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STRONG ACIDS AND STRONG BASES

The common acids that are almost one hundred percent ionised in water are:
HNO3 - nitric acid
HCl - hydrochloric acid
H2SO4 - sulphuric acid
1. The acids on this short list are called strong acids, because the amount of
acid quality of a solution depends upon the concentration of hydrogen ions.
2. Incompletely or partially ionised acids are called weak acids, because there
is a smaller concentration of hydrogen ions available in the solution.
3. An example of a weak acid is ethanoic acid.

4. In the list of strong acids, sulphuric acid is the only one that is diprotic,
because it has two moles of hydrogen ions per mol of acid
5. The other acids in the list are monoprotic, because it has one mol of
hydrogen ions per mol of acid
6. Likewise, there is a short list of strong alkali, ones that completely ionise
into hydroxide ions.
7. All of the bases of Group 1 metals are strong bases.
8. Lithium, rubidium and caesium hydroxides are not often used in the lab
because they are expensive.
9. Potassium and sodium hydroxides both have the common name of lye.
LiOH - lithium hydroxide
NaOH - sodium hydroxide
KOH - potassium hydroxide
10. The bases of Group 1 metals are all monobasic.
11. Example of a weak alkali is ammonia.
Neutralisation
1. In a neutralization reaction, an acid reacts with a base to form a neutral
solution containing a salt and water.
2. When a neutralization is performed in aqueous solution, the essential
feature of the reaction is the combination of hydrogen ions and hydroxide
ions to form water
HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) ----> NaCl (aq) + H2O (aq)
H+ (aq) + OH- (aq) ----> H2O (l)

Concentration of an aqueous
Concentration=
(g/dm3)

Mass of solute (g)


Volume of solution (dm 3)

Amount of moles of solute (mol)


Concentration=
(mol/dm3)
[Molarity]

Molarity
(mol/dm3)

M1V1=M2V2

Volume of solution (dm 3)

x molar mass

molar mass
MaVa =
MbVb

Concentration
(g/dm 3)

a
b

Exercise:
1. What is the molarity of the solution formed by dissolving 49 g of sulphuric
acid in 250 cm3 of water? ( H=1, S=32, O=16)

2. What mass of hydrogen chloride is needed to make up 500cm 3 of a solution


of concentration 4moldm-3 ? (H=1, Cl=35.5)

3. What is the molarity of a sulphuric acid solution, if 15 cm 3 of it are


neutralised by 20 cm3 of a 0.3 moldm-3 potassium hydroxide solution?

4. 15 cm3 of hydrochloric acid are neutralised by 25 cm3 of 0.06 moldm-3 sodium


hydroxide. What is the molarity of the acid?

SPM 2005 (Essay)


(a) The following information is about hydrochloric and ethanoic acid.
1. The pH of 1moldm-3 hydrochloric acid solution is 1
2. The pH of 1moldm-3 ethanoic acid solution is 4
Explain why these two solutions have different pH values [4m]

SPM 2006
(a)
8g of solid sodium hydroxide, NaOH, is dissolved in distilled water to
produce a solution of 1000cm3
The NaOH solution produced has the concentration of 8gdm-3 and the
molarity of 0.2moldm-3
(i)
State the meaning of the concentration for the solution
produced. [1m]

(b)

(ii)

State the meaning of the molarity for the solution produced. [1m]

(iii)

Write the formula that represents the relationship between the


number of mole (n), molarity (M), and volume (V) for the solution.
[1m]

(iv)

Substitute the actual values of the number of mole, molarity and


volume of the NaOH solution into the formula in 4(a)(iii)
[Relative molecular mass of NaOH = 40] [1m]

Diagram 4.1 shows the preparation of the standard solution of NaOH


0.2moldm-3
(i) What are the two parameters that should be measured accurately to
prepare the standard solution of NaOH?
Parameter I:
Parameter II:
[2marks]

(ii) After all the NaOH solution is poured into the volumetric flask, the
beaker and the filter funnel must be rinsed several times with distilled water.
After each rinse, all of this water is transferred into the volumetric flask.
Give one reason for doing this.
[1 mark]

(iii) What step should be taken to ensure that the meniscus level of the
standard solution is exactly in line with the graduation mark on the volumetric
flask?
[1 mark]

(iv) A volumetric flask is more suitable to be used in the preparation of the


standard solution rather than a beaker.
Why?
[1 mark]

(v) Why is the volumetric flask stoppered after the standard solution is
prepared?
[1 mark]

SPM 2005 Question 1

SPM 2006 Question 2

Question 3

Question 4

SPM 2007 Question 5

SPM 2008

Question 7

Question 6

Solubility of Salts
Nitrate salts, Sulphate salts,
NO3SO42-

Chloride salts,
Cl-

Carbonate salts,
CO32-

All nitrates
are SOLUBLE

All sulphates are


SOLUBLE

All chlorides are


SOLUBLE

All carbonates are


INSOLUBLE

Except:
BaSO4
CaSO4 INSOLUBLE
PbSO4

Except:
AgCl INSOLUBLE
PbCl2

Except:
Na2CO3
K2CO3
(NH4)2CO3

SOLUBLE

Salt preparation
There are 2 steps in writing out the preparation of a salt.
Step 1: Check solubility of the salt to be prepared
Step 2: Check solubility of the parent acid and parent base to be used
There are 3 main methods available for salt preparation.
1) Precipitation reaction
2) Titration
3) Acid neutralisation ( acid +metal, acid + metal oxide, acid + metal carbonate)

Soluble

Potassium salts
Sodium salt
Ammonium salts

Titration

Other soluble salts Acid neutralisation

Insoluble

Precipitation reaction

Example 1
Prepare barium(II) sulphate.
Step 1: barium(II) sulphate is insoluble
Conclusion: Use Precipitation method
Reagents: soluble barium salt(barium nitrate)+soluble sulphate salt(sodium nitrate)
Equation: Ba(NO3)2 (aq) + Na2SO4 (aq) BaSO4 (s) + 2NaNO3 (aq)

Example 2
Prepare potassium nitrate.
Step 1: potassium nitrate is soluble
Conclusion: Precipitation method impossible
Step 2: potassium hydroxide and nitric acid are soluble
Conclusion: Titration method
Reagents: potassium hydroxide, nitric acid
Equation
Exercises
For the following salts, choose the appropriate method of preparation and describe the
preparation with balanced equations and state symbols.
a) Ammonium sulphate

b) Magnesium nitrate

c) Lead (II) chloride

d) Calcium carbonate

e) Zinc sulphate

f) Copper (II) chloride

g) Potassium sulphate

h) Zinc carbonate

The colours of salts

CuSO4
CuCl2
Cu(NO3)2
CuCO3
CuO
Cu

FeSO4
FeCl2
Fe(NO3)2
Fe2 (SO4)3
FeCl3
Fe(NO3)3

ZnO

PbO

Identification of anions
Carbonate ion CO32Add any dilute strong acid to the suspected carbonate - if colourless gas given off, test
with limewater.
Fizzing - colourless gas - turns limewater milky cloudy
Any carbonate + acid ==> salt + water + carbon dioxide,
Example: Magnesium carbonate and nitric acid
All carbonates except sodium and potassium carbonate will decompose when heated to
release CO2.
Example: Calcium carbonate heated

Sulphate ions, SO42To a solution of the suspected sulphate add dilute hydrochloric acid and a few drops of
barium chloride or nitrate solution.
A white precipitate of barium sulphate.
Ba2+(aq) + SO42-(aq) ==> BaSO4(s)
Any soluble barium salt + any soluble sulphate forms a white dense barium sulphate
precipitate.

Chloride ion, ClTo a solution of the suspected chloride, add dilute nitric acid and silver nitrate solution.
White precipitate of silver chloride forms.
Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq) ==> AgCl(s)
Nitrate ion, NO3Brown ring test
Add diluted sulphuric acid, iron(ii) sulphate solution and then concentrated sulphuric acid
Where the liquids meet a brown ring forms.

Identification of cations
Copper(II) ions, Cu2+
1. Add a few drops of ammonia (aq) : Blue precipitate which dissolves in excess
ammonia to give a deep blue solution
2. Add sodium hydroxide (aq): Blue precipitate which does not dissolves in excess
ammonia to give a deep blue solution
Iron (II) ion, Fe2+
Add NaOH or NH3, dark green precipitate which is not soluble in excess of NH3 or NaOH
Iron (III) ion, Fe3+
Add NaOH or NH3, brown precipitate which is not soluble in excess of NH3 or NaOH

Cation
Ca2+

A few drops of
NaOH
White ppt

Excess NaOH

Mg2+

White ppt

A13+

White ppt

WP does not
dissolve
WP does not
dissolve
WP dissolves

Zn2+
Pb2+

White ppt
White ppt

WP dissolves
WP dissolves

A few drops of NH3


(aq)
---------

Excess NH3 (aq)

White ppt

WP does not
dissolve
WP does not
dissolve
WP dissolves
WP does not
dissolve

White ppt
White ppt
White ppt

---------

SPM 2005

10

that occur to

Questions:
1. What test could be done to differentiate an aqueous solution of lead(II) nitrate and
aluminium nitrate?

2. You are provided with aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate, zinc chloride and
sulphuric acid. Explain how zinc sulphate can be prepared.

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Precipitation

3.
X
Add distilled
water

Which
A.
B.
C.
D.
4.

Solution
Add
sodium
chloride

White ppt

White ppt dissolves


Heated

salts could be present in X?


zinc carbonate and zinc chloride
magnesium carbonate and magnesium nitrate
Lead(II)carbonate and lead(II)nitrate
Lead(II)sulphate and lead(II)chloride

X
Heated

Brown acidic gas


Residue Y( brown while hot and yellow when cold)

Add distilled water


X solution

Add sodium sulphate solution

White
precipitate Z

State the identity of compounds X, Y and Z.

Making a soluble salt

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SPM 2010
Question 1

Question 2

13

Question 3
Question 4

14

SPM 2008

15