Chapter 11 Op-Amp Applications

Op-Amp Applications OpConstantConstant-gain multiplier Voltage summing Voltage buffer Controlled sources Instrumentation circuits Active filters

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ConstantConstant-Gain Amplifier
Inverting Version

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ConstantConstant-Gain Amplifier
Noninverting Version

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MultipleMultiple-Stage Gains
The total gain (3-stages) is given by:

A = A1 A 2 A 3
or

 R f  R f  R f   − A = 1 +   R2  − R3  R 1    

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Voltage Summing

The output is the sum of individual signals times the gain:
R  R R Vo = −  f V1 + f V2 + f V3  R  R2 R3  1 

[Formula 14.3]
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Voltage Buffer
Any amplifier with no gain or loss is called a unity gain amplifier. amplifier The advantages of using a unity gain amplifier: • Very high input impedance • Very low output impedance Realistically these circuits are designed using equal resistors (R1 = Rf) to avoid problems with offset voltages.

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Controlled Sources
VoltageVoltage-controlled voltage source VoltageVoltage-controlled current source CurrentCurrent-controlled voltage source CurrentCurrent-controlled current source

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VoltageVoltage-Controlled Voltage Source
The output voltage is the gain times the input voltage. What makes an op-amp different from other amplifiers is its impedance characteristics and gain calculations that depend solely on external resistors. Noninverting Amplifier Version

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VoltageVoltage-Controlled Voltage Source
The output voltage is the gain times the input voltage. What makes an op-amp different from other amplifiers is its impedance characteristics and gain calculations that depend solely on external resistors. Inverting Amplifier Version

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VoltageVoltage-Controlled Current Source

The output current is:

Io =

V1 = kV1 R1

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CurrentCurrent-Controlled Voltage Source
This is simply another way of applying the op-amp operation. Whether the input is a current determined by Vin/R1 or as I1 :
Vout = − Rf Vin R1

or

Vout = −I 1 R L

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CurrentCurrent-Controlled Current Source
This circuit may appear more complicated than the others but it is really the same thing.
 R  Vout = −  f  Vin R   in  Vout Vin =− Rf R 1 || R 2 Vout V = − in Rf R in

Io = −

Vin R 1 || R 2

 R + R2  I o = − Vin  1  R ×R   2   1 V  R + R2   I o = − in  1 R1  R 2     R  I o = − I 1 + 1  = kI  R2   

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Instrumentation Circuits
Some examples of instrumentation circuits using opamps: • Display driver • Instrumentation amplifier

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Display Driver

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Instrumentation Amplifier

For all Rs at the same value (except Rp):
 2R  (V1 − V2 ) = k (V1 − V2 ) Vo =  1 +  RP   
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Active Filters
Adding capacitors to op-amp circuits provides external control of the cutoff frequencies. The op-amp active filter provides controllable cutoff frequencies and controllable gain. • Low-pass filter • High-pass filter • Bandpass filter

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LowLow-Pass Filter—First-Order Filter—First-

The upper cutoff frequency and voltage gain are given by:

f OH =

1 2 πR 1 C 1

Av = 1+

Rf R1

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LowLow-Pass Filter—Second-Order Filter—Second-

The roll-off can be made steeper by adding more RC networks.

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HighHigh-Pass Filter

The cutoff frequency is determined by:

f OL =

1 2 πR 1 C 1

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Bandpass Filter
There are two cutoff frequencies: upper and lower. They can be calculated using the same low-pass cutoff and highpass cutoff frequency formulas in the appropriate sections.

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