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Level: 2nd Bac, Human

Science 5
Topic: Linking Words

Date: 20/11/2013
Lesson Type:
Objectives:

Writing

Unit 1: Formal, Informal, No


formal Education
Time: 55 min (09-10h)

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

Use correctly the linking words to express Purpose and Concession.


Instructional Aids :

Blackboard
Lesson Outline
Content

Technique
s

Stage
s

War
m-up

Step
1

Timing

Mo
of
Wo

Warmingup

T greets Ss.
T elicits from Ss information about the linking words (cohesive
devices) that they know.
Ss categorise different set of linking words by giving the right
heading to each list
a) Purpose (in order to to - so as to - so that .. )
b) Contrast ( but while - on the hand - whereas )
c) Addition ( both . and - too/as well in addition to not
only but also)
d) Concession ( although yet however though )

Eliciting

15
min

Guessing

pa

Explainin
g
Questioni
ng
Categorizin
g

e) Cause and effect ( because consequently due to


thanks to )
Step
2
T explains two different sets of linking words and illustrating with
examples:
A. Purpose:
Affirmative
to
so as to
in order to

+ Verb

Explainin
g

Negative
not to
so as not to
in order not to

Questioni
ng

+ Verb

Guessing
Illustratin
g

for + verbing

present (will /
can) + verb
so that
in order that

+ subject +
past (would/

could) + verb

for + not + verbing


present (wont/
cant) + verb
so that
+ subject +
in order that
past (wouldnt/ couldnt)
+ verb

20
min

Examples:
They took a taxi. They wanted to arrive on time.
They took a taxi so as to arrive on time. (so as to/
to / in order to)

They took a taxi. They didnt want to be late.


They took a taxi so as not to be late. (negative)
They took a taxi. They wanted to arrive on time.
They took a taxi for arriving on time. (for)
They took a taxi. They didnt want to be late.
They took a taxi for not being late. (negative)
The teacher speaks loudly. He wants the students to
hear him.
The teacher speaks loudly so that the students
will/can hear him.
The teacher spoke loudly. He wanted the students
to hear him.
The teacher spoke loudly so that the students
would/could hear him
They took a taxi. They didnt want to be late.
They took a taxi in order that they wouldnt be late.
Step
3

B. Concession:

T
20
min

although
though
even though
even if

+ situation

effect
Explainin
g
Questioni
ng

Situation . *********** , effect


However / nevertheless / yet / but
In spite of
Despite

+ the fact that + situation

Examples:

effect

Ahmed was ill. He went to school.


Although Ahmed was ill, he went to school

Ahmed was ill. However, he went to school


Despite the fact that Ahmed was ill, he went
to school
Ss practice the uses of the two sets of linking words (purpose and
concession) through these sentences:
1) They spent two months in London. They wanted to improve their

Guessing
Illustratin
g

spoken English
2) You must visit our town in winter if you dont want to miss the
snowfalls (not)
3) Hisham is a hardworking student. He gets bad grades.