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Processing
Dr. P. Arulmozhivarman
Associate Processor
School of Electrical Sciences
VIT University
Principal application areas
Improvement of pictorial information for
human interpretation
Processing of image data for storage,
transmission, and representation for
autonomous machine perception
Graylevel Histogram
Spatial
DFT DCT
Spectral
Digital Image Characteristics
Point Processing Masking Filtering
Enhancement
Degradation Models Inverse Filtering Wiener Filtering
Restoration
PreProcessing
Information Theory
LZW (gif)
Lossless
Transformbased (jpeg)
Lossy
Compression
Edge Detection
Segmentation
Shape Descriptors Texture Morphology
Description
Digital Image Processing
Features of an image
Low Frequency Component
Smooth/uniform regions
Approximation component
High frequency Component
Edges
Detailed component
Image processing
Low level processing :
primitive operation enhance quality of
image as suitable for application.
Mid level processing :
description of objects for computer
processing and classification.
High level processing :
making sense of recognized objects
Image processing fundamentals
Example of negative image
Image Enhancement
MRI IMAGING
Image Encryption
Normalized histogram
Histogram Equalization
Image Preprocessing
Enhancement Restoration
Spatial
Domain
Spectral
Domain
Point Processing
•imadjust
•histeq
Spatial filtering
•filter2
Filtering
• fft2/ifft2
• fftshift
• Inverse filtering
• Wiener filtering
Image restoration attempts to restore images
that have been degraded
Identify the degradation process and attempt to
reverse it
Similar to image enhancement, but more objective
Filtering to Remove Noise
We can use spatial filters of different kinds
to remove different kinds of noise
The arithmetic mean filter is a very simple
one and is calculated as follows:
This is implemented as the
simple smoothing filter
Blurs the image to remove
noise
¯
e
=
xy
S t s
t s g
mn
y x f
) , (
) , (
1
) , (
ˆ
1
/
9
1
/
9
1
/
9
1
/
9
1
/
9
1
/
9
1
/
9
1
/
9
1
/
9
Other Means
There are different kinds of mean filters all of
which exhibit slightly different behaviour:
Arithmetic Mean
Geometric Mean
Harmonic Mean
Contraharmonic Mean
Other Means (cont…)
There are other variants on the mean which
can give different performance
Geometric Mean:
Achieves similar smoothing to the arithmetic
mean, but tends to lose less image detail
mn
S t s
xy
t s g y x f
1
) , (
) , ( ) , (
ˆ
=
I
e
Other Means (cont…)
Harmonic Mean:
Works well for salt noise, but fails for pepper
noise
Also does well for other kinds of noise such as
Gaussian noise
¯
e
=
xy
S t s
t s g
mn
y x f
) , (
) , (
1
) , (
ˆ
Other Means (cont…)
Contraharmonic Mean:
Q is the order of the filter and adjusting its value
changes the filter’s behaviour
Positive values of Q eliminate pepper noise
Negative values of Q eliminate salt noise
¯
¯
e
e
+
=
xy
xy
S t s
Q
S t s
Q
t s g
t s g
y x f
) , (
) , (
1
) , (
) , (
) , (
ˆ
Order Statistics Filters
Spatial filters that are based on ordering the
pixel values that make up the nieghbourhood
operated on by the filter
Useful spatial filters include
Median filter
Max and min filter
Midpoint filter
Alpha trimmed mean filter
Median Filter
Median Filter:
Excellent at noise removal, without the
smoothing effects that can occur with other
smoothing filters
Particularly good when salt and pepper noise
is present
)} , ( { ) , (
ˆ
) , (
t s g mean y x f
xy
S t s e
=
Max and Min Filter
Max Filter:
Min Filter:
Max filter is good for pepper noise and min is
good for salt noise
)} , ( { max ) , (
ˆ
) , (
t s g y x f
xy
S t s e
=
)} , ( { min ) , (
ˆ
) , (
t s g y x f
xy
S t s e
=
Midpoint Filter
Midpoint Filter:
Good for random Gaussian and uniform
noise
+ =
e e
)} , ( { min )} , ( { max
2
1
) , (
ˆ
) , ( ) , (
t s g t s g y x f
xy xy
S t s S t s
AlphaTrimmed Mean Filter
AlphaTrimmed Mean Filter:
We can delete the d/2 lowest and d/2 highest
grey levels
So g
r
(s, t) represents the remaining mn – d
pixels
¯
e
÷
=
xy
S t s
r
t s g
d mn
y x f
) , (
) , (
1
) , (
ˆ
Detection of Discontinuities
3 basic types of graylevel discontinuities:
Points
Lines
Edges
Common method of detection: run a mask
through the image.
Filter Mask
Point Detection
T: nonnegative threshold:
¯
=
= + + + =
9
1
9 9 2 2 1 1
...
i
i i
z w z w z w z w R
 R>T
Point Detection
A point has been detected at the location on
which the mask is centered if: R>T
The gray level of an isolated point will be
quite different from the gray levels of its
neighbors
measure the weighted differences between the
center point and its neighbors
Line Detection
If at a certain point R
i
>R
j
, this point is
more likely associated with a line in the
direction of mask i.
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
Edge Detection
Edge (a set of connected pixels):
the boundary between two regions with relatively
distinct graylevel properties.
Note: edge vs. boundary
Assumption:
the regions are sufficiently homogeneous, so that
the transition between two regions can be
determined on the basis of graylevel
discontinuities alone.
Image Segmentation
Edge Detection
Basic Idea:
A profile is defined perpendicularly to the edge
direction and the results are interpreted.
The magnitude of the first derivative is used to
detect an edge (if a point is on a ramp)
The sign of the second derivative can determine
whether an edge pixel is on the dark or light side of
an edge.
Remarks on second derivative:
It produces two responses for every edge
The line that can be formed joining its positive and
negative values crosses zero at the mid point of
the edge (zerocrossing)
Edge Detection
Computation of a local derivative operator
A profile is defined perpendicularly to the edge
direction and the results are interpreted.
The first derivative is obtained by using the
magnitude of the gradient at that point.
The second derivative is obtained by using the
Laplacian.
Gradient Operators
c
c
c
c
=
= V
y
f
x
f
G
G
F
y
x
The gradient vector points in the direction of
maximum rate of change of f at (x,y).
Gradient Operators
Gradient:
2 / 1 2 2
] [ ) (
y x
G G F mag f + = V = V
(maximum rate of increase of f(x,y) per unit distance)
   
y x
G G f + ~ V
Direction angle of ∇f at (x,y):


.

\

=
÷
x
y
G
G
y x a
1
tan ) , (
Image Segmentation
Image Segmentation
Image Segmentation
Image Segmentation
Image Segmentation
Gradient Operators
Computation of the gradient of an image:
Soebel operators provide both a differencing &
a smoothing effect:
) 2 ( ) 2 (
3 2 1 9 8 7
z z z z z z G
x
+ + ÷ + + =
) 2 ( ) 2 (
7 4 1 9 6 3
z z z z z z G
y
+ + ÷ + + =
Summary: Gradient Operators
Smooth edges due to
blurring (result of sampling)
Positive: leading
Negative: trailing
Zero: in constant gray levels
Positive: from dark side
Negative: from light side
Zero: in constant gray levels
The magnitude of the first derivative detects
the presence of an edge and the sign of the
second detects whether the edge pixel lies on
the dark or light side of an edge.
The second derivative has a zerocrossing at
the midpoint of a transition.
Laplacian
(of a 2D function f(x,y)):
2
2
2
2
2
y
f
x
f
f
c
c
+
c
c
= V
• A 3 x 3 discrete mask based on the above is:
) ( 4
8 6 4 2 5
2
z z z z z f + + + ÷ = V
Laplacian
The idea:
Coefficient of center pixel should be positive
Coefficients of outer pixels should be negative
Sum of coefficients should be zero
(the Laplacian is a derivative)
Image Segmentation
Laplacian
The Laplacian is seldom used in practice,
because:
It is unacceptably sensitive to noise (as second
order derivative)
It produces double edges
It is unable to detect edge direction
Laplacian
An important use of the Laplacian:
To find the location of edges using its zero
crossings property.
Plus, the Laplacian plays only the role of
detector of whether a pixel is on the dark
or light side of an edge.
Laplacian
Convolve an image with the Laplacian of a
2D Gaussian function of the form:
h(x, y) = ÷exp ÷
x
2
+ y
2
2o
2

\

.

where o is the standard deviation.
Laplacian
The Laplacian of the above Gaussian is:
V
2
h = ÷
r
2
÷o
2
o
4

\

.

exp ÷
r
2
2o
2

\

.

where r
2
= x
2
+ y
2
.
o determines the degree of blurring that occurs.
Image Segmentation
Image Segmentation
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