216 views

Uploaded by Sharath Sharu

forcedconvectionnotes

- Free and Forced Convection Lab Report
- Free and Forced Convection
- LS4 - Forced Convection
- Force convection experiment
- (91481689) [Senior]Free and Forced Convection (Repaired)
- ME3122-2 Lab Forced Convection Heat Transfer
- Forced Covection - Thermo Lab Report
- Forced convection lab report
- Lab 2 Updated1
- GREEN SAND PREPARATION (Manufacturing Lab /Foundry)
- Forced Convection
- Forced Convection
- RESULTS Forced Convection
- Forced Convection by Rahul Mondal
- Convection
- Natural and Forced Convection
- Free and Forced Convection
- Forced Convection katenye
- Forced Convection
- Lab Convection Forced

You are on page 1of 11

Experiment No. 8

FORCED CONVECTION FROM A CIRCULAR CYLINDER

SUBJECTED TO CROSS FLOW

Nomenclature

As

surface area of cylinder (m2)

D

diameter of cylinder (m)

overall heat transfer coefficient (W/m2K)

h

k

thermal conductivity (W/mK)

L

length of cylinder (m)

Nu

Nusselt number (-)

q

amount of heat transferred to air (w)

Re

Reynolds number (-)

average surface temperature of cylinder (C)

Ts

Tf

film temperature (C)

T

free stream temperature (C)

U

free stream speed (m/s)

P

pressure drop (N/m2)

emissivity of cylinder (-)

Reference

F.P. Incropera and D.P. DeWitt, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, section 7.4 in 4th ed., 1996,

5th ed., 2002, , or 6th ed. 2007.

Objective

The purpose of this experiment is to experimentally determine the relationship between Nusselt number

and Reynolds number for a heated cylinder subjected to cooling by a cross flow of air and compare

results with correlations available in the text.

Concepts Emphasized

1. steady state convective heat transfer;

2. experimental approaches for determining free stream velocity and heat transfer coefficient;

3. importance of energy balances; and

4. role of radiative heat transfer.

Introduction

Flow across and heat transfer from a heated single, circular cylinder is frequently encountered in many

engineering applications. Examples of such applications include, among others, transmission lines for

electricity, heat exchangers and nuclear fuel elements. As we may recall, however, the corresponding

flow field is extremely complicated and the drag and heat transfer coefficients vary in an extremely

complex manner around the cylinder. In the experiment, we shall not be concerned with such

circumferential variation. Instead, we shall determine overall heat transfer coefficients, which are of

most practical interest in engineering calculations.

8.1

Consider a heated cylinder subjected to a cross flow of air, as shown in Fig. 1. We assume that the cross

flow is uniform and that forced convection is the primary mode of heat transfer. You may wish to review

the definitions of the Nusselt and Reynolds numbers.

1. The heat dissipated by the rod can be calculated by using the convective heat transfer equation.

q= h As(Ts-T)

where

q

h

As

D

L

Ts

T

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

the overall heat transfer coefficient (W/m2K)

surface area of cylinder (m2) = DL

diameter of cylinder = 0.01905 m

Length of cylinder = 0.3048 m

surface temperature of cylinder (K)

ambient air temperature (K)

2. For this experiment it will be assumed that the power input into the cylinder is equal to the heat

dissipated by the rod. This assumption neglects other modes of heat transfer that may be present.

The rod is heated internally by an electric resistance heater. The input power is determined by

measuring the current and voltage and then calculating power according to the equation: Power =

Voltage, V Current, I

Power = V X I

Pressure

Manometer

Flow

Straighteners

Thermocouples

Heated

Cy linder

Plate

Intake

Pitot

Tube

Wind Tunnel

Exhaust

70 V

Signal

Conditioning

1 A

Card

Data Acquisition

Variable Power

Supply

8.2

3. The free stream velocity of the flow is determined by measuring the pressure difference P between

two locations in the flow with different velocities, and then applying Bernoulli's equation.

p 1V2

z const.

g 2 g

By using the Bernoulli's equation between a point in the free stream and a stagnation point, find an

expression for the free stream velocity. Knowing the velocity, the Reynolds Number can now be

determined. Compute the ReD for a velocity of 20 m/s at 25C in air at 1 atm. Will the boundary

layer around the cylinder be laminar or turbulent or a combination of both?

4. To determine the amount of power needed to maintain a certain cylinder surface temperature, Ts , the

heat transfer coefficient must first be determined. This is determined by finding the Nusselt number,

NuD , from the correlations in the Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer textbook, Eqs. 7.52 (with

constants from Table 7.2 in the text) and 7.53 (note temperature at which properties are to be

evaluated). If the cylinder has a surface temperature of 80C, determine the NuD for the air flow

conditions given in step 3. Then solve for the heat transfer coefficient, h Nu D

k film

D

with kfilm

being the thermal conductivity of air evaluated at the film temperature, and for cylinder dimensions

given above.

5. Now determine the power needed to maintain a cylinder surface temperature Ts = 80C.

6. The amount of heat transferred by surface radiation was neglected in this analysis. Since the

radiation transfer qr T 4 , it is a nonlinear heat exchange process and therefore difficult to deal with

analytically. To simplify the analysis of the radiation transfer, it is often expressed in a linearized

form. To estimate the role of radiation first solve for the radiation heat transfer coefficient hrad:

hrad (Ts T )(Ts2 T2 )

= emissivity = 0.3 for polished copper

= Stefan-Boltzmann constant = 5.67 10-8 W/m2 K4

Use hrad to solve for the amount of heat transferred by radiation qrad hrad As (Ts T ) . What

percentage of the heat transferred by convection does this represent? In your engineering judgment,

is neglecting the radiation transfer justified? What is the importance of a polished copper surface?

By neglecting hrad , will a measured value of hconv (as will be done in the experiment) be higher or

lower than actual? If the copper surface is oxidized, thereby establishing an emissivity = 0.7, what

percentage increase in power would be required to maintain the 80C surface temperature?

8.3

Thermocouple Type:

Units:

Number of Thermocouples:

Start Condition:

Stop Condition:

Scan Rate:

Averaging:

Suggested Monitoring Method:

T

C

6 ( +CJC )

Manual Start

Manual Stop

1 scan/sec

Enabled: 100

Digital Meters/Chart

Experimental Procedures

Please have the TA explain the operation of the wind tunnel and the associated metering devices.

1. Configure the data acquisition software.

2. Several thermocouples will measure temperatures at the locations listed in Table 1. You will use

the average of temperatures at 4, 5, & 6 for the surface temperature, Ts.

TC Number

2

3

4

5

6

7

Location

ambient, outside test section

at Pitot tube, T

on cylinder surface, front

on cylinder surface, middle

on cylinder surface, back

inside wall of cylinder

(used as Ts in previous years)

Table 1. Thermocouple Locations

3. The inclined manometer measures the pressure difference, P , between static and stagnation

conditions through the use of a Pitot probe. Check that the manometer is level and that the fluid

meniscus is at 0. If either is not the case, ask the TA for assistance. Table 2, shown below, has

been set up as a guide to data taking. While you may use these sheets to record your data, you

should set up a similar table in Excel for your report. There you can do the necessary

calculations and construct the necessary graphs with ease.

4. Turn on the wind tunnel. Make sure the exhaust end is fully opened. Allow the manometer to

reach a constant P (i.e. small fluctuations will be ignored) and record this value in Table 2

under Open End (refers to the exhaust end of the wind tunnel, which will be restricted in size in

other runs). You will use this P to solve for the free stream velocity U . Use the perfect gas

law to calculate the air density at T.

5. Turn on the power box. This box supplies voltage and current to a heater inside the copper

cylinder. Adjust the voltage drop to the first value given in Table 2 under Open End. Record the

voltage and current in the appropriate column of Table 2. Start the data acquisition program.

8.4

6. The cylinder must now be allowed to reach its steady-state temperature. For this experiment, the

temperature should remain constant for about 5 minutes to be considered steady state. The data

acquisition system can help in determining when steady state has been reached. It will plot the

temperatures from TCs 4, 5, & 6 as a function of time. You should be able to see the

temperatures begin to plateau to a steady state value. When the temperatures reach steady state,

record the values of P, V, I, T, T4, T5, & T6 in Table 2. At the end of run, once the steady

state values have been recorded, stop the data acquisition program by clicking the Stop button in

the Charts window and/or the Digital Meters window. You can then record the steady state

temperature values from the Digital Meters window.

7. The flow velocity can be varied by changing the restrictor plates which slide into position at the

downstream end of the wind tunnel. Repeat Step 5 for the three restrictor plates. It is best to

change the restrictor plates in turn before moving to another voltage setting. Be aware that due

to problems with memory allocation, you may have to STOP, QUIT, and restart the data

acquisition program for each run.

8. Repeat steps 5-8 for each voltage setting.

Data Reduction

1.

Calculate the power input to the heater according to the equation P=IV for each of the

experimental runs.

2.

Calculate a value of the overall heat transfer coefficient, h for each experimental run according

to the equation

h = Power / [As(Ts T )]

4.

Table 2 gives an outline of the order of calculations for each run. Calculate the Nusselt number,

NuD and Prandtl number, Pr for each column using the overall h , and kf , and other properties all

evaluated at the film temperature. You should use the curve fit equations given in Appendix I to

evaluate key properties of air. Does the Pr vary by more than 5% over the range of experimental

conditions?

5.

Plot the (NuD/Pr1/3) for each column versus the respective ReD, including data from both

experiments and the appropriate correlation.

6.

Using the curve fitting feature of Excel, determine a best fit power law curve, y=axb, to your

experimental data. Also, add a power law curve fit to your theoretical data. The results should

match your correlation. Compare the best fit values of the constant, C and exponent, n with

those suggested in your text for this range of ReD .

7.

Calculate the predicted uncertainty of (NuD/Pr1/3) and ReD. Discuss the meaning of the

uncertainty and the effect this result has on the apparent accuracy of the experiment.

8.

a. the comparison between the experimentally determined NuD number with the one obtained

for the correlation;

b. the role of the restrictor plates;

8.5

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

h.

i.

measurement of free stream velocity;

the physical significance of the NuD number;

how the Re number relates to the NuD number;

the role of other modes of heat transfer and losses from the end of copper cylinder;

steady-state conditions; and

the overall educational experience of this experiment and areas for possible improvement in

the experiment as well as in this manual.

8.6

Table 2. Measured data and results of calculations for heated cylinder in cross flow.

FLOW

CASE

OPEN END

PLATE 1

PLATE 2

PLATE 3

P (in H2O)

P (Pascals)

U (m/s)

(Set 35 V)

(Set 35 V)

V (volts)

I (amp)

P (W)

T (C)

T4 (C)

T5 (C)

T6 (C)

Ts=Tavg (C)

Tf ilm (C)

Re D

UD

film

Prfilm

h (W/m2 K)

Nu D

hD

k film

Nu D

(Expt)

/3

Pr1film

Nu D

(Corr)

/3

Pr1film

8.7

(Set 35 V)

(Set 35 V)

Table 2. (continued)

FLOW

CASE

OPEN END

PLATE 1

PLATE 2

PLATE 3

P (in H2O)

P (Pascals)

U (m/s)

(Set 50 V)

(Set 50 V)

V (volts)

I (amp)

P (W)

T (C)

T4 (C)

T5 (C)

T6 (C)

Ts =Tavg (C)

Tf ilm (C)

Re D

UD

film

Prfilm

h (W/m2 K)

Nu D

hD

k film

Nu D

(Expt)

/3

Pr1film

Nu D

(Corr)

/3

Pr1film

8.8

(Set 50 V)

(Set 50 V)

Table 2. (continued)

FLOW

CASE

OPEN END

PLATE 1

PLATE 2

PLATE 3

P (in H2O)

P (Pascals)

U (m/s)

(Set 65 V)

(Set 65 V)

V (volts)

I (amp)

P (W)

T (C)

T4 (C)

T5 (C)

T6 (C)

Ts =Tavg (C)

Tf ilm (C)

Re D

UD

film

Prfilm

h (W/m2 K)

Nu D

hD

k film

Nu D

(Expt)

/3

Pr1film

Nu D

(Corr)

/3

Pr1film

8.9

(Set 65 V)

(Set 65 V)

APPENDIX I

Curve Fits to Property Data for Dry Air at 1 atm

1.

2.

3.

8.10

Evaluation Form

EXPERIMENT 8 -- Forced Convection from a Circular Cylinder Subjected to Cross Flow

This form is to be filled out by each student at the end of each lab experiment, and turned in with

the lab report. The purpose is to help the instructor(s) make changes or modifications for the future.

Your comments will in no way affect your grade--please be honest in your evaluation.

1.

________hours in-class time,

2.

3.

What was your overall impression of the experiment? (You can elaborate on any of these in 3.

below.)

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

Please give any specific comments below which will help us improve the experiment for next

semester.

8.11

- Free and Forced Convection Lab ReportUploaded byMoWatts17
- Free and Forced ConvectionUploaded byBunty Perera
- LS4 - Forced ConvectionUploaded bylarokanco
- Force convection experimentUploaded byseharis7
- (91481689) [Senior]Free and Forced Convection (Repaired)Uploaded byvenkiee
- ME3122-2 Lab Forced Convection Heat TransferUploaded byLinShaodun
- Forced Covection - Thermo Lab ReportUploaded byhamza2595
- Forced convection lab reportUploaded byPhuong Le
- Lab 2 Updated1Uploaded byFeezah Hanimoon
- GREEN SAND PREPARATION (Manufacturing Lab /Foundry)Uploaded byFakhrur Razi
- Forced ConvectionUploaded byWeekiet Png
- Forced ConvectionUploaded byAnya Cooper
- RESULTS Forced ConvectionUploaded byMohd Zakuan Zabri
- Forced Convection by Rahul MondalUploaded byRahul Mondal
- ConvectionUploaded byVinod Kumar
- Natural and Forced ConvectionUploaded byFatin Amira Mat Kasim
- Free and Forced ConvectionUploaded byRenewable Energy Engi
- Forced Convection katenyeUploaded bydeion29
- Forced ConvectionUploaded byrockydark
- Lab Convection ForcedUploaded byFRid AdNn
- Forced convectionUploaded byAmeer Sh
- Natural and Forced Convection ExperimentsUploaded byOmar Yamil Sanchez Torres
- Forced ConvectionUploaded byRahul Nair
- Forced Convection CompleteUploaded byismail
- Free and Forced Heat ConvectionUploaded byangelaers
- lab 1 foundry..docxUploaded byUsman Taib
- 290840829-Flowmeter-Demonstration-Lab-Report.docxUploaded byShalihan Mustafa
- 159462298 Free and Forced Convection Lab ReportUploaded byKamal Gamal
- Ultra Coperation BlueprintUploaded byafnan_lion94
- 3-d Thermal Hydraulic Analysis Louver FinUploaded byAmin Syah

- Radial Viscous Flow between Two Parallel Annular PlatesUploaded byKyi Htin Paw
- Estimation of Properties.pdfUploaded byLee860531
- REF ATAUploaded byHamza Ghzaiel
- B-Line Pipe Supports, Guides, Shields & SaddlesUploaded byMfon Udoita
- EPRI Onsite Weld Repair Shrunk-On Disc Steam TurbineUploaded bysurawutwijarn
- English Installation FlangesUploaded byJames Everett Abdul
- 1 Introduction to PneumaticUploaded byHuzai Azman
- 1994 Chevrolet Blazer OwnersUploaded byFlogisto79
- Aashto Pgb SpecUploaded byAla Thajil
- Eaton 750_850 SpecsUploaded byKevins Small Engine and Tractor Service
- Electrical Drives & Control _ S5 ECUploaded byAsifZharaf
- Electric Training GB V3.60Uploaded byLuis Albert Añanca Loayza
- Rheem Pipe Cover Assembly RTG20227Uploaded bytsemmes
- EE2224 - Solid Mechanics - Stress StrainUploaded byPreedep Baradidathan
- Digistat+2RF User InstructionsUploaded byGreg Dabrowski
- Piping SpecificationUploaded byhaqjmi
- b1503Uploaded byKvvPrasad
- New 390 ManualUploaded byFabian Antonio Roldan
- Erik.dick Book.turbomachinesUploaded byAleksander Petersen
- Viktor Schauberger Vortex EngineUploaded byRed Phoenix
- Dispersion (water waves).pdfUploaded byaulad999
- azeotropic diagramUploaded byamo
- Paper26555-557Uploaded byanandg4ps10ccs01
- TU7_Design and Verification of a Steel Moment Resisting FrameUploaded byalexrodriguezabc
- Postpro 2DUploaded byvucamtu
- IR SD-100 B 22 15282-B-01xx.pdfUploaded byDiego Alvarez Alvarez
- 0Alltemp_Refrigeration_Air_Conditioning_Catalogue.pdfUploaded byEdenia Jolvino
- 14 b.m.e.p Qsv 81& 91 Mg Rev rUploaded byJuan Jose Rodriguez
- (Ring Frame - Technological Aspects)Uploaded byAliAhmad
- Pt Flat SlabUploaded byNikhil Karade