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General Hydraulics Table of Contents

Chapter

3
Drilling Hydraulics
From rigging up to laying down the derrick, calculating hydraulics is an
important part of drilling a well economically. Chapter 3 demonstrates
calculations for hydraulic and input horsepower required from the prime mover
for both gravity-feed and supercharged pumps. Equations can be used for
calculating fluid movement through the surface equipment, drillpipe, drill
collars, and bit, as well as back up the annulus to the flowline. These calculations
will help operators determine efficient and economical job procedures.
The tables in Chapter 3 include information about the effects of various job
parameters (the drilling fluids flow rate, weight, and viscosity as well as the
sizes of the pipe, bit nozzle, and cuttings).

Calculating Hydraulic Horsepower


Hydraulic horsepower (hhp) is a measure of the energy delivered to the fluid being
pumped. Hydraulic horsepower is different from the engine horsepower (hp)
hhp will always be less than the horsepower of the engine driving the pump
because of the pump efficiency. For example, a 1,000-hp motor driving a mud
pump will normally produce 750 to 800 hhp.
Use Equation 3.1 to calculate hydraulic horsepower.
hhp = (P x Q) 1,714 ................................................................................................ (3.1)
where:
hhp
P
Q
1,714

October 1996

= Hydraulic horsepower, hhp


= Pressure increase in pump, psi
= Flow rate, gal/min
= Constant

Drilling Hydraulics

3-1

Example 1: How to calculate hydraulic horsepower


A mud pump delivers 420 gal/min at 1,000 psi and has a gravity-fed pump
intake. Therefore, the pump suction pressure is 0 psi. What is the hydraulic horsepower under these conditions?
Solution
hhp = (P x Q) 1,714 ............................................................................ (3.1)
= (1,000 psi x 420 gal/min) 1,714 = 245.041 hhp

Problem 1
What is the hydraulic horsepower of a pump delivering 1,260 gal/min at 333
psi? This pump has a suction pressure of 0 psi.
Work Space

Answer ____________
(The solution for Problem 1 is on Page 3-22.)
A comparison of the answers to Example 1 and Problem 1 shows that hydraulic
horsepower output by high pressure and low rate is equal to the hydraulic
horsepower output by low pressure and a high rate. Using high volume instead
of high pressure might seem to be more economical because high pressures are
sometimes difficult to maintain. However, even though the hydraulic horsepower requirements are equal, the high-volume operation may not be as economical because reduced pressure may also decrease penetration rate.
When the mud pump is supercharged (pressurized suction) and is driven by a
separate prime mover, it is necessary to subtract the suction pressure from the
discharge pressure before calculating the hydraulic horsepower. Example 2
demonstrates this calculation. When the same prime mover drives both the
supercharger and the mud pump, the total hydraulic horsepower is calculated as
shown in Example 1.

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October 1996

Example 2: How to calculate hydraulic horsepower

What is the hydraulic horsepower of a pump delivering 420 gal/min at


1,000 psi with a suction pressure of 100 psi?
Solution
P = Discharge pressure - Suction pressure = 1,000 psi - 100 psi = 900 psi
Q = 420 gal/min
hhp = (P x Q) 1,714 ............................................................................ (3.1)
= (900 psi x 420 gal/min) 1,714 = 220.538 hhp

A comparison of Examples 1 and 2 shows that the additional 100-psi suction


pressure decreased the hydraulic horsepower by about 24 hhp.

Problem 2
What is the hydraulic horsepower of a mud pump delivering 210 gal/min at
1,000 psi with a suction pressure of 75 psi?
Work Space

Answer ____________
(The solution for Problem 2 is on Page 3-22.)

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Drilling Hydraulics

3-3

Calculating Input Horsepower


If the efficiency of the pump is known, the horsepower required from the engine
or the input horsepower (ihp) can be easily calculated.
The efficiency of the pump is always less than one, since the fluids being
pumped nearly always contain some air and are slightly compressible, and the
mechanical drive in the power end has some loss of energy. Overall efficiency
(both volumetric and mechanical) of 70 to 80% is common, but some new pumps
approach 100%.
Input horsepower can be calculated with Equation 3.2.
ihp = hhp E ............................................................................................................. (3.2)
where
ihp = Input horsepower, hp
E
= Efficiency
hhp = Hydraulic horsepower, hhp
Example 3 and Problem 3 are applications of Equation 3.2. Problem 4 is a practice problem that requires Equation 3.1 and Equation 3.2.

Example 3: How to calculate input horsepower

What input horsepower is necessary for a pump that is delivering 300


hhp if the pump efficiency is 75%?
Solution
hhp = 300 hhp
E = 0.75
ih = hhp E ........................................................................................ (3.2)
= 300 hhp 0.75 = 400 hp

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October 1996

Problem 3
What input horsepower is necessary for a pump delivering 250 hhp when the
pump efficiency is 80%?
Work Space

Answer ____________
(The solution for Problem 3 is on Page 3-22.)

Problem 4
What input horsepower is required for a mud pump delivering 840 gal/min at
1,100 psi if the pump efficiency is 75% and the suction pressure is 100 psi?
Work Space

Answer ____________
(The solution for Problem 4 is on Page 3-22.)

October 1996

Drilling Hydraulics

3-5

Friction and Pressure Losses in Drillpipe


Since the hydraulic power from the mud pump must be transmitted to the
bottom of the hole (to aid the bit in removing chips) and back up the annulus to
remove the cuttings, controlling the amount of hydraulic power reaching these
points is important. Pressure losses occur throughout the system, from the mud
pump to the mud return line, which may be several miles in each direction. For
example, a 33,000-ft well drilled in western Oklahoma had a mud round trip of
12.5 miles.
Table 3.1 shows a typical listing of the pressure losses occurring from the pump
to the bit on a 15,000-ft well. The diameter of the hole was 7 7/8 in., requiring a
surface pressure of 2,900 psi to circulate the 16.5-lb/gal mud at
250 gal/min. The well contains the following equipment:

12,000 ft of 9 5/8-in. casing

14,300 ft of 4 1/2-in., 16.6-lb/ft drillpipe

700 ft of 6 1/4-in. OD, 2 3/4-in. ID drill collars

two 3/8-in. bit jets

Table 3.2 shows typical pressure losses occurring from the bit to the surface for
the same well conditions described for Table 3.1.
Tables 3.1 and 3.2 show significant pressure losses. Drillpipe is one of the primary sources of pressure losses because of friction. Losses of hydraulic energy
caused by friction can never be recovered, and they must occur so that the
appropriate amount of hydraulic energy can be supplied to the required point in
the system.
This situation is similar to buying a loaf of bread at the store where the total
price includes freight cost. The freight cost cannot be eaten but the loaf of bread
must be at the store; therefore, the freight must be paid. On a drilling rig, a
certain amount of hydraulic power is needed at the bit; therefore, the freight
must be paid by supplying additional hydraulic power at the surface to pay the
way to the bottom and to lift the cuttings to the surface.
Several factors influence the amount of hydraulic energy expended to overcome
friction losses, including fluid velocity. Figure 3.1 (Page 3-8) illustrates two types
of flow: laminar flow (slow) and turbulent flow (fast). Normally, laminar flow in
the drillpipe occurs at extremely low pump rates with fluid velocities of 1 to
2 ft/sec. Even heavy, thick muds flow smoothly. However, the drag of the fluid
against the wall of the pipe and the internal friction of the fluid itself (viscosity)
combine to create friction losses.
In normal drilling operations, turbulent flow is much more common. At these
higher fluid velocities, drag from the pipe walls and changes in ID caused by
tool joints cause eddies to form in the flow patterns. These eddies are small
whirlpools that move within the main flowstream causing counterflow and
crossflow, which creates turbulence. Turbulent flow requires more energy than
smooth or laminar flow. The faster the flow, the greater the amount of energy
that is absorbed by the turbulence and the greater the hydraulic power loss.
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October 1996

Table 3.1Pressure Losses Inside Drillstring


Pressure Drop Total Pressure
Depth at
Across
Drop to Bottom
Component
Bottom of
Component
of Component
Component (ft)
(psi)
(psi)

Hydrostatic
Pressure at
Bottom of
Component
(psi)

Total Pressure
at Bottom of
Component
(psi)

Pressure
Gauge

2,900

Surface
Connections

25

25

2,875

Drillpipe

14,300

673

698

12,247

14,449

Drill Collars

15,000

150

848

12,846

14,898

Bit

15,000

1,852

2,700

12,846

13,046

Table 3.2Pressure Losses Outside Drillstring

Depth at Top of
Component
Component (ft)

Pressure Drop
Across
Component
(psi)

Total Pressure
Hydrostatic
Total Pressure
Drop to Top of Pressure at Top
at Top of
Component
of Component
Component
(psi)
(psi)
(psi)

Bit

15,000

1,852

2,700

12,846

13,046

Drill Collar in
Open Hole

14,300

54

2,754

12,247

12,393

Drillpipe in
Open Hole

12,000

34

2,788

10,227

10,389

Drillpipe in
Casing

112

2,900

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3-7

Laminar Flow
Slow

Less
Energy
Required

Turbulent Flow
Fast

More
Energy
Required

Figure 3.1Pressure losses in drillpipe

Calculating Pressure Losses Inside Drillpipe During


Turbulent Flow
Use Equation 3.3 to calculate the pressure losses inside the drillpipe during
turbulent flow.
P = 7.7 x 10-5 x MW0.8 x Q1.8 x PV0.2 x L D4.8 ......................................................... (3.3)
where
P
= Pressure losses in the drillpipe, psi
7.7 x 10-5 = Constant
MW
Q
PV
L
D

3-8

= Mud weight, lb/gal


= Flow rate, gal/min
= Plastic viscosity, cp
= Length of pipe, ft
= Drillpipe ID, in.

General Hydraulics Manual

October 1996

Examples 4 and 5 show applications of Equation 3.3 and Equation 3.1 for
hydraulic horsepower. Problem 5 requires Equation 3.1 and Equation 3.3.

Example 4: How to calculate pressure losses inside the drillpipe


during turbulent flow
10.0-lb/gal mud that has a plastic viscosity of 25 cp is being pumped at 210
gal/min in 10,000 ft of 4 1 /2-in., 16.60-lb/ft drillpipe. What is the pressure
drop?
Solution
MW = 10.0 lb/gal
Q = 210 gal/min
PV = 25 cp
L
D
P

= 10,000 ft
= 3.826 in.
= (7.7 x 10-5) x (MW0.8 x Q1.8) x (PV0.2 x L) D4.8 ............................. (3.3)
= (7.7 x 10-5) x (100.8 x 2101.8) x (250.2 x 10,000) 3.8264.8
= 0.000077 x (6.301 x 15,135.429) x (1.904 x 10,000) 626.828
= 223.056 psi

Example 5: How to calculate hydraulic horsepower to overcome


friction loss

For the conditions described in Example 4, how much hydraulic


horsepower is required to overcome the pressure drop caused by
friction?
Solution
P = 223.056 psi
Q = 210 gal/min
hhp = (P x Q) 1,714 ............................................................................ (3.1)
= 223.056 psi x 210 gal/min 1,714 = 27.330 hhp

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3-9

Problem 5
What is the hydraulic power loss (hhp) in 5,000 ft of 3 1/2-in., 15.50-lb/ft drillpipe
when operators are circulating 15.0-lb/gal mud with a plastic viscosity of 50 cp
at 150 gal/min?
Work Space

Answer ____________
(The solution for Problem 5 is on Page 3-23.)

Factors Influencing Friction and Pressure Losses in


Drillpipe
Table 3.3 shows the pressure drop and the hydraulic horsepower loss for 10,000
ft of 4 1/2-in., 16.6-lb/ft drillpipe at three different rates when 10.0 lb/gal mud
with a plastic viscosity of 25 cp is pumped. Doubling the flow rate increases the
pressure drop by approximately three and one-half times, while tripling the flow
rate increases the pressure drop by approximately seven and one-quarter times.
Table 3.3 also shows that power losses can be even more significant: doubling
the rate increases the hydraulic horsepower loss by approximately seven times,
and tripling the rate increases the loss by nearly 22 times.
Another important factor in friction losses or pressure losses is the fluid density.
The heavier the mud, the greater the pressure and power losses. Table 3.4 compares the pressure losses for three mud weights and three flow rates. Pressure
losses were measured in 10,000 ft of drillpipe when 10.0-lb/gal mud with a plastic
viscosity of 25 cp was pumped. Some of these pressure drops are excessive and are
shown for comparison only. Doubling the mud weight (from 10 lb/gal to 20 lb/
gal) almost doubles the pressure loss (1,613 psi compared to 2,809 psi).

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October 1996

Table 3.3Friction Losses in Drillpipe


10.0-lb/gal Mud with 25-cp Plastic Viscosity
Flow Rate
(gal/min)

Pressure Drop
(psi)

Power Loss
(hhp)

210

223

27

420

778

191

630

1,613

593

Table 3.4Pressure Losses in Drillpipe


10.0-lb/gal Mud with 25-cp Plastic Viscosity
Flow Rate
(gal/min)

Pressure Drop (psi)


for 10.0 lb/gal mud

Pressure Drop (psi)


for 15.0 lb/gal mud

Pressure Drop (psi)


for 20.0 lb/gal mud

210

223

308

338

420

778

1,076

1,354

630

1,613

2,231

2,809

The muds viscosity also influences the pressure and power losses in the system,
although not as significantly as the other factors. For example, increasing the
plastic viscosity from 25 to 40 cp only increases the pressure losses by approximately 10%.
Another major factor influencing the pressure and power losses is the drillpipe
ID. With a small ID, the fluid velocity must be greater for a given rate, creating
higher turbulence and greater pressure and power loss. Table 3.5 (Page 3-12)
compares the pressure losses for 10,000 ft of 3 1/2-in., 15.50-lb/ft to 4 1/2-in.,
16.60-lb/ft drillpipe at three different circulating rates when 10.0-lb/gal mud
with a 25-cp plastic viscosity is pumped. Some of these pressure drops are
excessive and are shown for comparison only. Decreasing the drillpipe size from
4 1/ 2-in., 16.60-lb/ft to 3 1/2-in., 15.50-lb/ft increases the pressure losses by approximately six and one-third times. Even at reduced circulating rates commonly used with smaller drillpipe, pressure losses are still high.
Because of the influence of the pipe ID, drillpipe size for a given hole size
should be reasonably large, yet not so large that it causes an excessive backpressure on the formation from high annular-return velocity.

October 1996

Drilling Hydraulics

3-11

Table 3.5Pressure Losses in Drillpipe


10.0-lb/gal Mud with 25-cp Plastic Viscosity
Flow Rate
(gal/min)

Pressure Drop (psi) in


4 / 2-in., 16.60-lb/ft Drillpipe

Pressure Drop (psi) in


3 / 2-in., 15.50-lb/ft Drillpipe

210

223

1,421

420

778

4,948

630

1,613

10,266

The factors influencing pressure losses in drillpipe include the following:

flow rate

fluid density

mud viscosity

drillpipe ID

Pressure and power losses in the drill collars are similar to those for drillpipe
and are influenced by the same factors as the drillpipe. The reduced ID in the
drill collars increases the velocity and causes a higher friction loss per foot than
in drillpipe. Fortunately, drill collars are much shorter than drillpipe.

Bit Hydraulics
As drilling fluid enters the water courses of the bit and exits the bit nozzle, its
flow rate is greatly increased. Fluid travels through the drillpipe at about
10 ft/sec. As it exits the nozzles of the bit, the fluid may be traveling in excess of
400 ft/sec (more than 270 mile/hr). The increase in kinetic energy for each
gallon of 10.0-lb/gal fluid is even greaterfrom about 15 ft/lb to approximately
25,000 ft/lb of energy.
Just as it is with the drillpipe, the system must pay for transportation of the fluid
through jets with a pressure drop in the entire system. With two-thirds of the
total pressure drop as an average, the drop across the bit is about twice the
pressure drop across the rest of the system. In a well-balanced hydraulic system,
the pressure drop across the nozzles ranges from one-half to three-quarters of
the entire systems pressure drop.

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October 1996

Calculating Nozzle Velocity


To find the pressure drop through the bit, first calculate the nozzle velocity at the
jets. Use Equation 3.4 to find the nozzle velocity.
NV = 0.32 x Q AN .................................................................................................. (3.4)
where
NV = Nozzle velocity, ft/sec
Q = Flow rate, gal/min
AN = Total area of all nozzles, in.2
0.32 = Constant
Example 6 is an application of Equation 3.4.
Example 6: How to calculate nozzle velocity

What is the nozzle velocity if three Number 8 jets are used with a flow
rate of 210 gal/min?
Solution
Diameter of Number 8 jet = 8/ 32 in. = 0.25 in.
Area of one jet = 0.7854 x 0.25 in. x 0.25 in. = 0.049 in.2
AN = 3 jets x 0.049 in.2 = 0.147 in.2
Q = 210 gal/min
NV = 0.32 x Q AN .............................................................................. (3.4)
= 0.32 x 210 gal/min 0.147 in. 2 = 457.143 ft/sec

Calculating Pressure Losses Through the Bit


Once the velocity through the nozzle(s) has been calculated, use Equation 3.5 to
calculate the pressure losses through the bit based on the change in kinetic energy.
P = MW x NV2 1,120 .............................................................................................. (3.5)
where
P
MW
NV
1,120

= Pressure loss through the bit, psi


= Mud weight, lb/gal
= Nozzle velocity, ft/sec
= Constant

Example 7 shows a calculation using Equation 3.5.

October 1996

Drilling Hydraulics

3-13

Example 7: How to calculate pressure drop across the bit

Use the conditions for Example 6. What is the pressure drop across
the bit if the mud weight is 10.0 lb/gal?
Solution
MW = 10.0 lb/gal
NV = 457.143 ft/sec (from Example 6)
P = MW x NV2 1,120 ....................................................................... (3.5)
= 10.0 lb/gal x (457.143 ft/sec)2 1,120 = 1,865.889 psi

Problem 6
Two Number 16 jets are used with 15.0-lb/gal mud at a 210-gal/min flow rate.
A. What is the nozzle velocity?
Work Space

Answer ____________
B. What is the pressure loss through the bit?
Work Space

Answer ____________
(The solution for Problem 6 is on Page 3-23.)

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October 1996

Factors Influencing the Pressure Drop Across the Bit


A review of Equation 3.4 for nozzle velocity and Equation 3.5 for pressure losses
through the bit shows that three things affect the pressure drop across the bit:

mud weight

flow rate

nozzle size

Increasing the nozzle area reduces both the velocity and the pressure drop across
the bit. When the mud weight is increased, the pressure drop increases proportionately. Larger flow rates also increase the pressure drop across the bit.
Table 3.6 shows nozzle exit velocities for various flow rates and nozzle sizes.
Some of the high velocities shown in the table are unattainable; they are shown
to illustrate the importance of nozzle selection. Doubling the flow rate doubles
the exit velocity at the bit nozzles (from 210 gal/min to 420 gal/min) and increases the velocity (from 457 ft/sec to 914 ft/sec for three Number 8 nozzles).
Doubling the nozzle diameter (from three Number 8 jets to three Number 16 jets)
quadruples the nozzle area (from 0.147 in.2 to 0.589 in.2) and reduces the velocity
by a factor of four (457 ft/sec 4 114 ft/sec).

Table 3.6Nozzle Exit Velocities


2

Exit Velocity (ft/sec), Nozzle Area (in. )

Flow Rate
(gal/min)

Three No. 8 Jets


0.147

Three No. 12 Jets


0.331

Three No. 16 Jets


0.589

210

457

203

114

420

914

406

228

840

1,828

812

456

Table 3.7, Page 3-16, shows the pressure drops with the same nozzles and rates
as Table 3.6. Several of the pressure drops shown are not attainable, but can be
used for comparison. Notice that fluid density (mud weight) is an important
factor affecting the pressure drop across the nozzles. Doubling the mud weight
(from 10 lb/gal to 20 lb/gal) also doubles the pressure drop across the nozzles
(1,866 psi x 2 = 3,732 psi at 210 gal/min using three Number 8 jets).
Nozzle size also affects pressure. At 210 gal/min with 10-lb/gal mud, doubling
the nozzle diameters (three Number 8 jets to three Number 16 jets) reduces the
pressure drop by a factor of 16 (1,866 psi 16 = 116.6 psi). Flow rate also affects
the pressure drop. With 10.0-lb/gal mud and three Number 8 jets, doubling the
flow rate (from 210 gal/min to 420 gal/min) increases the pressure drop by a
factor of four (1,866 psi x 4 = 7,464 psi).

October 1996

Drilling Hydraulics

3-15

Power is necessary to remove cuttings from the bottom of the hole. Since it is
normally necessary to maintain the hydrostatic pressure at the bottom of the
hole at a higher value than the pressure in the pores of the formation, the cuttings are securely held against the face of the rock. The high-velocity jetting
action causes the drilling fluid to penetrate among the cuttings and even into the
minute fractures on the bottom of the hole, partially equalizing the differential
pressure existing at the rock face that otherwise tends to hold the cuttings down.
Reducing this differential pressure then allows the high-velocity fluid to remove
the cuttings quickly and easily. Figure 3.2 illustrates this effect.

Table 3.7Pressure Drop Across Bit Jets


Flow Rate Mud Weight
(gal/min)
(lb/gal)

210

420

840

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General Hydraulics Manual

Pressure Drop (psi)


2
Nozzle Area (in. )
Three No. 8 Jets
0.147

Three No. 12 Jets


0.331

Three No.16 Jets


0.589

10

1,866

368

116

15

2,799

552

174

20

3,732

736

232

10

7,464

1,472

465

15

11,195

2,208

697

20

14,927

2,944

929

10

29,854

5,888

1,860

15

44,781

8,832

2,789

20

59,708

11,776

3,719

October 1996

High-velocity
fluid-jet action
releases chips
fractured by
bit teeth.
Hydrostatic pressure
causes chip
hold-down.

Solids filtered from


the mud seal across
cracks in fractured
rocks.

Pore pressure is less


than hydrostatic
pressure.

Mud filtrate invasion into fractures lessens chip


hold-down.

Figure 3.2Jets help relieve chip holddown.

October 1996

Drilling Hydraulics

3-17

Annular Hydraulics
Annular hydraulic principles differ from drillpipe or bit hydraulic principles in
several ways. First, annular flow is much slower; in fact, flow in the annulus is
normally considered to be laminar as opposed to the turbulent flow inside the
pipe. Second, the shape of the flow passage is not just round but generally is
considered more doughnut-shaped, as shown in Figure 3.3. Even this assumption does not generally hold true. Since the pipe is not always centered in the
hole, the annular flow passage is actually more crescent-shaped (Figure 3.4).
However, for calculation purposes (since the cross-sectional areas are the same)
the doughnut approach is usually used. Third, the irregularities in the hole
(washed-out sections or sloughing formations) cause the openhole section to
disturb the laminar flow pattern. Fourth, the rotation of the pipe (as crescent
revolves around the inside of the hole) also tends to break up the laminar flow in
the annulus.

Doughnut-Shaped
Annulus

Drillpipe

Figure 3.3

Crescent-Shaped
Annulus

Drillpipe

Figure 3.4

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October 1996

During slow, hard rock drilling, an annular velocity of 1 1/2 to 2 ft/sec (about 100
to 125 ft/min) is adequate to bring cuttings to the surface. For fast top-hole
drilling, experience shows that higher annular velocities will be required, especially when laminar flow exists.
The principles that apply to flow in the drillpipe also apply to the annular flow.
The higher the flow rate, the greater the pressure drop caused by friction. Similarly, high-viscosity mud also increases the annular pressure drop slightly; the
backpressure at the bottom increases, which tends to hold down the chips.

Calculating Slip Velocity


Annular velocities must be sufficient to carry the cuttings to the surface. Cuttings
do not travel at the same speed as the fluid. The difference in the fluid velocity
and the cutting velocity is known as the slip velocity. A higher slip velocity means
that a cutting slips more in the fluid carrying it.
To calculate slip velocity, use Equation 3.6.
SV =

175 PD (PW - MW )
MW 0.333 cp0.333

0 . 667

........................................................................... (3.6)

where
SV

= Slip velocity, ft/min

175
PD
PW
MW

= Constant
= Particle (cutting) diameter, in.
= Particle weight, lb/gal (normally about 21.0 lb/gal)
= Mud weight, lb/gal

cp

= Mud viscosity, cp

Example 8 (Page 3-20) is an application of Equation 3.6.

October 1996

Drilling Hydraulics

3-19

Example 8: How to calculate slip velocity

What is the slip velocity of 0.20-in. diameter cuttings in 10 lb/gal of 40cp mud?
Solution
PD = 0.20 in.
PW = 21.0 lb/gal
MW = 10.0 lb/gal
cp = 40 cp

SV =

175 PD (PW - MW )

0.667

MW 0.333 CP0.333
175 0.20 ( 2.10 -10.0)

........................................................... (3.6)
0.667

10.00.333 40 0.333
175 0.20 4.9500
= 23.561 ft / min
2.153 3.146

Problem 7
What is the slip velocity of 0.30-in. diameter cuttings when 9.5-lb/gal mud with
an 89-cp viscosity is circulated?
Work Space

Answer ____________
(The solution for Problem 7 is on Page 3-23.)

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October 1996

Factors that Influence Slip Velocity


Table 3.8 compares slip velocities for various mud weights, viscosities, and
cutting sizes. Some of the viscosities shown in Table 3.8 are unattainable with the
mud weights listed, but are included for comparative purposes.
Viscosity causes a small change in slip velocity. Changing the viscosity of
10.0-lb/gal mud from 40 to 80 cp only decreases slip velocity from 23.6 ft/min to
18.7 ft/min, a reduction of approximately 21%; the cuttings are traveling closer
to the mud velocity in 80-cp mud than in 40-cp mud.
Table 3.8 shows that doubling the cutting size approximately doubles the slip
velocity. A 0.20-in. diameter cutting in 20-lb/gal, 40-cp mud has a slip velocity of
3.8 ft/min compared to 7.6 ft/min for a cutting twice its size. The larger the
cutting, the greater the difference in its velocity and the fluid velocity.
Table 3.8 also shows that the higher the mud weight, the lower the slip velocity.
With 40-cp mud carrying 0.20-in. cuttings, increasing the mud weight from 10
lb/gal to 20 lb/gal decreases the slip velocity from 23.6 ft/min to 3.8 ft/min.
Heavier mud, therefore, has a much greater carrying capacity because the slip
velocity is much less.

Table 3.8Slip Velocity


Slip Velocity (ft/min)
Viscosity
(cp)

40

80

October 1996

Mud Weight
(lb/gal)

Cutting Size (in.)


0.20

0.30

0.40

10

23.6

35.3

47.1

20

3.8

5.7

7.6

10

18.7

28.1

37.4

20

3.0

4.5

6.0

Drilling Hydraulics

3-21

Solutions to Problems
Pages 3-22 and 3-23 list the solutions to the practice problems in Chapter 3. Most
of the problems can be solved more than one way. Different methods may give
slightly different answers, depending on how the numbers are rounded off.
NOTE

If you use and understand a particular method, always use it, even if it is not
used in this text.

Solution for Problem 1


P
= 333 psi
Q = 1,260 gal/min
hhp = (P x Q) 1,714 ................................................................................................ (3.1)
= (333 psi x 1,260 gal/min) 1,714 = 244.796 hhp ................................ Answer

Solution for Problem 2


P

= Discharge pressure - Suction pressure


= 1,000 psi - 75 psi = 925 psi
Q = 210 gal/min
hhp = (P x Q) 1,714 ................................................................................................ (3.1)
= (925 psi x 210 gal/min) 1,714 = 113.331 hhp ................................... Answer

Solution for Problem 3


hhp = 250 hhp
E
= 0.80
ihp = hhp E ............................................................................................................ (3.2)
= 250 hhp 0.80 = 312.5 hp ...................................................................... Answer

Solution for Problem 4


P
= Discharge pressure - Suction pressure = 1,100 psi - 100 psi = 1,000 psi
Q = 840 gal/min
hhp = (P x Q) 1,714 ................................................................................................ (3.1)
= (1,000 psi x 840 gal/min) 1,714 = 490.082 hhp
E
= 0.75
ihp = hhp E ........................................................................................................... (3.2)
= 490.082 hhp 0.75 = 653.442 hp ........................................................... Answer

3-22

General Hydraulics Manual

October 1996

Solution for Problem 5


MW = 15.0 lb/gal
Q
PV
L
D
P

= 150 gal/min
= 50 cp
= 5,000 ft
= 2.602 in.
= (7.7 x 10-5) x (MW0.8 x Q1.8) x (PV0.2 x L) D4.8 .............................................................................. (3.3)

= (0.000077 x 8.727) x (8,259.700 x 2.187) x (5,000) 98.509 = 616.051 psi


hhp = (P x Q) 1,714 ............................................................................................... (3.1)
= (616.051 psi x 150 gal/min ) 1,714 = 53.913 hhp ............................ Answer

Solution for Problem 6


A. Q = 210 gal/min
AN = 2 x 0.196 in. = 0.392 in.
NV = 0.32 x Q AN ........................................................................................... (3.4)
= 0.32 x 210 gal/min 0.392 in. = 171.429 ...................................... Answer
B. MW= 1.50 lb/gal
NV = 171.429 ft/sec
P = MW x NV 1,120 ................................................................................... (3.5)
= 15.0 x 171.429 1,120 = 393.586 ..................................................... Answer

Solution for Problem 7


PD = 0.30 in.
PW = 21.0 lb/gal
MW = 9.5 lb/gal
cp = 89 cp
0.667
SV = 175 x PD x (PW - MW)
............................................................................ (3.6)
MW0.333 x cp0.333
175 x 0.30 in. x (21.0 - 9.5)0.667
=
= 28.373 ft/sec ......................................... Answer
9.50.333 x 890.333

October 1996

Drilling Hydraulics

3-23

Notes

3-24

General Hydraulics Manual

October 1996