

cos x -

1
sinx
2

dx

1
1
dx
2 cos( x + p/4)

1
1
dx
2 sin p + x + p

4
2

1
1
dx
2 2 sin x + 3p cos x + 3p

2 8
2 8

p x
sec 2 3 +
1
8 2 dx
=
x 3p
2 2
tan +

2 8

p
2

p
2

A f (sin x )dx

1
2

f ( - a)

1
2

g {(1 - x)x}dx

x g { x (1 - x )}dx =

f ( - a)

39. (b) :

1
x 3p
2 log tan +
+c
8
2 2
2
1
x 3p
log tan +
+c
8
2
2

p/2

dx=

(sin x + cos x)dx

43. (b) :

sinx

sin( x - a)dx =Ax + B logsin (x a) +C

Differentiating w.r.t. x both sides

cosx
2
+ sinx
=
-1
0

= 1 (1) = 2

sinx
B cos ( x - a)
= A +
sin( x - a)
sin ( x - a)
sin x = A sin (x a)+ B cos (x a)

61

IntegralCalculus

sin x = A (sin x cosa cos x sina)


+ B (cos x cos a + sin x sin a)
sin x =sin x (A cos a + B sin a)
+ cos x(B cos a A sin a)
Nowsolving A cos a + B sin a = 1
and B cos a Asin a = 0
(A, B) = (cos a , sin a)
r

r = n

1 n
e
n
r = 1

44. (b) : nLt

x
= e dx = e 1

p/2

sin

q cos2 n + 1q d q

2[2 (2n)(2n - 2)(2n- 4) ...4.2]


=
(2n + 4)(2n + 2)(2n)(2n -2)... 4.2
2 2 1
(2n + 4)(2n +2)
1
=
( n + 2)(n +1)
1
1
=
(by partial fraction)
n + 1 n +2
=

3 sinx3
x e dx = F(k) F(1)
1

45. (c): Given


4

3x

x3

48. (a), (c) : Let I =

a
b

esinx dx = F(k) F(1)

I =

64 sinz

dz= F(k) F(1) where (x3 = z)

64
F ( z) 1

F(64) F(1) = F(k) F(1)


k= 64

= F(k) F(1)

46. (b) :

( tant)0x

Lt
x0

47. (b) : x (1 - x)n dx


0

x= sin2q
dx = 2 sin q cos q dq
x= 0, q = 0
x= 1, q = p/2

and

1
n

p/2

x (1 - x ) dx = sin 2 q cos2n q (2sin q cos q)dq

p
2

I =

I =

x f (a + b - x)dx
a

(a + b) f ( x)dx - xf ( x)dx
a

a
b

a+b
a + b
f ( x ) dx =
f (a + b - x )dx
\ I =

2 a
2
a
49. (a) : From given F(t)=

= e

t - y

y dy (By replacing y t y in f(y))

0
t

q
q
F(t) = - (t - q)e d q = (t - q)e d q

t
0
= (t eq)0t [(q 1) eq]0t
= t(et 1) (t 1)et 1

= et(t t + 1) t 1
= et (t + 1)
50. (b):As f(x)= f (x)and f(0)= 1
f ( x)
= 1

f ( x )
log(f(x)) = x
f(x)= ex + k
f(x)= ex as f(0)= 1
Now g(x)= x2 ex
\

f ( x ) g ( x ) dx =

0
1

q cos2 n + 1q d q

( x 2 - e x) dx

0
1
2 x

x e
0

[(2n )(2n - 2)...2][(2n )(2n- 2)...2]


=

(4 n + 2)(4 n)(4 n - 2)....2

f (t - y) g ( y)dy

0
2n + 1

(a + b) f(a + b x) dx
a
b

p/2

sin

a
b

3
2 n + 1
qdq
= 2 sin q cos

Using

(a + b - x) f(a + b x) dx

x sinx

tanx2
= Lt
x0 x sinx
tanx2
= Lt
x0 2 sinx
x
x
tan x2
1
= 1 1 = 1
= Lt
sinx
x 0 x2
Lt
x 0 x

Putting

x f ( x)dx

dx - e 2xdx

1
=[(x2 2x + 2)ex]0

e 2x

2 0

62

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

e 2 - 1
e 2 3
= 4p - 0 = p2
-
= (e 2)
= e
4

2 2
2
2
n
x
x n
n
n
n
Usingf (x)e dx=e [f (x)f1 (x)+ f2 (x)+...+(1) fn(x)] 55.
(d) : Given f ( x ) dx = 3/4
wheref1,f2,....fn are derivativesof first,second ...nth order.
0

51. (b) : Required area


0

(3 + x) - (- x + 1) + (3 - x) - (- x + 1)dx + (3 - x) - ( x - 1)dx

-1
0

0
1

(0,0)

2(1 + x ) dx + 2 dx + (4 - 2 x ) dx
-1

=4 sq.units

52. (a) :

Lt

n p

1
= nLt
n

1 r

n n

r = 1

x pdx =

1
p + 1

f ( x)dx
0

3
= 2f(2)
4

2
( x ))0
-3/4

= ( x f

p
1 p 2 p
n
+ + .... +
n
n
n

r=n

= nLt

x f ( x)dx = xf ( x)dx
0

1 p + 2 p + ..... + np

(2,0)
2

3
[\ f(2) = 0, curve having intercept
4
= 3/4
2 units on xaxis.]
= 0

10p

56. (d) :

sin x

10p

53. (a) : RequiredArea


=

dx

sin x dx -

sin x

dx

=18(Usingperiod of |sin x|= p)

= 10 2 1 2
f(x) = |log|x||

p/4

57. (b) : In =

tan

x dx

0
1

(1, 0)

p/4

(1, 0)

= 2log x dx
0

-p

x sinx

x sinx

1 + cos2 x dx= 2 21 + cos2 x

= 0 + 2

-p

p
sinx
x sinx
1 + cos2 x dx = 4 201 + cos2 x dx
0
p
p

p
byusing
xf
(sin
x
)
dx
=
f (sin x) dx

2 0

= 4

p
= 4 2
2
=4p (tan

-1

p/2

p/4

1 + cos2 x dx

tan

n- 2

In + In 2 =

1
n + 1

\ n(In + In 2) =

1
1 + 1/n

\ nLt
n(In + In 2) = 1
1

x sec2 x dx

[ x 2]dx =

[ x 2 ]dx +

0
2

(By puttingcos x =t)

n- 2

tan

p/4

x dx

58. (c) :

sinx

cos x )0p

n - 2

tan

tann- 2 x (sec2x 1) dx +

p/4

x sinx

p/4

tan n x dx +

-p

p/4

\ In + In 2 =

1 + cos2 x dx + 21 + cos2 x dx

54. (b) : 2

tann- 2 x dx

1
= 2 x log x - - .x dx
0
x
0
1
= 2[(1 0)+ (x)0 ] = 4 sq. units.

In 2 =

= 0 +

1 dx
1

2 -1

[ x
1

]dx

x dx

63

DifferentialEquations

CHAPTER

11
1.

2.

3.

DIFFERENTIALEQUATIONS

Solution of the differential equation


cos xdy = y(sinx y )dx ,0 < x < p/2 is
(a) sec x=(tanx+ c)y
(b) ysecx=tanx+ c
(c) ytanx=secx + c
(d) tanx=(secx+ c)y (2010)
Thedifferentialequationwhichrepresentsthefamilyofcurves
y = c1ec2x, where c1 and c2 are arbitrary constants, is
(a) y= yy
(b) yy = y
(c) yy = (y)2
(d) y = y2
(2009)

The solution of the differential equation

5.

6.

If x

dy
= y (log y - log x+1), thenthesolutionoftheequation
dx

is

8.

y
(a) x log = cy
x

x
(b) y log = cx
y

x
(c) log = cy
y

y
(d) log = cx.
x

(2005)

The differential equation representing the family of curves


y 2 = 2 c ( x + c ), wherec>0,isaparameter,isoforderand

dy x + y
=
dx
x

satisfyingthecondition y(1) =1 is
(a) y= xlnx+ x
(b)y = lnx+ x
(c) y= xlnx+ x2
(d)y = xe(x 1)
4.

7.

degree as follows
(a) order 1, degree 1
(c) order 2, degree 2
(2008)

The differentialequation ofthefamilyof circleswithfixed


radius5unitsand centreontheliney =2 is
(a) (x 2)2 y2 =25 (y 2)2
(b) (x 2)y2 =25(y2)2
(c) (y2)y2 =25(y 2)2
(d) (y2)2 y2 =25 ( y 2)2
(2008)

9.

(b) order 1, degree 2


(d) order 1, degree 3. (2005)

The solution of the differential equation


ydx + (x+ x2y)dy =0 is
1
1
(a) xy + log y = C
(b) - xy + log y = C
1
(c) - xy = C

(d) logy = Cx.

(2004)

10. Thedifferentialequationforthefamilyofcurvesx2 +y2 2ay


Thedifferentialequationofallcirclespassingthroughthe
= 0,where a is an arbitrary constantis
originandhaving theircentres onthe xaxis is
(a) (x2 y2)y = 2xy
(b) 2(x2 + y2)y = xy
dy
(a) y 2 = x 2 +2xy
(c) 2(x2 y2)y = xy
(d) (x2 + y2)y = 2xy. (2004)
dx
dy
y + ... to
dy
(b) y 2 = x 2 -2xy
is
11. If x = e y + e
,x > 0 then
dx
dx
dy
1-x
1
(c) x 2 = y 2 + xy
(a)
(b)
dx
x
x
x
1+x
dy
2
2
.
(d) x = y +3 xy .
(c)
(d)
(2004)
(2007)
1+ x
x
dx
The differential equation whose solution is Ax2 + By2 = 1,
whereAand B are arbitrary constants is of
(a) second order and second degree
(b) first order and second degree
(c) first order and first degree
(d) second order and first degree.
(2006)

12. The solution of the differential equation


dy
(1 + y 2 ) + ( x - etan y) =0 is
dx
(a) 2xe tan y = e 2 tan y +k
-1

-1

tan
(b) xe

-1

(c) xe 2 tan

-1

-1

= tan-1y +k

-1

= e tan

+k

-1

- tan y
.
(d) ( x - 2) =ke

(2003)

64

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

13. Thedegreeandorderofthedifferentialequationofthefamily
2
(a) 1,
(b) 3, 1
(c) 3, 3
3
of all parabolas whose axis is xaxis, are respectively
(a) 1, 2
(b) 3, 2
d 2y
= e- 2x
15.
The
solution
of
the
equation
(c) 2, 3
(d) 2, 1.
(2003)
dx 2
14. The order and degree of the differential equation
2
3

(1 + 3 dydx)

= 4

d 3y
are
dx 3

(a)

1 -2x
e
4

(b)

1 - 2x
e + cx +d
4

(c)

1 - 2 x
e + cx 2 +d
4

(d)

1 - 2x
e + c +d .
4

Answer Key

1. (a)
7. (d)
13. (a)

2. (c)
8. (d)
14. (c)

3. (a)
9. (b)
15. (b)

(d) 1, 2.

4. (d)
10. (a)

5. (a)
11. (a)

6. (d)
12. (a)

(2002)

(2002)

65

DifferentialEquations

1. (a):1stsolution:
cos x dy = y (sin x y )dx
cos x dy = y sin x dx y2 dx
cos x dy y sin x dx = y2 dx
d(y cos x)=y2 dx

d( y cos x)
( y cos x )2

v = ln x +lnk
Asv= y/xwehavey= x lnx+(lnk)x
Atx =1,y =1giving
1=0+(lnk) \ ln k =1,Theny= xln x + x
2ndMethod (Inspection):
Rewritingthe equation
dy x + y
=
as
dx
x
xdyydx=xdx

dx
= -
cos 2x

Onintegration,we have
sec x =y tan x + yk
sec x = y (tanx + C)where C isa constant
2nd solution:

Wehave

dy
dy y(sin x - y )
= y tan x - y 2sec x
=

dx
dx
cos x
dy
- y tan x = - y 2sec x

dx
1 dy 1
- tan x = -sec x

y 2 dx y

4.

dv
+ (tan x )v = -sec x ,whichislinearin v .
dx

= e ln secx =sec x

The solutionis
v sec x = - sec 2 x dx + k

v sec x = - tan x +k

2.

y
= lnx + k
x
y= xlnx+kx
Asbefore,evaluatingconstant, y = xln x + x
(d): The equation tocircleis
(x a)2 +(y2)2 =25
Differentiation w.r.t. x
dy
( x - a ) + ( y- 2)
=0
dx
dy
x - a = - ( y-2)
dx
From(1)and(2)oneliminatea

...(1)

...(2)

(c): y =c1e c2x

5.

y = c1c2ec2x = c2y

...(i)

Againdifferentiating w.r.t. x
y=c2y
From(i)and(ii)upon division

...(ii)

y
y
=
y y = ( y )2
y y
Which is the desired differential equation of the family of
6.
curves.

(a):1stMethod (Homogeneousequation):
dy
dv
= v + x
Lety= vx,sothat
dx
dx
dv x + vx
= 1+v
Wehave v + x =
dx
x
dv
dx
x =1 dv=
dx
x

dx
x

dy
( y - 2) 2 + ( y- 2) 2 = 25
dx

secx
= - tan x - C sec x = y(tan x +C )
y

Differentiatingw.r.t. x, we get

3.

Onintegration

tanx dx

y dx
d =
x x

Setting,- y =v , wehave

I.F. = e

xdy - ydx

(y2)2(y)2 =25(y2)2

(a):Generalequationofallsuchcirclesis
(xh)2 +(y0)2 =h2 ....(i)wherehisparameter
(xh)2 + y2 = h2
Differentiating,weget 2( x - h ) + 2 ydy =0
dx
dy
h = x + y
to eliminate h, putting value of h in
dx
equation....(i),
dy
\ weget y 2 = x 2 +2 xy .
dx
2
2
(d) : Given A x + B y = 1
As solution having two constants, \ order of differential
equationis2soourchoices(b)&(c)arediscardedfromthe
list, only choices (a) and (b) are possible
AgainA x2 + B y2 = 1
.... (*)
A y dy
- =

.... (i)
B x dx
Differentiating (*) w.r.t. x
Again on differentiating

66

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER
y....

y + ey + e

d 2y dy
y 2 +
dx dx
By (i) and (ii) we get
A
- =
B

......(ii)

7.

xy

d 2y
dy
dy
+ x = y
2
dx
dx

dx

order 2 degree 1.

(d) : x

12. (a) : From the given equation


(1 + y2)

dy
= y (log y - log x+1)
dx

8.

-1

where I.F= e

(d) : y = 2c ( x + c )
\ 2yy1 = 2c
Nowputting c = yy1 in (i) we get

...(i)
\ yy1 = c

y = 2 yy1 x + yy1 ( y - 2 xyy1 ) = 4( yy1)


2

3 3
1

(y 2xyy1) = 4yy

9.

order 1, degree 3.

(b) : y dx = (x2y + x) dy
ydx+ xdy = x2y dy

ydx + xdy
2

( xy )

- dy

dy
1
d - = xy
y

1
-
= log y + C
xy

-1

tan
x e

d ( xy )
2

( xy )

10. (a) : Given family of curve is


x2 + y2 2ay = 0

2a =

e2 tan y
+c
2
-1
= e 2 tan y +k

=-

x
(a,0)

... (i)

... (ii)

dy
+ = 0

2
dx
dx
(by differentiating (ii) w.r. to x)
order2anddegree1(Concept:Exponentofhighestorder
derivativeiscalleddegreeandorderofthatderivativeiscalled
order of the differential equation.)

dy
y

tan
2x e

-1

2 tan
= e

...(1)

x + y
y

Also from (1), 2x + 2yy 2a y = 0

d 2y

1
+log y = C
xy

- 1

= e tan

13. (a):As axisof parabola is xaxis which


meansfocuslieson xaxis.Equationofsuch
parabolas is given by
y2 = 4a(x k)
2yy1= 4a (by differentiating (i) w.r.t. x)
dy
y

= 2a
dx

-1

1+ y2 dy

-1

-1

tan
x e

y I.F.dy

y
dv
dx
=
log = cx.
v logv
x
x

dx
tan-1 y
+ 1x = e
dy

etan y
dx
1
+
x
xI.F. =

=
dy 1+ y 2
1+ y 2

dy
y
y
y
\
= log + 1 Now put
= v
dx
x
x
x

\ v logv dx = x dv

11. (a) : x = e
x = ey + x
Differentiate w.r.t. x after taking logarithm both sides
dy
1
dy 1- x

\
= 1+
=
dx
x
dx
x

x 2 + y2

y = 0
2x+ 2yy
y

2xy + y(2y2 x2 y2) = 0 y(x2 y2) = 2xy

+ k

d 3y
dy 3

14. (c): 1 + 3 = 4 3
dx

dx
3
2
d 3y
dy

1 + 3 = 4 dx3
dx

\
highest order is 3 whose exponent is also 3.
d 2y
15. (b) : Given
\
\

dx2

= e2x

dy
e -2x
=
+ c
dx
-2
e -2x
y =
+ cx + d
4

67

TwoDimensionalGeometry

CHAPTER

12
1.

2.

TWODIMENSIONAL
GEOMETRY

The circlepassi ough(1,2) andtouching the axisof x at 7.


(3,0)alsopasses throughthe point
(a) (2,5)
(b) (5, 2)
(c) (2,5)
(d) (5,2)
(2013)

Statement1: Anequationofacommontangenttotheparabola

Given:Acircle,2x2 + 2y2 =5 anda parabolay2 = 4 5x .

tangenttotheparabola y 2 =16 3 x theellipse 2x2 + y2 = 4,

Statement1 : An equation of a common tangent to these

then m satisfies m4 +2m2 =24.


(a) Statement 1 is true, Statement 2 is true Statement 2 is
not a correct explanation for Statement 1.
(b) Statement 1 is true, Statement 2 is false.
(c) Statement 1 is false, Statement 2 is true.
(d) Statement 1 is true, Statement 2 is true Statement 2 is
a correct explanation for Statement 1.
(2012)

curvesis y = x + 5.
5
(m 0) is their
m
commontangent,then m satisfies m4 3m2 + 2=0.

Statement2 : If the line,y = mx +

(a) Statement1 is true, Statement2 is true, Statement2 is


not a correct explanation for Statement1.
(b) Statement1 is true, Statement2 is false.
8.
(c) Statement1 is false, Statement2 is true.
(d) Statement1istrue,Statement2istrue,Statement2isa
correct explanation for Statement1.
(2013)
3.

Arayoflightalongx + 3y = 3 getsreflecteduponreaching
x-axis,the equation of thereflected ray is

(a)
(c)
4.

3y = x - 3
3y = x -1

(b) y = 3x - 3
(d) y = x + 3

(2013)

The equation of the circle passing through the focii of the


x 2 y2
+
= 1andhavingcentreat (0,3)is
16
9
2
2
(a) x + y 6y + 7= 0 (b) x2 + y2 6y 5=0

ellipse

5.

6.

9.

y 2 =16 3 x andtheellipse 2 x 2 + y 2 = 4 is y = 2 x +2 3

Statement2:Iftheline y = mx +

4 3
,(m 0)isacommon
m

The length of the diameter of the circle which touches the


xaxisatthepoint(1,0)andpassesthroughthepoint(2,3)is
(a) 6/5
(b) 5/3
(c) 10/3
(d) 3/5
(2012)
An ellipse is drawn by taking a diameter of the circle
(x1)2 + y2 =1asitssemiminoraxisandadiameterofthe
circle x2 +(y 2)2 =4asitssemimajoraxis.Ifthecentre
oftheellipseisattheoriginanditsaxesarethecoordinate
axes,then theequation oftheellipseis
(a) 4x2 + y2 =8
(b) x2 +4y2 =16
(c) 4x2 + y2 =4
(d) x2 +4y2 =8
(2012)

10. Alineisdrawnthroughthepoint(1,2)tomeetthecoordinate
axesat P and Q suchthatitformsatriangle OPQ,where O
(c) x2 + y2 6y + 5= 0 (d) x2 + y2 6y 7=0
istheorigin.Iftheareaofthetriangle OPQ isleast,thenthe
(2013)
slopeofthe line PQ is
The xcoordinate of the incentre of the triangle that has the
(a) 2
(b) 1/2
coordinatesofmidpointsofitssidesas(0,1),(1,1)and(1,0)
(c) 1/4
(d) 4
(2012)
is
2
2
2
2
2
11. Thetwocircles x + y = axand x + y = c (c >0)toucheach
(a) 2 - 2
(b) 1 + 2
other if
(c) 1 - 2
(d) 2 + 2
(2013)
(a) a= 2c
(b) |a|=2c
(c) 2 |a|= c
(d) |a|= c
(2011)
Iftheline2 x+ y = k passesthroughthepointwhichdivides
the line segment joining the points (1, 1) and (2,4)inthe 12. Thelines L1 : y x =0and L2 :2x + y =0intersecttheline
L3 : y + 2= 0at P and Q respectively.The bisector of the
ratio3:2,then k equals
acuteangle between L1 and L2 intersects L3 at R .
(a) 6
(b) 11/5
(c) 29/5
(d) 5
Statement1:Theratio PR : RQ equals
(2012)

68

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

Statement2: In any triangle, bisector ofan angledivides 21. Threedistinctpoints A, B and C aregiveninthe2dimensional
coordinate plane such that the ratio of the distance of any
thetriangle intotwosimilartriangles.
one ofthem from the point(1, 0) to the distance from the
(a) Statement1 is true, Statement2 is false.
(b) Statement1 is false, Statement2 is true.
point(1,0)isequalto1/3.Thenthe circumcentreof the
(c) Statement1istrue,Statement2istrueStatement2isa
triangleABC isatthe point
correct explanation for Statement1.
5
5
(d) Statement1 is true, Statement2 is true Statement2 is
, 0
, 0
(a)
(b)
4
2
not a correct explanation for Statement1.
(2011)

( )

13. The shortest distance between line y x = 1 and curve


x = y2 is
(a)

(b)

(c)

3
4

(d)

(c)

( )
5
, 0
3

( )

(d) (0,0)

(2009)

3 2
8

22. Theellipse x2 +4y2 =4isinscribedinarectanglealigned


withthecoordinateaxes,whichinturnisinscribedinanother
(2011)
ellipsethatpassesthroughthepoint(4,0).Thentheequation
14. Equationoftheellipsewhoseaxesaretheaxesofcoordinates
ofthe ellipseis
and which passes through the point (3, 1) and has
(a) x2 +12y2 =16
(b) 4x2 +48y2 =48
2
(c) 4x2 +64y2 =48
(d) x2 +16y2 =16
(2009)
eccentricity is
3 2

23. If P and Q are the points of intersection of the circles


(b) 5x2 +3y2 32=0
x2 +y2 +3x+7y+2p5=0andx2 +y2 +2x+2yp2 =0,
2
2
(d) 5x +3y 48=0 (2011)
thenthereisacirclepassingthroughP, Qand (1,1)for
4
y
=
x
+
,
(a) all except onevalue of p
thatis
15. Theequationofthetangenttothecurve
x 2
(b) allexcepttwovalues of p
parallel tothe x axis, is
(c) exactly one value of p
(a) y=0
(b) y=1
(d) allvaluesofp
(2009)
(c) y=2
(d) y=3
(2010)
(a) 3x2 +5y2 15= 0
(c) 3x2 +5y2 32= 0

24. Afocusofanellipseisattheorigin.Thedirectrixistheline
1
x=4andtheeccentricityis . Thenthelengthofthesemi
2
majoraxisis
5
8
2
4
(b)
(c)
(d)
(a)
x y
3
3
3
3
17. The line L given by + =1 passes through the point
(2008)
5 b
(13, 32).The line K is parallel to L and has the equation
25. ThepointdiametricallyoppositetothepointP(1,0)onthe
x y
+ =1.Then thedistance between L and K is
circlex 2 +y 2 +2x+4y3=0is
c 3
(a) (3,4)
(b) (3,4)
23
17
23
(a)
(b) 17
(c)
(d)
(c) (3,4)
(d) (3,4)
(2008)
16. If two tangents drawn from a point P to the parabola
y2 =4x are atrightangles, then thelocus of P is
(a) x=1
(b) 2x+1=0
(c) x=1
(d) 2x1=0
(2010)

15

15

x2 +

17

(2010) 26. A parabola has the origin as its focus and the line
x=2asthedirectrix.Thenthevertexoftheparabolaisat
m
(a) (2,0) (b) (0,2)
(c) (1,0)
(d) (0,1)
(2008)

y2 =4x +8y+5intersectstheline3x 4y =

18. Thecircle
attwodistinctpointsif
(a) 85< m <35
(c) 15< m<65

(b) 35< m< 15


(d) 35< m< 85

(2010) 27. The perpendicular bisector of the line segment joining


P(1,4)andQ(k,3)hasyintercept4.Thenapossiblevalue
19. Theshortestdistancebetweentheline y x =1andthecurve
of k is
x= y2 is
(a) 4
(b) 1
(c) 2
(d) 2
2 3
3 2
3
3 2
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(2008)
8
5
4
8
(2009) 28. ThenormaltoacurveatP(x,y)meetsthe xaxisatG.Ifthe
distanceof Gfromtheoriginistwicetheabscissaof P,then
20. Thedifferentialequationwhichrepresentsthefamilyofcurves
the curve isa
y =c1ec2x, wherec1 andc2 arearbitrary constants,is
(a) circle
(b) hyperbola
(a) y =y y
(b) yy =y
(c)
ellipse
(d) parabola.
(2007)
(c) yy =(y )2
(d) y = y2
(2009)

69

TwoDimensionalGeometry

29. Considerafamilyofcircleswhicharepassingthroughthe 37. Ifthelines3x 4y 7=0and2x 3y 5=0aretwodiameters


point(1,1)andaretangentto xaxis.If(h, k)arethecoordinate
ofacircleofarea 49p square units,thentheequation of the
of the centre of the circles, then the set of values of k is
circle is
givenby the interval
(a) x2 + y2 + 2x 2y 47 = 0
(b) x2 + y2 + 2x 2y 62 = 0
1
1
1
k
(a) - k
(b)
2
2
2
(c) x2 + y2 2x + 2y 62 = 0
(d) x2 + y2 2x + 2y 47 = 0.
(2006)
(c) 0 k 1
(d) k 1.
(2007)
2
2
38. Inanellipse,thedistancebetweenitsfociiis6andminoraxis
30. Ifoneofthelinesofmy2+ (1 m2)xy mx2=0isabisector
oftheangle between thelines xy =0, then m is
(a) 1
(b) 2
(c) 1/2
(d) 2.
(2007) 39.
31. LetP=(1,0),Q=(0,0)and R = (3, 3 3)bethreepoints.
The equation of the bisector of the angle PQR is
3
x + y =0
(a)
2

(b) x + 3 y =0

(c)

3
y = 0.
(d) x +
2

3 x + y =0

(2007)

is 8.Then its eccentricity is,


(a) 3/5
(b) 1/2
(c) 4/5
(d) 1/ 5 .

(2006)

The locus of the vertices of the family of parabolas


a 3 x 2 a 2x
+
-2a is
3
2
105
(a) xy =
64
35
(c) xy =
16
y=

3
4
64
.
(d) xy =
105
(b) xy =

(2006)

40. Astraightlinethroughthepoint A(3,4)issuchthatitsintercept


32. Let A(h, k), B(1, 1) and C(2, 1) be the vertices ofa right
between the axes is bisected at A. Its equation is
angledtrianglewithACasitshypotenuse.Iftheareaofthe
(a) x + y = 7
(b) 3x 4y +7 = 0
triangleis1squareunit,thenthesetofvalueswhichk can
(c) 4x + 3y = 24
(d) 3x + 4y = 25.
(2006)
takeis givenby
2
2
41. If the pair of lines ax + 2(a + b)xy + by = 0 lie along
(a) {1,3}
(b) {3,2}
diameters of a circle and divide the circle into four sectors
(c) {1,3}
(d) {0, 2}.
(2007)
such that the area ofone of the sectorsis thrice the area of
33. The equation of a tangent to the parabola y2 = 8x is
another sector then
y =x +2.Thepointonthislinefromwhichtheothertangent
(a) 3a2 2ab + 3b2 = 0 (b) 3a2 10ab + 3b2 = 0
tothe parabolais perpendicular to thegiven tangentis
(c) 3a2 + 2ab + 3b2 = 0 (d) 3a2 + 10ab + 3b2 = 0.
(a) (2,4)
(b) (2, 0)
(2005)
(c) (1,1)
(d) (0, 2).
(2007) 42. ThelocusofapointP (a, b)movingundertheconditionthatthe
y2
x 2
- 2 = 1,whichofthefollowing
2
cos a sin a
remainsconstant when a varies ?
(a) abscissae of vertices (b) abscissae of foci
(c) eccentricity
(d) directrix.
(2007)

34. Forthehyperbola

2 y2
liney= ax+ b isatangentto thehyperbola x2 - 2 =1 is
a
b
(a) a circle
(b) an ellipse
(c) a hyperbola
(d) a parabola.
(2005)

43. AnellipsehasOBassemiminoraxis,FandF itsfociiand


theangleFBF isa rightangle.Thenthe eccentricityof the
x
ellipse is
2
35. If(a, a )fallsinsidetheanglemadebythelines y = , x >0
1
1
2
1
1
(b)
(c)
(d) .(2005)
(a)
2
4
2
3
and y = 3x, x > 0, then a belongsto
44.
Ifacirclepassesthroughthepoint(a,b)andcuts
the
circle
1
(a) 0,
(b) (3, )
2
2
2
x + y = p orthogonally, then the equation of the locus of
2
its centre is
1
1

(c) , 3
(d) -3, - .
(2006)
(a) 2ax + 2by (a2 b2 + p2) = 0
2

2
(b) x2 + y2 3ax 4by + (a2 + b2 p2) = 0
36. LetCbethecirclewithcentre(0,0)andradius3units.The
(c) 2ax + 2by (a2 + b2 + p2) = 0
equationofthelocusofthemidpointsof chordofthecircle
(d) x2 + y2 2ax 3by + (a2 b2 p2) = 0.
(2005)
C that subtend an angle of 2p/3 at its centre is
45. Acircletouchesthe xaxisandalsotouchesthecirclewithcentre
3
2
2
(a) x + y =
(b) x2 + y2 = 1
at (0,3) and radius2. Thelocus of thecentre of the circle is
2
(a) a circle
(b) an ellipse
27
9
(c) x 2 + y 2 =
(d) x 2 + y 2 = .
(c) a parabola
(d) a hyperbola.
(2005)
(2006)
4
4

70

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

46. If the circles x2 + y2 + 2ax + cy + a = 0 and 54. If the lines 2x + 3y + 1 = 0 and 3x y 4 = 0 lie along
diametersofacircleofcircumference10p,then theequation
x2 + y2 3ax +dy 1 =0 intersectintwodistinctpoints P
of the circle is
andQthentheline5x+bya=0passesthroughP andQfor
(a) no value of a
(a) x2 + y2 + 2x + 2y 23 = 0
(b) exactly one value of a
(b) x2 + y2 2x 2y 23 = 0
(c) exactly two values of a
(c) x2 + y2 2x + 2y 23 = 0
(d) infinitely many values of a.
(2005)
(d) x2 + y2 + 2x 2y 23 = 0.
(2004)
47. If a vertex ofa triangle is (1, 1) and the mid points of two
55. A variable circle passes through the fixed point
sidesthroughthisvertexare(1,2)and(3,2),thenthecentroid
A(p,q)andtouchesxaxis.Thelocusoftheotherendof the
of the triangle is
diameterthrough A is
-1 7
7
(a) (y p)2 = 4qx
(b) (x q)2 = 4py
,
(a)
(b) -1, 3
3 3
2
(c) (x p) = 4qy
(d) (y q)2 = 4px.
(2004)
1 7
7
(c) 3 , 3
(d) 1, 3 .
(2005) 56. Ifacirclepassesthroughthepoint(a,b)andcuts the circle
x2 + y2 = 4 orthogonally, then the locus of its centre is
48. Ifnonzeronumbersa,b,careinH.P.,thenthestraightline
(a) 2ax 2by + (a2 + b2 + 4) = 0
x y 1
+ + = 0 alwayspassesthroughafixedpoint.Thatpoint
a b c
(b) 2ax+ 2by (a2 + b2 + 4) = 0
is
(c) 2ax+ 2by + (a2 + b2 + 4) = 0
(a) (1, 2)
(b) (1, 2)
(d) 2ax 2by (a2 + b2 + 4) = 0.
(2004)
1
(c) 1, - 2
(d) (1, 2).
(2005) 57. Ifoneofthelinesgivenby6x2 xy+4cy2 =0is3x+4y=0,
then c equals
49. Thelineparalleltothe xaxisandpassingthroughtheintersection
(a) 3
(b) 1
(c) 1
(d) 3.
ofthelinesax+2by+3b=0andbx2ay3a=0,where
(2004)
(a,b) (0,0) is

( )
( )

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
50.

( )
( )

below the xaxis at a distance of 2/3 from it


below the xaxis at a distance of 3/2 from it
above the xaxis at a distance of 2/3 from it
above thexaxis at a distance of 3/2 from it.

(2005)

LetPbethepoint(1,0)andQapointon thelocusy2 =8x.


The locus of mid point of PQ is
(a) x2 4y +2 = 0
(b) x2 + 4y + 2 = 0
2
(c) y + 4x +2 = 0
(d) y2 4x + 2 = 0.

(2005)

51. Theeccentricityof anellipse,withits centreattheorigin,is


1/2.Ifoneofthedirectricesisx=4,thentheequationofthe
ellipse is
(a) 4x2 + 3y2 = 12
(b) 3x2 + 4y2 = 12
(c) 3x2 + 4y2 = 1
(d) 4x2 + 3y2 = 1.
(2004)

58. Ifthesumoftheslopesofthelinesgivenby x2 2cxy 7y2 =0


is four times their product, then c has the value
(a) 2
(b) 1
(c) 1
(d) 2.
(2004)
59. The equation of the straight line passing through the point
(4,3) and making intercepts on the coordinate axes whose
sumis1 is
x y
y
+ = 1 and x + = 1
2 3
2 1
x y
y
x
+ = 1
(b) - = -1 and
2 3
-2 1
x y
y
+ = -1 and x + = - 1
(c)
2 3
-2 1
x y
y
x
+ = 1.
(d) - = 1 and
2 3
-2 1

(a)

(2004)
52. Ifa 0and theline2bx+ 3cy+ 4d= 0passes throughthe
2
2
pointsofintersectionoftheparabolasy =4axandx =4ay,
60. LetA(2,3)andB(2,1)beverticesofatriangleABC.Ifthe
then
centroid ofthis trianglemoves on theline 2x + 3y = 1, then
(a) d2 + (2b 3c)2 = 0
(b) d2 + (3b + 2c)2 = 0
the locus of the vertex C is the line
(c) d2 + (2b + 3c)2 = 0 (d) d2 + (3b 2c)2 = 0.
(a) 3x+ 2y = 5
(b) 2x 3y = 7
(2004)
(c)
2x+
3y
=
9
(d) 3x 2y = 3.
(2004)
53. Theinterceptontheliney= xby thecirclex2 + y2 2x=0
61. Thenormaltothecurve x = a(1+cosq),y =a sinq at q always
is AB. Equation of the circle on AB as a diameter is
2
2
2
2
passes through the fixed point
(a) x + y + x + y = 0
(b) x + y x + y = 0
(a) (0, 0)
(b) (0, a)
(c) x2 + y2 x y = 0
(d) x2 + y2 + x y = 0.
(c)
(a,
0)
(d) (a, a).
(2004)
(2004)

71

TwoDimensionalGeometry

62. Apointontheparabola y2 =18x atwhichtheordinateincreases 69. The normal at thepoint(bt12 , 2bt1)ona


parabola meets the

2
at twice the rate of the abscissa is
parabola again in the point (bt2 , 2bt2), then
-9 9
2
,
(a)
(b) (2, 4)
(a) t2 = -t1 + 2
(b) t2 = t1 -
8 2
t1
t1
9 9
,
(2004)
(c) (2, 4)
(d)
8 2
(c) t2 = t1 + 2
(d) t2 = -t1 -2.
(2003)
t1
t1
63. Iftheequationofthelocusofpointequidistantfromthepoints
2 y2
(a1, b1)
and (a2,
b2)
is
70. The foci of the ellipse x + 2 =1 and the hyperbola
16 b
(a1 a2)x + (b1 b2)y + c = 0, then c =
2
2
y
x
1
=
coincide. Then the value of b2 is
(a) a12 - a22 + b12 -b22
144 81 25
1
(a) 5
(b) 7
(c) 9
(d) 1.
(b) ( a12 + a22 + b12 +b22)
2
(2003)

(c)

(a12 + b12 - a22 -b22)

(d)

1 2
( a + b22 - a12 -b12).
2 2

(2003)

71. Atrianglewithvertices(4,0),(1,1),(3,5)is
(a) isosceles and right angled
(b) isosceles but not right angled
(c) right angled but not isosceles
(d) neither right angled nor isosceles

(2002)
64. Locus of centroid of the triangle whose vertices are
(acost, asint),(bsint,bcost)and(1,0),where t isaparameter, 72. The equationofa circle withoriginasacentre and passing
throughequilateraltriangle whosemedianis oflength 3a is
is
(a) x2 + y2 = 9a2
(b) x2 + y2 = 16a2
2
2
2
2
(a) (3x 1) + (3y) = a + b
2
2
2
(c) x + y = 4a
(d) x2 + y2 = a2.
(2002)
(b) (3x+ 1)2 + (3y)2 = a2 + b2
73. Thecentreofthecirclepassingthrough(0,0)and(1,0)and
(c) (3x+ 1)2 + (3y)2 = a2 b2
touching the circle x2 + y2 = 9 is
(d) (3x 1)2 + (3y)2 = a2 b2.
(2003)
1 1
1
,
, - 2
(b)
(a)
65. If the pairs of straight lines x2 2pxy y2 = 0 and
2 2
2
3 1
1 3
x2 2qxy y2 = 0be suchthat each pair bisectsthe angle
,
,
(d)
(2002)
(c)
2
2
2 2
between the other pair, then
74. Locus of mid point of the portion between the axes of
(a) p = q
(b) pq = 1
x cosa + y sina = p where p is constant is
(c) pq = 1
(d) p = q.
(2003)
4
(a) x 2 + y2 = 2
(b) x2 + y2 = 4p2
66. Asquareofsidealies abovethexaxis and hasone vertex
p
at the origin.The side passing through the originmakes an
1
1
2
(c) 2 + 2 = 2
(d) 12 + 12 = 42 .
(2002)
angle a (0< a < p/4) withthe positive directionofx axis.
x
y
p
x
y
p
Theequation of its diagonal not passing through theorigin is
75. The point of lines represented by
(a) y(cosa + sina) + x (sina cosa) = a
3ax2 + 5xy + (a2 2)y2 = 0
(b) y(cosa + sina) + x (sina + cosa) = a
and ^ to each other for
(c) y(cosa + sina) + x (cosa sina) = a
(a) two values of a
(b) " a
(d) y(cosa sina) x (sina cosa) = a.
(2003)
(c) for one value of a
(d) for no values of a.
67. Thelines2x3y=5and3x4y=7arediametersofacircle
(2002)
havingareaas154sq.units. Thentheequationofthecircle is
76. Thecentresofasetofcircles,eachofradius3,lieonthecircle
(a) x2 + y2 + 2x 2y = 47
x2 + y2 = 25. The locus of any point in the set is
(b) x2 + y2 2x+ 2y = 47
(a) 4 x 2 + y 2 64
(b) x 2 + y 2 25
(c) x2 + y2 2x+ 2y = 62
2
2
(c) x + y 25
(d) 3 x 2 + y 2 9
(2002)
(d) x2 + y2 + 2x 2y = 62.
(2003)
77. If the pair of lines
68. If the two circles (x 1)2 + (y 3)2 = r2 and
ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy+ c = 0
x2 +y2 8x+2y+8=0intersectintwodistinctpoints,then
intersect on the yaxis then
(a) r< 2
(b) r = 2
(a) 2fgh= bg2 + ch2
(b) bg2 ch2
(c) r> 2
(d) 2 < r < 8.
(2003)
(c) abc = 2fgh
(d) none of these
(2002)

(
(

)
)

(
(

72

JEEMAINCHAPTERWISEEXPLORER

78. Ifthechordy= mx+ 1ofthe circlex2 +y2 =1 subtendsan 79. Twocommontangentstothecircle x2 +y2 =2a2 andparabola
y2 = 8ax are
angleofmeasure45at themajorsegmentofthecirclethen
value of m is
(a) x = (y + 2a)
(b) y = (x + 2a)
(a) 2 2
(b) -2 2
(c) x = (y + a)
(d) y = (x + a).
(2002)
(d) none of these
(2002)
(c) -1 2

Answer Key

1.
7.
13.
19.
25.
31.
37.
43.
49.
55.
61.
67.
73.
79.

(b)
(d)
(c)
(d)
(d)
(c)
(d)
(b)
(b)
(c)
(c)
(b)
(b)
(b)

2.
8.
14.
20.
26.
32.
38.
44.
50.
56.
62.
68.
74.

(a)
(c)
(c)
(c)
(c)
(a)
(a)
(c)
(d)
(b)
(d)
(d)
(d)

3.
9.
15.
21.
27.
33.
39.
45.
51.
57.
63.
69.
75.

(a)
(b)
(d)
(a)
(a)
(b)
(a)
(c)
(b)
(d)
(d)
(d)
(a)

4.
10.
16.
22.
28.
34.
40.
46.
52.
58.
64.
70.
76.

(d)
(a)
(c)
(a)
(b,c)
(b)
(c)
(a)
(c)
(a)
(a)
(b)
(a)

5.
11.
17.
23.
29.
35.
41.
47.
53.
59.
65.
71.
77.

(a)
(d)
(d)
(a)
(d)
(c)
(c)
(d)
(c)
(d)
(c)
(a)
(a)

6.
12.
18.
24.
30.
36.
42.
48.
54.
60.
66.
72.
78.

(a)
(a)
(b)
(b)
(a)
(d)
(c)
(d)
(c)
(c)
(c)
(c)
(c)

73

TwoDimensionalGeometry

1. (b) : Thesystemofcirclestouchestheline y =0atthepoint 6.


(3