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Windows Linux - GNOME

Debian Linux 8 Jessie


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Windows Linux - GNOME


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01.
02.
03. Linux
04.Linux
05. Debian Linux 8 Jessie
06.GRUB BIOS
(U)EFI
07.GNOME (GDM, GNOME Display
Manager)
08.GNOME

09.Synaptic
10. root
11.

12.
13.
14. systemadm
15.
16.dconf GKDebconf
17.RAM disk
18.
19.GPartedGNOME
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.FTP
27.
28.
29.

30.CD/DVD Debian Install CD


USB
31. x86-64 x86
32.
33.
34. VirtualBox
35.Cairo-Dock
36.manual pages
37.Java Runtime Environment(JRE)
38.
39.

01.
Doris Sinny Even
Alice Zoey Steven
Joe Victor Yi-Fang
VivienCECIIIIedu Michael David

Linux

Doris

Sinny

EvenAliceZoey
Even
Alice Zoey
QQ 80
QQ

Steven
Steven
Joe IT

Victor

Yi-Fang

Vivien 10

CECI
IT
IIIedu IT

Michael MsWindows

David PII/PIII PC

02.

MsDOSMsWindows
MsDOS
MsWindows
MsDOSMsWindows

2005 MacOSX2011
Linux
MsDOSMsWindows
MsWindows
MacOSXLinux
MsWindows
MacOSXLinux

MsWindows
MacOSXLinux
MsWindows
Linux
Linux

Linux
Linux
Windows Linux

PDF
Linux

x86-6464 CPU BIOS


Linux GNOME

Linux Debian Jessie

Debian
CPU
Debian
PDF

2001

/ 2015 05
Ian Ho (Email: ianian1979@gmail.com)

03. Linux
Linus Benedict Torvalds 1991
Linux

UNIX Linux
DOS
DOS
Linus GNU GPL
Linux

Linux
Linux (shell)

Linux

ISO

Linux

Linux

Linux
Linux Debian Linux 8 Jessie
Debian
Linux

Linux Debian Linux


Linux

GNOME Debian
Linux
Debian Linux

Debian Linux
BUG
Debian Debian Linux
BUG Debian
Linux

link

Debian (Debian Taiwan User Group)


Debian
https://www.facebook.com/groups/debian.tw/

http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/Linux
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/Linux

http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/Linux
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/GNU
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/Unix_shell
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/Bash
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/Debian
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/GNOME
Linux
http://www.linuxfoundation.org/
DistroWatch.com: Put the fun back into computing. Use Linux, BSD.
http://distrowatch.com/table.php?distribution=debian
Debian --
http://www.debian.org/index.zh-tw.html
Debian -- Debian
http://www.debian.org/intro/about.zh-tw.html
FrontPage - Debian Wiki
http://wiki.debian.org/FrontPage
GNOME
http://www.gnome.org
- [] MozTW
https://forum.moztw.org/viewtopic.php?t=1344
Rockin' on without Microsoft - CNET News
http://news.cnet.com/2100-1082_3-5065859.html

http://www.yinwang.org/blog-cn/2012/05/18/user-friendliness/
LinuxWindows Mac
http://www.yinwang.org/blog-cn/2013/03/07/linux-windows-mac/

04.Linux

Debian Linux 8.0 Jessie

Linux
Linux
2001
Linux Caldera OpenLinux Linpus Linux

Linux MsWindows Me

2015

, Linux
Linux
Linux ""

(U)EFI PC
MacBook
Intel 32bit CPU EFI Mac mini Server Intel 64bit CPU
EFI
x86(i386/i486/i586/i68632bit CPU)x86-64(AMD6464bit CPU)

PowerPC CPU
PowerMac G5(Late 2005 64bit CPU:dual 2.5 GHz) PowerBook
G4(200532bit CPU:1.67 GHz)

Debian PowerPC CPU


NVIDIA AMD/ATI
PowerPC
Xorg xorg.conf

PowerPC VirtualBox
QEMU QEMU
QEMU

PowerMac G5 PowerMac G4
FirefoxLibreOffice port
Debian Linux PowerPC deb
Debian
MsWindows MsWindows

MsWindows

MsWindows
MsWindows
MsWindows

MsWindows
Linux Debian
Debian
Linux
Debian
2015
Linux Hardware Compatibility HOWTO

Linux 2007
LinuxQuestions.org HCL
Linux-drivers.org
LINUX ALLOCATED DEVICES

MsWindows
Linux 2015
Debian Linux 8 Jessie

ATI radeon 7000 RV100QY


Linux
Debian Linux 8 Jessie
Linux
Linux
Linux

Linux Hardware
Compatibility HOWTO Linux

ATI radeon 7000RV100QY Linux Linux

Linux

Xorg SANE ALSA


Linux
Linux
Linux XorgSANEALSA


Linux Debian Linux 8 Jessie

*PCI**IDS**Kconfig*

Linux

Debian Linux 8 Jessie + GNOME


"hwdata"/usr/share/hwdata/*PCI*.*IDS**PCI*
.*IDS*"pciutils"
/usr/share/misc/pci.ids
Linux CPU
PowerPCx86-64ARM Linux Linux
x86-64 Linux
PowerPC
Debian Linux 8 Jessie
Linux

Linux Linux

CPU

1394A/B USB

Debian Linux 8 Jessie


Debian ISO
/pool/main/h/hw-detect/ethdetect_X.XX_all/data.tar/etc/
network/devnames-static devnames-static

Linux
()

Linux

VirtualBox 4.3 BIOS


CPU: x86/AMD64(32/64bit CPU) 32bit CPU
4GB
VirtualBox 4.3
debian-8.0.0-i386-DVD-1.iso
i865PEa-7ILFR BIOS
CPU: Intel Pentium 4 HT 3.2 GHz(32bit)
3GB
ATI Radeon 9550 AGP
debian-8.0.0-i386-DVD-1.iso
GIGABYTE GA-965P-DQ6 BIOS
CPU: Intel Core 2 Duo E6300 1.86GHz (64bit)
8GB
ATI Radeon HD 5450 PCI-E
debian-8.0.0-amd64-DVD-1.iso
MacBook (2006)
EFI
CPU: Intel Core Duo 2.0 GHz (32bit)

2GB
Intel Graphics Media Accelerator (GMA) 950
debian-8.0.0-i386-DVD-1.iso + rEFInd
Mac mini Server (Mid 2010)
EFI
CPU:Intel Core 2 Duo 2.66 GHz (64bit)
16GB
NVIDIA GeForce 320M
debian-8.0.0-amd64-DVD-1.iso

Debian

"firmware-8.0.0-i386netinst.iso"

Linux X.Org

Linux
X.Org X.Org

MsWindows

X.Org
X.Org

Debian Linux 8 Jessie X.Org


/usr/share/X11/xorg.conf.d/
/etc/X11/xorg.conf
xorg.conf GRUB
"recovery mode"


root Xorg -configure
xorg.conf "Nouveau"
xorg.conf

root xorg.conf.new
xorg.conf
/etc/X11/
xorg.conf
xorg.conf log

xorg.conf

3D
3D "Armagetron Advanced"
Debian Linux 8 Jessie "xserver-xorg-video-nouveau" NVIDIA
"xserver-xorg-video-radeon"
AMD/ATI Radeon

"xserver-xorg-video-radeon"
"firmware-linux-nonfree"

"xserver-xorg-video-XXX"


xorg.conf
/etc/X11/xorg.conf
NVIDIA
NVIDIA NVIDIA
Debian Linux 8 Jessie 340.65
"NVIDIA"
NVIDIA
NVIDIA
nvidia-sminvidia-kernel-amd64 nvidia-kernel3.16.0-4-amd64 nvidia-kernel-amd64 nvidia-kernel-3.16.0-4amd64 32bit x86 -686-pae
nvidia-xconfignvidia-detect
NVIDIA 340.65
304.125
"nvidia-settings-legacy-304xx"
"nvidia-legacy-304xx-kernel-source" "nvidiaxconfig"
Jessie
NVIDIA "xserver-xorgvideo-nouveau" Debian
Linux 7 Wheezy
Debian Wheezy NVIDIA

wheezy-backports
--nvidia-legacy-173xx-driver (173.14.39-2)
NVIDIA metapackage (173xx legacy version)
nvidia-legacy-173xx-kernel-source (173.14.39-2)
NVIDIA binary kernel module source (173xx legacy version)
nvidia-legacy-96xx-driver (96.43.23-7)
NVIDIA metapackage (96xx legacy version)

nvidia-legacy-96xx-kernel-source (96.43.23-7)
NVIDIA binary kernel module source (96xx legacy version)
--wheezy(oldstable)
--nvidia-glx-legacy (71.86.15-3)
NVIDIA binary Xorg driver (transitional, 71xx legacy)
nvidia-kernel-legacy-source (71.86.15-3)
NVIDIA binary kernel module source (transitional, 71xx legacy)
--

root nvidia-xconfig
nvidia-xconfig xorg.conf

GNOME \\\\NVIDIA X
xorg.conf

AMD/ATI
AMD/ATI ATI
Debian Linux 8 Jessie "fglrx 14.9"

Radeon HD 5450
"xserver-xorg-video-radeon"
GNOME Classic Cinnamon(Software Rendering)

GNOME Cinnamon
"firmware-linux-nonfree" GNOME
Cinnamon
ATI Radeon HD "fglrx v14.9"
fglrx-controlfglrx-sourceamd-opencl-icdxvba-va-driver

aticonfig --initial root


/etc/X11/xorg.conf
/etc/X11/xorg.conf aticonfig
--initial /etc/X11/xorg.conf ATI
Catalyst Control Center aticonfig --initial
aticonfig --adapter=all --initial --force
fglrx v14.9 Debian Linux 8.0
Jessie + GDM 3 + GNOME 3.14 fglrx v14.9
GDM 3 + GNOME 3.14
LightDM + GTK GDM 3 +
GNOME 3.14 "xserver-xorg-video-radeon"
"firmware-linux-nonfree"
Jessie "xserver-xorg-video-sis"
SiSXGI
Jessie


VirtualBox

HardInfo1

HardInfo2

ATI Radeon 9550 AGP


1

2"firmware-linux-nonfree"

HardInfo1

HardInfo2

HardInfo3"firmware-linux-nonfree"

ATI Radeon HD 5450 PCI-E

HardInfo1

HardInfo2"firmware-linux-nonfree"

HardInfo3"fglrx"

fglrx1

fglrx2

fglrx3

fglrx4

fglrx5

fglrx6

Intel Graphics Media Accelerator (GMA) 950

HardInfo1

HardInfo2

NVIDIA GeForce 320M

2 NVIDIA

HardInfo1

HardInfo2

nvidia1

nvidia2

nvidia3

nvidia4

fglrx


Synaptic
"alsa" "alsa-firmwareloaders""alsa-tools-gui""alsamixergui"

Debian Linux 8 Jessie Synaptic

cups-pdffoomatic-dbopenprinting-ppdsgimp-gutenprintfoomatic-dbgutenprintgutenprint-doc
"foomatic-db" Jessie
/usr/share/foomatic/db/oldprinterids /usr/share/foomatic/db/source/printer/
.xml
Linux
GNOME \\\system-config-printer
CUPS

cups1

cups2

Linux Synaptic
"sane""sane-utils"

GNOME \\\simple-Scan"XSane"
Linux

"xkb-data"/usr/share/X11
/xkb/rules/base.lst 185
USB
"usbutils"
/usr/share/
hwdata/usb.ids/var/lib/usbutils/usb.idsLinux USB


Synaptic

"firmware"

Unofficial non-free images including firmware packages


http://cdimage.debian.org/cdimage/unofficial/non-free/cd-including-firmware/
Chapter 5. Issues to be aware of for jessie

5.10. The GNOME desktop requires basic 3D graphics


5.11. The GNOME desktop does not work with the AMD proprietary FGLRX driver

https://www.debian.org/releases/jessie/amd64/release-notes/ch-information.en.html#gnome-3d

The Linux Kernel Archives Linux


https://www.kernel.org/
Hardware - Debian Wiki:
http://wiki.debian.org/Hardware
Linux Hardware Compatibility HOWTO
http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/html_single/Hardware-HOWTO/
2007
LinuxQuestions.org HCL
http://www.linuxquestions.org/hcl/index.php
Linux-drivers.org Linux Hardware Compatibility Lists & Linux Drivers
http://www.linux-drivers.org/

LINUX ALLOCATED DEVICES (2.6+ version)


https://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/docs/lanana/device-list/devices-2.6.txt
Device file
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Device_file
The PCI ID Repository
http://pciids.sourceforge.net/
Chapter 2. What's new in Debian 8

https://www.debian.org/releases/jessie/amd64/release-notes/ch-whats-new.en.html

HowToIdentifyADevice - Debian Wiki


http://wiki.debian.org/HowToIdentifyADevice
LKDDb: Linux Kernel Driver DataBase
http://cateee.net/lkddb/
Linux
Category:Lists of microprocessors - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Lists_of_microprocessors

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Intel_chipsets
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_AMD_chipsets
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_Nvidia_chipsets
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_ATI_chipsets
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VIA_chipsets

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Video_cards
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_NVIDIA_graphics_proce ssing_units

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_AMD_graphics_processing_units
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silicon_Integrated_Systems
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S3_Graphics
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3dfx_Interactive
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intel_GMA
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Graphics_hardware_companies

http://www.alsa-project.org/main/index.php/Matrix:Main
http://alsa.opensrc.org/Sound_cards
http://alsa.opensrc.org/ALSA_modules
ALSA -
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/ALSA
ALSA - Debian Wiki
https://wiki.debian.org/ALSA
CategorySound - Debian Wiki
https://wiki.debian.org/CategorySound
SoundCard - Debian Wiki
http://wiki.debian.org/SoundCard
Documentation for the X Window System Version 11 Release 7.7 (X11R7.7)
http://www.x.org/releases/X11R7.7/doc/
X11R7.7 Manual Pages: Section 4: Drivers
http://www.x.org/releases/X11R7.7/doc/man/man4/
http://www.x.org/releases/X11R7.7/doc/xorg-docs/ReleaseNotes.html

xorg.conf
http://www.x.org/releases/X11R7.7/doc/man/man5/xorg.conf.5.xhtml
Xorg - Debian Wiki
http://wiki.debian.org/Xorg
Nouveau: Accelerated Open Source driver for nVidia cards
http://nouveau.freedesktop.org/wiki/
nouveau/CodeNames
http://nouveau.freedesktop.org/wiki/CodeNames/
nouveau/FeatureMatrix
http://nouveau.freedesktop.org/wiki/FeatureMatrix/
Unix

http://www.nvidia.com.tw/object/unix-tw.html
LINUX X64 (AMD64/EM64T) DISPLAY DRIVER
340.65
http://www.nvidia.com.tw/Download/driverResults.aspx/80679/tw
LINUX DISPLAY DRIVER - X86
340.65
http://www.nvidia.com.tw/Download/driverResults.aspx/80661/tw
NvidiaGraphicsDrivers - Debian Wiki
http://wiki.debian.org/NvidiaGraphicsDrivers
NVIDIA - ,
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/NVIDIA
Unofficial Wiki for the AMD Linux Driver
http://wiki.cchtml.com/index.php/Debian
ATIProprietary - Debian Wiki
http://wiki.debian.org/ATIProprietary
radeon ATI RADEON video driver
http://www.x.org/releases/X11R7.7/doc/man/man4/radeon.4.xhtml
AtiHowTo - Debian Wiki:
http://wiki.debian.org/AtiHowTo
AMD Catalyst - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AMD_Catalyst
AMD Radeon - ,
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/AMD_Radeon
AMD - ,
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/AMD
X.Org Wiki - RadeonFeature
http://wiki.x.org/wiki/RadeonFeature

X.Org Wiki - RadeonFeatureUMS


http://wiki.x.org/wiki/RadeonFeatureUMS
ATIRadeon:
http://dri.freedesktop.org/wiki/ATIRadeon/
Package: firmware-linux-nonfree
https://packages.debian.org/jessie/firmware-linux-nonfree
Additional options for the radeon driver - ThinkWiki
http://www.thinkwiki.org/wiki/Additional_options_for_the_radeon_driver
SystemPrinting - Debian Wiki
https://wiki.debian.org/SystemPrinting
Linux
http://www.openprinting.org/drivers
http://www.openprinting.org/printers?action=searchall

http://www.linuxfoundation.org/collaborate/workgroups/openprinting/databasefoomatic

linux
http://www.sane-project.org/
http://www.sane-project.org/sane-mfgs.html
DeviceDatabase/USB - Debian Wiki
http://wiki.debian.org/DeviceDatabase/USB
Linux USB
The USB ID Repository
The home of the usb.ids file
http://www.linux-usb.org/usb-ids.html
home - h-node.org:
http://h-node.org/home/index/en
Debian GNU/Linux Installation Guide
Chapter 2. System Requirements
http://www.debian.org/releases/stable/amd64/ch02.html.en
3.4. Meeting Minimum Hardware Requirements

http://www.debian.org/releases/stable/amd64/ch03s04.html.en
Webcam - Debian Wiki
https://wiki.debian.org/Webcam

05. Debian Linux 8 Jessie


debian-8.0.0-amd64-DVD-1.iso debian-8.0.0-i386-DVD-1.iso

Intel CPU
MacOSXMsWindowsDebian Linux rEFInd

MacOSX MsWindows(NTFS)Linux(Ext4)

MsWindows MacOSX(HFS+)Linux
(Ext4)
Linux MsWindows(NTFS)
MacOSX(HFS+)

Linux

VirtualBox


( ADSL
Cable Modem) DHCP
IP
Debian Linux (DebianInstaller) DHCP
IP

8.X

PPPoE
PPPoE

BIOS

EFI

MacBook2006EFI CPU:32bit Intel Core


Duo 2.0 GHzRAM:2GBVIDEO:Intel Graphics Media Accelerator (GMA)
95013 debian8.0.0
-i386-DVD-1.iso
EFI Debian ISO
MacOSX10.6.8

MacOSX (FAT32 )

MacOSX "rEFInd"

MacOSX rEFInd
root
rEFInd MacOSX EFI
rEFInd rEFInd
"drivers_ia32" refind.conf

--timeout 15
use_graphics_for osx,linux,grub,windows
showtools shell, gdisk, memtest, mok_tool, reboot, firmware, gptsync,
apple_recovery, windows_recovery, netboot, about, exit, shutdown
scanfor internal,external,optical,manual,netboot,hdbios,biosexternal,cd
--
USB
MacBook (Pro) EFI rEFInd
rEFInd iso9660
(Boot Fallback boot loader from 302KiB FAT volume)
Debian ISO
Debian Gnu/Linux UEFI Installer menu
Debian 8 x86(32bit)(U)EFI

rEFInd EFI
Debian Jessie EFI
shell
"aptitude""intel-microcode"

MacBook Pro2006
EFI CPU:32bit Intel Core Duo 2.16 GHz VIDEO:ATI Mobility
Radeon X1600
GRUB GRUB "ro
quiet""ro""rw""quiet"
"nomodeset"

GRUB
GRUB root
/etc/default/grub
"GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="
"rw""nomodeset"
update-grub
MacBook Pro 2006

rEFInd1

rEFInd2

rEFInd3

rEFInd1

rEFInd2

GRUB1

GRUB2


PC BIOS

"Help"

"Advanced options"

"Graphical expert install"

Debian

EFI
"Advanced options"

"Graphical expert install"

Debian

Debian

select a languageChinese(Traditional Chinese)-()


"PNG"
/var/log/installer/
1GB

locale - zh_TW.UTF-8

locale

locale
"zh_TW.UTF-8"


PPPoE "ppp-udeb"

"ppp-udeb"
PPPoE

PPPoE

HiNet ADSL
HiNet ADSL

HiNet ADSL
HiNet ADSL

OK

PPPoE

PPPoE PPPoE

PPPoE
"ppp-udeb"

IP

shadow root
Debian Linux
root "GDM" root

root

NTP
NTP NTP

NTP

NTP time.stdtime.gov.tw

"Asia/Taipei"

BIOS "msdos"

""
MsWindows

Ext4

/ - root

user_xattr -

MsWindows

/media/data
Debian8GNOME
/media /data/media

user_xattr -

MsWindows pagefile.sys

max

EFI "gpt"


200 MB

"EFI System Partition"

EFI

""

""

""

\\\

1.0MB
"DATA"
root root "DATA"

Kernel"linux-image-3.16.0-4-686-pae"
CPU Pentium "linux-image-3.16.0-4-586"

Kernel"linux-image-3.16.0-4-amd64"

initrd

CD DVD

"http"

Debian

Debian "ftp.tw.debian.org"

HTTP Proxy

non-free

discover
VirtualBox "virtualbox-ose-guest-x11"
VirtualBox

Synaptic "virtualbox-guest-x11"

GNOME
Server Server

GRUB EFI LILO

GRUB (MBR)

Force GRUB installation to the EFI removable media path?

BIOS EFI

debconf

debconf

shell
APT

shell

shell shell
DOS /target /target
nano sources.list APT
chroot /target
nano /etc/apt/sources.list

nano nano

Aptitude

Aptitude

Aptitude

shell

UTC

BIOS


Mounting the EFI Boot Partition on Mac OS X
http://themacadmin.com/mounting-the-efi-boot-partition-on-mac-os-x/
The rEFInd Boot Manager
http://www.rodsbooks.com/refind/
P6 -
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/P6
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P6_(microarchitecture)
-
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physical_Address_Extension
- ,
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/

-
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/
: Linux ? | T -
http://www.techbang.com/posts/6153-fully-understand-linux-distribution-before-irrigation-how-to-drive

DebianInstaller - Debian Wiki:


http://wiki.debian.org/DebianInstaller
Debian --
https://www.debian.org/doc/
Debian -- Installation Guide
https://www.debian.org/releases/stable/installmanual
The Debian GNU/Linux FAQ
https://www.debian.org/doc/manuals/debian-faq/
Debian Reference
https://www.debian.org/doc/manuals/debian-reference/
Debian -- Release Notes
https://www.debian.org/releases/stable/releasenotes
Debian -- Ports Debian
https://www.debian.org/ports/

06.GRUB BIOS
(U)EFI
GRUB GRUB
"recovery mode"

Linux
DOS
GRUBDebian
Linux Xorg

"recovery mode"
nano

"Debian GNU/Linux, with Linux 3.2.0-4-amd64"


"e" linux /boot/ ... ro
quiet "nomodeset"
/etc/default/grub
GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="quiet nomodeset"
GRUB update-grub

nomodeset

:
GRUB 1

GRUB 2

GRUB 3

GRUB 1

GRUB 2

-
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/
GNU GRUB - ,:
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/GNU_GRUB
GNU GRUB - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation (FSF):
http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/
GRUB 2 - Ubuntu Wiki
http://wiki.ubuntu-tw.org/index.php?title=GRUB_2_
Unix -
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/Unix
Kernel Command Line Parameters (aka Boot Options)
http://distro.ibiblio.org/fatdog/web/faqs/boot-options.html

07. GNOME (GDM, GNOME Display


Manager)
GNOME "GNOME
(GDM, GNOME Display Manager)"

"GNOME" GNOME
"GNOME Classic" GNOME GNOME

"GNOME on Wayland" Xorg Wayland


"GNOME on
Wayland"

GNOME

"GNOME Classic"
Debian
KDM KDELightDM LXDEXfceMateCinnamon
Debian


GDM 1

GDM 2

GDM 3

GDM 4

GDM 5

KDM 1

KDM 2

LightDM 1

LightDM 2

LightDM 3

TDM

GNOME - ,
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/GNOME
GNOME Display Manager Reference Manual
https://help.gnome.org/admin/gdm/3.14/gdm.html
DisplayManager - Debian Wiki
https://wiki.debian.org/DisplayManager
Wayland -
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/Wayland
Initiatives/Wayland - GNOME Wiki
https://wiki.gnome.org/Initiatives/Wayland

08.GNOME

GNOME
3D
GNOME
GNOME Classic

dock

GNOME

GNOME 1

GNOME 2

GNOME 3

GNOME Classic
GNOME Classic MsWindows2000

GNOME Classic 1

GNOME Classic 2

GNOME Classic 3

GNOME Classic 4

GNOME Classic 5

GNOME Classic 6

GNOME GNOME

GTK
GTK
GTK

KDE KDE

Qt
Qt
Qt

GTK Qt

Linux
GNOMEKDE Linux
KDE
GTK/GNOME GTK/GNOME

GTK
Linux
GTK GTK

GTK Qt

GNOME
GTK
GNOME
GTK

Qt
KDE Linux
openSUSE Qt
Calligra Suite
Qt GTK
Qt

Linux

Debian Linux 8 Jessie Jessie GNOME 3.14


GNOME 3.14 Jessie

Jessie GNOME 3.X

GNOME 3.X2.XX

GNOME

"gnome-system-tools"
(Cross-platform configuration utilities for GNOME)

/usr/bin/network-admin GNOME \\\


/usr/bin/services-admin GNOME \\\
/usr/bin/shares-admin
GNOME \\\
/usr/bin/users-adminGNOME \\\
/usr/bin/time-admin GNOME \\\
GNOME

"software-properties-gtk"
(manage the repositories that you install software from (gtk))
Synaptic\\
"apt-xapian-index"
(maintenance and search tools for a Xapian index of Debian packages)
Synaptic

"xfonts-cyrillic"
(Cyrillic fonts for X)
/var/log/Xorg.0.log
"xfonts-cyrillic" cyrillic
"Gkdebconf"
(Helper to reconfigure packages with Debconf)

"font-manager"
(font management application for the GNOME desktop)


Debian Linux 8 Jessie
Debian Linux ()
GNOME()
GNOME
GNOME
"task-gnome-desktop"
"Debian desktop environment""GNOME"
"Debian desktop environment"
GNOME
Debian
"gnome"
"Debian desktop environment""GNOME"
aptitude "GNOME" gnomecoregnome-game GNOME
synaptic
"gnome-core"
"Debian desktop environment""GNOME"
aptitude "gnome-core"
GNOME synaptic
GNOME
GNOME root
aptitude synaptic synaptic
"gnome-core"
synaptic GNOME 3.14

Cinnamon
"Debian desktop environment""Cinnamon"
Cinnamon GNOME
GNOME GNOME
LightDM
Cinnamon Cinnamon

software-properties-gtkapt-xapian-indexgkdebconfxfonts-cyrillic

MATE
"Debian desktop environment""MATE"
MATE GNOME
GNOME GNOME
MATE LightDM
MATE
MATE
software-properties-gtkapt-xapian-indexgkdebconfxfonts-cyrillic
mate-desktop-environment-extras

Xfce
"Debian desktop environment""Xfce"
Xfce MsWindowsME
LightDM Xfce
Xfce
software-properties-gtkapt-xapian-indexgkdebconfxfonts-cyrillic
xfce4-indicator-pluginxfce4-linelight-pluginxfce4-messenger-plugin
xfce4-screenshooter-pluginxfce4-whiskermenu-pluginxfwm4-themes

LXDE
"Debian desktop environment""LXDE"
LXDE MsWindows95
586
( 1GB) PC LightDM
LXDE
LXDE
software-properties-gtkapt-xapian-indexgkdebconfxfonts-cyrillic
menulibreopenbox-menu

Debian Linux 8 Jessie GNOMECinnamon


MATEXfceLXDE GTK
GTK

GTK
A
B
KDE
"Debian desktop environment""KDE"
KDE
KDM
KDE Plasma
KDE
synaptic software-properties-kde software-properties-gtk apt-xapianindex debconf-kde-helper gkdebconf xfonts-cyrillic kde-config-gtkstylegtk2-engines-oxygengtk3-engines-oxygen
KDM GDM root

Debian Jessie KDE synaptic


KDE \\(Apper)
synaptic(Apper)
synaptic
Razor-qt
Razor-qt MsWindows95
586
( 1GB) PC Razor-qt
Debian Jessie
Synaptic Aptitude

shell
/etc/apt/sources.list"Aptitude"

razorqt razorqt-lightdm-greeter lightdm synaptic software-propertiesgtkapt-xapian-indexgkdebconfxfonts-cyrillicttf-wqy-zenhei


Debian
Razor-qt GTK
Razor-qt Qt
synaptic

Trinity Desktop Environment


Trinity Desktop Environment "TDE"
KDE
KDE KDE
Trinity Desktop Environment

shell
/etc/apt/sources.list"Aptitude"/etc/apt/sources.list

deb http://ppa.quickbuild.pearsoncomputing.net/trinity/trinity-r14.0.0/debian jessie main


deb http://ppa.quickbuild.pearsoncomputing.net/trinity/trinity-builddeps-r14.0.0/debian jessie main

tde-trinitytde-i18n-zhtw-trinitykoffice-trinitykoffice-i18n-zhtw-trinity
trinity-keyring synaptic-trinity apt-xapian-index software-propertiesgtk
xfonts-cyrillicttf-wqy-zenheitdmtheme-trinitygtk-qt-engine-trinity
gtk3-tqt-engine-trinityscim-qt-immodulescim-chewingscim-tables-zh
TDM
Menu\Session Type\TDE
TDM GDM root

synaptic
TDE
Debian Linux 8 Jessie KDERazor-qt
TDE Qt ( Qt

TDE1

TDE2

GNOME - GNOME Library


https://help.gnome.org/misc/release-notes/
GNOME 3.14
https://help.gnome.org/misc/release-notes/3.14/index.html

https://help.gnome.org/misc/release-notes/3.14/developers.html
GNOME 3 | GNOME:
http://www.gnome.org/gnome-3/
GNOME Library:
https://help.gnome.org/

GNOME 3.14
https://help.gnome.org/misc/release-notes/3.14/index.html.zh_TW
GNOME - ,
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/GNOME
Chapter 2. What's new in Debian 8

https://www.debian.org/releases/stable/amd64/release-notes/ch-whats-new.en.html

GNOME3Myths - GNOME Wiki!


My computer and/or graphics card isn't powerful enough to run GNOME 3

https://wiki.gnome.org/GNOME3Myths#My_computer_and.2BAC8-or_graphics_card_isn.27t_powerful_enough_to_run_GNOME_3

GnomeShell/FAQ - GNOME Wiki!

What led to the decision to make 3D acceleration a requirement for GNOME Shell?

https://wiki.gnome.org/GnomeShell/FAQ#What_led_to_the_decision_to_make_3D_acceleration_a_requirement_for_GNOME_Shell.3F

GNOME Panel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNOME_Panel
GTK - ,
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/GTK
GTK Screenshots:
http://www.GTK.org/screenshots/index.php
Qt - ,
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/Qt
-
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/
Tango -
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/Tango
DesktopEnvironment - Debian Wiki
https://wiki.debian.org/DesktopEnvironment
Gnome - Debian Wiki
https://wiki.debian.org/Gnome

Cinnamon -
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/Cinnamon
Cinnamon
http://cinnamon.linuxmint.com
MATE - ,
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/MATE
MATE Desktop Environment | MATE
http://mate-desktop.org
Mate - Debian Wiki
https://wiki.debian.org/Mate
Xfce -
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/Xfce
Xfce
http://www.xfce.org
Xfce - Debian Wiki
https://wiki.debian.org/Xfce
LXDE -
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/LXDE
LXDE.org | Lightweight X11 Desktop Environment
http://lxde.org/zh-tw
LXDE - Debian Wiki
https://wiki.debian.org/LXDE
KDE -
http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/KDE
KDE - Experience Freedom!
https://www.kde.org

KDE - Debian Wiki


https://wiki.debian.org/KDE
Razor-qt -
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/Razor-qt
Razor-qt
http://razor-qt.org
K Desktop Environment 3 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K_Desktop_Environment_3#Trinity_Desktop_Environment

Trinity Desktop Environment


https://www.trinitydesktop.org/index.php
Debian Trinity Repository Installation Instructions - Trinity Desktop Project Wiki

https://wiki.trinitydesktop.org/DebianInstall

09.Synaptic
GNOME \\\Synaptic
Debian Linux 8 Jessie
Linux

Debian Synaptic

Linux

Synaptic

ln

Synaptic

Linux
MsWindows *.exe
Debian Linux


Synaptic

Debian
*.deb MsWindows *.msi
Debian

testingstableoldstable
testingstableoldstable

Debian
experimental
unstable
testing-proposed-updates > testing-updates > testing/updates( testing )
testing-backports( testing )
testing( testing Stretch)
stable-proposed-updates > stable-updates > stable/updates( stable )
stable-backports( stable )
stable( stable Jessie)
oldstable-proposed-updates > oldstable-updates > oldstable/updates( oldstable )
oldstable-backports( oldstable )
oldstable( oldstable Wheezy)

Debian testingstableoldstable

Synaptic

Synaptic
Synaptic \\\

Synaptic \\\
\

Synaptic \\(software & Updates)\Debian


(main) DFSG
(contrib) DFSG (non-free)
/etc/apt/sources.list
deb http://ftp.tw.debian.org/debian/ jessie main contrib non-free
"debsrc"/etc/apt/sources.list
deb-src http://ftp.tw.debian.org/debian/ jessie main contrib non-free
Debian \

Synaptic \\(software & Updates)\Other Software


APT
/etc/apt/sources.list/etc/apt/sources.list
APT
CD/DVD-ROM
backports
CD/DVD-ROM debian-8.0.0i386-DVD-1.iso
debian-update-8.X.X-i386-DVD-1.iso
Update DVD iso
Synaptic \\
Synaptic \ \ \Other Software\Add Volume
/etc/apt/sources.list APT
deb cdrom:[Debian GNU/Linux 8.0.0 _Jessie_ - Official i386 DVD Binary-1 20150425-11:43]/ jessie main contrib

APT cdrom:[]
Debian /.disk/info
(software & Updates)/
APT (software &
Updates)/Debian APT
APT

Synaptic \
""

GNOME \\
\\ 8.0.0 8.X.X

backports APT /etc/apt/sources.list


deb http://ftp.tw.debian.org/debian/ jessie-backports main contrib non-free
Debian Linux

backports APT

Stable
stable Synaptic \\\
jessie-backports
backports.debian.org APT

APT deb-multimedia
www.deb-multimedia.org

deb http://www.deb-multimedia.org jessie main non-free


deb http://www.deb-multimedia.org jessie-backports main
"deb-multimedia-keyring"
""

Synaptic \\(software & Updates)\


Security updates(jessie/updates)/etc/apt/sources.list
deb http://security.debian.org/ jessie/updates main contrib non-free
(jessie-updates)/etc/apt/sources.list

deb http://ftp.tw.debian.org/debian/ jessie-updates main contrib non-free


Proposed updates(jessie-proposed-updates)/etc/apt/
sources.list
deb http://ftp.tw.debian.org/debian/ jessie-proposed-updates main contrib non-free

Synaptic \\(software & Updates)\

keyring

Debian
APT W:GPG error:http://XXX:
:NO_PUBKEY XXX

*.key *.pgp
root

/etc/apt/sources.list
# deb cdrom:[Debian GNU/Linux 8.0.0 _Jessie_ - Official i386 DVD Binary-1 2015042511:43]/ jessie contrib main
# deb cdrom:[Debian GNU/Linux 8.0.0 _Jessie_ - Official i386 DVD Binary-1 2015042511:43]/ jessie contrib main
deb http://ftp.tw.debian.org/debian/ jessie main contrib non-free
# deb-src http://ftp.tw.debian.org/debian/ jessie main non-free contrib
deb http://security.debian.org/ jessie/updates main contrib non-free
# deb-src http://security.debian.org/ jessie/updates main contrib non-free
# jessie-updates, previously known as 'volatile'
deb http://ftp.tw.debian.org/debian/ jessie-updates main contrib non-free
# deb-src http://ftp.tw.debian.org/debian/ jessie-updates main contrib non-free
# jessie-backports, previously on backports.debian.org
deb http://ftp.tw.debian.org/debian/ jessie-backports main contrib non-free
# deb-src http://ftp.tw.debian.org/debian/ jessie-backports main contrib non-free
deb http://ftp.tw.debian.org/debian/ jessie-proposed-updates main contrib non-free
deb http://downloads.sourceforge.net/project/apacheoo-deb/debian jessie main
# deb-src http://downloads.sourceforge.net/project/apacheoo-deb/debian jessie main
deb http://www.deb-multimedia.org jessie main non-free
# deb-src http://www.deb-multimedia.org jessie main non-free
deb http://www.deb-multimedia.org jessie-backports main
# deb-src http://www.deb-multimedia.org jessie-backports main
deb http://deb.opera.com/opera-stable/ stable non-free
# deb-src http://deb.opera.com/opera-stable/ stable non-free

/etc/apt/sources.list oldstable
stabletestingunstableexperimental

sources.list stable
testing unstable experimental( testing
)unstable experimental

testing
Debian ()Synaptic

Synaptic

apt

GNOME \\\(gpk-application)
GNOME
Synaptic

GNOME \\\
"Windows Update" GNOME \
\\\\

GNOME \\\GDebi
"gdebi"
*.deb
*.deb
32/64
GDebi

GDebi 1

GDebi 2

GDebi 3

GDebi 4

GNOME \\\Software & Updates


Synaptic \\(software & Updates)

debian-testing-i386-DVD-1.iso testing
/etc/apt/sources.list
deb http://ftp.tw.debian.org/debian/ testing main contrib non-free
deb http://ftp.tw.debian.org/debian/ testing-updates main contrib non-free
deb http://ftp.tw.debian.org/debian/ testing-proposed-updates main contrib non-free
deb http://ftp.tw.debian.org/debian testing-backports main contrib non-free
deb http://security.debian.org/ testing/updates main contrib non-free
deb http://www.deb-multimedia.org testing main non-free
deb http://www.deb-multimedia.org testing-backports main

(unstable)
deb http://ftp.tw.debian.org/debian/ sid main contrib non-free
(experimental)
deb http://ftp.tw.debian.org/debian/ experimental main contrib non-free

unstableexperimentalSynaptic \
\\\()\
unstable experimental

GNOME"gnome-core"
"gnome-core"
APT

GNOME unstable
experimental debian

debian-7.8.0-i386-DVD-1.iso oldstable
/etc/apt/sources.list
deb http://ftp.tw.debian.org/debian/ wheezy main contrib non-free
deb http://ftp.tw.debian.org/debian/ wheezy-updates main contrib non-free
deb http://ftp.tw.debian.org/debian/ wheezy-proposed-updates main contrib non-free
deb http://ftp.tw.debian.org/debian wheezy-backports main contrib non-free
deb http://security.debian.org/ wheezy/updates main contrib non-free
deb http://www.deb-multimedia.org wheezy main non-free
deb http://www.deb-multimedia.org wheezy-backports main

Synaptic
GNOMELibreOffice


LibreOffice LibreOffice
LibreOffice LibreOffice
LibreOffice
LibreOffice

()
dummymetatransitional packages

Synaptic

GNOME ( GNOME )

Debian (oldstalbe)
(testing)

Synaptic

PowerPC Debian Synaptic


NvidiaAMD/ATI

Debian Linux
APT APT
APT

APT

log

stable

jessie-backports Backports - Debian Wiki


backports main contrib non-free
backports main
backports

Synaptic

-----E: dpkg was interrupted, you must manually run 'dpkg --configure -a' to
correct the problem.
E: _cache->open() failed, please report.
----- Synaptic
root
dpkg --configure -a

Debian Linux CPU


PowerPC199X 200X
CPUDebian Linux
PowerPC nvidiafglrx(AMD/ATI)

VirtualBox Xorg
Qemu (
)
PowerPC Debian Linux
Debian -- Packages

Debian : Debian :
http://people.debian.org.tw/~moto/debian/DebianLessPain/Debian-Install-Guide-5.html

debian source.list
http://hyperrate.com/thread.php?tid=26706
gnome-packagekit Manual (gpk-application/GNOME /)
https://help.gnome.org/users/gnome-packagekit/stable/index.html.en
Debian --
https://packages.debian.org/
http://www.debian.org/distrib/packages.zh-tw.html
Debian-package-cycle - Wikimedia Commons:
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Debian-package-cycle.png

Debian -- Debian
http://www.debian.org/releases/index.zh-tw.html

http://ftp.debian.org/debian/dists/README
"Release"
Synaptic \\\Other Software\\

http://ftp.debian.org/debian/dists/
DebianReleases - Debian Wiki
http://wiki.debian.org/DebianReleases

DebianExperimental - Debian Wiki


http://wiki.debian.org/DebianExperimental
DebianUnstable - Debian Wiki
http://wiki.debian.org/DebianUnstable
DebianTesting - Debian Wiki
http://wiki.debian.org/DebianTesting
Debian testing security team
http://secure-testing-master.debian.net/
StableUpdates - Debian Wiki
http://wiki.debian.org/StableUpdates
StableProposedUpdates - Debian Wiki
http://wiki.debian.org/StableProposedUpdates
DebianStable - Debian Wiki
http://wiki.debian.org/DebianStable
DebianReleases/PointReleases - Debian Wiki
http://wiki.debian.org/DebianReleases/PointReleases
Debian --
http://www.debian.org/security/index.zh-tw.html
Backports - Debian Wiki
http://wiki.debian.org/Backports
Debian Backports Instructions()
http://backports.debian.org/Instructions/
Index of /debian-backports/dists
http://backports.debian.org/debian-backports/dists/
DebianOldStable - Debian Wiki
http://wiki.debian.org/DebianOldStable
Glossary - Debian Wiki

http://wiki.debian.org/Glossary
Chapter 2. Debian package management
http://www.debian.org/doc/manuals/debian-reference/ch02.en.html
Debian -- The "proposed-updates" mechanism:
http://www.debian.org/releases/proposed-updates
Index of /oldstable
http://release.debian.org/oldstable/
Debian CDs/DVDs
http://cdimage.debian.org/cdimage/
ftp://cdimage.debian.org/cdimage/
Debian CDs/DVDs archive CD
http://cdimage.debian.org/cdimage/archive/
Weekly build (testing CD)
http://cdimage.debian.org/cdimage/weekly-builds/
Debian
https://www.debian.org/mirror/list
Package management system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Package_management_system
deb - ,
https://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/Deb
- ,
https://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/
SourcesList - Debian Wiki
https://wiki.debian.org/SourcesList
sources.list(5)
http://manpages.debian.net/cgi-bin/man.cgi?query=sources.list

Aptitude - Ubuntu Wiki


http://wiki.ubuntu-tw.org/index.php?title=Aptitude
aptitude
http://manpages.debian.org/cgi-bin/man.cgi?query=aptitude
Aptitude
https://wiki.debian.org/Aptitude

10. root
Nautilus GNOME
Nautilus\
Nautilu

alt

GNOME \\\
\\
"gksu"/usr/bin/gksu

nautilus root
root Nautilus
gedit
\\\

GNOME Commander
Double
Commanderdoublecmd-gtk

/home////usr/share/
applications/ GNOME

KDE

//

Debian 8 Jessie GNOME


(GDM, GNOME Display Manager) root
root root

/etc/pam.d/gdm-password/etc/pam.d/gdm-autologin

auth required pam_succeed_if.so user != root quied_success


root
GDM root
root

Nautilus1

Nautilus2

Nautilus3

gksu1

gksu2

Double Commander

Linux -- Linux :
http://linux.vbird.org/linux_basic/0210filepermission.php
Nautilus - ,
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/Nautilus
Double Commander - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Double_Commander
File manager - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File_manager
,
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/

11.
GNOME \\\...(gnome-search-tool)
"gnome-search-tool" MacOSX
EasyFind.app

\\

...(gnome-search-tool)1

...(gnome-search-tool)2

...(gnome-search-tool)3

12.
GNOME \\\


GKDebconf\locales

\Wacom
/usr/share/libwacom/*.tablet*.tablet

\
UE-PA15CC(USB to Parallel) Kyocera FS1000(Parallel ) USB
Debian8GNOME
PDF
"cups-pdf"

PDF \
\

\\
"gnome-user-guide"
GNOME \\
\\Desktop Help\Hardware & drivers\keyboard\
"Keyboard navigation""Useful keyboard shortcuts"
\"Ctrl+Alt+Delete"

"+"
gnome-system-monitor Ctrl+Alt+Menu
"Menu" Windows PC 104key

Windows PC 104key
Linux Super
key
1

\
Linux

""

\
GNOME ()

()
aticonfignvidia-xconfig xorg.conf
"24bit" xorg.conf
Xorg
Xorg
1

\
Debian 8 GNOME

/etc/systemd/timesyncd.conf
[Time]
#Servers=0.debian.pool.ntp.org
"debian.pool.ntp.org""time.stdtime.gov.tw"

http://www.stdtime.gov.tw/chinese/bulletin/NTP promo.txt
http://www.stdtime.gov.tw/chinese/bulletin/NTP .txt
Modifier key - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modifier_key
Super key (keyboard button) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Super_key_(keyboard_button)
Windows - ,
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/Windows
Menu key - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Menu_key
IBM PC keyboard - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_PC_keyboard
- ,

http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/
debian 8 [ - ] | Ubuntu
http://www.ubuntu-tw.org/modules/newbb/viewtopic.php?topic_id=97670

13.
GNOME \\\(gnome-tweak-tool)
GNOME3

GNOME


icon theme
"gnome-colors" GNOME icon themes
\User ThemesShell

GNOME

GNOME DPI
96DPI
"1.0" 96DPI
120DPI 120
96 1.25 1.25
Full


GNOME3 extensions.gnome.org
Shell Shell Shell
GNOME
Shell

GNOME Shell Extensions:


https://extensions.gnome.org/
Xorg/Gnome 3 on high DPI screens:

http://robswain.tumblr.com/post/14209540835/xorg-gnome-3-on-high-dpi-screens

gnome - How do I change the font DPI settings? - Ask Ubuntu:


http://askubuntu.com/questions/60044/how-do-i-change-the-font-dpi-settings
[SOLVED] Gnome 3 and DPI (Page 1) / Applications & Desktop
Environments / Arch Linux Forums:
https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=120939
Talk:GNOME - ArchWiki:
https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Talk:GNOME
Xorg - ArchWiki:
https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Xorg#Display_size_and_DPI

14. systemadm
GNOME \\\(services-admin)

GNOME \\\systemadm
(services-admin)
"systemd-gui"(transitional package for systemd-ui)
"systemd-ui"(graphical frontend for systemd)

15.
GNOME \\\

GNOME

16.dconf GKDebconf
GNOME \ \ \
Windows MacOSX
GNOME \\\dconf
"GNOME"
GNOME

GNOME \\\GKDebconf

GKDebconf
"debconf"
"GNOME"
synaptic

"fontconfig-config"
Font tuning method for screen (system default)
(subpixel rendering)

"keyboard-configuration"

"locals":

dconf

GKDebconf1

GKDebconf2

GKDebconf3

GKDebconf4

17.RAM disk
RAM disk RAM disk
\\

\"tmpfs""/dev/shm"
/dev/shm/
(pulse-shm-XXXXXXXXXX)
RAM disk(/dev/shm)

8GB
GIMP
/dev/shm/ RAM disk
/dev/shm/

/etc/default/tmpfs

Debian Jessie /etc/default/tmpfs


http://www.ubuntu-tw.org/modules/newbb/viewtopic.php?topic_id=98396
tmpfs
http://manpages.debian.org/cgi-bin/man.cgi?query=tmpfs
RAM disk - ,
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/RAM_disk
ramdisk | T -
http://www.techbang.com/tags/8852

18.
GNOME \\\
\\
dconf org.gnome.system-tools.users
"showall""showroot"

GNOME \\\
NTP
Synaptic "ntp" root
/etc/ntp.conf
server 0.debian.pool.ntp.org iburst

server time.stdtime.gov.tw
GNOME \

:
1

19.GPartedGNOME
GNOME \\\GPartedGNOME
"gparted" GParted \\
Synaptic
GParted
GParted root
root
Nautilus\\\

GNOME \\\
"exfat-utils""exfat-fuse"
Nautilus exFAT

:
GParted 1

GParted 2

GParted 3

exFAT - ,
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/ExFAT
- ,
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/
List of file systems - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_file_systems
Comparison of file systems - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_file_systems

20.

Debian Linux 8 Jessie GNOME


Synaptic

/usr/share/fonts/
Synaptic Debian Linux
8 Jessie

Debian Linux 8 Jessie GNOME

/home/
/.local/share/fonts/

Debian Linux 8 Jessie GNOME


Synaptic
"font-manager"(font management application for the
GNOME desktop)"Font Manager"
"Font Manager"
Font Manager\Preferences\Font Directories\
Select directories to scan for fonts /home/
/.local/share/fonts/

Unicode
("""")for OpenOffice.org
Apache OpenOffice Calc ODS

Unicode7.0

Debian Linux 8 Jessie GNOME


Debian Linux 8 Jessie GNOME

99% 100%

Linux

SourceHanSansTW

Debian
99.999% 100%

(bug)
()
Windows

(bug)

OTF/TTF/FONT


Debian Linux 8 Jessie GNOME
"SCIM"SCIM (Chewing
) Synaptic "scim"
SCIM
SCIM
"scim-modules-table" GNOME \ \
\SCIM Input Method(SCIM )\

2014( CNS11643 Unicode


)
()

SCIM Synaptic
gcinHIMEIBusFcitx
UimOpenVanilla
(GTKQt)
GNOME \
\\im-config

"Traditional Chinese""Traditional"
"Traditional Chinese"

"Traditional Chinese"

(Simplified Chinese)

"Traditional Chinese"
"Traditional"

Font Manager1

Font Manager2

SCIM1

SCIM2

SCIM3

SCIM4


Unicode ("""") for
OpenOffice.org
http://www.openfoundry.org/of/projects/2267
Source Han Sans
https://github.com/adobe-fonts/source-han-sans/releases/

http://www.edu.tw/pages/list.aspx?Node=3691&Index=1&wid=c5ad5187-55ef-4811-8219-e946fe04f725

CNS11643 ()
http://data.gov.tw/node/5961

CNS11643
http://www.cns11643.gov.tw/
2014
( CNS11643 Unicode )
http://www.openfoundry.org/of/projects/1603
[]:
http://www.edu.tw/pages/detail.aspx?Node=3683&Page=15638&WID=c5ad5187-55ef-4811-8219-e946fe04f725

Google Noto Fonts


http://www.google.com/get/noto/cjk.html
http://www.google.com/get/noto/#/
Source Han Sans
https://github.com/adobe-fonts/source-han-sans
https://github.com/adobe-fonts/source-han-sans/releases

21.
LibreOffice:
LibreOffice
AR PL UMing TW
AR PL UMing TW

LibreOffice
LibreOffice \\ WriterCalc
ImpressDrawBase
"Open Clip Art
Library(openclipart-libreoffice)" LibreOffice \\

backports LibreOffice LibreOffice

LibreOffice "zh-tw"

LibreOffice Calc
1

GNOME /usr/share/themes/Adwaita/gtk2.0/gtkrc GtkRange::slider-width =


"30" LibreOffice
" 1"

Apache OpenOffice:

LibreOffice

synaptic APT
deb http://downloads.sourceforge.net/project/apacheoo-deb/debian jessie main

root
apt-key adv --keyserver keys.gnupg.net --recv-keys 90127F5B

Synaptic \
"downloads.sourceforge.net"
openoffice-brand-zh-tw
openoffice-brand-base
openoffice-brand-calc
openoffice-brand-draw
openoffice-brand-impress
openoffice-brand-math
openoffice-brand-writer
openoffice-gnome-integration
openoffice-graphicfilter
openoffice-ooofonts
openoffice-ooolinguistic
openoffice-ogltrans
openoffice-pyuno
openoffice-xsltfilter
openoffice-debian-menus

GTK-Message: Failed to load module "canberra-GTK-module"


"gnome-session-canberra"
/openoffice-debian-menus_4.1.1-9775_all.deb
GNOME
GNOME
Apache OpenOffice
Apache OpenOffice Apache
OpenOffice v4.1.1/opt/openoffice4/
program/./soffice Apache OpenOffice

GNOME
AbiWord Gnumeric synaptic

gedit
GNOME gedit

medit:
"medit"

medit
Editra:
"editra" Editra

"nano"
nano
PE2 nano
"nano"

LibreOffice1

LibreOffice2

Apache OpenOffice1

Apache OpenOffice2

Projects/GnomeOffice - GNOME Wiki!


https://wiki.gnome.org/Projects/GnomeOffice
Re: Maximum number of sheet, cell, and column

https://mail.gnome.org/archives/gnumeric-list/2011-December/msg00012.html

What's the maximum number of rows and cells for a spreadsheet file?

https://wiki.openoffice.org/wiki/Documentation/FAQ/Calc/Miscellaneous/What's_the_maximum_number_of_rows_and_cells_for_a_spreadsheet_file%3F

List of spreadsheet software


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_spreadsheet_software#Specifications
(Republic Of China Taiwan
Traditional Chinese Punctuation Toolbar)
http://extensions.openoffice.org/en/node/5713

for OpenOffice.org
http://www.openfoundry.org/of/projects/2223
nano () -
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/Nano
LibreOffice LibreOffice
http://zh-tw.libreoffice.org/download/
| LibreOffice -
http://zh-tw.libreoffice.org/get-help/system-requirements/
Unofficial Apache OO Debian repository
http://sourceforge.net/projects/apacheoo-deb/
http://sourceforge.net/projects/apacheoo-deb/files/debian/
Ubuntu-GNOME 14.04.1
http://www.ubuntu-tw.org/modules/newbb/viewtopic.php?post_id=327560

22.
GNOME \\\(gucharmap)
MsWindows MacOSX ()
Jessie (gucharmap) Unicode 7.0
Debian

(gucharmap)1

(gucharmap)2

(gucharmap)3

23.

192.168.0.0~192.168.0.255 Debian8GNOME
gvfs(-backends)Nautilus

Server Message Block(SMB)


Common Internet File System(CIFS)
Apple Filing Protocol(AFP)
Secret File Transfer Protocol(SFTPSSH File Transfer Protocol)
Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning(WebDAV)
Nautilus

SMB/CIFSAFPSFTP Nautilus
()
Nautilus\\\Browse files on a server or network share

Debian8GNOME client Nautilus


server
server

ServerNautilus////
\\
Client
Debian8GNOME/Nautilus///

Unix (NFS)
Unix (NFS)Server(shares-admin)
\\
GNOME \\\\
\Unix (NFS)

"Webmin"
Linux
"Webmin" Linux
"nfs-kernel-server"
"Webmin""Webmin" NFS Server "NFS
Exports" Webmin
Webmin NFS

/etc/exports
Unix (NFS)Server Client
Debian 8 Jessie GNOME Nautilus

Webmin1

Webmin2

Webmin3

Windows (SMB)
(shares-admin)\\
"samba"
GNOME \\\\\
Windows (SMB) Windows
Windows (SMB) WindowsMacOSX

"gadmin-samba" samba
/etc/samba/smb.conf
Debian
gedit smb.conf gadmin-samba
smb.confNautilus\
gadmin

Windows (SMB)1

Windows (SMB)2

Windows (SMB)3

Windows (SMB)4

gadmin-samba

GShare:
"GShare"(Easy user-level file sharing for
GNOME) FTP Server GNOME
\\\File Sharing(gshare-manager)
File sharing preferences()GShare
/ /Shared Files/
Debian8GNOME Nautilus \'s
Shared Files Linux Client Shared

FilesFile sharing preferences Share name

(":")
GShare

Nautilus1

Nautilus2

MsWindows NTFS FAT32 SMB/CIFS MacOSX


Finder HFS+ AFPDebianLinux8GNOME Nautilus Ext4 NFS

Linux
MsWindowsMacOSX
":"

Linux SMB/CIFSAFP
Windows MacOSX Finder

-
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/
Finder -

http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/Finder
NTFS -
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/NTFS
HFS+ -
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/HFS+
Ext4 -
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/Ext4
-
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/
Apple Filing Protocol - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_Filing_Protocol
SSH - ,
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/SSH
-
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/
WebDAV -
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/WebDAV
Welcome to the GAdmintools Project
http://dalalven.dtdns.net/linux/gadmintools-webpage/
NetworkManager - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NetworkManager
NFSv4Howto - Community Ubuntu Documentation:
https://help.ubuntu.com/community/NFSv4Howto
SettingUpNFSHowTo - Community Ubuntu Documentation:
https://help.ubuntu.com/community/SettingUpNFSHowTo
Webmin:
http://www.webmin.com/

24.
VNC Server:
\\
linux-like
Debian8JessieGNOME
VNC Client(or Viewer) linux-like
VNC Client

dconf org.gnome.desktop.remote-access

MacOSX10.6 VNC Client


Debian8JessieGNOME Finder \\
Debian8JessieGNOME
MacOSX
(
) MacOSX10.10

"" VNC Client

VNC Client (or Viewer) and RDP Client:


GNOME \\\(Vinagre)
linux-like
VNC ServerSSHSPICEVNC
RDP
dconf org.gnome.vinagre

GNOME \\\Remmina Remote Desktop Client


"remmina":RDPVNCNXSSHSFTP
"remmina-plugin-gnome"

Remmina Remote Desktop Client


VNC
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/VNC
Projects/Vino - GNOME Wiki!
https://wiki.gnome.org/Projects/Vino
VNCviewer - Debian Wiki
https://wiki.debian.org/VNCviewer
VNC - Community Help Wiki
https://help.ubuntu.com/community/VNC
https://help.ubuntu.com/community/VNC/Servers
https://help.ubuntu.com/community/VNC/Clients

25.
Iceweasel:
Debian8GNOME Iceweasel
Firefox
Debian Mozilla team:
Iceweasel(Firefox) APT

Synaptic "pkg-mozilla-archive-keyring"

Chromium
"chromium" Google
"chromium-l10n""chromium-inspector"

Opera:
Opera APT deb.opera.com
APT
deb http://deb.opera.com/opera-stable/ stable non-free
\
http://deb.opera.com/archive.key root
Synaptic
Opera

Adobe Flash Player - browser plugin:


"flashplugin-nonfree""flashplugin-nonfree-extrasound"
Adobe


The Opera .deb Repository
Manual setup Opera APT repository setup instructions
http://deb.opera.com/manual.html
Debian Mozilla team APT archive
http://mozilla.debian.net/
Chromium - Debian Wiki
https://wiki.debian.org/Chromium

26.FTP
GNOME \\\FileZilla FTP Client
Debian FileZilla

FileZilla

27.

"gnome-paint"Gnome BMP

2D
"pinta"Pinta BMP

"mtpaint"(mtPaint graphic editor) BMP

"MyPaint"
"mypaint-data-extras"

2D
"GIMP"GNU Synaptic
GIMP

2D
"Inkscape"Synaptic Inkscape

"Synfig Studio"2D "synfigstudio"


render


(Eye of GNOME)
GNOME \\\Synaptic
eog
ANIBMPGIFICOJPEG/JPGPCXPNGPNMRASSVG
TGATIFFWB MPXBMXPM

gThumb
"gthumb"JPEGPNGTIFGIFRAW

Shotwell Photo Manager:


"shotwell"JPEGPNGTIFFBMPRAW

- ,
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/
Comparison of graphics file formats - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_image_file_formats
Synfig - ,
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/Synfig
Synfig Studio :: Home:
http://www.synfig.org/cms/

28.
GNOME \\\ Jessie

"Shutter"

Shutter

29.
(totem)
GNOME

VLC media player:

root
/usr/bin/vlc "geteuid""getppid"

GNOME Mplayer:
"mplayer""gnomemplayer" mplayer

(goobox):
CD

Rhythmbox:

Synaptic "vdpau""vaapi"

GPU
CPU VLC media playergnome-mplayer

VLC \\\/

gnome-mplayer \\\
"Enable Video Hardware Support""Enable CrystalHD
Hardware Support"

aacskeys(Decrypt all required keys from an AACS protected HD-DVD/Blu-Ray)


libbluray-bdj(Blu-ray Disc Java support library (BD-J library))
libdvdcss2(Simple foundation for reading DVDs - runtime libraries)

VLCGNOME MPlayer
/BDMV/STREAM/
"STREAM" VLCGNOME MPlayer
"STREAM"

/
"deb-multimedia.org repository"
Debian
APT Synaptic
"deb-multimedia-keyring"

VLC root @ :: PIXNET:::


http://sean70653.pixnet.net/blog/post/30294668--vlc--root-
gnome-mplayer - Gnome MPlayer is a GTK2/GTK3 interface for MPlayer. Google Project Hosting:
http://code.google.com/p/gnome-mplayer/
VDPAU -
https://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/VDPAU
Video Acceleration API - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VAAPI
ATI Avivo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ATI_Avivo
X video extension - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X_video_extension

Crystal HD Video Decoder Drivers | Broadcom


http://zh-tw.broadcom.com/support/crystal_hd/
VideoLAN - libbluray
http://www.videolan.org/developers/libbluray.html
VideoLAN - libaacs
http://www.videolan.org/developers/libaacs.html
VideoLAN - developers libdvdcss
http://www.videolan.org/developers/libdvdcss.html
libdvdcss - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Libdvdcss
VLC Blu-Ray
http://vlc-aacs.whoknowsmy.name/
http://vlc-bluray.whoknowsmy.name/
Deb Multimedia Packages::Home
http://www.deb-multimedia.org/
Rhythmbox -
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/Rhythmbox
Apps/Rhythmbox - GNOME Wiki!
https://wiki.gnome.org/Apps/Rhythmbox

30.CD/DVD Debian Install CD


USB
CD/DVD
GNOME \\\"Brasero"
BD Debian "Brasero" CD/DVD/
BD

GNOME \\\

USB
MsWindows MacOSX
FAT32 USB Debian Jessie GNOME
USB
nautilus
FAT32 USB

USB FAT32

Debian Install CD USB


debian-8.0.0-i386-DVD-1.iso
USB GNOME \\\
USB
USB
USB
"/dev/sdX""/dev/sdb"
root iso
# cp debian-8.0.0-i386-DVD-1.iso /dev/sdb
# sync
USB DVD-ROM

USB PC

Brasero1

Brasero2

4.3.1. Preparing a USB stick using a hybrid CD or DVD image


https://www.debian.org/releases/stable/i386/ch04s03.html.en
GNOME Disks - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNOME_Disks

31. x86-64 x86


x86-64
x86 x86-64 x86

root dpkg --print-architecture


CPU dpkg --print-foreignarchitectures CPU amd64
i386 dpkg --add-architecture
i386/var/lib/dpkg/arch
GNOME \
\\Root Terminal
/etc/apt/sources.list

deb [arch=amd64,i386] http://ftp.tw.debian.org/debian/ jessie main contrib non-free


deb [arch=amd64,i386] http://security.debian.org/ jessie/updates main contrib non-free
deb [arch=amd64,i386] http://ftp.tw.debian.org/debian/ jessie-updates main contrib non-free
deb [arch=amd64,i386] http://ftp.tw.debian.org/debian/ jessie-backports main contrib non-free
deb [arch=amd64,i386] http://ftp.tw.debian.org/debian/ jessie-proposed-updates main contrib non-free
deb [arch=amd64,i386] http://www.deb-multimedia.org jessie main non-free
deb [arch=amd64,i386] http://www.deb-multimedia.org jessie-backports main

APT
APT
Debian
i386amd64
i386amd64 Synaptic
Synaptic
"arch:i386"

Multiarch/HOWTO - Debian Wiki


https://wiki.debian.org/Multiarch/HOWTO
dpkg -
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/Dpkg
Debian 8.0.0
http://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/8.0.0/

32.
GNOME \\\(file-roller)
GNOME \\\Xarchiver(xarchiver)
(Archive Manager for GNOMEfile-roller)
Xarchiver
"unrar""p7zip-rar"
RAR

file-roller

Xarchiver

File Roller
http://fileroller.sourceforge.net/features.html
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/File_Roller
Xarchiver
http://xarchiver.sourceforge.net/index.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xarchiver

33.
GNOME \\\Sysinfo
GNOME \\\System Profiler andBenchmark(hardinfo)
GNOME \\\Hardware Lister(lshw-GTK)
sysinfohardinfolshw-GTK
USB
Linux USB

"lsusb" USB

Sysinfo

hardinfo

Hardware Lister

34. VirtualBox
CPU
8GB VirtualBox

Debian virtualbox virtualbox-guestadditions-iso Debian


VirtualBox APT
deb http://download.virtualbox.org/virtualbox/debian jessie contrib

VBoxGuestAdditions.iso
VirtualBox GNOME \\\
\\\\ VirtualBox

VirtualBox (U)EFI
VirtualBox \\\\ EFI()
"PIIX3" Debian x86/64
ISO


VirtualBox

Linux_Downloads Oracle VM VirtualBox:


https://www.virtualbox.org/wiki/Downloads
https://www.virtualbox.org/wiki/Linux_Downloads
Index of /virtualbox/
http://download.virtualbox.org/virtualbox/
VirtualBox - ,
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/VirtualBox

35.Cairo-Dock
MacOSX Dock Windows Sidebar cairodockcairo-dock-gnome-integration-plug-in
GNOME Classic

GNOME() GNOME()
GNOME Classic
Cairo-Dock dconf
org.gnome.metacity compositing-manager
GNOME \\Cairo-Dock
Cairo-Dock Cairo-Dock
(Fallback Mode) Cairo-Dock OpenGL

OpenGL Cairo-Dock
Cairo-Dock
Cairo-Dock (Fallback
Mode)
Dock Cairo-Dock\
\

dock
/usr/share/applications/ dock
dock

Cairo-Dock\\\
Cairo-Dock GDM "Cairo-Dock(GNOME)"
"CairoDock(GNOME)"\
"Cairo-Dock"


Cairo-Dock

Cairo-Dock

Cairo-Dock 1

Cairo-Dock 2

Cairo-Dock 3

Cairo-Dock 4


Dock - ,
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/Dock
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dock_(computing)
List of dock applications - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_dock_applications
Glx-Dock / Cairo-Dock - Composite Manager
http://glx-dock.org/ww_page.php?p=Composite%20Manager&lang=en
Glx-Dock / Cairo-Dock - Accueil
http://www.glx-dock.org/ww_page.php?p=Accueil&lang=en

36.manual pages
Linux
man
Debian

"manpages-zh"
manual page
manual page
Debian "manpageszh" manual page
"gman"
manual page
GNOME /usr/bin/gman
gman manual page
:
manual pages 1

manual pages 2

gman1

gman2

gman3

gman4

Man page - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Man_page

37.Java Runtime Environment(JRE)

Java Debian Linux deb linux


Debian Linux Java Runtime
Environment(JRE)
Java Java Java
Runtime Environment(JRE)
Debian Linux 8 Jessie "openjdk-7-jre"
Java Runtime Environment(JRE)
OpenJDK 7 Java OpenJDKDebian
"gcj-jre" Java Runtime Environment(JRE)
OpenJDK 7
Java
GNOME
GNOME unicode UTF-8 Java
Runtime Environment(JRE) unicode UTF-16
Java GNOME

Java Java
Java Java Runtime Environment(JRE)
MacOSXMsWindows Java Java
Runtime Environment(JRE) Java

Java - Debian Wiki:


https://wiki.debian.org/Java
Java
http://www.java.com/zh_TW/about/

38.
GNOME \\\(Evince document viewer)

Comic Book Archive (.cbr and .cbz)


Device Independent file format (.dvi)
DjVu (.djvu, .djv)
OpenOffice Presentation (.odp)
Portable Document Format (.pdf)
PostScript (.ps)
Scalable Vector Graphics (.svg)
Tagged Image File Format (.tiff, .tif)
Other Image Files (.gif, .jpeg, .png)
GNOME \\\Adobe Reader
Adobe Reader
ftp://ftp.adobe.com/pub/adobe/reader/unix/
AdbeRdr9.5.5-1_i386linux_enu.deb
i386 AMD64
AMD64 i386
Adobe Reader i386
deb-multimedia acroread 9.5.5-dmo2


Evince document viewer

Adobe Reader

39.

Debian Linux 8 Jessie GNOME


MsWindowsMacOSX
Linux

Linux
Linux
Linux
Linux

Debian Linux 8 Jessie


3D
Debian Linux
Debian Linux 8 Jessie GNOME
Debian
Linux