AMSTERDAM • BERLIN • DELFT • FRANKFURT AM MAIN • CRACOW

INTERNATIONAL INTENSIVE PROGRAMME

EXPLORING THE
T H E P O S T-WA R C I T Y

PUBLICACITY R E A N I M T I N G
CRACOW • 08-19.5.2006 • Politechnika Krakowska • Faculty of Architecture

PART 0. WORKSHOP PROCEEDINGS; COLOPHON & ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
ideological context and the question of public space
CONCEPT Marc Koehler ORGANISATION & TEACHING STAFF Niels Barrett M.Sc. Architect Købnhavns Tekniske Skole Peter G. de Bois M.Sc. Architect and Urban Designer Technische Universiteit Delft Karen Buurmans M.Sc. Urban Designer and B.Sc. Architect Technische Universiteit Delft Gisela Glass M.Sc. Architect Technische Fachhochschule Berlin Marc Koehler M.Sc. Architect Technische Universiteit Delft Hogeschool van Amsterdam Holger Kühnel M.Sc. Architect Technische Fachhochschule Berlin Flip Lambalk M.Sc. Architect Hogeschool van Amsterdam Michael Peterek Ph.D. Architect and urban designer Fachhochschule Frankfurt am Main, Fachgebiet Städtebau EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Karen Buurmans EDITORS DESIGN COVER DESIGN PRINTING Karen Buurmans | Marc Koehler Frank van der Veek | Wojciech Wicher Karen Buurmans | Marc Koehler Karen Buurmans | Wojciech Wicher Sieca Repro, Delft (temporary edition) Hogeschool van Amsterdam (A4 edition) DjaF, Krakow (A5 edition) Wolfgang Rang M.Sc. Architect Fachhochschule Frankfurt am Main Wojciech Wicher Ph.D. Architect Politechnika Krakowska GUEST LECTURERS in alphabetical order: Stanislaw Juchnowicz Prof. D.Sc. Ph.D. Architect Politechnika Krakowska (Cracow University of Technology) International Centre of Urban Education Andrzej Lorek Ph.D. Architect Politechnika Krakowska (Cracow University of Technology) Faculty of Architecture, Institute of Urban Design Magdalena Marx-Kozakiewicz Ph.D. Architect Politechnika Krakowska (Cracow University of Technology) Faculty of Architecture, Institute of City and Regional Planning Maciej Motak Ph.D. Architect Politechnika Krakowska (Cracow University of Technology) Faculty of Architecture, Institute of History of Architecture and Monument Preservation

METHODOLOGICAL SUPPORT Karen Buurmans M.Sc. Urban Designer and B.Sc. Architect Soecial thanks to all the staff, lecturers, Nowa Huta branch of Cracow’s Historical Museum, Cracow University of Technology Faculty of Architecture and all the participants. Financial sponsoring by Universiteitsfonds Delft

4

EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

TABLE OF CONTENTS
part 0. workshop proceedings 0.1 colofon 0.2 acknowledgements 0.3 table of contents part 1. exploring the public city | Marc Koehler & Karen Buurmans 1.1 general introduction to the intensive programme (rationale, learning objectives) 1.2 methodology, logistics & legenda 1.3 programme 2006 part 2. workshop theme 2006; reanimating the post-war city | Wojciech Wicher 2.1 introduction to theme 2006 2.2 workshop brief 2.3 theoretical frame part 3. theme related articles and lectures | various authors 3.1 Centres Beyond the centre. New public spaces at the urban fringe (Michael Peterek) 3.2 Genesis of Urban Frame (Peter de Bois & Karen Buurmans) 3.3 Living in the space of post-socialism Part 1 (Anastasia Moiseeva) part 4. preparatory student work | participants 4.1 case-study Nordweststadt (Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences) 4.2 case-study Amsterdam Bijlmermeer (Amsterdam School of Technology) 4.3 case-study Amsterdam West (Deft University of Technology) 4.4 case-study Kemerovo (Delft University of Technology) 4.5 case-study Cracow (Cracow University of Technology) part 5. exploring Nowa Huta, mapping public space | participants 5.1 Commercial Public Space 5.2 Green Public Space 5.3 Informal Public Space 5.4 Infrastructure & Public Space 5.5 Official Public Space part 6. interventions in Nowa Huta, (re)designing the public domain | participants 6.1 Commercial public space 6.2 Green public space 6.3 Informal public space 6.4 Infrastructure and public space 6 6.5 official public space 6 9 part 7. evaluating interventions | participants 14 7.1 Commercial Public Space (Timothy van Agt) 7.2 Green Public Space | Pearl necklace & jewels (Laurine Houtman) 16 7.3 Informal Public Space | Informalising Nowa Huta (Amber Maessen) 16 7.5 Official Public Space | Living in the space of post-socialism Part 2 (Anastasia Moiseeva) 16 21 part 8. integration and Masterplan | Karen Buurmans 4 4 4 5 22 part 9. workshop impressions 22 28 part 10. literature & references 50 64 64 74 80 86 88
A NOTE TO THE READER / ERRATUM (d.d. 18-06-2008)

160 160 170 182 194 208 220 220 226 234 240 266 274 280

Due to an unfortunate combination of circumstances, the original InDesign source file of this document was lost before the last round of editing and proofreading was completed. Time restraints made it impossible to recreate the file from scratch which left only a halfway back-up pdf to work with. Whereas pdf is not the most complying file format to implement changes, regrettably and 106 despite the high standards of said editors, not all minor errors 106 may have been pruned and corrected.

114 124 The editors therefore kindly ask the reader to judge this document 136 on the merits of its content, rather than its form. 148 The editors apologise to the authors and participants for any
inadvertent inaccuracies in the presentation of their material.

REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY

5

introduction & methodology | Marc Koehler (& Karen Buurmans)
1.1 General introduction to the intensive programme INTRODUCTION “Exploring the Public city” is an innovative international teaching project aimed at developing and exchanging knowledge and experience in the field of urban (re)generation and strategic public space design. In doing so, the project aimes to add value to the academic discourse on the upgrading of ‘problematic public spaces’ and the development of sustainable urban communities. The project applies a pedagogical approach based on an innovative research method, which combines techniques of urban analysis with techniques of urban planning, city branding and architectural and urban design. BACKGROUND The project is situated within the context of a so called EU funded Socrates Intensive Project (IP). The yearly event takes 13 days and is attended by 60 students and 12 teachers from 6 European Universities and Schools of Architecture and Urban Design. The participating schools are Hogeschool van Amsterdam (Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences), Technische Universiteit Delft (Delft University of Technology), Politechnika Krakowska (Cracow University of Technology), Technische Fachhochschule Berlin (Berlin University of Applied Sciences), Fachhochschule Frankfurt am Main (Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences), Købnhavns Tekniske Skole (Copenhagen Polytechnic) and Universitat d’Alacant / Universidad de Alicante (University of Alicante). The first workshop took pace in 2005 in Almere, initiated and organized by the Hogeschool van Amsterdam. The second workshop, of which this book is the outcome, was held in Nowa Huta, Poland in May 2006, organised by the Technical 6 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

PART 1. EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY; INTENSIVE PROGRAMME
University of Cracow (CUT Cracow). The third workshop will take place in November 2007 in Berlin, organized by the Technische Fachhochschule Berlin and the fourth workshop is planned in Alicante in May 2008, organised by the University of Alicante. 1.2 General workshop methodology The innovative aspect of the EPC project is that it allows to develop explicit knowledge on the relationship between (A)‘urban form’ (as to the spatial structure and composition), (B) ‘urban operations’(underlying spatial and functional mechanisms at work) and (C) ‘urban performance’(as in desired or observed spatial effect/impact) of public spaces on several levels of scale and importance. In doing so, the project relates so called ‘hard values’ (such as size, scale, length and formal aspects of public spaces), measured in quantitative units – with ‘soft values’ (perception-depending values) in public space design. These “soft qualitative values” are combined in three main conceptual categories: ► “connectivity” levels of spatial hierachy in the urban structure, conditioning the accessibility of public spaces, which conditions the possibility of coincidence in encounter (lines, routes, paths, relationships) ► “(inter)activity” levels of interactivity and overlap between use-patterns, conditioning levels of urban livelyness and the possibility of cultural exchange (zones, areas, functions, anchorpoints) ► “identity” levels of visual recognisability and unicity, conditioning aspects of spatial orientation in public space and aspects such as collective memory and spatial idenitification (atmospheres) The unique process-structure of the workshop is set by six steps; (1) interpreting urban conditions (observing), (2) representing urban conditions (mapping), (3) evaluating urban conditions (problem finding), (4) re-thinking urban conditions (concepting), (5) re-designing urban conditions (as problem solving) and (6) reflecting on the possible effects of the interventions in a combined strategic plan. In order to structure the analysis, students are teamed up in in 5 thematic groups consisting of 10 students and two teachers. The themes are INFORMAL, COMMERCIAL, GREEN, INFRASTRUCTURE and OFFICIAL PUBLIC SPACE. Properties of each theme are specified further in this report. Basically, the workshop is split up in two phases. The first week is dedicated to analysing the research territory whilst the second week is used to elaborated the previously formulated concepts into detailed design proposals. The analysis phase is fairly well structured. Students are asked to conduct research from their thematic point of view and on two levels of scale and present their findings to the other group at the end of the first week. Analysis products are threefold: ► an overall vision on the area as a whole ► a detailed analysis of a number of specific locations ► a threesome preliminary design concepts/stategies At the end of each workshop event, the design interventions are summed up, evaluated and interrelated in a relational strategic plan, expressing both the diversity and complexity of ideas and appraoches to the public realm as well as establishing a shared awareness and dialoque between different design disciplins concerned with the city.

PART 1. INTENSIVE PROGRAM All data is collected according to a predetermined key to symbols and plotted into a single file that produces an integration map. This map gives insight into the generic qualities of the separate thematic approaches and where they either overlap or conflict, thus defining crucial design assignmentts. Each group will assign one of their members in charge of this part. Ideally, to kickstart the design phase in the second week and integrate the separate thematic visions, find common ground, and thus strengthen the orginal proposals and strategies, a short brain storm session could be organised in which the groups are temporarily mixed and delve into the earlier presented analysis results. Information gathered during this brainstorm session is then reported back to the thematic groups and original findings and starting points can be finetuned. The method descrined in this publication allows all kinds of views on and elements in the public domain to be systematically questioned and analysed in relation to each other; from the scale of regional highways to that of public buildings or even urban furniture. The different interests and observations the students develop during the urban analysis, set the research boundaries, questions and level of diversity of the projects. RESEARCH TERRITORY Each year, the workshop chooses a specific case study area in one of the 6 cities where the participating universities are based. The case study is chosen in relation to a clearly defined contemporary theme in public space development. Up till now, the case study areas have been chosen in relation to the problematic of urban regenerating of post-modern and post-war New Towns, reinterpreting influential planning paradigms of the 20th century and the 21st century. Themes have been ‘Northern European New Towns’ (workshop Almere, Netherlands in 2005) and ‘Communist Model towns’ (workshop Nowa Huta, Poland in 2006 and Berlin Marzhan 2007). The workshop in Alicante explores the relatively unexplored topic of planned ‘residential resorts’ at the coast of Alicante; a very extreme form of postmodern ‘international suburbanization’. The EPC project takes various kinds of New Towns as case study areas for didactical reasons, being relatively ‘clear, simple and bounded in spatial structure and representing clear ideological concepts. By repeating a strict research structure (in terms definitions, classifications and drawing scale and legend) the mapping- and design results of different workshops can be compared, gaining insight in the generic and specific principles behind different approaches to urban planning and architectural design in new parts of European cities. THEORETICAL FRAME Recently, thanks to the development of new techniques of urban analysis and mapping, we are becoming more able to interlink extensive sources of urban data, allowing us to interpret the behaviour of complex urban systems and link the so called ‘soft values’ with ‘hard values’. This has made it possible to analyse many factors that influence the functioning and performance of public spaces, including the role of programming and architecture. In doing so, we are learning how to improve the performance of cities or parts of cities, addressing critical and urgent issues aimed at ‘sustainable community development’. The three conceptual categories that structure the theoretical focus of the workshop, roughly represent three dominant theoretical discourses in literature on public spaces, described below. In the EPC workshop, each of these three norms is represented by a specific mapping technique, which have been integrated and combined in the EPC project, in one integral mapping method and legenda, described by Karin Buurmans in the next chapter. 1. Connectivity In this approach, the structure and hierarchy of infrastructural connections (so called “Frame”) between uses, spaces and buildings (so called “Pattern”) is researched in relation to the movements of people within the network (so called “Circuit”). The exposure and use-intensity of a public space depends strongly on its position in- and relation to the frame of streets, spaces and use patterns to which it is connected. The quality of the connection between public space and its context influences its accessibility and hereby its performance, which conditions for example the performance of retail spaces. Dead spaces are often badly connected to their spatial context. By re-arranging the public structure of streets and spaces, the performance of public spaces can be improved. Peter de Bois and Karen Buurmans have developed a new research and design method to assess and increase the potential of any given location in a city to become a lively intensely used public space. The research includes cognitive mapping (e.g. Kevin Lynch) but also system analysis through Space Syntax (Bill Hillier e.a.), the Three-Step or 1st, 2nd & 3rd order analysis method (Peter de Bois). The “Frame - Pattern - Circuit” scheme developed by Karen Buurmans and Peter de Bois can be regarded an integrating template. FPC focuses on mapping and optimising the relationship between the physical structure of public space (Frame), the dispersion of programme and soicioeconomic anchor points (Pattern) and the actual network of use and routing implemented by the system’s inhabitants (Circuit). Preliminary analysis of Cracow and Nowa Huta by students of Dr. Wojchiech Wicher (TU Cracow) provided visual and factual data. REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 7

introduction & methodology | Marc Koehler

PART 1. EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY; INTENSIVE PROGRAMME
branding”, “place scripting” and “place making”. In the workshop students search for unique and authentic characteristics of the case study area by intensive mapping and observation and develop branding stratgies and design projects that could influence them positively. In the first place, students make “mental maps” and do empirical survey on political, commercial and cultural expressions (representation) in public space, communicated in architecture, monuments, icons, signs, symbols, ornaments, inscriptions (graffiti,tagging) use- traces (the “memory of space”). Secondly, students explore strategies to either Permutate, Intervene in or Evolve these characteristics, using both city-marketing and design tools. The studio prepares a reader on the relationship between the Image and Identity of public space with artciles by Kevin Lynch, Henri Lefebvre, Rem koolhaas and Marc Augee and examples of mappings by students of Marc Koehler in Nowa Huta and Shanghai. This integrated mapping approach enables us to relate for example the behaviour of retail programs to connectivity levels. Or issues of visal composition to questions of visual identity (recognisability). But also links programmatic activity levels to levels of public encounter and culural exchange. An outcome of the analysis of Nowa Huta and Almere, for example, is the obervation that places with a high level of programmatic diversity and overlap, show higher levels of cultural exchange (as to social encounter), because different social groups coincide in the use of the same space. This increases a sense of urban livelyness, which tends to improve a sense of public domain. This, proves to be a positive factor for the functioning of retail programs. In other words, this appraoch to urban analysis can make complex relations between different urban operations and urban performances more explicit. In this book, the appraoch and outcome of the Nowa Huta case study is explained. Altough many aspects still have to be developed and refined, it gives a beautiful impression of the possibilities of a multidisciplianry aproach to urban analysis and design taking public space as the strategic tool to add value to future urban developments. [1] Reijndorp defines public domain as the place of cultural interaction, communication and exchange. The concept refers to both moments and places of social confrontation with the so called “other”, places where people experience “a change of perspective” through unexpected encounters. In this sense the concept of public domain refers to urban places that attract and mix divers uses and users. Traditional examples of these places are farmers markets and shopping streets, but public domains can also be found in “new” semi-public spaces such as shopping centers, airports and theme parks. [Reijndorp, 2001. In search of public domain. NAI Press, Rotterdam] [2] A cultural artifact is a human-made object which gives information about the culture of its creator and users. The artifact may change over time in what it represents, how it appears and how and why it is used as the culture changes over time. The usage of the term encompasses the type of archaeological artifact which is recovered at archaeological sites; however, man-made objects of modern society are also cultural artifacts. For example, in an anthropological context, a television is an artifact of modern culture. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cultural_artifact] [3] The theme can be applied to commercial communication (signs, billboards, shop fronts, guerilla marketing, informal communication (graffiti, tagging, use-traces, fashion) and formal (political) communication (in the architecture of public buildings, in monuments, in urban design and in city branding).

2. (Inter) activity The level of interactivity between uses and users influences the variation and nature of encounters between different cultural groups in public space. Managing these parameters in terms of routing, inside-outside relationships and by overlapping programs and uses can increase the experience of liveliness and hereby stimulate the possibility of coincidence of social encounter and cultural exchange, as described by Haijer and Reindorp in their book “In search of new public domain” (Reindorp, 2001). Directing the diversity and overlapping of urban uses can attract people to central public spaces, turning dead (suburban) spaces into lively urban meeting places. An example of this approach is the new shopping centre of Almere, developed by OMA and Cie. in collaboration with Arnold Reijndorp (although it can be debated whether on the long run this development is indeed succesful since invaluable opportunities to interconnect the existing fabric of the surrounding neighbourhoods and therewith facilitate a much needed yet still sadly absent centre-edge transition zone are not consummated). The method depends on mapping and scenario based reconfiguration of use-patterns of social, political, economic and cultural nature. This appraoch is based on the “Bubble Diagram” developed by Paul Kroese (AMO Beijing/Cie.) and Arnold Reijndorp’s “Cultural analysis of Rotterdam”. 3. Identity Programs and users communicate and represent themselves in public space through spatial practices and cultural and social artifacts [2], expressed in material- and graphic structures that construct an image of a public space. The extent to which this visual collage makes sense to its perceiver defines the identity and “recognizability” of the space and its value in the “collective memory” of the city. Through architectural and urban design and programming of uses and events, the identity of public space can be influenced and directed. In this context we can speak of “city 8 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

PART 1. INTENSIVE PROGRAM CONNECTIVITY (FRAME) MAPS (three-Step / 1st, 2nd & 3rd order) ACTIVITY (PATTERN) MAPS ↓ IDENTITY (CIRCUIT) MAPS ↓ atmospheres, influences

3

1 1

objects landmarks anchorpoints clearly defined zones

2

general zones, areas psychological connection physical connection conceptual physical connection

2

Infrastructure Public Space / (pedestrian) flow & gathering Green Public Space / green, leisure, recreation & nature

→ →

example atmosphere/influence (bubble) map: a bench on a square

1 1 1

2

2

Commercial Public Space / retail, shopping, private investment →

1 1
Informal Public Space / spontaneous & temporal activities →

2

2

← facade typology (closed / open / apertures)

1 1
Official Public Space / public services and facilities, formal →
hangout kiosk

2

2

movable kiosk monument

birdhouse hooligan

informal communication void ruin

trash

vandalism

racism garage

homeless people sport field graffity

1 1 1

“flower lady” (street selling)

mysterious objects

2

2

REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY

9

intoduction & methodology; the analysis | Karen Buurmans
One case, many catches: how to keep “frogs in a barrel” A room full of designers is bound to produce a flood of ideas. Practical, innovative, impossible, unlikely, unexpected, crazy, brilliant, spontaneous, solid ... a kaleidoscope of thoughts and insights that all individually have their specific merit, motivation and validity. This creative explosion is a valuable asset of each workshop as it triggers its participants to “think outside the box” and experiment. A multidisciplinary and/or international “pressure cooker” environment provides unequalled means for creating the necessary stimulants whereas participants are confronted with different routines and abilities. Communicating in a different language forces them to seek new, explicit and more fundamental ways to express their ideas and methods. A workshop such as the one in Kraków, Spring 2006, recorded in this publication, is a valuable learning experience in its own right. And this is where most workshops end. After everyone has had their say, presented their plan, exchanged their addresses, the group falls apart and leaves behind a heap of material from which it is almost impossible to derive a coherent conclusion on which to elaborate in a practical sense. The workshop, vibrant, educational and successful as it may have been, will remain an intermezzo, a pleasant interruption of everyday routine, a fun memory. Some ideas will stick with the audience, but most will fade into oblivion and stay just that, ideas. The strength and the weakness of the workshop format: an invaluable experience on an individual level but difficult to estimate overall spin-off. In order to sort effect on a more collective level this workshop aims at integrating combining the individual forces. In order to achieve that goal a mapping method is introduced that has already been proven useful in a variety of cases, from plan analysis to structure planning: the RGBG Strategic Model. 10 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

PART 1. EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY; THE RGBG STRATEGIC MODEL
The RGBG Strategic Model is a dynamic design and analysis instrument that strongly draws from topological knowledge, cognitive data and mental mapping. It is useful and effective in the urban/environmental context of transformation, innovation, and exploration. It makes communication possible in a complex interactive and intuitive situation. It visualises programmatic potentials and physical relations in a conceptual way. The RGBG method, a brief description of its purpose [1] Main issue when it comes to synchronising and correlating data is finding a common “key” to translate, visualise, communicate and compare results. As the Kraków workshop is the second in the series “Exploring the Public City” part of its set-up is predetermined by the preceding Amsterdam workshop, casestudy New Town Almere. For this event the body of students is divided into five thematic subgroups, each assigned to investigating a particular aspect of Public Space: COMMERCIAL PUBLIC SPACE GREEN PUBLIC SPACE INFORMAL PUBLIC SPACE INFRASTRUCTURE & PUBLIC SPACE OFFICIAL PUBLIC SPACE For sake of continuity this same subdivision is also employed during the Kraków workshop. Each thematic group consists of 10 students and is supervised by one member of staff (there are separate teams for the first half of the workshop, the analysis phase, and the second half, the design phase). Each group conducts their own resarch but is asked to simultaneously record the gathered information in a layered Adobe Illustrator map according to a uniform key. Those maps are processed more or less independently from the group analysis. One delegate appointed for each group is assigned to discuss and report back on content and conclusions. The RGBG Strategic model used as a Scenario analysis and design method aims at visualising main paths, nodes and regions that may generate and carry transformation through the recognition and (re)confirmation of specific topological qualities within the existing urban structure. Its multi-layered, dynamic and structural approach provides insight in both the current situation and generates (long term) strategic design visions regarding contemporary public space. The super-positioned layers highlight the pattern of places, functions, destinations and landmarks and indicate the - existing and/or absent - circuits which tie them together into a hierarchical framework. [2] Based on the assumption that a complete and healthy urban frame conditions flows of goods and people into social encounters and (hence) meaningful, productive public spaces, the method generates the motives for a more effective and conditional policy with regard to location, assignment, design and maintenance. [3] In other words, the method provides for developing structure visions and design concepts for the second, post-analysis phase of the workshop. With their specific disciplinary knowledge, starting points and design or research motives the participants (in this case the students from the various universities) visualise their individual thoughts on the subject focused on during the workshop, the New Town of Nowa Huta. Due to the relatively limited amount of time -- conclusions have to be available almost intantaneoulsy and reported coherently at the end of the workshop -- data input is limited to the first swipe of factual information gathered through field and literature study. Two levels of scale are taken in account: global survey (town as a whole) and “deep mapping”.

PART 1. INTENSIVE PROGRAM Data input can be factual, conceptual or design related, as long as a consistent legenda is used. The RGBG method can thus be used to (1) evaluate and compare plans and concepts, create an “a posteriori” overview of critical interventions, through abstracting those plans according to the key; (2) coordinate the inventarisation an analysis phase by setting tasks, visualising and integrating the results and produce “ex ante” concepts, design starting points and (3) guide communication between different, possibly conflicting parties involved in the planning process by visualising their viewpoints, overlaps and problems. For the Kraków workshop the focus obviously centres on (2), laying the basis of a general structure vision that provides the achnor points for the eventual design proposals. The result of the joint effort is supposed to provide for a previously missing link between analysis and design by filling in the intermediate level of scale and correlating the in themselves sound but inevitably incomplete and somewhat scattered insights of the individual groups. The resulting “Integration Map” shows that the method produces insight in the relationships, structure and (programmatic) potential of various areas, lines and places. Because of the uniform key, everyone who has anything to say about the subject or area under examination can add his individual ideas and visions. The “resolution” of the emerging image increases with the quantity and diversity of input it accumulates. And, equally important, it is dynamic in the sense that it can incorporate a multitude of viewpoints over an indefinite period of time. The resulting topological scheme is therefore a highly suitable intermediate with regard to the ever persistent lapses between analysis, concept and design. It is also a tool that may bridge the widening gap between conflicting parties such as those advocating opposing public and private interest. The background, method and results are elaborated further in Part 7 of this report, which presents the eventual analysis integration map [4] The legenda is also explained hither. The division into thematic groups COMMERCIAL PUBLIC SPACE Coordinators: Wojchiech Wicher (& Karen Buurmans) Students: Timothy van Agt, Sabine Jaschke, Michal Kasprzyk, Sabrina Old, André Paaßen, Juliane Seidl, Victor Spijker, Marieke Stigter, Justuna Szmukier, Marije Verlinden GREEN PUBLIC SPACE Coordinators: Michael Peterek & Wolfgang Rang Students: Jurrien Boon, Laurine Houtman, Dennis Laufer, Agatha Ludzik, Violetta Scherlowski, Ola Senderska, Mila Stanik, Sebastian Steffin, Frank van der Veek, Alex Zech INFORMAL PUBLIC SPACE Coordinators: Mark Koehler & Flip Lambalk Students: Johannes Bruck, Agnieszka Krzeszowska, Amber Maessen, Oliver Skerbs, Alexander Speelman, Katarzyna Steinhof, Phillipp Strohm, Berend Venema, Janiek Warnink, Markus Wesselmann INFRASTRUCTURE & PUBLIC SPACE Coordinators: Peter de Bois & Wojtek Wicher Students: Sven Achter, Oliver Bauer, Beata Haba, Sven Hoogerheide, Sabina Kurzylo, Johanna Mewes, Jan Nauta, Sophie Panzer, Nora Papenfuss, Lennert Vernooij OFFICIAL PUBLIC SPACE Coordinators: Gisela Glass & Holger Kühnel Students: Steven Broekhof, Sabina Chmiel, Katarzyna Imbrzykowska, Nastia Moiseeva, Matthias Schneider, Bas Schuit, Karin Stöckmann, Ewa Szafraniec, Susanne Wittmer INTEGRATION MAP Coordinator: Karen Buurmans [1] The method has been developed during years of educational projects featuring different locations. Our long term occupation with the New Town of Almere enabled further elaboration and testing of initial findings. The method can be regarded part of a triptych encompassing Space Syntax (Hillier, London), our “Three Step Analysis” and the “frame – pattern – circuit” scheme. For more information on the background of the method: ¶ Bois, P.G. & Buurmans, K.A. (2006). RGBG Strategic Model, a Scenario Analysis & Design Method. Delft University of Technology. Available on request. www.atelieralmere.nl. [2] Originally, as the name of the method indicates, data input is reduced to key aspects of RED (building, dwelling), GREEN (landscape, recreation, natural environment), BLUE (water) & GREY (infrastructure). But obviously, the method can be applied on practical all levels of scale from national and regional to the urban (although on the lower levels (R ≤ 3) programmatic refinement can be desirable). The Kraków workshop on the New Town of Nowa Huta is one of the first experiments with a different type of legenda that distinguishes between different functions instead of the original main RGBG themes. [3] For more information on the background of this thesis: ¶ Buurmans, K.A. (2006). The Labyrinth; a design-theoretical research into perception & use of urban structure. [MSc graduation thesis] Delft University of Technology. [4] Parts of the text are extracted from aforementioned report. REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 11

intoduction & methodology; the analysis | Karen Buurmans
In order to get some quick insight in the structure of the town the following method was proposed as one of the RGBG layers: 1st, 2nd, 3rd Order / Three-Step Analysis [5] In order to determine how space is used and how a cognitive map is formed, gaining insight in the way the urban "Frame" facilitates actual usage patterns is vital. One way of determining the potentially "active" part of the "Frame" is mapping its availability in three steps from the starting point. As a rule of thumb three turns give a good indication of what people retain and convey with regard to knowledge of their environment. The example on the next page of a twelve year old in Amsterdam gives an example of the correlation in coverage of the cognitive (usage reach) map and 1st, 2nd, 3rd order range. "1st, 2nd, 3rd order" analysis” or "Three-Step" plots the way individual pattern elements are rooted in their surroundings by tracing all connections to a depth of three turns from the starting point. The method provides insight in the reach and physical support basis of specific programmatic elements, as well as in the coherence of the urban frame as a whole. Severe “asymmetry” and/or lack of depth with regard to range imply shortcomings in the frame and a potentially inefficient / unsustainable situation. Basic mechanism behind this analysis is drawing all lines starting from the location under unvestigation untill three turns away from the starting point. The principle is similar to that of the Space Syntax [6] depth map with the two main differences that (1) a spot is used as premises instead of a line and (2) there is no restriction as to the segmentation of curved lines. In fact, 1st, 2nd, 3rd order analysis is a more flexible and accurate tool and ideal to provide detailed insight and to complement said method. Because the Three-Step analysis does not require anything but a 12 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

PART 1. EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY; 1st, 2nd, 3rd ORDER / THREE-STEP ANALYSIS
high resolution map it can be conducted easily by anyone an in any occasion. Only those lines need to be drawn that play a part in the situation as opposed to Space Syntax where every line in the urban system should be projected in order to get a usable result. Three-Step analysis collects data reasoning inductively, outwards from the local level of scale, from a "bottom-up" point of view. Employed on its own it gives a fairly good idea of the depth, anchorage, reach and range of individual elements within the townscape. Several results combined show where borders and barriers occur and how different functions coincide by means of their underlying "Frame" and enables assumptions as to a system's typological make-up. In accordance to the preceding study, examples of historical "hot spots" such as main squares etc. show a large degree of embedment within the urban system, of connection and overlap. This is mainly due to the fact that those squares are often linked to the longer lines that cut through the territory and therewith ensure socio-economically dominance. The examples on the following spread are all distinctive squares in very different Dutch towns. By means of the Three-Step Analysis method they clearly visualise above statement and they also show that many of the more recent developments do not share this complex and context dominating embedment ... The 1st, 2nd, 3rd order analysis mehod forges a bridge between bare "Frame" analysis and investigation of "Pattern" because it takes an individual element as a starting point. This element can be anything from a specific object, funtion, square, road crossing or public transport station to a dwelling block or otherwise spatially and/or programmatically defined area. Mapping different kind of "Pattern" elements according to this method provides insight into the correlation or lack thereof between those various kinds of programme and their potential spin-off. fig. 1 cognitive map (usage reach), Amsterdam This illustration shows the cognitive map (in terms of usage reach) of a twelve year old boy living in the central part of Berlage's Amsterdam Zuid (1). His bicycle range comprises of a large part of the western territory of the city including part of the centre, the recreational areas Bosplan (2), Vondelpark (3) and Sloterplas, the Olympic Stadium (4), the Sarphatipark (5), Artis Zoo (6) and the Central Station (7). Also part of his regular experience are some of the most significant historical anchor points of the city, i.e. the Singel, the Canal Belt (7) and the River Amstel (8). fig. 2 cognitive map, radius ≈ 5 km fig. 3 1st, 2nd, 3rd order analysis, total → →→ →

Analysis of the available urban frame of the city of Amsterdam for this twelve year old is conducted by means of the "three-step" or "1st, 2nd, 3rd order" method, starting from the original location (Berlage Quarter). the result shows how much area is disclosed and connected within three more or less orthogonal turns. The correlation between the cognitive radius and the reach and surface of the three-step exercise is remarkable and typical for healthy (historical) urban townscapes. It is a logical consequence of the proces and human capacity of navigation and the way the urban frame facilitates. fig. 4 1st, 2nd, 3rd order layers, radius ≈ 5 km →→

[5] excerpt taken from: ¶ Buurmans, K.A. (2006). The Labyrinth. ... [6] ¶ Hillier, Bill. / Hanson, Julienne. (1984). The Social Logic of Space. Cambridge University Press.

6

PART 1. INTENSIVE PROGRAM
5

3

7

8

4

1

2
. .
0 1 km 0 1 km

fig.1 cognitivemap(usagereach)12yearoldboy,Amsterdam,total ↑ fig.2 radius≈5km ↓ Key to Symbols railway private transport (car) public transport pedestrian & bike routes family, friends immediate neighbourhood, street retail, shopping, cinema cafe, recreation, playground school home

fig. 3 1st, 2nd, 3rd order analysis, total ↑

fig. 4 separate layers & radius ≈ 5 km ↓

REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY

13

Programme 2006

PART 1. EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY; INTENSIVE PROGRAMME
EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY: Reanimation of the post-war city Program of workshop events and other activities: Cracow / Nowa Huta 08-19.05.2006 DATE 05.05. Friday 06.05. Saturday 07.05. Sunday 08.05. Monday day 1 TIME ACTIVITY arrivals arrivals arrivals 09.00-09.15 opening the workshop 09.15-09.45 opening speech: Wojciech Wicher, CUT 09.45-12.00 introduction to the program: Marc Koehler, TUD/HvA presentation of preparatory works: teams Amsterdam, Berlin, Delft, Frankfurt am Main, Krakow 12.00-12.15 coffee break and watching the exhibition 12.15-13.00 further presentation of preparatory works 13.30-15.00 lunch 15.00-18.00 bus tour along and across Nowa Huta getting know each other, opening dinner 19.30 09.00-09.45 09.45-10.30 10.30-11.45 11.45-12.00 12.00-12.30 12.30-14.00 14.00-18.00 19.00 lecture: Maciej Motak, CUT lecture: Andrzej Lorek, CUT lecture: Magdalena Marx-Kozakiewicz, CUT coffee break introduction to field study Nowa Huta lunch field study in Nowa Huta free evening LOCATION Krakow Krakow Kracow Nowa Huta NH branch of Krakow’s Historical Museum Nowa Huta Krakow, CUT FA Cracow EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY: Reanimation of the post-war city Program of workshop events and other activities: Cracow / Nowa Huta 08-19.05.2006 10.05. Wednesday 09.00-09.45 lecture: Peter de Bois, TUD day 3 09.45-10.30 lecture: Marc Koehler, TUD/HvA 10.30-10.45 coffee break 10.45-11.30 introduction to research phase in groups 11.30-13.00 research 13.00-14.00 lunch 14.00-18.00 research free evening 19.00 11.05. Thursday day 4 09.00-09.45 09.45-10.00 10.00-13.00 13.00-14.00 14.00-18.00 19.00 09.00-13.00 13.00-14.00 14.00-18.00 19.00 09.00-13.00 13.00-14.00 14.00-19.00 20.00 lecture: Marc Koehler ,TUD/HvA coffee break research lunch research free evening research lunch preparation for presentation of research phase free evening – clubbing presentation of the research phase, discussion lunch presentation of the research phase, discussion dinner staff with new incoming lecturers Cracow CUT FA

Cracow CUT FA

09.05. Tuesday day 2

12.05. Friday day 5

Cracow CUT FA

13.05. Saturday day 6

Cracow CUT FA

14.05. Sunday day 7

08.30-14.00 trip to Wieliczka near Krakow (elective): sightseeing the oldest in Europe salt mine 14.00-16.00 lunch 17.00 free afternoon and evening

Wieliczka

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EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

PART 1. INTENSIVE PROGRAM EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY: Reanimation of the post-war city Program of workshop events and other activities: Cracow / Nowa Huta 08-19.05.2006 15.05. Monday day 8 09.00-09.45 09.45-10.00 10.00-13.00 13.00-14.00 14.00-18.00 19.00 09.00-09.45 09.45-10.30 10.30-10.45 10.45-13.00 13.00-14.00 14.00-18.00 19.00 introduction to design phase coffee break design studio lunch design studio dinner – getting know incoming lecturers lecture: Holger Kühnel, FH B lecture: Wolfgang Rang, FH FaM coffee break design studio lunch design studio free evening Cracow CUT FA EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY: Reanimation of the post-war city Program of workshop events and other activities: Cracow / Nowa Huta 08-19.05.2006 19.05. Friday day 12 09.00-13.00 preparation of final presentations and booklet 13.00-14.00 publication 14.00-19.00 lunch presentation design studio’s, discussion presentation of integration map: Karen Buurmans, TUD discussion with participation of guest lecturers evaluation and fill in evaluation questionnaires closing dinner with IP students and IP lecturers 20.00 cultural activities, clubbing end of workshop departures departures departures Cracow CUT FA

16.05. Tuesday day 9

Cracow CUT FA

20.05. Saturday Cracow CUT FA 21.05. Sunday 22.05. Monday

17.05. Wednesday 09.00-09.45 lecture: Niels Barrett, KT day 10 09.45-10.30 lecture: Stanislaw Juchnowicz, CUT 10.30-10.45 coffee break 10.45-13.00 design studio 13.00-14.00 lunch 14.00-18.00 design studio free evening 19.00 18.05. Thursday day 11 09.00-10.30 visiting the exhibition after urban competition on development of southern closure of Plac Centralny in Nowa Huta 10.30-13.00 design studio 13.00-14.00 lunch 14.00-16.00 preparation of final presentations and booklet publication 19.00 free evening

SARP – Society of Polish Architects, Krakow Krakow, CUT FA

REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY

15

Introduction to theme 2006 | Wojciech Wicher
2.1 introduction to the workshop 2006 theme

PART 2. WORKSHOP THEME 2006; REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY
2.2 workshop brief CASE-STUDY AREA, A PIECE OF HISTORY The case study area in 2006 concerns Nowa Huta, previously the satellite city, located nearly 10 km east of Cracow, which was founded in 1949 and built basically in 1950s and 1960s as part of national “six year” plan of post-war rebuilding Poland. Planned for 100.000 people Nowa Huta developed in following years and with the number of inhabitants over 200,000 (756,629 - total population of Cracow in 2005). Cracow is one of the oldest cities in Poland, dated back by some sources to 7th century (mention in report of Jewish merchant Ibrachim Ibin Jacob travelling as representative of King of Spain) was a former capital of Poland (since 11th till 17th century). It is a city of very old academic traditions (Jagiellonian University, one of the oldest in Europe, nowadays 10 public and 12 non-public schools of higher education), a strong Catholic centre (sometimes called “the city of hundred churches”) and it has a remarkable number of valuable historical monuments (placed on UNESCO’s

Continuing the main questions of previous workshop that took place in Amsterdam in 2005 attention of participants of the program has been focused this year on analysis of existing state and proposals of careful development of public space and public domain. Public space defined mostly as space open to the public inside and outside buildings together with public domain described as a places of public life and social interaction as an essential components of each city which constitute and determine every urban structure acceptable, livable, or not. Physical space of each city once designed properly and built correctly not always warrants successful existence for inhabitants forever. Being dependent on many influences and factors, sometimes results of local municipal policy or social welfare, sometimes changeable social behaviours or preferences, sometimes unpredictable like just a fashion or particular external situation.

Nowa Huta within Krakow, 2006
16 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

PART 2. WORKSHOP BRIEF

1st World List of Cultural and Natural Heritage). It also appears to have been a breeding ground of political opposition against the new political order established after the world war II. To reduce this “destructive influence” communists introduced particular “treatment” for the city and their inhabitants: next to Cracow, on the area nearby the medieval Cistercian abbey in Mogila village huge steel works and socialistic city Nowa Huta had been founded. plan was to balance the strength of Cracow’s old society of intellectuals with an influx of working class consisting mostly of people “from nowhere”, the political base of the communist party, easy to manipulate anonymous mass. Following decades have shown, how MUCH they were mistaken.

The first opportunity to verify how strong can be the sense of national roots and traditions was an open conflict of communist authority with new citizens of socialistic city protesting (about thousand of injured during street fights) against cancelling previous decision of building a new church in 1960, however it was already four years after Stalin’s death. Next years brought also other disillusions by inefficient system, limited freedom and braking human rights. Twenty years later, at the beginning of 1980s Nowa Huta became one of the centres of independent social movement for free trade union, supported by intellectual foreground of Cracow and Catholic Church. This movement introduced historical changes in Europe giving strong impulse for political transformation in east block.

REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY

17

Introduction to theme 2006 | Wojciech Wicher
DISINTEGRATION WITHIN THE CITY

PART 2. WORKSHOP THEME 2006; REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY
But the strength of some stereotypes is great so many advertisements for housing include the phrase “Nowa Huta excluded”… First socialistic city in Poland could no longer expect central support: existing infrastructure is demolished, original exterior details of architecture, street’s and courtyard’s furniture are demolished, interior arrangements have been removed and replaced by typical finishing and furnishing, the process of erasing the elements of unique heritage from the space of the district is continued. PUBLIC SPACE WITHIN THE SOCIAL REALIST CITY Based on baroque tradition of axial composition Nowa Huta has been planned not only as an ideal city with all consequences of strong, clear hierarchy of the public space of streets and squares. Within its classical geometry was placed a highly functional city based on elements of Clarence Perry’s (1872-1944) “Neighbourhood Unit Concept”, which was used as a functional model for each autonomous osiedle, provided houses grouped in units for 5-6 thousands inhabitants. [2] Each unit has been designed with necessary amenities in the ground floor accessible from the surrounding streets and additional functions like kindergartens and playgrounds in the wide reach of greenery courtyards. Through the classical rules of its composition Nowa Huta was to become a symbol of social equality (through uniformed living units placed within symmetrical composition of the urban structure) and strength of system (through location of local authority buildings on the main axis). [2] “osiedle” = Polish equivalent of the Neighborhood Unit →

Tadeusz Ptaszycki (1908-1980), the project’s principal designer, described Nowa Huta as “a town of significant transformations of people and citizens in new conditions of urban planning and architecture, of new economic and social processes”. [1] This describes how much symbolic and political meaning had everything what concerned this enterprise. Founded in 1949 Nowa Huta had been planned at the beginning as an independent city with own local authority and all the necessary infrastructure and amenities. After three years of having such status Nowa Huta was incorporated to Cracow and became formally one of its districts. Political support for development of Nowa Huta and reduction of resources for preservation of monuments of old Cracow planted distaste between society of both cities which maintained in some stereotypes till today. Moreover, steel works produced not only steel but also terrible pollution destroying Cracow’s monuments (on the west side), natural environment of Niepolomice primeval forest (on the east side) and close neighbourhood covering a wide area with huge wasting dumps and settling ponds (on the south). In spite of that for many years inhabitants of Nowa Huta could not find their identity staying aside of the main stream of intellectual life of Cracow. Period of recession in heavy industry in 1990s and lack of clear policy in transformation and modernisation of Nowa Huta steel works caused increase of local unemployment and appearing many social problems including development of subcultures and crime. However on the background of the situation in other districts of Cracow Nowa Huta has not the highest crime indicator. [1] Ptaszycki, 10 lat Nowej Huty, [in: Miasto, 7/1959, (pp.8)] 18 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

“In the Polish system of local administration, an osiedle is a designated subdivision of a city or town, or of a dzielnica, with its own council and executive. The word osiedle is also used in Poland to denote a housing estate or development. Abbreviation Os. (commonly used in addresses).” [wikipedia]

PART 2. WORKSHOP BRIEF

Analysing the original projects (elaborated previously in five versions) and archival pictures we can find confirmation of the thesis, that apart from political connotations of architecture and urban layout stressing both social equality and leadership of communist party, Nowa Huta as a city has been planned in modern way with very high standards. Quality of infrastructure (and space) for movement including full segregation (and separation where was necessary) of each mean of transport (separated stripes for tram lines, vehicular traffic, paths for bicycles, pedestrian walkways, pavements appropriate to needs and fulfilled with a high quality composition of greenery has been considered as a one of the greatest values of Nowa Huta’s public space. Lots of functional and spatial novelties used in composition of urban block have been verified positively after nearly 60 years and still consist about architects and planner’s creativity. Although rapid political, economical and social changes after 1989 caused new qualitative and quantitative expectations from public space, Nowa Huta remains in fact the only one example of “real” city built after the World War II – the rest of the city built in 1960s, 1970s and 1980s presents only examples of CIAM inspired “functional” structures, typical for many cities in Poland. Developments being usually “free compilation” of mostly three types of buildings: taller about 11 floors, lower with 5 floors and public use buildings also based usually on typical projects, did not provided friendly and recognisable for inhabitants space.

Nowa Huta within Krakow, 1933 Nowa Huta within Krakow, 1961

↑ → REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 19

Introduction to theme 2006 | Wojciech Wicher

PART 2. WORKSHOP THEME 2006; REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY
PERSPECTIVES OF TRANSFORMATION At the beginning of 21st century a lot of local social activities have been initiated and with support of Cracow’s municipality animated wider interest in Nowa Huta: its history and great opportunities of possible re-development need a good vision and policy supporting existing initiatives. In last years among the others there were organised urban competition for development of empty closure of historical part of district, Cracow’s Biennale of Architecture dedicated the major task to the missing end of the main axis of Nowa Huta, Cracow’s municipality committed elaborating the local plan for partial converting of former steel works into the park of technology. The great value of the historical centre of Nowa Huta needs widely open discussion on possible direction of development, retaking its lost position and possible strategy of development, increasing the quality of social life within the existing structure, enrichment existing structure with new programmatic elements facing the contemporary standards of living in the city.

Apart from already mentioned compositions of street (represented by clearly defined typology of cross section) providing proper space for all kind of users the basic concept provided several centres with public amenities, mostly commercial use. They has been situated in ground floors of houses surrounding internal social space (used for children playgrounds, kindergartens and internal parking areas) along main streets and around central and local squares. Clear rules of segregation of space for public use from social space (or semi-public, Chermayeff/Alexander) was fulfilled by several

remarkable buildings, unfortunately not realised (city hall, culture house, opera). Those places are easy to recognise in Nowa Huta because of missing functional and spatial dominants. Therefore till today (with couple of meaningless exceptions) height of buildings is equal in circular belts and starts from two floors in peripheral buildings and increases up to seven floors in case of Plac Centralny. Between units are located also gated plots of primary and secondary schools with infrastructure for sport and recreation. From the previous concept of cultural amenities two cinemas and one theatre have been built.

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EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

PART 2. WORKSHOP BRIEF 2.3 Theoretical frame The main subject of Cracow’s IP: reanimating the post-war city turns students attention to the analysis of existing condition of public space in Nowa Huta in search of appropriate concepts and strategies of urban treatment. The keywords to successful redevelopment of public space within the historical part are: ► replacing the missing part of composition with new elements fitting better than previously designed, never realised ones, what means using the opportunity of enriching the existing state with new buildings introducing new quality and standards; ► programmatic intensification along the main axes of existing and predicted activities, including also searching for the new concept for the main axis of Aleja Roz (Avenue of Roses), this means, that apart from the Plac Centralny Central Square) area there is necessity of development local “hot spots” located around existing smaller squares and new enclaves for public use; ► redevelopment of green areas which need to be better maintained (neglected parts), sometimes replaced (too old parts) or developed in areas of new concepts of use, usually based on

existing sequences of leisure activities, social space of courtyards and areas of natural environment together with new concept of development of places for all kinds of sport activities; ► resolving infrastructural problems concerning conflicts with vehicular traffic, unwanted transit, isolation by traffic infrastructure (Plac Centralny), missing infrastructure for bikes, rethinking existing use of public transport and its possible or necessary development; ► discovering and analysis of all cases of informal, unofficial or hidden social activities for evaluation of needs and expectations of inhabitants and visitors of district, basically to support thinking of strategies of intensifying programmatic development.

REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY

21

Centres Beyond the Centre. New Public Spaces at the Urban Fringe | Michael Peterek
Summary In the traditional city, the urban functions were concentrated on relatively compact and limited space thus creating an environment with a high atmospheric and physical density as well as clearly articulated public spaces. In the contemporary city-regions, these same functions are spread over a wide and complex territory. As a cause of this, new activity poles emerge at the urban fringe. They operate as focal points for daily life, taking over significant tasks from the historical city core with respect to commerce, services, leisure and cultural activities. At the same time, they develop new configurations of public space in their distinct forms of shopping malls, business and service parks, sports and event centres, leisure areas, regional parks etc. A series of such “centres beyond the centre” were analysed in a research project directed by the author in 2004-2005, focussing on the Rhine-Main area in central Germany. In this city-region with more than 400 municipalities and almost 5 million people, the “classical” opposition of city and landscape, of centre and periphery, has (partly) dissolved, providing its inhabitants with a diverse range of options concerning the places and times of their activities, which are no longer confined to the boundaries of one single city or municipality alone but can extend across the entire territory of the region. Three case studies of new public spaces at the urban fringe (out of five analysed within the research project) are presented here in brief: a typical shopping mall, located at a highway

PART 3. THEME RELATED ARTICLES; RHINE MAIN CITY REGION
junction; a far reaching retail centre at the border of a minor municipality; and a fashionably refurbished tiny historical centre. The investigation imparts an overview of different forms and features of contemporary public spaces at the outskirts of our agglomerations: ranging from the non-place urban realm of the trite commercial centre to the ambitious effort of the shopping mall to simulate the setting of the traditional city and, last but not least, the commercialisation and popularisation of a historical place inspiring our nostalgic desires of atmosphere and identity. Contemporary city-regions are complex metropolitan configurations whose manifold forms and functions stem from a close interrelation with local and global developments in society, politics and economy. In the “old city”, the various urban activities were concentrated on relatively compact and limited space thus creating an environment with a high atmospheric and physical density as well as clearly articulated public spaces. The patterns of centrality were hierarchical ones. In the urban agglomerations of today, these same functions are spread over a vast and complex territory. As a cause of this, new activity poles emerge at the urban fringe, operating as focal points of our daily lives. These “peripheral” centres, situated well beyond the traditional centre, take over significant tasks from the historical city centre with respect to commerce, services, leisure and cultural activities. At the same time, they develop new configurations of contemporary public space in their distinct forms of shopping malls, business centres, leisure areas, regional parks etc.

The Rhine-Main city-region
22 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

PART 3. THEME RELATED ARTICLES The Global City-Region of Rhine-Main In many respects, the Rhine-Main area, located in central Germany at the confluence of the two rivers Rhine and Main, assumes the character of a global city-region today. On different levels – as an international financial and service hub, with its international mega-airport, its industries, universities and research centres, cultural and sports events – the overall region forms an integrated part of the global economy, politics and culture. None of the traditional centres located at distances of 30 to 40 kilometres around Frankfurt am Main (including Wiesbaden, Mainz, Offenbach, Hanau, Darmstadt, Aschaffenburg and a series of other medium-sized towns) would be able to develop the overall impact resulting from the interplay of more than 400 municipalities and almost 5 million inhabitants in the “European Metropolitan Region of Rhine-Main” on their own. As in many other conurbations, the settlement patterns and the urban landscape have radically changed over the last forty years. By establishing new activity nodes and centres of regional interest beyond the traditional city centres, and alongside increasing personal mobility, long-term urban lifestyles and practices have been questioned just as much as the conventional notion of townscape vs. landscape. In the Rhine-Main region, former “outskirts” of towns and villages are developing into a new blueprint of “intermediate space”, including all different types of built-up and un-built areas: shopping zones and office parks, family housing estates and green voids, historical landmarks, urban centres and transitory places of our day-to-day mobility (public transport stations, highways, railway tracks...) as well as regional infrastructure poles for leisure, sports and cultural events… REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 23

Centres Beyond the Centre. New Public Spaces at the Urban Fringe | Michael Peterek
The “classical” opposition of city and landscape, of centre and periphery has dissolved: the landscape becomes part of the city and the city part of the landscape, in a relation of mutual penetration and interdependence. The old centres are no longer a superior reference factor because the (former) periphery also assumes central functions in a poly-nuclear and less hierarchical regional pattern. Thus, the contemporary city-region provides its people and inhabitants with a diverse range of options concerning the places and times of their activities, which are no longer confined to the boundaries of one single city or municipality alone but can extend across the entire territory of the region as a whole – a current process that is re-shaping the configuration and usage of public spaces and places, too. Five Case Studies (the first three will be briefly presented) In the context of the research project, five such “centres beyond the centre” within the Rhine-Main region were studied in depth in their urban development, regional localisation, functional structure and physical configuration: ► a typical shopping mall, located at a highway junction, the MainTaunus-Zentrum (MTZ) ► a far-reaching retail centre at the outskirts of the minor municipality of Dreieich-Sprendlingen ► a fashionably refurbished small historical centre, Dreieichenhain ► a “modern” centre from the 1960s, created as the midpoint for the “new town” of Schwalbach ► a former basalt quarry, Dietesheimer Steinbrüche, recently converted into a landscape & leisure area of regional significance 24 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

PART 3. THEME RELATED ARTICLES; RHINE MAIN CITY REGION

Inside Main-Taunus-Zentrum: simulating the traditional city
THE SHOPPOLIS: THE MAIN-TAUNUS ZENTRUM (MTZ) The Main-Taunus-Zentrum was established in 1964 on the premises of the small municipality of Sulzbach (some 20 kilometres away from the centre of Frankfurt) as one of the first shopping centres in Europe following the fashionable American model. Since then, it has been freshened up in its physical appearance several times.

Outside the Main-Taunus-Zentrum: 4.000 free parking places
Italian “corso” with differentiated facades, tiny public “squares”, coffee shops, restaurants and a cinema complex – as a fashionable place not only for shopping, but also for eating out, meeting friends and leisure activities. A regular monthly journal, cultural events as well as the so-called “clients’ parliament” suggest the ambience of an apparently real public life.

In its manifestation of today, the MTZ attempts to simulate the setting of a traditional city and to provide urban amenities without partaking in the alleged urban inconveniences of the conventional town centres (like petty criminality, dirtiness, traffic jams etc.). Inside, it imitates an inner-city shopping boulevard, a kind of

At the same time, however, the shopping mall is a strictly regulated system. Accurate rules have a hold over all kind of possible activities within the private premises. Although the MTZ is freely accessible to everyone, street musicians, homeless persons, skate-boarders or children simply playing in the centre are unwanted groups. Contrary to the integration of commercial areas and public space in the traditional city, the mall presents

PART 3. THEME RELATED ARTICLES

Dreieich-Sprendlingen: advertising the mega-stores
itself as a totally introverted structure, an isolated “gated shopping” location at the urban fringe. Its central “boulevard” resembles the scenery of a Western film, 600 metres long, flanked by neatly decorated fronts, with bypaths leading nowhere. From the outside, the MTZ is nothing more than just a simple shed, somehow embellished at its main entrances. Strategically situated at a highway junction, it attracts customers with easy (automobile) access, its convenient location on the commuters’ way from home to work and back, and with the 4,000 free parking places. As a result, it has evolved to become a serious rival to the existing cores of the neighbouring cities – as a contemporary option of commercial and public space within an overall network of regional locations. SPRAWL CITY: THE COMMERCIAL CENTRE IN DREIEICH-SPRENDLINGEN

Dreieich-Sprendlingen: coffee-shop at the car-park
Wal Mart and Mann Mobilia (an IKEA-like version of a furniture and housewares outlet) can be approached on the easiest way.

The area once zoned for economic and production activities in Dreieich-Sprendlingen, a small municipality located in the geographic centre between the cities of Frankfurt, Offenbach and Darmstadt, has since some time developed into an expanding commercial and service pole of regional importance. Once more, the precondition of the development – which in this case has been a somewhat “unplanned” one, with no ultimate concept or “vision”, unlike the case of the shopping mall – has been given by the general motorisation. A huge (free) car-park forms the physical as well as symbolic core of the overall setting. From here, the mega-stores and focal points

Again, the architectural ambitions have been confined to the production of simple and trite sheds for commercial purposes – and, additionally, some giant flagpoles acting as advertising mega-signs towards the highway. Some smaller parking facilities in front of the discounters Aldi, Lidl, and others repeat the same model. The recipe is simple: in case of necessity, more car-parks, access streets and retail sheds are added. Basically, this automobile-oriented city is an anti-city, not bothering about ambience qualities, attractive environments or anthropological needs. REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 25

Centres Beyond the Centre. New Public Spaces at the Urban Fringe | Michael Peterek
Nevertheless, it is remarkable to perceive that at the same time, more and more functions, actions and daily activities which were originally located within the traditional town centre are currently moving out to the “periphery”, adding up to the specific scenery of Sprawl City. Such functions and activities comprise restaurants, snack bars and fast food facilities (including a Mc Donald’s as a major attraction even on Sundays, when all surrounding retail is closed), entertainment centres and arcades, fitness centres, sun studios, specialised shops for electronics, water beds, pet ware, baby equipment etc., as well as all sort of daily service facilities like travel agents, lawyers, tax consultants, physiotherapists, chemists, dry cleaners, post office, bank branches and so on. They all gather in some way around the central car-park area. Sometimes, on Sundays and holidays, this “communal” space is used for flea markets, skateboard competitions or other public events, too, acting as a temporary location for public life. On the one hand, the commercial centre of Dreieich-Sprendlingen (and many similar settings elsewhere throughout the city-region) has a growing impact on our daily lives, on the way we move, shop, consume and behave. On the other hand, it remains a non-place realm, without any distinct identity, architectural or emotional qualities, forgotten and blended out of our minds as soon as we have left it again.

PART 3. THEME RELATED ARTICLES; RHINE MAIN CITY REGION

Dreieichenhain: traditional scenery and atmosphere
THE OLD CITY: DREIEICHENHAIN

Dreieichenhain: the yearly medieval festival

The tiny medieval town centre of Dreieichenhain is a typical example of those places that inspire our nostalgic thinking and desires of traditional sceneries full of history, atmosphere and identity, although they are physically evermore disappearing from our everyday life. As a result, Dreieichenhain has developed into a very particular “place” within the Rhine-Main regional agglomeration. Located only a few minutes’ drive from the non-place commercial centre of Dreieich-Sprendlingen, it brings up the flair and the history of its medieval building structures, streets and lanes, along with the romantic remains of the former castle.

Dreieichenhain represents an image of the “old city”, fashionably refurbished today, simultaneously sticking to the economic rules and conventions of the global city-region. In this context, “timber frame, jazz and festivals” are the products establishing the place as a spotlight of regional interest and a commercial factor at the same time. Restaurants, coffee bars, fashion and antique shops invite you to stroll along the main street between the two city gates, enjoying the specific architecture and atmosphere. Simultaneously, Dreieichenhain is explicitly being promoted as an “open-air shopping mall” by its marketing strategies, aspiring to provide the same services as its modern commercial counterparts

26

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PART 3. THEME RELATED ARTICLES

Conclusions with regard to cleanliness, public security, synchronised opening hours, free car-parking and so on. It is remarkable to see that, apparently, the models have become upturned: at the same time as the shopping centre seeks to simulate the setting of the traditional city, the old city tries to learn from the contemporary mall. In so doing, it really enters a new phase in its history where “local” and “global” features of attractive public space overlap and are difficult to tell apart. In an ongoing process of commercialisation and Disneyesque popularisation, the neatly restored old town centre takes on more and more signs and characters of the global realm, whilst the ambitious re-setting of the shopping mall endeavours to produce a specific ambience of locality. The case studies presented here can only mark a first step of investigating the developing new “centres beyond the centre”. Besides such examples with a predominantly commercial character, other urban functions have also (in part) broken away from the traditional urban core: business and service parks, sports, event and entertainment centres, nodes of the public transport network, as well as formal and informal leisure areas in the evolving regional parks and urban landscape will have to be studied further in their function of new types of public spaces at the urban fringe. They all constitute important activity poles of daily life within the territorial system of the expanding city-regions. A better understanding of their structure, use and evolution will be crucial for qualified planning and development of these urban agglomerations in the future.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Thorsten Bürklin, Michael Peterek: Lokale Identitäten in der globalen Stadtregion. “Alltagsrelevante Orte” im Ballungsraum Rhein-Main. Stadt und Raum im globalen Kontext Band 1, IKO Verlag für Interkulturelle Kommunikation, Frankfurt am Main 2006 Lars Bölling, Thomas Sieverts: Mitten am Rand. Auf dem Weg von der Vorstadt über die Zwischenstadt zur regionalen Stadtlandschaft, Wuppertal 2004 François Ascher: Métapolis ou l’avenir des villes, Paris 1995 Marc Augé: Orte und Nicht-Orte. Vorüberlegungen zu einer Ethnologie der Einsamkeit, Frankfurt am Main 1994 REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 27

PART 3. THEME RELATED ARTICLES; “NEW TOWN” DEVELOPMENT in Holland
the significance of “Urban Frame” | Peter de Bois (transcript of lecture; translation Karen Buurmans)
Every person has an image in his head that helps him understand the organisation of the city and enables him to use the city in accordance to his momentary needs and means of transport. We call this image a cognitive map. The Cognitive Map and the spatial ritual On behalf of an exposition themed “Cartography in Amsterdam between 1866 and 2000” (commissioned by the Amsterdam Municipal Archives) Waag Society in collaboration with Esther Polak and Jeroen Kee initiated the project “Amsterdam RealTime”. The project encompassed equipping a number of inhabitants of the city of Amsterdam with a GPS device that via “satellite tracking” plotted the participants’ daily routine with regard to their movements and pauses, correlated to the topography of the city. The resulting map is not the traditional product of a cartographer, but the combined result of the inhabitants of the city themselves. It is a map that does not consist of houses, streets, squares and parks, but of the motions and routes of the participants. [figure 1] The summation of those individual movements results in a surprisingly coherent overview of the city of Amsterdam and gives clear clues as to the actual use of the town’s public space. And this is exactly the value of this type of research: it shows the actual use of public space, where people meet, when people meet, it shows their spatial rituals and how overlap in individual routines charges areas with collective significance. It shows how the “Urban Frame” of the city facilitates the myriad individual circuits and how it effectuates relations between use and users, between destinations, programme, and visitors. [figure 2.1 to 2.4] Fig. 1. Amsterdam Real Time, diary in traces [1] Fig. 2.1. to 2.4. Several individual traces [1] 28 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006 → →→
Sanne

Adinka

Irene - mooiweerfietser

Jouke

PART 3. THEME RELATED ARTICLES It is of the utmost importance to understand in what way the Urban Frame -- the system of streets, squares and parks that serves the needs of the town’s inhabitants and visitors -- feeds and facilitates the development and extent of the individual “cognitive map”. That insight will help urban designers, planners and politicians grasp the town’s socio-economic functioning. It adds inevitably to the knowledge gained through other, more traditional research and analysis methods and provides a clear and more effective image of a vital aspect of urban life. Cities are not all the same, not all cities have come into existence along the same paths. Furthermore, a great variety of New Towns has been developed primarily based on singularly temporal notions and social concepts. Understanding the manner in which public domain functions in respective contexts is vital in the light of the rapid contemporary developments with regard to urban expansion, regeneration and, again, new towns. The Cognitive Map and Urban Frame Every movement through the Frame of the city is registered in the brain en becomes part of the general lot of insights and knowledge with regard to public space and its functional targets. That information is incorporated in one’s Cognitive Map. But there is a limit to the sort and amount of data that can be stored, for example the number of directional changes one encounters along one’s path. Everyone who has ever asked someone directions knows this first hand. It becomes difficult to remember more than three turns away from the starting point: “here straight on, the second street to the left and than at the local grocery store to the right.” At that point one is usually advised to ask again. ← Fig. 3.1 Cognitive map boy (10-12), Berlage quarter, A’dam [2] REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 29

6

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railway private transport (car) public transport pedestrian & bike routes family, friends immediate neighbourhood, street retail, shopping, cinema cafe, recreation, playground school home
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PART 3. THEME RELATED ARTICLES; “NEW TOWN” DEVELOPMENT in Holland
the significance of “Urban Frame” | Peter de Bois (transcript of lecture; translation Karen Buurmans)
Our “1st, 2nd & 3rd order” or “Three-Step” analysis method visualises for every urban element under investigation the connected Frame in three steps from the point of origin. Hence it gives insight into the depth and reach of this specific element in its urban context as well as the “connectivity” and typology of the urban fabric as a whole. An example. The functional-cognitive map of a 10 to 15 year old boy living in Amsterdam shows his more or less regular destinations: the Sloterplas, the Vondelpark, the Central Station, Artis Zoo, and various spots in the immediate surroundings of his home such as the Sarphatipark and the swimming pool. The underlying Frame of the city enables him to find his way and recognise his whereabouts. [figure 3.1] When the Three-Step analysis method is applied to the living area of the 10 to 15 year old boy it becomes clear that the depth map virtually seamlessly coincides with his functional-cognitive map. Thus it becomes clear why those elements were incorporated in his routing reference in the first place as there is a clear correlation between his use of space and the available Urban Frame. [figure 3.2 to 3.6] Apart from a great many personally significant destinations this boy encounters several crucial urban anchor points too, such as the historical ring of canals and the 19th century areas surrounding the city centre. Knowledge of these iconic elements of the town’s historical development is bound to broaden his general scope and frame of reference. It can be expected that in areas where the Urban Frame does not facilitate use and routing to a similar extent, the development of a person’s individual Cognitive Map and his insight in the construction of the city in its broadest sense will be hampered. The actual functioning of the public domain in terms of socio-economic spin-off will be compromised possibly to the point of segregation and the (in)advertant rise of so-called “gated communities”. 30 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

.

0

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PART 3. THEME RELATED ARTICLES Key to Symbols

railway private transport (car) public transport pedestrian & bike routes family, friends immediate neighbourhood, street retail, shopping, cinema cafe, recreation, playground school home
← Fig. 3.2 1st, 2nd, 3rd order analysis, total [2] Urban Frame and Public Space The manner in which the urban frame comes into being, transforms and is laid out, designed, in new towns or large expansion areas greatly determines the development and functioning of public domain. The frame basically serves three purposes: (1) to provide in the structural cohesion between the whole of the urban system and it’s separate parts, i.e. the streets, squares, parks and individual destinations that make up public domain; (2) to facilitate its users in terms of time and efficiency of movement and action; (3) to ensure freedom of choice with regard to accessibility and use of public space apart from social class or status. Fig. 3.3 to 3.6 Correlation between Cognitive Map and through Three-Step analyis available Frame, R = 5 km [2] For the urban frame facilitates the connection between its parts, between the physical-spatial and socio-economical construction of the city in casu. It represents the urban dynamics of that city and it creates the opportunities for the genesis of relationships and (social) interaction between the users of the public domain, between both individuals and groups of people. The urban frame exemplifies different ways of life, use and viewing and enables interaction. In this complex whole of individual spatial rituals two basic notions play a critical part: (1) the need for insight in the construction of the whole of the city, in other words the “context” of the space we roam; and (2) the need for insight in the parts of that city, the position of destinations, different functions and “details”. With these two notions the individual meets collective consciousness: without context no idea where we are, without ↑

detail no reason as to why we are there. Here essentially lies the basis for our desire to be mobile and the allied need for orientation, navigation, “wayfinding”. Our need for safety and efficiency urges us to anticipate whatever it is we want to achieve or avoid. The cognitive map provides essential clues as to how this process of orientation and anticipation on behalf of our socio-economical behaviour is facilitated by the public frame and, hence, manifests itself in the public domain. Public domain and collective interest The genesis, development and design of the pubic domain are part to a frail and uncertain relationship between private and public demands. Various collectively used spaces (e.g. REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 31

PART 3. THEME RELATED ARTICLES; “NEW TOWN” DEVELOPMENT in The Netherlands
the significance of “Urban Frame” | Peter de Bois (transcript of lecture; translation Karen Buurmans)
develop effectively when both entries provide an adequate motive for establishing that interaction. There should be some sort of consensus between the providers of a place in casu, both the municipality and the private stakeholders that determine functional content and quality, and the user that can choose to either visit or discard that place. Essential is are problems of making a place known, what need is fulfils and how it can be reached. In other words: context and detail. Without context there is no clue as to where, without detail no reason why. A place should be incorporated in a user’s cognitive map. For the planners and designers responsible for the public this means that they should be very aware of the matter of context, the prerequisite of their task. The assignment comprises in the first place the question as to “why”. Only in second place it is about the “how”, the solution. Under no circumstances it is about proclaiming designer’s personal paradigm. Design is not an end in itself, it is the means to an end that surpasses the designer’s pride whereas the significance of the public domain is a matter of long-term and collective nature. No cosmetic surgery, no botox for public space. Shift in social paradigm The relationship between private and public parties as stakeholders in the public domain is subject to major changes. Mid 20th century (society could be described in terms of collective values and ideological characteristics (collective care, social coherence, equality). Government played a major part in directing and facilitating individual security and general socioeconomic development on behalf of its citizens. The mechanism of globalisation, dissolution of borders and increasing prosperity affected society significantly. Present-

shopping centres, station areas, etc.) are only partly or not at all embedded in the public domain, but instead belong to a private domain. Even though they do register on the cognitive map they in fact represent a publicly accessible realm that belongs to a private interior as already drawn up by Giambattista Nolli in his famous map of Rome (1748). Likewise it shows that this phenomenon is of all times. What binds these private and public areas, places, and even streets is a common need for a relevant and recognisable position within the urban context, the Frame of the city. The significance of a place, its “genius loci”, comes with the fit between its function and content and to what extent its users are accordingly provided. A market square for example is an excellent case of a place that enables a considerable differentiation in use, attracts a large variety of users and usually occupies a very central and recognisable position in the urban fabric. [figure 4.1 to 4.6] 32 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

Fig. 4.1 t/m 4.6. Three-Step analyses of Dutch city squares [3] Comparative research into the way old and new market squares are positioned in their respective urban context shows that since the mid 20th century a discrepancy has emerged in the way the urban Frame actually connects these crucial areas to the city as a whole and therewith positions them within the urban context. In older, “organically” grown towns the relationship between the collective nature of the market square is reflected by its central position and wide reach within the urban fabric. Unfortunately, the present-day pretty much autonomous traffic machine implements cuts and measures that disturb the natural flows and relationship to the point that the city in casu fragments both spatially and functionally. The necessary interaction between function and content of space on the one hand and its users on the other can only

PART 3. THEME RELATED ARTICLES day society cannot be captured any more in simple terms of collectiveness. Government gave up on its dominant position with regard to socio-economic control and devolved large parts of its powers to the private sector. The collective plays second fiddle to the individual. The world has become a motley collection of so-called life-styles. But the influence of life-styles on the functioning and use of the public domain is greatly overrated. Income, education and ethnical background are still much more determining for what’s sought in public space. Users gather from diverse backgrounds in the same old streets and places that have always been functional-spatial anchor points and only from there on go their separate ways. Based on life-style they then decide for example to visit a common alehouse or a fancy grand café.

← Fig. 5.1 & 5.2 Relationship between position of retail, block typology and urban Frame in Amsterdam [4] Fig. 6.1 t/m 6.9. Top down frame analysis of important axes in Asterdam by means of “Space Syntax” [5] ↑

Partly due to the withdrawal of governmental control, planning and design of town and landscape have become more fragmented and less obvious as unambiguous context. The Dutch consultative model of reaching compromise, consensus (“polder model”) on each and every decision underlies this fragmentation further. But paradoxically the demand for

Fig. 7.1 t/m 7.3. “A City is not a Tree” [6]

→ REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 33

PART 3. THEME RELATED ARTICLES; “NEW TOWN” DEVELOPMENT in Holland
the significance of “Urban Frame” | Peter de Bois (transcript of lecture; translation Karen Buurmans)
centralised action has never been greater: the prevailing influence of urban development on landscape and ecology is being questioned; the seeming infallibility of technocratic control over our environment is being affected; climate change and the accompanying inevitability to reassess use and management of territory, all demand a more integral and at the same time more flexible approach to spatial planning. All these developments together greatly impact the role and position of public domain in the contemporary city. The part it should play is providing the necessary and desired spatial development and functional coherence in order to facilitate an effective and self-sufficient socioeconomic process. Present-day society is a labyrinth. The need for a clear, legible and effective spatial context is urgent. The poignant deficiency is being compensated on the individual level by commerce marketing exclusive products, from navigation equipment to entire dwelling areas. The (lack of) quality of socioeconomic context on the one hand and the spatial context on the other exemplifies the balance between private and public demands and gives a clue as to the characteristics of society. Urban cognitive structure, context and Frame - Pattern - Circuit The cognitive structure of the urban system, the urban context, can be described in terms of the following three notions: (1) “Frame”, complete network of streets, squares, public space. (2) “Pattern”, all possible destinations, anchor points, landmarks (3) “Circuit”, the projected functional system of routes and nodes Frame can be considered the collective public investment, the “hardware”of the city, whilst Pattern and Circuit can be compared to individual private interaction mechanisms, the “software”. Frame facilitates the formation of circuits and the following 34 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006 “coincidence” ensures an effective implementation of Pattern. Under optimum circumstances this will trigger a self-generating process of private investments, the establishment of enterprises and the activation of destinations. The case of Amsterdam clearly shows an effectively functioning urban Frame. Situation of Pattern (retail, shopping) is based on the summation of individual circuits which follow those elements of the fabric that interconnect the top-down “superframe” and the bottom-up district and neighbourhood fabric. [figure 5] The gradual development of Amsterdam in the course of time and the continuous process of transformation has resulted in a city Frame that optimally relates external accessibility (entering from the outside, top-down) and internal connectivity (from the smallest particles of the city outward, bottom-up). Every phase of expansion and transformation of the urban fabric was building on and extrapolating from the then existing Frame. [figure 6.1 to 6.9] Changes are therefore not just about simply adding to the Frame but also (re)evaluating the position of each and every whether pre-existing or new element, line or location, within the network as a whole. This way a series of urban axis developed that penetrate deeply into the system and sort effect throughout all levels of scale. The city developed a Frame that is capable of comprising simultaneously intentions and functions of overlapping, contrasting, competing and/or complementary nature. The Frame can be regarded a “parallel” system wherein socio-economical processes and physical-spatial transformation can follow their own courses without primary depending on public budget. The practical flexibility and the intrinsic capacity for transformation a Frame like this provides is directly related to the way the streets of the system are mutually interconnected. A certain variation in typology and length of streets is also important. [figure 7.1 to 7.3] Likewise, this exemplifies why a completely regular “grid” system in itself doesn’t necessarily function well either. It requires a number of structural exceptions and deviations such as the Diagonal and the pre-existing settlements in the Cerda plan in Barcelona to provide the necessary cognitive anchor points and therewith sufficient socioeconomic signification. [figure 7.4]

The historical city and parallel Frame A grid in itself is no prerequisite, but a more or less orthogonal system of interconnected lines and axis of varying length and nature is a general product of gradual development. The casestudy of Rotterdam exemplifies this principle. [figure 8.1 to 8.11] The illustrations show the development of the city from its earliest days around 800 AD till the present day. Each phase indicates a dominant orientation within the urban Frame along which the city grows before it reaches a pivoting point after which the direction of expansion changes roughly by 90°. The lines that performed a dominant position in the preceding phase have to

PART 3. THEME RELATED ARTICLES adapt to the new situation and will undergo a functional- spatial transformation in correspondence to their role and position within the Frame of the city. Major “Pattern” elements will also shift accordingly and claim a position along the new dominant lines. This is something that can easily be seen today. Example is the AMRO Bank in Amsterdam: before settling on the South Axis this commercial institution occupied various significant locations in the city, locations that can be considered both “anchor points” and main icons of urban identity. In the case of Rotterdam it becomes clear that function and significance of the existing A13 highway, after the mending of two “missing links”, shifts towards a position as inter-urban connection area, whereas this line already binds all main and iconic destinations of both The Hague, Delft and Rotterdam. [figure 8.11b] In The Hague these destinations comprise: (1) the coastal area; (2) the beach and the pier of scheveningen; and (3) the city centre with the Parliament buildings, the city squares and shopping area, the tram tunnel, the City Hall and the theatre area. In Delft these are: (3) the connection across the highway to IKEA, the recreation area of the “Delftse Hout” and the connection to the dwelling areas of Pijnacker. Further along the line lies the landscape area of “Midden Delfand” (Central Delfland) and eventually in Rotterdam there can be found: (4) “Blijdorp” Zoo; (5) the City Hall with a number of squares including the cultural area around the “Doelen”; (6) the new “Koopgoot” shopping area; (7) the river fronts, the “Maasbrug” (Meuse Bridge) and “Maasboulevard” Meuse Boulevard) and the recent developments on the “Kop van Zuid” pensinsula; (8) the “Zuidplein” (South Square) as centre of Rotterdam South; and eventually (9) the landscape area south of Rotterdam.

Fig. 8.1 to 8.11 “STOA” analyse Rotterdam [7] ↑ REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 35

.

PART 3. THEME RELATED ARTICLES; “NEW TOWN” DEVELOPMENT in Holland
the significance of “Urban Frame” | Peter de Bois (transcript of lecture; translation Karen Buurmans)
The local transformation processes of The Hague, Delft and Rotterdam have reached a level that surpasses their local contexts. The extended A4 highway directly connects the Randstad with Antwerp which provides the opportunity to “downgrade” the existing A13 and give it function more appropriate to the level of the Randstad South Wing. The New Town and serial Frame Even though the brain processes information in a parallel manner, translating that into conscious thought and effective action inevitably results in a serial flow. After all, we do things in a sequential manner, conscious thought, communication and action require consecutive steps. In contrast to the parallel process of long-term development in “traditionally” grown cities, the initial set-up of rationally planned, rapidly developed New Towns is therefore per definition serial in nature. [figure 9] Examples of serial urban contexts in Holland are the large scale post-war expansion areas (1960s, 1970s), most “Vinex” locations (1990s) and many New Towns. The New Town of Almere (1969) is a particularly elaborate case of a serially developed urban Frame. From its conception it has been allowed to develop according to the original plans with the staggering speed of 3.000 dwellings per year. At this moment the town houses about 180.000 inhabitants, spread over a threesome nuclei. A further growth to 350.000 inhabitants has recently been agreed upon. This additional programme as compared to the original planes raises the question as to the spatial consequences for the operative model and the quality of the existing fabric. [figure 13.1 to 13.6] It is an idée fixe to expect it is possible to create a complete city from scratch in thirty years time. No urban concept or model can capture all aspects of urban life. New Towns are imperfect and incomplete by default. The fact that the notion “urban” 36 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

Fig. 09. Serial and parallel city frame [8][9] ↑

PART 3. THEME RELATED ARTICLES has proven almost impossible to define is in itself testimony to this. New Towns inevitably must undergo several phases of transformation in order to attain the stratification that comes with the spatial and functional complexity according to an integral urban system. The city of Almere falls in line with the Dutch tradition of empoldering and creating new land. As is the case with most New Towns Almere too is situated a stone’s throw from a larger, older city on which it is to a certain extent functionally and socioeconomically dependent. [figure 14] In this particular case the city was to provide a green and spacious living environment to the “overflow” population of Amsterdam. [figure 12.1 & 12.2] In the case of Almere the overflow motive combined with the new land led to an urban model based on: (1) a top-down instigated organisation of the urban Frame (2) a deliberately conflict avoiding singular spatial stratification (3) an equality oriented social concept (4) an alleged tabula rasa setting (5) lack of historical context The accompanying planning process was marked by efficiency and technological feasibility. Good ideas and intentions of the planners and designers in spite, the town that emerged bears the undeniable limitations of a singularly pragmatic and dated spatial strategy with as its most pregnant trademark stringent functional separations on all levels of scale. Almere features an amalgam of sometimes only partially adopted ideologies, in principle each with their own merit yet with problematic consequences as well: (1) a “Garden City” without the required autonomy; (2) a system of “Green Belts” that due to the combination with main infrastructure function a very literal separators but hardly with any recreational value; (3) a partial implementation of

“Polycentrism” that indeed focuses on creating separate spatial entities yet largely omits the intrinsic interconnections; (4) an execution of the “Neighbourhood Unit” concept that appears more commercial than social; and (5) a “Segmented City” in the most extreme sense. [figure 11.1 to 11.3]

Fig. 10 New Town categorisation [10]

↑↑

Fig. 11.1 “Garden Cities of To-Morrow” [11] ↑ Fig. 11.2. The “segmented city” [12] ↑ Fig. 11.3 New Town Almere, compilation of different models [13] ↑ REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 37

PART 3. THEME RELATED ARTICLES; “NEW TOWN” DEVELOPMENT in Holland
the significance of “Urban Frame” | Peter de Bois (transcript of lecture; translation Karen Buurmans)
Fig 12.1. Pioneers Fig 12.2. New land, New Town, Almere Haven Fig 13.1 t/m 12.6 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011, 2031 Fig 14. Topographical overview Amsterdam - Almere The incomplete city, a collection of fragments The factual problems of the city are correspondingly: the city is barely legible for its own inhabitants, even those who have been living there for a considerable amount of time still get lost outside their own immediate realm. The city basically is a collection of unilaterally connection districts and neighbourhoods that are decidedly introverted and basically function as “gated communities”, without the “gate” that is. Consequently enforced infrastructural partition prevents the different traffic modalities (car, bus, train, bicycle and pedestrian) from meeting which means that different flows require different cognitive maps that only sporadically overlap. [figure 15.1 to 15.3] Orientation is hampered and sometimes even completely impossible without GPS navigation. The city basically is a topdown labyrinth which means that individual identification with the town as a whole and with its separate parts is limited. The city fragments both spatially and functionally in a series of introverted district and neighbourhood enclaves. [figure 16.1 to 16.4] The excess of infrastructural partitions adds to the lack of spatial coherence and therewith hampers orientation. It reinforces the tendency of typological repetition on the level of district and neighbourhood. The natural need for variation and distinction is not remotely met which means that orientation, identification and hierarchy are insufficiently facilitated. [figure 17.1 to 17.12] 38 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006 → →→ →→→ ↓

PART 3. THEME RELATED ARTICLES ← Fig 15.1 to 15.3. The infrastructure model with separated systems for every modality in Almere Buiten requires an equal amount of different cognitive maps in its subjects [14]

Bus & rail Fig 16.1 to 16.2 Schematised structure of Almere Buiten: a palet of intorverted neighbourhoods, each with their sperate exteriot connection but not sufficiently interconnected [14] ↑ Fig 16.3 to 16.4. Daily routes, car & bicycle, for 40 households in Almere Buiten: where those different routes finally meet, converge, there is nothing but infrastructure void [14]

Bicycle

Car

Car

Bicycle REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 39

PART 3. THEME RELATED ARTICLES; “NEW TOWN” DEVELOPMENT in Holland
the significance of “Urban Frame” | Peter de Bois (transcript of lecture; translation Karen Buurmans)

Fig. 16.1 Three-Step analysis main and sub centres, total [15] ← Fig 17.1 t/m 17.12 Infrastructure compartimentation [16]

To cut a long story short, there is a severe imbalance in the way different elements in the city are used by its inhabitants. The highway and the ring road figure over-largely in intra-urban movements whilst significant programmatic anchor points such as shopping centres and unique recreational destinations like parks and water areas barely register and are in fact under-used. They are ill-connected to the level of districts and neighbourhoods and it can even be argued that it from several districts it is faster to go all the way to Amsterdam than try and reach the local city centre. [figure 16.1 to 16.4] The socio-economical spin-off the city needs to develop and maintain itself is not facilitated and loses momentum immediately. The excess of public domain, both in terms of parks, squares and 40 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

PART 3. THEME RELATED ARTICLES

Fig 16.2 Three-Step analysis centre Almere Buiten [15]

Fig 16.3 Three-Step analysis centre Almere Haven [15] Location and context of an individual dwelling is of little value as distinguishing quality standard. This is largely due to the previously described development of the city and the way the urban frame, i.e. the public system of streets, parks, water areas and squares, does (or rather doesn’t) facilitate the general and specific social, functional and spatial needs of the user. Frame - Pattern - Circuit, the urban “intranet”

Fig 16.4 Three-Step analysis centre Almere Stad [15]

infrastructure, is a heavy burden on the Municipal budget without yielding obvious qualitative results and it already takes social and physical wear its toll on the older districts and neighbourhoods. The volatile settling habits of the inhabitants bring forth socioeconomical segregation. Bonding with the dwelling location is limited, people tend to move to another dwelling as soon as the opportunity presents itself. Since every place is equal with regard to (lack of) facilitation within the neighbourhood, district and city as a whole, the context argument loses validity. Consequences go without saying: social relations and the accompanying spatial rituals are seldom fully initiated and are often only temporal; investments in the existing dwelling for reasons of wear, renewal and updating, stage of life, etc. are put off because moving is the more feasible option. The public domain is left void and uninspired due to lack of involvement and commitment.

Inhabitants of a city should be facilitated by an adequate urban “Frame” in order to gain access and actually use space according to their pluriform needs. The current top-down “tree-like” network of the city cannot fulfil that role. It should be complemented with a considerable number of new intra-urban connections, urban axis, avenues and a system of district and neighbourhood streets

that can function as integral bottom-up base layer of the public domain. Detecting and mending strategically vital “missing links” can produce this completion. Based on the Frame - Pattern Circuit “profile” of an urban system in casu on beforehand insight can be gained into the most effective type of transformation. [figure 18] That way an urban Frame could emerge that effectively establishes relationships between the multitude of Pattern elements and hence provides the basis for healthy self-generating socio-economical dynamics. After all, users of the urban Frame should be able to anticipate the urban setting when it comes to choice of movement, route and destination. The resulting individual circuits are the result of a qualitative assessment of efficiency and proficiency. Efficient are those circuits that enable users to combine and relate a variety of tasks and destinations. Walking the dog for example usually takes a predetermined REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 41

PART 3. THEME RELATED ARTICLES; “NEW TOWN” DEVELOPMENT in Holland
the significance of “Urban Frame” | Peter de Bois (transcript of lecture; translation Karen Buurmans)
“To Know the Path is to Rule the System” The Frame of a city can actually be considered from two viewpoints: (1) top-down the highway and the hierarchical treeor drainage-like system of ring road, avenues and local roads; and (2) bottom-up the system of neighbourhood streets, foot paths and bicycle tracks. Both on the level of the town districts and the city as a whole the Frame is lacking a number of layers, the Frame is lacking an “intranet” On the level of the districts and neighbourhoods streets are generally short and very local. They only serve the directly adjacent dwelling areas and play no part in connecting neighbouring areas. However, when combined with the existing network of bus lanes and avenues the system as a whole can be relatively easily transformed in to a coherent and interconnecting “intranet” that facilitates the currently lacking layer of multi-modal and multi-functional urban axis. In the previously mentioned example of Almere Buiten this can be achieved by inserting some minor, yet precisely determined and crucial “missing links”. By doing so, a connection is realised between the separate districts and neighbourhoods and the centrally localised Evenaar (“Equator”) Avenue. Additionally, a connection between the natural area of the Oostvaardersplassen and the centre of Almere Buiten is established. The Evenaar will literally become the backbone of the whole quarter, binding them together and facilitating all infrastructural modalities. The resulting coincidence of socio-economic flows will finally make it fit its role as major urban axis. [figure 19.1 & 19.2] Fig. 19.1 Central Axis “Evenaar” Almere Buiten, existing [18] Fig. 19.2 Central Axis “Evenaar” Almere Buiten, new [18] → →

Fig. 18.1 Frame - Pattern - Circuit, structural characteristics [17] ↑ Fig. 18.2. Frame - Pattern - Circuit, transformation strategy: above scheme is a sort of gliding scale with regard to the invasiveness of the intervention [17] → and fixed amount of time and often favours a route that avoids retracing because that would be boring and uninteresting. The same principle applies to virtually every time and functionality focused action such as visits to important areas in the city like parks and centres etc. Necessity and profit combined with recreation are plotted into a circuit that follows the urban Frame. Following from a series of interdependent and complementary analyses linked to the Frame - Pattern - Circuit template a coherent approach on behalf of generating urban transformation proposals has come forth. The city of Almere has functioned as both case-study and test case. [figure 18.1] 42 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

“optimalisation”, reprofiling (2) relocation of programme (3) rerouting / diversion of flows (4)
Essential queries were: (1) the previously mentioned transformation of the urban Frame by detecting and mending critical “missing links”; (2) contemplating the “image” of the city in terms of “park city” or “city park”; (3) optimising the variation in dwelling typologies and density, implementing the full gradient from (sub)urban to rural; (4) establishing a more effective situation, concentration and facilitation of significant public spaces such as parks, squares and water areas; (5) inverting the general typology of the urban fabric from “gated” (every unit its own connection to the exterior, but no internal coherency) to “related”.

PART 3. THEME RELATED ARTICLES A similar intermediate system is required to shift the spatial concept of the city as a whole from “gated” to “related”. When these new infrastructure layers are cutting through the different levels of scale and relate (1) the existing foot paths and bicycle tracks; (2) the recreational network of the city; (3) and the present anchor points such as railway stations, squares, parks and water areas; then it will give rise to a more parallel organised urban Frame that would be more adequate in supporting the town’s social and economical dynamics. Maintenance and transformation of areas and buildings will likely follow a more self-sufficient course and draw less heavily from public funds. It will facilitate a bottom-up development that will focus on the interior of the city rather than “bypass” this via the highway and ring road. [figure 20.1 to 20.4] The system of multi-modal multi-functional urban axis that emerges connects the separate areas of the city directly with the existing centres. The way external connections, e.g. to Amsterdam Utrecht and Amersfoort, are implemented into the urban Frame is also of great significance. Especially exactly what connections are established is determining how well the network as a whole will function as a parallel system. As mentioned, it is possible to generate a number of urban axes without reconstructing the entire city. The existing supply of streets is indeed fragmented but only a few precise adjustments can make it perfectly fit to fulfil the role of integral underlying fabric. An existing bus lane can easily be transformed in an urban axis that carries all forms of traffic and also provides conditions for implementing new programme and architectural adaptations. [figure 21.1 & 21.2] Defragmentation and coherent Pattern In a complete and healthy urban Frame users and potentials investors are allowed to stay on their own level of scale, literally within their own “frame of reference”, when moving from one action to the next. They will gain more insight in potential for programme, destinations and specific qualities of areas and places, “Pattern”. An effective relationship between Frame, Pattern and Circuit and the consequent positive effects regarding the built-up of the individual’s cognitive map will eventually result in a more fruitfully functioning public domain, as the facilitating role of the transformed urban Frame with regard to mobility, movement, accessibility and destination ensures vital collective “coincidence”. Areas can be set up more effectively with regard to use and quality and excess of public domain can be avoided which leaves more means to invest in existing urban areas. Eventually, and especially in the case of Almere, it is important to achieve some sort of coherent notion encompassing the Pattern of destinations, anchor points and landmarks of the town. As this New Town has a short history it will have to take every opportunity to write its own. Tapping into the existing potential qualities, the unique “green” and “blue” facilities provided by the surrounding landscape for example, is a fruitful way to go at it. The city of Almere can rejoice about a fantastic environment where several significant natural and recreational reserves meet. To fully benefit from these qualitative Pattern elements and to incorporate them effectively in the Frame focused planning strategy we have devised a concept and design tool that provides in that need: the Strategic RGBG Model (Red, Green, Bue & Grey). The method uses the technique of literally layering multiple spatial concepts one on top of another. The layers are produced by asking disciplinary professionals (Urban Designers, Landscape Architects etc.), students and various stakeholders REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 43

PART 3. THEME RELATED ARTICLES; “NEW TOWN” DEVELOPMENT in Holland
the significance of “Urban Frame” | Peter de Bois (transcript of lecture; translation Karen Buurmans)
Fig. 20.1 . Masterplan infrastructure, INTRANET [22] ↓

Fig. 20.2 Infrastructure layers, Top Down [19] Fig. 20.3 Infrastructure layers, Bottom Up [19]

↑ ↓

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PART 3. THEME RELATED ARTICLES Fig. 20.4 Infrastructure layers, main Urban Axes [19] ↓ in the process to record their specific visions with regard to the programmatic development potential of the area schematically on a topographical map. The resulting topological schemes are then adapted and reduced according to four layers: (1) RED for built programme; (2) GREEN for parks, recreation, ecological and landscape features; (3) BLUE for water and water related functions; and (4) GREY for everything concerning infrastructure. Within these four layers a legenda is used that discerns between linear features, spots or places and areas. The eventual map is built up with transparencies so saturation and coincidence give a clue as to the general significance of a certain element and specific correlations between each of the colours. The more frequent an element is “hit” the more saturated it shows up in the map. [figure 22.1 to 22.4] The method offers excellent opportunities for continuous enrichment and updating and is therefore uniquely fit for conceiving future developments and communicating both discords and agreements in the demands of competing parties and stakeholders. In contrast to “traditional” master planning it is a more flexible, conceptual, communicative and open-ended, i.e. not focused on a fixed planning horizon, tool. Its primary goal is defining collaborative aspects and spin-off potential within an area instead of harping on conflicts and divisions through an integrated visualisation of superpositioned programmatic layers. The result is a clear overview of the strategic role and position of specific areas and programmatic elements. In a number of casestudies undertaken by the Atelier Almere (www.atelieralmere.nl) has the method been developed and tested. The Strategic RGBG Model has, from the moment of its conception, been an asset to the conceptual discussion within the urban planning and design department of the city of Almere. In addition it has been an important point of departure as regards content and subject matter of graduation projects on behalf of students Landscape Architecture (Wageningen University) and Urbanism (Delft University of Technology). [figure 22.1 to 22.5] Following the application of this analysis and design method in the case-study of Almere a concept has been derived for the water areas of the Province of Flevoland. Immediate cause for the request was the decision of the Dutch Lower House to reconsider existing plans for the region on the basis of accentuated European legislation with regard to ecological and habitat guidelines. The corresponding rules and regulation are of major impact to the IJmeer area between Amsterdam and Almere, the Markermeer area that was originally destined to be empoldered as well, the IJsselmeer and the Randmeren, the lake area between the former Zuiderzee coast and the Flevo Polder. A second major cause for reconsidering existing plans is the increasingly complicated task of water management. The growing REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 45

Fig. 21.1 Reprofiling existing busline to facilitate ... Fig. 21.2 ... new Urban Axis [20]

↓ ↓

PART 3. THEME RELATED ARTICLES; “NEW TOWN” DEVELOPMENT in The Netherlands
the significance of “Urban Frame” | Peter de Bois (transcript of lecture; translation Karen Buurmans)

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PART 3. THEME RELATED ARTICLES

Fig 24.1& 24.2 Strategic RGBG model “Grote Wateren” Flevoland & separate layers Fig. 23.1& 23.2 Strategic RGBG model “Grote Wateren” Flevoland & separate layers [22] ↑ [28]
REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 47

←← Fig. 22.2 t/m 22.4 Strategic RGBG model, a scenario Analysis & Design Method, Almere city [21]

PART 3. THEME RELATED ARTICLES; “NEW TOWN” DEVELOPMENT in Holland
the significance of “Urban Frame” | Peter de Bois (transcript of lecture; translation Karen Buurmans)
flow of water from Germany and the greater extremes in terms of peak load, sea-level rise, climate change, etc. combined with the necessity of developing an integral vision on both land and water related ecology place unique demands on the region. And finally, the expansion of the city of Almere from 180.000 to about 350.000 inhabitants will also considerably up the pressure on the area. Finding a way for urbanisation, nature and water related ecology to go together in harmony is central to the assignment. Several parties have partaken in the assignment, amongst others colleagues from the Urbanism Department of Stuttgart University, professionals of the Spatial Planning department of the Municipality of Almere and of course the Atelier students and staff from Wageningen University and Delft University of Technology. [figure 23.1 & 23.2] Our concept for the “Large Waters” of the province of Flevoland shows the broad scope of viewpoints regarding the potential developments in the area. The model has become central to the debate between the diversity of parties, stakeholders and institutions. Following the RGBG scenario for the existing city of Almere this one too has inspired a multitude of plans and designs that try and enhance the various specific aspects of the region. The recent “EO Wijers” competition for example has delivered a

Fig 24.1 t/m 24.4 Design for the “Hoge Vaart” Urban Axis [23] ↑ Fig 24.5 t/m 24.6 Design for the “Weerwater” [24] → Fig 24.7 Design for the transformation of the A6 zone [25] ↓

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PART 3. THEME RELATED ARTICLES FOOTNOTES & REFERENCES [2][7] Bois, Peter de, STOA-Method for Urban Design and Analysis Delft University of Technology (TUD), 1995 [21] Bois, Peter de / Buurmans, Karen, TUD, 2003, 2004 [22] Bois, Peter de / Buurmans, Karen / Esch, Marjolein van, Delft University of Technology, 2005 [9][10][13][15][17][19][20] Buurmans, Karen. The Labyrinth -- a design / theoretical research into perception and use of urban structure. Delft University of Technology, 2006 [23] Esch, Marjolein van, De Vaart erin! Herstructurering van het gebied rond de Hoge Vaart in Almere, TUD, 2005. [12] Geyl, W.F. De Gelede Stad. 1947 [24] Hartman, Jos / Boheemen, Yoran van, Central Park Almereontwerp voor het Weerwater als Stadspark Almere, WUR, 2006 [5] Hillier, Bill, c.s. The Social Logic of Space, Cambridge University Press 1984 [11] Howard, Ebenezer. Garden Cities of To-Morrow. Londen 1902 [4] Joosten, Victor, Shops and Blocks, how block typologie influences the naturel movement economic proces, Berlin and Amsterdam, Delft University of Technology 2005 [8] Kostof, Spiro. The City Shaped , 1991 [26] www.must.nl [1] Polak, Ester / Kee, Jeroen, Amsterdam Real Time, diary in traces, Waag Society Amsterdam, 2002 [14][16][18] Pollemans, Carloes. The program of the Evenaar in Almere Buiten, Delft University of Technology, 2004 [6] Stolk, Egbert, Onderste Boven, TUD, 2005 [27] www.west8.nl [3] Wolveren, Loes van, Geconcentreerde collectieve ruimten in Almere, Delft University of Technology, 2005 [25] Wubben, Bart, Designing the A6 Urban Void. WUR, 2004 More information can be found at: www.atelieralmere.nl REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 49

Fig 25.1 EO Wijers competition 2007 “IJ-werken”, MUST [26] number of designs for the IJ lake area and the relation between Amsterdam and Almere that fit seamlessly within the concept already recorded previously in our mentioned “Large Waters” concept. [figure 25.1 & 25.2]

Fig 25.1 EO Wijers competition 2007 “IJ-werken”, West 8 [27]

As we speak GPS research is being conducted into the movements and functional-spatial behaviour of inhabitants of the city of Almere. This research is basically the final link in a chain of studies that have been implemented by the AtelierAlmere: (1) with regard to Frame, Space Syntax and Three-Step analysis; (2) with regard to Pattern, the Strategic RGBG model; and (3) with regard to Circuit, cognitive mapping and GPS tracking.

Central to all these studies is the concept of defining urban structure in terms of Frame, Pattern and Circuit. This concept primarily aims at combining, integrating and interpreting all those different research methods in order to gain a coherent insight into the physical-spatial and the socio-economical characteristics of both serial and parallel (urban) systems. In our opinion it is vital to the actual urban task in general and the development of New Towns and large expansion plans in particular. Almere is on the threshold of a new period in its development but in its current situation Almere is a town that possesses great and unique spatial qualities, yet fails to consummate their potential as of yet. An incomplete urban system is a primary cause.

PART 3. THEME RELATED ARTICLES; NOWA HUTA

living in the space of post-socialism, Part I | Anastasia Moiseeva (Delft University of Technology)

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PART 3. THEME RELATED ARTICLES ANALYSIS: PAST 1.1. Quick Overview: Architectural Development during the Post-War Period in the USSR and Poland From 1945 into the mid-1950s, Soviet architecture brought to some degree of fruition ideological and stylistic principles that had first been formulated and practiced in the early thirties. The Union of Soviet Architects, the Academy of Architecture of the USSR, founded in 1934, and the magazine, Architecture of the USSR, which became the only major publication in the field, were called upon to unite diverse architectural forces and guide them along the pathway of social realism. Already in its first issues, this journal mounted an attack upon architecture of “stone boxes” and the basic principles of modern Functionalism and Constructivism. More and more, these movements were equated with the architecture of a “creeping capitalism” and “dehumanized, bourgeois society.” Along with the rest of Soviet art, it became part of an all-embracing system of political propaganda. During Stalin’s time [1] , this system of propaganda entered into and dominated all levels of the social organism. With an acceleration of the ideas of the thirties, the years from 1945 to 1954 in the Soviet Union constituted a time of purely ideological, totalitarian architecture. [2] Before the war, residential planning on a mass scale was concerned almost exclusively with the construction of buildings of one or two stories. In 1948 experimental residential construction of four- and five-story buildings was begun. But at that time this type of construction was not coordinated: only individual building projects were erected, and these limited the possibilities of creating adequately functional residential precincts. There were so many types of ongoing projects that production and standardization of the elements of construction were slowed. As a result, in 1953 only 12 percent of industrial buildings, 37 percent of public construction, and 62 percent of residential architecture that were erected employed mass-production systems. The change to totally standardized residential buildings was possible for major house building combines only in large block and large panel construction. From that moment on, the development of Soviet architecture took two well-defined routes: 1) construction of mass-planned apartment housing with a minimum of the formerly standard decorative elements; and 2) individual planning of government and public buildings. The first route was expected to provide the population with living accommodations of at least minimum standards, while the second, as under Stalin, continued to create an ideological or totalitarian architecture.

[1] Date of death March 5, 1953 [2] Warren, S., (1981), International Hand Book of Contemporary Developments in Architecture, Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut, London, p. 485-486 REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 51

PART 3. THEME RELATED ARTICLES; NOWA HUTA

living in the space of post-socialism, Part I | Anastasia Moiseeva (Delft University of Technology)

The most impressive examples of Stalin’s ideological totalitarian architecture is 7 tall buildings in Moscow built in 1950s - so-called Stalin’s Skyscrapers, or “Seven Sisters” 1. Moscow University 2. Block of Flats on Kotelnecheskaya embankment 3. Block of Flats on Krasnaya Presnya 4. Hotel “Lenindradskaya” 5. Hotel “Ukraina” 6. Ministry of Foreign Affairs 7. Ministry of Transport ← Seven Sisters ← Mass planned apartment houses The need for residential construction continued and brought about the creation of large residential boroughs within cities and satellite towns upon the perimeters of already extant cities. The main component of urban planning became the micro district with residential buildings placed freely around its centre. The principle of free construction in these micro districts was a change from the symmetry that had characterized previous planning, as in Western examples, the nucleus of the micro district was formed by a shopping area, with nearby buildings for the use of public and cultural organizations. When several micro districts were clustered to form a residential borough of a city, hospitals, kindergartens, schools, and other necessary service organizations were supposed to have been built, though often 52 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

there was quite some time lac between theory and practice. [3] According to theory, the architecture of the socialist city was supposed to reflect “great public ideas, ideas of the great revolutionary struggle, the peaceful, constructive labour of the Soviet people, their heroism and patriotism.” It was supposed to create an atmosphere of sunlight even in winter. Priority was given here to a tradition of Russian, national city building that supposedly had always implemented within itself patriotic ideas, a tradition in which the centre of the city was to be understood above all else as a “monumental chronicle of the glory and solemnity of the motherland.” The chain of avenues linked with squares became an important trait of urban planning of the period. Its strictly axially based construction centralized the composition of squares in the city’s ensemble. The ideal, central, urban complex consisted of a system of wide boulevards, framed by rows of solemn architecture with symmetrically arranged tower like superstructures, ending in towering usually governmental buildings that were surmounted by single central spires. [4]

[3] Warren, S., (1981), International Hand Book of Contemporary Developments in Architecture, Greenwood Press, West port, Connecticut, London, p. 490 [4] Warren, S., (1981), International Hand Book of Contemporary Developments in Architecture, Greenwood Press, West port, Connecticut, London, p. 488

PART 3. THEME RELATED ARTICLES POLAND 1945 -1955 During the years since the Second World War the Polish architectural milieu has been characterized by changes and controversy that reflect strongly differing opinions. In 1945 Poland was faced with a dramatic situation which resulted from the immense destruction caused by the war and the enormity of construction necessary. In the ensuing years, a rather short span in the historic processes of development, Poland successfully accelerated a rich evolution of architectural form and thought. A certain enthusiastic atmosphere coloured attempts to overcome difficulties and led to an architectural development in which there were diversely oriented approaches, a strict discipline of thought, and an economic outlook toward construction. The years 1945-1949 called forth great efforts of building and reconstruction. The 1949 architects’ congress emphasized an architecture that was socialist in context and national in form. Given the needs and priorities of the period, a major effort in industrialized housing was emphasized and housing estates began to use basically flat, prefabricated units widely. [5] Work on rebuilding the country and on thoroughly transforming its social and economic structure began simultaneously. A land reform was realized, industry and the basic public services were nationalized, and planning introduced into the national economy. The overriding objective was to create for the country an economic structure which should be both forward-looking and industrialized. This required above all an expansion of heavy industry, increased coal and ore output, and the construction of indispensable power-generating installations. [6] The Palace of Culture and Science, Warsaw → The beginning of the planned construction of housing developments throughout the country with a view to meeting the needs of the steadily rising numbers of urban residents coincided with the setting-up in 1949 of the Workers’ Settlements Corporation — an institution which played a most important part in the implementation of housing planes in subsequent years. Their massive construction programme involved the introduction of mechanization on building-sites and an increasing application of industrialized building methods. [7] One of the biggest projects of People’s Poland —the town of Nowa Huta, inhabited by 200,000 people, the building of which was commenced in 1949 — was laid out according to a Baroque town-planning concept.

Monumental Socialist architecture, Warsaw (top & centre) Mass-planned apartment houses, Nowa Huta (bottom)

→ ↓

[5] Warren, S., (1981), International Hand Book of Contemporary Developments in Architecture, Greenwood Press, West port, Connecticut, London, p. 443 [6] Zachwatowicz, J., (1967), Polish Architecture, Dom Slova Polskiego, Warsawa, p. 459 [7] Zachwatowicz, J., (1967), Polish Architecture, Dom Slova Polskiego, Warsawa, p. 462 REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 53

PART 3. THEME RELATED ARTICLES; NOWA HUTA
1.2 Poland: History of Nowa Huta

living in the space of post-socialism, Part I | Anastasia Moiseeva (Delft University of Technology)

Nowa Huta (literally New Steel Mill) - is the eastern district of Kraków. With more than 200 000 inhabitants it is one of the most populous areas of the city. [8] Nowa Huta is home to Poland’s first and largest integrated steelworks - the Lenin steelworks. The construction of the steelworks and the town were ‘a deliberate piece of social engineering’ (Hardy and Rainnie, 1996, p.148), designed to transform the Kraków region into a source of support for socialism and to ‘remake Kraków into a proletarian city’. At their height in the late 1970s, the Lenin steelworks employed over 40,000 workers, produced close to seven million tons of steel annually and supported a wide range of social and cultural facilities in the town. The project’s principal designer, Tadeusz Ptaszycki, described Nowa Huta as ‘a town of significant transformations of people and citizens in new conditions of urban planning and architecture, of new economic and social processes’. [9] Following the Soviet Communist domination of Poland, the Communist authorities had encountered substantial resistance to their regime from middle-class Cracovians. A referendum held by the authorities was soundly defeated by the people of Kraków, a major cause of embarrassment for the Government. To ‘correct the class imbalance’, the authorities commenced building a satellite industrial town to attract people from lower socioeconomic backgrounds to the region, such as peasants and the working class. Nowa Huta was started in 1949 as a separate town near Kraków on terrain resumed by the Communist Government from the former villages of Mogiła, Pleszów and Krzesławice. It was 54 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

planned as a huge centre of heavy industry. The town was to become an ideal town for the communist authorities and was to be populated with industry workers mostly. In 1951 it was joined with Kraków as a separate district and the following year tramway communication was started. On July 22, 1954 the Sendzimir Steel Works were opened and in less than 20 years the factory became the biggest steel mill in Poland. In the 1960s the city grew rapidly. The monumental architecture of the Central Square (Plac Centralny) was surrounded by huge blocks of flats. In the 1970s the steel production reached 7 millions tones of steel yearly. In 1954, Nowa Huta was famous throughout the socialist world as a workers’ paradise. (In fact, it was established at this location and scale to “dilute” the traditionally intellectual and religious character of Cracow.) That year marked the opening of the Sendzimir Steel Works, which by the mid-1960s had become the largest steel mill in Europe. Sendzimir was not just a steel mill, it was an integrated industrial city, with 350 km of railway lines in its grounds, its own electric power plant, a coal mining operation, gas supply, telecommunications company, district heating system, pipe manufacturer and dozens of other upstream and downstream industries related to steel production and the everyday lives of its workers (such as a dairy for their needs). [10] [8] Wikipedia, http://www.answers.com/topic/nowa-huta [9] www.nowahuta.info/proposal/proposal.shtml#pageTop [10] Hook W., Corb. J., Can the “Model city” be rebuilt?, Prague Business Journal, autumn 2002.

PART 3. THEME RELATED ARTICLES

The reasons for building such an industrial town near Kraków were mostly ideological. Nowa Huta is the best example of a socialist realist city. The doctrine of socialist realism in Poland, as in other countries of the so-called People’s Democracies, was in force from 1949 to 1956. It involved all the domains of art but its most spectacular achievements were made in the field of architecture. Architecture was a very important weapon in the hands of the creators of a new social order. It was meant to help to form the socialist theme, the ideas creating citizens’ consciousness and outlook on life. In this great work a crucial role fell to an architect who - “is not merely an engineer creating edifices and streets but an engineer of human souls”. The general outlook of a building was more important than its simple aesthetic meaning. It had to express social ideas, arouse the feeling of the “power and persistence of the people’s state, its mass collective character, its democracy and humanism, the idea of true freedom and the versatile possibilities it gives to people”. [11] Nowa Huta’s difference and novelty was frequently constructed in opposition to its wider Polish others - the bourgeois and the rural. Nowa Huta was designed and built as urban, of course, but also as explicitly proletarian and industrial. The new Poland was following the policies of socialist development, derived from Marxism-Leninism and the experiences of the Soviet Union, which centred the urban industrial worker as the vanguard of the revolution and the raw material of economic growth and catch-up. Nowa Huta, with other new industrial towns within and beyond Poland, epitomized the processes of urbanisation and industrialization which characterized post-war east central Europe. But Nowa Huta was not built just as any old industrial

town. It was built as a town of steel, centred around one work place - the Lenin steelworks or Huta Lenina - which dominated the community through employment (employing at its height 43,000 workers), housing, social and cultural provision and, simply, presence. The plant clothed you, sent you on holiday and gave you “light, clean sheets, a bathroom” (Duch, 1952, p.45). Nowa Huta was a company town, organized by and for the company - in this context, a ministry - which shared much in practice with the steel and coal towns of the capitalist world. [12] During the postwar years many young people, mostly of rural origin, came from the whole country to Nowa Huta attracted by the possibility of a professional training, work and accommodation. The city witnessed much political unrest and

the 1980s Nowa Huta was one of the most important centres of anti communist opposition in Poland. After the political transition in the year 1989, the steelworks faced serious economical problems, and the district came to be associated with crime and unemployment. [13] [11] Nowa Huta, http://www.nh.pl/english/ [12] Stenning A., Representing Transformations/Transforming Representations: Remaking Life and Work in Nowa Huta, Poland., Birmingham, September 2001, www.nowahuta.info/papers/ wes2001.pdf [13] Łukasz Stanek, http://web.mit.edu/comm-forum/mit4/papers/ stanek.pdf REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 55

PART 3. THEME RELATED ARTICLES; NOWA HUTA
CITY PLAN CONCEPT

living in the space of post-socialism, Part I | Anastasia Moiseeva (Delft University of Technology)
playgrounds, day-care centres and public plazas. [14] Low, detached buildings covered with hip roofs stand among lush greenery. These are so-called “standard buildings”, resembling those built at that time throughout Poland, similar but not identical. They were constructed when the thorough plan was not completely worked out or approved. The districts closest to the centre have a more compact composition and dominate the peripheral developments of streets. The units are closed quarters with the gates leading within. The space between the blocks is smaller but also filled with greenery. In some quarters the corner buildings are higher than the others creating a kind of tower that makes the developments look like fortresses. These ideas are closer to the rules of socialist realism, giving priorities to compact arrangements, both intelligible and univocal. The architecture itself follows standards of the Renaissance, baroque and classicism, which are visible in a great number of historic forms and abundant detail. [15] Nowa Huta is built according to the idea of a garden city. Greenery was planted together with the construction of housing. Even today, it is the greenest district of Cracow. NOWA HUTA - UNFINISHED CITY Nowa Huta is an unfinished model of the socialist realistic city. The first general plan was not realised completely. After Stalin’s death construction of Nowa Huta according social ideas was not strict any more and construction financing as well. [14] Łukasz Stanek, Technical University Delft, Faculty of Architecture, Department of Architectural Theory, http://web.mit. edu/comm-forum/mit4/papers/stanek.pdf [15] Nowa Huta, http://www.nh.pl/english/

artificial lake

The urban plan of Nowa Huta is based on the concept of neighbourhood units, which was state-of-the-arts in the 1940s theory of urban design. The socialist realism as the architectural style of Nowa Huta was already in the 1960s abandoned for an impoverished version of modernism. The city plan is based on a half of a classical Renaissance city. The streets run radially out of one centre - the Central Square situated on the brink of the Vistula embankment - and are linked together forming a web. Such a layout was imposed by the natural relief of the ground. The plans preserved the historical road network. All the building rules of social realism were realized in Nowa Huta. It is this very fact that is always stressed by specialists in that distinguishes this town from the other achievements of that period that are incomplete and hence less attractive. The most characteristic feature is the axial composition - referring to the baroque town planning. The city layout is based upon the Anglo-Saxon concept of “neighbourhood units” - dating back to the 1920s when the regional plan for New York was being developed. These units assemble 5000 - 6000 residents, forming districts of 15 - 20 thousand residents. Several districts were built around a central square. Inside these districts, people could comfortably walk to the main square without ever having to cross a major road. Neighbourhoods units were generally equipped with infrastructure indispensable for the functioning of their communities including: catering, shops, kindergartens and schools situated within a certain district. Children didn’t have to cross busy roads and the adults didn’t have to move too far for daily business. The buildings – an odd but unobjectionable combination of renaissance, baroque and classical styles, with some Russian influences – are surrounded with green areas,

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PART 3. THEME RELATED ARTICLES

CENTRAL SQUARE MARKET THEATRE Central Square and Main Axis plan 1951 NOWA HUTA MASTERPLAN 1951
According the primary project, which was done in the beginning of the 1950’s year, a central square should be surrounded by ensemble of monumental buildings with a monument in it. ↑ A Theatre was planned behind the main central square Several monuments were planned along the main axis. One of the distinguished features of the general plan was an artificial lake in the green valley on the south of Nowa Huta. All these design proposals still have not been realized.

CENTRAL AXIS MARKET

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PART 3. THEME RELATED ARTICLES; NOWA HUTA
‘SPACE OF SOCIALISM’

living in the space of post-socialism, Part I | Anastasia Moiseeva (Delft University of Technology)

The socialist regimes of post-war Europe represent clear examples of conscious and active attempts on the part of the state, and sections of the population, to construct new spaces for new societies. Notwithstanding industrialization drives in the inter-war period, in the immediate post-war years these states were largely rural and agricultural with pockets of industry in key urban centres. The adoption of socialist regimes in these countries involved a “deliberate attempt to permanently redefine social structures, ways of thinking and behaviour of the population” (de Weydenthal, 1978, p.60), centred on the twin tenets of industrialization and urbanisation derived from MarxismLeninism and the Soviet experience. For both ideological and economic reasons, the urban industrial worker was seen to be the vanguard of the revolution and the creation of new urban, industrial spaces - ‘spaces of socialism’ - was thus absolutely central to building support for the new socialist regimes in east central Europe. These towns and cities are important examples of the mutual construction of society and space and epitomize top-down attempts to build socialism. The socialist cities were usually built in a socialist “neoclassical” style with socialist “baroque” elements added to it. What they have in common is, however, an egalitarian, anti-individualistic monotony of the urban space. The human individual as an inhabitant of the city was confronted by the urban space in the same manner as he/she was confronted by the institutions of the socialist state. He/she was integrated into a spatial order which widely determined his/her behaviour, leaving him/her very few alternatives to use the urban space as a field of his/her individual creativeness. This determination manifested itself in everyday-life – with respect to both the 58 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

individual’s work and leisure-time – as well as in the specific forms of public activity which was organized within and by way of the structures of the urban space. [16] In the traditional (“bourgeois”) city which has developed owing to the economic process, the centre of the town is obviously marked by mercantile factors. “Centre” means there above all “shopping –“and “business centre.” The aim of the socialist city planers was in turn to give the centre of the new city an ideological character. That is, instead by the market-place the centre of the town was here to be organized by political institutions and by official ideology. [17]

[16] Aleksandrowicz, D., (1999), The Socialist City and its Transformation, Discussion Papers №10, Frankfurt institute for Transformation Studies, http://fit.euv-frankfurt-o.de/Veroeffentlichungen/ Discussion%20Papers/PDF-Format/99-10Aleksandrowicz.PDF [17] Cf. Kotarbiñski (1985: 54): “... the city should have a centre of a social and political type as well as squares and streets as the space of collective life.” Szczepañski (1993: 152), suggests an analogy between socialist and “oriental” concept of the centre of a city. According to Szczepañski, the common feature shared by them is emptiness of one part of the central space with the other part occupied by monumental buildings

PART 3. THEME RELATED ARTICLES According to the concept of a socialist city, the centre was to be defined as the space where some specific form of collective life of the inhabitants of the city takes place. By its very nature, it was an ideologically controlled collective life. A particular political directive or a regular official occasion, such as a state or party festival, were the source of activity which tentatively united the passive and isolated “socialist people” into an active whole which had to play a special role within ideologically determined ritual. The new socialist city essentially consisted of (1) the centre of political and ideological manipulation, (2) the place of production and of work, and (3) the private dwelling-place. In each of these specific spaces the individual was dominated by political manipulation (which was daily present at least in form of visual propaganda and of monumental architecture of the central square or of the official buildings), by the plant, and by the anonymity and monotony of the living blocks. As a result of an extremely poor infrastructure of the urban-specific services (including cultural services) there existed hardly any mediating instances between the individual space, which was reduced to the inside of the dwelling-place and the public space of the city, which was the spatial representation of the authority of the socialist state. [18] The actual problem of the socialist city is that public space which was originally designed so as to belong to everyone was in fact a no-one’s space. It was due to the failure of the original task of socialism to make a “new” man out of the “old” one, for whom the very distinction between the “private” and the “public” wouldn’t exist any more. [18] Aleksandrowicz, D., (1999), The Socialist City and its Transformation, Discussion Papers №10, http://fit.euv-frankfurt-o.de/ Veroeffentlichungen/Discussion%20Papers/PDF-Format/99-10Aleksandrowicz.PDF REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 59

PART 3. THEME RELATED ARTICLES; NOWA HUTA
WORK, LABOUR AND COMMUNITY Under socialism labour and the work place were two of the most important institutions in the shaping of social life, during the last decade, work, work places and labour markets have been radically transformed. This chapter explores the outcomes and consequences of these transformations in the town of Nowa Huta, and pays particular attention to these influences at the scale of the community and social life within. Under socialism, Huta Lenina (the Sendzimir Steel Works) was without doubt the central town-forming institution. The work it provided, the facilities it supported and the trade unions it housed played a major role in shaping not only the built environment of the community, but also determined the nature and scope of social, cultural, sporting and domestic lives. Nowa Huta was a town built by workers for workers at this time. In Nowa Huta, the strategic importance of Huta Lenina assured the residents a particularly large share of these improvements and both statistical and interview material suggests that these were the town’s glory years. Not only was production and employment at its peak, but the shops were full, the town’s sports clubs and cultural associations recorded their hey days and the number of meals provided through collective facilities was at its highest. [19] Most of the town’s residents were attracted to Nowa Huta in search of stability and work; employment under communism was largely secure and offered security of livelihood; the work place and other labour institutions formed not only work, but also lives beyond work, at home and in the town through their involvement in the fields of leisure, health care, education, and consumption. The transformations since 1989 have radically restructured labour 60 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006 markets and employment conditions.

living in the space of post-socialism, Part I | Anastasia Moiseeva (Delft University of Technology)

How these transformations have reshaped the lives of Nowa Huta’s residents? In clear contrast to earlier times, Poland’s labour market today is characterized as one of significant unemployment, fragmented and insecure forms of work. At the most basic level we have seen rising job loss and unemployment. [20] In a community like Nowa Huta, founded on a single work place, constructed with the work place and developed with the expansion of the steelworks, the connections between social lives and work lives was tight. After communism, work still seems to dominate lives but in different ways. In October 1999 the management of the steelworks announced close to 8000 redundancies, almost half the work force. [21] Ongoing restructuring has changed a nature and demands of work. What I found from the recent materials about Nowa Huta and from the interviews with residents there is a significant shift in the quality of social relationship. A lot of interviews show that people were more sociable before, and that it’s rising poverty which leads people to live more isolated lives. Not only can people rarely afford to go out to pubs or the cinema, for example, but more and more people are ashamed of their poverty (raising questions about their ability to construct new identities on the basis of consumption). Today, the experience of interviewees was more likely to be one of insecurity, fear of job loss, increasing pressure to work overtime and commit more and more of their lives to work and

an erosion of domestic and social lives as a result of the changing nature of work. This erosion takes at least two forms. Work available today rarely offers the chance of supporting a whole family; the low level and insecurity of pay doesn’t allow for families to buy or rent housing as they might wish, especially for new families and young people trying to enter the property market, nor does it support participation in social and cultural activities which are becoming increasingly commercialized.

[19] Stenning A., Living in the space of (Post)-Socialism: The case of Nowa Huta, www.nowahuta.info/reports/NH%20report%20UK. pdf [20] Stenning A., Living in the space of (Post)-Socialism: The case of Nowa Huta, www.nowahuta.info/reports/NH%20report%20UK. pdf [21] Stenning A., Project Proposal: Living in the Spaces of (Post-) Socialism: The Case of Nowa Huta, Poland www.nowahuta. info/proposal/proposal.shtml#pageTop

PART 3. THEME RELATED ARTICLES NOWA HUTA: SEVERAL ASPECTS OF SOCIAL LIFE In addition to this financial deterioration, interviewees repeatedly noted that the prevalence of fear and envy at work was eroding the quality of personal relationships at work. As a result, the social lives built up around work were being destroyed and more and more people were retreating to the home, reluctant to engage in activities of any kind in the wider community. [22] Perhaps the most important effect of employment restructuring at the scale of the community has been the shifting commonality of experience. Many of interviewees discussed the ties, both within and beyond the work place, which bound the community together. People worked together, rest together and shopped together. Their lives were bound to each other through the routines and institutions established around the work place. Children followed their parents through the markers of adulthood and extended families often formed the hub of active networks of social contact. Today, the common experiences are more likely to be of job loss and insecurity than social progression and achievement, and they are less likely to be experienced collectively. The withdrawal to the home and the erosion of the bonds and spaces of community life has meant that the problems of the present tend to be lived alone. This withdrawal to the home and destruction of the quality of personal relationships was having a direct effect on the community as a whole and function of public spaces. Large despair and deprivation are rarely seen on the streets of Nowa Huta, the impacts of economic restructuring are increasingly visible today. In Nowa Huta, interviewees drew attention to rising crime and declining personal safety, a loss of direction and listlessness amongst the younger generation, evident signs of poverty, an ever growing population without the means for family survival, increased alcoholism, a more general demoralization within the community and a marked withdrawal to private spheres, away from activity and action in the public sphere. During the day in the streets of Nowa Huta you can see a lot of graffiti on the building’s walls, Nazi signs, absolutely empty public spaces and sometimes drunk asleep people in the streets. During the evening time amount of suspicious skinhead young people rapidly increases. HUTNIK HOOLIGANS is a new identity today for social realistic town Nowa Huta. There is a list of unacceptable activities which describe existing social situation in Nowa Huta: [23] ► Sleeping outdoor ► Drinking on the streets ► Mystery objects (undefined functions) ► Tagging ► Vandalism ► Racism ► Illegal sales (alcoholic drinks, cigarettes) ► Car-racing ► Trashing ► Car-dump ► Hooliganism [22] Stenning A., Project Proposal: Living in the Spaces of (Post-) Socialism: The Case of Nowa Huta, Poland www.nowahuta. info/proposal/proposal.shtml#pageTop [23] The list of unacceptable activities was defined by group ‘Informal public space’, Masterclass ‘Exploring the Public City’ at the Cracow University of Technology, 08 -19 May 2006 REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 61

PART 3. THEME RELATED ARTICLES; NOWA HUTA
ACCESS AND MOBILITY Another subject which has a direct correlation with social and economical changes is the changing experiences of access, mobility, security and stability in the everyday lives of Nowa Huta. What we can see today living in the Globalization era there is an increased tendency of travelling and social mobility of people thanks to the expansion of opportunities and technical advances of late capitalism. These stories of mobility and insecurity are especially interesting in Nowa Huta during the transformation from socialism to capitalism. What I have mentioned before Nowa Huta historically is a town of migrants, of people moving to seek security. There is an apparent paradox in Nowa Huta now being characterized as a place of insecurity, declining mobility and uncertainty, in contrast to its earlier characterization as a place of opportunity and stability. Nowa Huta was founded and developed as the steelworks town it was seen as a site of stability, opportunity and migration, offering possibilities for social mobility and, eventually, security. Material produced by Polish sociologists and geographers in the 1950s, 60s and 70s, explores the ways in which migrants to Nowa Huta swiftly embarked on the stabilization of their lives, spending their relatively high wages on ‘domestic investment’ (furniture, kitchen equipment, clothes, etc.) and rejecting the day-to-day uncertainty which had characterized their immediate post-war lives in favour of planning for tomorrow, building rooted social networks and forging a deep local patriotism. This phase of settling down fed into the years of rising living standards through the late 1960s and 1970s. Clearly the experiences of the 1980s were marked by dislocation and insecurity in multiple spheres of life but the 62 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

living in the space of post-socialism, Part I | Anastasia Moiseeva (Delft University of Technology)

transformations which these political challenges brought on have led to the characterization of Nowa Huta rather as a place of insecurity, restricted mobility and ‘entrapment’. [24] The loss of financial support from the steelworks and the growing commercialization of social and cultural facilities has destroyed the ‘self-sufficiency’ of Nowa Huta. Today Nowa Huta offers little for entertainment for the young generation, in terms of both quantity and quality. The proliferation of opportunity in Cracow has run alongside the closure of facilities in Nowa Huta. According the results of interview conducted by Dr Alison Stenning [25], three out of thirty two her interviewees expressed any desire to leave Nowa Huta permanently. All but those three in fact expressed a very clear and strong positive identification with Nowa Huta as a distinctive part of Cracow, with its own identity. The increasing need, and desire, to visit Cracow for entertainment, education and employment does not seem to have significantly reduced the strength of ties in Huta. Low levels of housing mobility and transformation, the association of housing tenure with the work place have meant that networks of acquaintance and friendship tend to be long-standing and stable. Although none of Alison’s interviewees had been the victim of street crime, rumour and feelings of infirmity caused many of them to characterize their community as a threatening one. For older people particularly, the experiences of mobility in youth are contrasted with the feeling of entrapment today. This differentiation in the experience of security links to the commodification of mobility and access. Access is limited by money now. People no longer have to holiday in set destinations, the work place pension in the mountains or subsidized

apartments on the Black Sea, but this also means that there are no longer any guarantees for travel. The provision of leisure opportunities through the work place made trips to the cinema, theatre and opera, for example, accessible for all. In a community like Nowa Huta oriented to the needs of a strategically important steelworks and its workers, the level of recreational provision was particularly high, and embedded within the community’s urban fabric. This contrasts markedly with the current situation, which though characterized by a plethora of sophisticated new facilities such as multiplex cinemas, shopping malls and a water park (all located on Nowa Huta’s north-western edge), only serves to highlight the exclusivity of leisure today, with access controlled by budget. Limited budget rules urban transformation within Nowa Huta: there are no good quality shopping malls, recreation facilities, cultural institutions; even existing Cinema building is used like a second hand shop.

[24], 26 Stenning A., Living in the space of (Post)-Socialism: The case of Nowa Huta, www.nowahuta.info/reports/ NH%20report%20UK.pdf [25] Dr Alison Stenning is a social and economic geographer, based in the Centre for Urban and Regional Development Studies, School of Geography, Politics and Sociology at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne; Recent researches: The Politics of Local Economic Development in the Russian Federation; Out with the Old, in with the New? The Changing Experiences of Women’s Work in Poland; Living in the Spaces of (Post-) Socialism: The Case of Nowa Huta, Poland.

PART 3. THEME RELATED ARTICLES 2.2 Conclusion: Recent Socioeconomic Transformations In the fifteen years since 1989 considerable progress has been made in the ‘transition’ from socialism to some sort of capitalism by all of the countries of the former Soviet bloc. Poland is regularly identified as one of the front-runners in reform and will be in the first wave of accessions to the European Union. However, focusing on the success (or failure) of reform at the macro-scale ignores the changes that have taken place behind the headline events. As with the construction of socialism in the immediate post-war era, the emergence of post-socialism in east central Europe has been accompanied by radical and wideranging transformations in the daily lives of the people of the region. This is especially true in those places which held a central role within the socialist system and are faced with the most major economic and social transformations - the ‘spaces of socialism’. The end of socialism challenged the role of large-scale, centrallyplanned, heavy industrial projects, it broke down the bonds of friendship between Poland and the Soviet Union and it led to the rejection of attempts to build a new socialist society which had been so clearly played out in Nowa Huta. Nowa Huta stands at the forefront of communities facing the challenges of post-socialism, in need of radical economic restructuring and experiencing profound social and political transformations. We can see a direct relationship between large-scale social and economic transformations and spatial and local dimensions and building practice in Nowa Huta. After the collapse of the communist system Nowa Huta became existential pitfalls, without any attractive future prospects for their inhabitants and particularly for the younger generation. In general world practice the process of transformation from a planned economy to the free market principles encouraged the emergence of a capital of an independent state and private organizations. These changes influence on spatial transformation of the city – bottom-up influence. Unfortunately these principals are not visible in Nowa Huta. Thus the most important activities should be undertaken in order to solve complex of socioeconomic and urban problems in Nowa Huta. Especially important among them are attracting investors and creating new jobs, improving the quality of the public spaces, developing the city’s technical infrastructure, and improving the service of the population and living conditions. Success of future development directly depends on flexible combinations between top-down and bottom-up influences.

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PART 4. PREPARATORY STUDENT WORK; case-study Frankfurt NORDWESTSTADT
O. Bauer, P. Strohm, O. Skerbs, B. Stanik, S. Old, J. Brück, S. Wittmer, D. Laufer, J. Seidl (Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences)
Historical Development of the Frankfurt region EARLY MEDIEVAL TIMES TO THE 17TH CENTURY

The colonization began with the Romans who erected a fort in the 1st century AD. on cathedral hill. Afterwards, the Allemanni and the Franks were the main actors of a beginning urban development. In 794, “Franconofurd” was first mentioned in a writing by Emperor Charlemagne. Almost 150 years later, this settlement surpassed its first fortifications, with a population of about 8.000 people. Under the Staufians a new fortification wall was constructed. After 133, the fortified area of the city was enlarged once more by a second ring-shaped fortification, and the population kept on growing up to 20.000 in the 17th century. 1800 TO 1900 By the evolution as a railway intersection of the growing macro economic developments and the incorporation of its surrounding villages and settlements, Frankfurt became one of the most important industrial cities of the second half of the 19th century. 64 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

Early Medieval times to the 17th century 1800 to 1900

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PART 4. PREPARATORY STUDENT WORK

1900 TILL TODAY The first overall development plan was elaborated at the end of 19th century, in 1891. By this time, the ring of 19th century urban extensions was completed and the main station displaced towards the west. The eastern harbour, the so-called “Alleen- Ring” and new bridges over the Main were created. The population increased to 415.000 in 1910. The first housing estates for the working class were constructed. In the 1920s the city developed an ambitious program for municipal housing under planning & construction councillor Ernst May. Till 1939, the Population reached 563.000 Large areas of Frankfurt were destroyed during World War II, and about 200.000 inhabitants died. In the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s, substantial residential extensions were built, one of the urban development shifted from peripheral extensions to inner-city redevelopment to already developed areas, leading to densification and compaction of the existing structure.

← 1900 till today

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PART 4. PREPARATORY STUDENT WORK; case-study Frankfurt NORDWESTSTADT
O. Bauer, P. Strohm, O. Skerbs, B. Stanik, S. Old, J. Brück, S. Wittmer, D. Laufer, J. Seidl (Frankfurt am Main University of Applied Sciences)
The Nordweststadt is a large housing estate in Frankfurt am Main, which originated in 1962-1968. The planners were Walter Schwagenscheidt and Tassilo Sittmann. It was situated between the existing quarters of Niederursel, Heddernheim and Praunheim. From an administrative point of view, the Nordweststadt is not an independant but belongs to Heddernheim. Concept of the Nordweststadt The Nordweststadt should become a new quarter with a human providing of social living-requirements. It should be brighter, more colourful, cosier and warmer than other previous settlements. The attraction of the construction project stands for its requirement to consider and to serve all necessities of life for the inhabitants of the Nordweststadt. You wanted to create living space in its most different forms and for most different demands of all social groups, families and household. The planers attached great importance to familiarity and individuality of each space and area. Each person should feel like to be at an own unmistakable lace. A care of all private and public services of high quality was guaranteed. General Facts ► Gross building land: 170 ha ► Number of Inhabitants: 23 000 ► Number of apartments: 8000 ► 8000 apartments ► 300 Condominiums ► 575 single-family houses ► Floor space index = 0,85 66 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006 BUILT SURFACE ► Condominium and rent flats: 620 000 m² ► Single-family houses: 111 000 m² DENSITY ► 100 accommodation units per ha nett ► 330 inhabitants per ha nett ► 150 inhabitants per ha gross DWELLING TYPES ► 80 different house and layout types ► 90 % level apartments ► 10 % single-family houses ► 1-1½ room apartments 5 % ► 2 room apartments 20 % ► 2½-3 room apartments 60 % ► 3½-4 room apartments 15 %

Map of Frankfurt am Main, marked area Nordweststadt ← Aerial photograph Nordweststadt Siteplan Nordweststadt

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PART 4. PREPARATORY STUDENT WORK

Pictures and Impressions of Nordweststadt Schwagenscheidt´s sketches of the Nordweststadt

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Due to non-existing construction area and for the protection of the principle of the Nordweststadt there are at present no new building projects, but only rehabilitation in the Nordweststadt.

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PART 4. PREPARATORY STUDENT WORK; case-study Frankfurt NORDWESTSTADT WORK;
O. Bauer, P. Strohm, O. Skerbs, B. Stanik, S. Old, J. Brück, S. Wittmer, D. Laufer, J. Seidl (Frankfurt am Main University of Applied Sciences)

SETTLEMENT PATTERN The settlement pattern of the Nordweststadt is for the most part shaped by free-standing buildings of diverse size and typology. These buildings are arranged to from a sequence of different spatial groups, which altogether from the total physical structure of the Nordweststadt. Thus, the transition between semi-public and public spaces is a flowing one.

Individual free-standing buildings arranged in groups Rows of terraced semi-detached and detached houses Building structures for public facilities
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PART 4. PREPARATORY STUDENT WORK

LAND USE PLAN

LAND USE PLAN

Residential zone Educational facility; Ernst-Reuter Schule Educational facility; Kindergarten Church; St. Mathias Multi-functional centre; NordWest Zentrum Public park; Martin-Luther-King park
Nordweststadt is an exclusively residential area with a large-scale multi-functional centre, where commercial as well a cultural functions are located. Furthermore, there exist numerous educational facilities such as school and kindergartens, as well as public cultural facilities such as churches and community centres. REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 69

PART 4. PREPARATORY STUDENT WORK; case-study Frankfurt NORDWESTSTADT
O. Bauer, P. Strohm, O. Skerbs, B. Stanik, S. Old, J. Brück, S. Wittmer, D. Laufer, J. Seidl (Frankfurt am Main University of Applied Sciences)

GREEN

INFRASTRUCTURE

Public park space Green semi-public space Green private space Water
70 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

Cars Pedestrians Underground parking Subway station

PART 4. PREPARATORY STUDENT WORK

OFFIICIAL AND COMMERCIAL PUBLIC SPACE

NordWestZentrum 1965 Commercial public space Formerly Commercial public space Official public space

NordWestZentrum 2006

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PART 4. PREPARATORY STUDENT WORK; case-study PUBLIC SPACES
Inventarisation of several successful public spaces VIENNA, MUSEUM DISTRICT Since autumn 2002, the courtyard area of the newly designed museum district in Vienna has been enlivened with 114 abstract plastic blocks. The polygonal shape and the trapezoidal outer form allow the blocks to be lined up or to be assembled in many different combinations. The units are shaped from blocks out of expanded polystyrene and can be joined together with steel cables or plastic straps to create a wide range of diverse forms. Laid end to end, twelve elements form a circle, laid symmetrically on top of each other two units create a protected hollow, and turned upside down they can be used as tables by the local cafes or as a bar for serving beer. BRIXLEGG, SKATE PARK Situated between Innsbruck and Kufstein, the Skate Park of Brixlegg has its location in the midst of the Austrian mountain idyll. Within two months, from June till August 2001, the American company “Dreamland Skateparks” designed and build the over 3.000 square meters large skate park. Beside the concrete park , there is also a huge street park area. The ground is open from April till October, from morning till night, and fortunately it is not visited by local resident skaters alone. The park is unique in Europe and has generated tremendous international coverage, not just because of the first-time built “oververtbowlcorner” worldwide.

O. Bauer, P. Strohm, O. Skerbs, B. Stanik, S. Old, J. Brück, S. Wittmer, D. Laufer, J. Seidl (Frankfurt am Main University of Applied Sciences)

Museum district Skate park Brixlegg

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PART 4. PREPARATORY STUDENT WORK

FRANKFURT AM MAIN, MAINCAFE Located nearby the city centre of Frankfurt at the embankment of the river Main, Maincafe started in 2000 by transforming a former site trailer into a bar. By placing some benches and tables in front and with the option to lend a blanket for free, Maincafe successfully filled the lawn in front of quay wall with life. After two years of temporary uses “the officials” agreed to transform the quay wall into small bar of about 20 square meters. Today Maincafe has become a well-known “public space” in the city and the lawn in front of it one of the most popular places to enjoy summer nights in Frankfurt. BERLIN, HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL The memorial itself is unlike any other monument designed as a square. 2710 concrete stele are lined up in rows across an open area of 19.000 square meters between the Brandenburg Gate and the city’s newly redeveloped Potsdammer Platz. It is slightly reminiscent of a graveyard. “The place of no meaning.” as Eisenman described the memorial, however is intended as a confrontation with the past. The visitor, who finds himself winding his way through the forest of stele, is struck by how distant the busy city centre seen to be, and how quiet and reflective - but not graveyard-like-the atmosphere is. There is no entrance and no exit to the site; no prescribed pathway through the stele. The uneven ground and the varying height of the stele are designed to create a sense of insecurity, but not overwhelming loss, Eisenman suggested. The memorial also includes an underground information centre at the edge of the site which houses a permanent exhibition dedicated to the six million victims of the Holocaust.

Maincafe waterfront

Holocaust memorial in Berlin

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F. van der Veek, F. Lambalk (Amsterdam School of Technology)
The original layout for the highrise buildings in the Bijlmermeer Originally, there was a strict segragation of functions (residential, business, traffic and recreation) in the bijlmermeer. The 12,500 council flats consisted of 11-storey gallery apartments. the units themselves were large and offered many facilities. Located On the first floor - in the interior walkway - were rooms for communal facilities. The flat buildings were situated in park-like trafficfree surroundings and were arranged in hexagonal patterns (honeycomb). These surroundings included watercourses, footpaths, play facilities and cycle tracks. Cars and buses drove over elevated roads (the lanes). Residents could park their cars in the car parks located directly along these lanes and could then walk home under covered passageways. The shopping centres and social facilities were located beneath the car parks or the elevated roads.

PART 4. PREPARATORY STUDENT WORK; case-study Amsterdam BIJLMERMEER

Maquette of the Bijlmermeer
74 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

Honeycomb high-rise flat buildings

PART 4. PREPARATORY STUDENT WORK

Impression drawings of original design philosophy
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F. van der Veek, F. Lambalk (Amsterdam school of technology)
Problems on all sides The high-rise development in the Bijlmermeer was ready for occupation in 1975. Initially, there were waiting lists for these homes, but many Amsterdam residents later decided to move to single-family dwellings in one of the overspill municipalities such as Lelystad or Purmerend. this meant that in spite of the enormous housing shortage at that time, there were still vacant flats in the Bijlmer. Later it was also discovered that managing the flats required much more time and money than had been provided for in the original plans, examples of this being the frequent breakdowns of the lifts, and the waste disposal system that did not function properly. The housing units were completed far ahead of public facilities such as shops and the metro. the car parks, the interior walkways and the green public area were generally felt to be unsafe, particularly at night. And there was a high rate of crime in the shape of theft, robbery and violence. The district thumbled into a downward spiral which became worse and worse, and by 1985, only one in four homes was occupied. General design for the renovation Although many small-scale measures to improve the quality of lige had been implemented between 1975 and 1990, structural renovation in the Bijlmermeer did not actually commence until 1992. The aim of this renovation process is to provide specific support to residents in a vulnerable social position, whilst offering people in a stronger social position the opportunity for better housing within the Bijlmer itself. The various functionsresidential, business, recreation and shopping will then become more intermingled. Achieving this means demolishing the highrise flat buildings and replacing them with other types of housing. 76 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

PART 4. PREPARATORY STUDENT WORK; case-study Amsterdam BIJLMERMEER

Strip proposal O.M.A. 1998

First low-rise buildings (upper left) Artwork on end facade Bijlmer Museum (upper right) Overview situation 2005 (lower left) Renovated flats seen from Bijlmer Museum (lower right)

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PART 4. PREPARATORY STUDENT WORK

DEMOLITION OF HIGH-RISE BUILDING The Rochdale housing organisation has commissioned the demolistion of about 6500 of the 12,500 flats. The first of these, Geinwijk was demolished in 1995, and Gerenstein followed in 1996. By 2004, half the demolition programme was completed, and the last building to be pulled down will be Develstein (scheduled for 2009). Most of the flats in the H neighbourhood will remain standing, about half of the flats in the G and K neighbourhoods will be pulled down, and most of the flats in the D, E and F neighbourhoods will be demolished as well. One of the factors in the decisions concerning demolition of flat buildings was the outcome of a large-scale survey conducted in 2001 among the occupants of 4,600 homes. More than 3,500 residents participated in this survey. FLAT RENOVATION The Rochdale housing organisation is renovating the 6,000 flats that are not on the demolition list, and the original urban design will be largely maintained in part of the G and K neighbourhoods. The flat buildings in this “Bijlmer Museum” -Grunnehoeve, Groeneveen, Gooioord, Kikkenstein, Kruitberg and Kleiburg- are being renovated and the public area will remain green and traffic free.Hoogoord, the firstflat building to be renovated, underwent this process in 1998. During the renovation of the flat buildings, the interior walkways to the car parks will be removed and new functions (mostly social) allotted to the storage spaces on the groundfloor. in this way, the feeling of insecurity in these public places will be reduced. The fittings and facilities in the homes themselves are being renewed, and a new system for the collection of household refuse is being installed. REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 77

F. van der Veek, F. Lambalk (Amsterdam school of technology)
RESTRUCTURING OF PUBLIC SPACE 80% of the space in the original Bijlmermeer was used as a public area. This percentage will remain constant in the Bijlmer Museum area, the “Rechte H-buurt” neighbourhood and Hakfort/Huigenbos. In this area parking is limited to the perimeters of public area. Public areas in paces where the old flat buildings have been pulled down will be entirely restructured: they will be reduced to 40% and the cars can then be parked in front of the homes. The Bijlmerpark (aproximately 40 hectares) is also being restructured to allow more intensive use. One part of it is being made into an urban park with sports facilities, whilst the other part will be a natural park. about 780 homes are being constructed along the boundries of the park

PART 4. PREPARATORY STUDENT WORK; case-study Amsterdam BIJLMERMEER

Renewal action plan 2010 New stairs along the plith of gravestein flats New residences on the groundfloor in Hoogoord flats

→ →→ ↓

Heightened entrance in the Hofgeest flats

New facade of the fForijn flats next to the old situation

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Impression of the new facade of kleiburg flats (Greg Lynn)

New stairs along the plinth of gravestein flats BeBos along the Bijlmerdreef (architects Claus & Kaan)

↑ ↓

Impression after renewal 2010 ↑
REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 79

T. van Agt, L. Houtman and A. Maessen (Delft University of Technology)
Urban renewal in Amsterdam-West Analyses and design, the transformation of Amsterdam-West to be used as a reference in the approach of Nowa Huta. This paper has been written as a preparation for the international research and design project taking place in Cracow and dealing with the post-war district of Nowa Huta. It describes the results of the research we have done on Amsterdam-West, and it will serve as a reference when exploring and designing Nowa Huta. Amsterdam-West, like Nowa Huta, is a post-war city expansion. The two districts were built under different political circumstances; however, many current spatial, economic and social aspects of these areas are similar. This essay will discuss the construction of Amsterdam-West, with the ideologies and planning ideas prevailing in those days, and will discuss the current situation and problems as well as the future plans and solutions to these problems. Before focusing on Amsterdam, let us first compare Amsterdam and Cracow geographically. Amsterdam and Cracow are cities of comparable size, both have approximately 750.000 inhabitants. Both Amsterdam-West and Nowa Huta are large post-war city expansions, Nowa Huta built under a communist regime, Amsterdam-West following modernist post-war ideologies. Amsterdam-West has about 130.000 inhabitants, Nowa Huta 200.000, whilst the area of Nowa Huta fits about eight times in that of Amsterdam-West. This means that the population density in Nowa Huta is much higher than in Amsterdam-West. This difference in population density certainly has to be taken into account when comparing the use of public space and facilities in both districts. 80 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

PART 4. PREPARATORY STUDENT WORK; case-study Amsterdam WEST

PART 4. PREPARATORY STUDENT WORK AMSTERDAM-WEST, PAST To keep up with the rapid growth of the city, Amsterdam had to keep expanding. In the 1930’s, plans were being made to expand the city of Amsterdam to the West. This resulted in the ‘General Expansion Plan’ (Algemeen Uitbreidingsplan), AUP in short, by Cornelis van Eesteren in 1934 (figure 1). At the time, theories for city planning were inspired by the English Garden Cities and by the German modernistic Siedlungen. The English Garden City was a reaction to the chaotic growth of the industrial city, and was claiming for ‘light, air and space’ for the living environment of the working class. In the Siedlungen, this was also evident. When, after the war, Amsterdam-West was built, the slogan of the garden cities, ‘light, air, space’, could be recognized in the entire urban plan. The infrastructure is broad and green, as is the water structure. Also on the scale of the building blocks, the slogan applies. The Amsterdam building blocks dating from the period before world war II used to be closed blocks with a collective, or even private, inner space. In the so-called ‘New Western Garden Cities’ the new blocks consisted of an ensemble of buildings enclosing an inner space, which was still publicly accessible from the streets. So, the open character could be felt in the entire district, from the urban scale to the scale of the buildings. (3) block ↑ (4) building ↑ Another slogan describing the New Western Garden Cities was ‘Freedom by Equality’ (‘Vrijheid door gelijkheid’). On the urban level this meant that the area is built up as a large grid in which each part is given a status equal to that of the other parts, there is no hierarchy. The infrastructure grid was the basis of the plan, the shortest connection between living and work, shopping and the surrounding cities. Between the lines of the infrastructure grid REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 81

(1) field

(2) ensemble

← General Expansion Plan by Cornelis van Eesteren, 1934 (figure 1)

Composition of the fields (figure 2.1 - 4)

T.van Agt, L.Houtman and A.Maessen (Delft University of Technology)
were the so-called fields. Every field has its own functions like schools, churches and shops, so that, in principle, people do not need to move from one part to another. Zooming in on such a field, the ‘equality’ is again also found on the scale of the building. In principle, all the blocks are the same, and all the houses are about the same size. When looking closer at one field, one sees that these principles still make variations possible. One field consists of ensembles of blocks. These blocks consist of an arrangement of buildings (figure 2). Because the design of the buildings can vary and the arrangements of buildings in a block can vary, there is a certain variation present in the plan. In the urban plan, main axes and crossings, or curves along these axes, were emphasized by the use of high-rise buildings. In the plan of Van Eesteren, these were called ‘spatial accents’. AMSTERDAM-WEST, PRESENT Despite of the qualities of green and space, the area has problems. Most of the area was built in the 50’s and 60’s, which is the reason why many dwellings no longer meet the demands of today. Socially and economically, the area is lagging behind the rest of Amsterdam. These problems need to be solved on the level of Amsterdam-West as a whole. However, property, management and administration are scattered. There are many parties active on the field of urban renewal, like the municipal districts, services and housing corporations, which makes it difficult to make decisions on the entire district. This is the reason Bureau Parkstad is established. Bureau Parkstad communicates with all the parties, gives an overall view of the developments in the area, and gives direction to new developments. The problems in the area cannot just be 82 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

PART 4. PREPARATORY STUDENT WORK ; case-study Amsterdam WEST
solved spatially. This why Bureau Parkstad focuses on spatial, economic and social problems and solutions. The investigations done by Bureau Parkstad give an overview of the strengths and weaknesses of Amsterdam-West and display the opportunities and threats (SWOT-analysis). The most important strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats are listed below. Strengths ► It has a strong water en green structures ► It has a strong economic position, Schiphol, Amsterdam-Zuidas and Amsterdam Centre are easily accessible. Weaknesses ► Housing and living environment are showing signs of wearing ► Housing and housing environment is homogenous and does not satisfy the demand; there is too much social housing. ► High numbers of unemployment, a rising number in comparison to the rest of Amsterdam. Opportunities ► The housing stock of Amsterdam needs to be extended. In Amsterdam-West, there is enough space to develop new differentiated housing. ► The area is attractive for new businesses, because of its strong accessibility Threats ► Overall image is declining ► many young people quit elementary school (70% of them are second or third generation immigrants). Following from the chances and threats, and the strengths and weaknesses, Bureau Parkstad has made a list of ambitions for Amsterdam-West: ► give Amsterdam-West a new image; ► make it a socially multicoloured area; ► labour differentiation in the area; ► create a living environment for every kind of household, housing differentiation; ► a desirable spatial image. Bureau Parkstad has made a development plan for AmsterdamWest. This plan does not give an exact blueprint of the area, but points out a desired direction. Every four years the development plan will be revised and actualized. AMSTERDAM-WEST, FUTURE The development plan of Bureau Parkstad focuses on spatial solutions. Besides, economic and social programmes in the area are drawn up. Examples of these programmes are: ► creating more space for developing economic or commercial functions ► appointing an account manager companies can attain, who will also keep in contact with the municipal districts. ► youth work and youth policy focuses on preventing young people leaving school prematurely and combatting unemployment. The spatial development plan focuses on different aspects:

PART 4. PREPARATORY STUDENT WORK ► Living environment: more differentiation in the environment; some areas will be denser and urban, other areas will have a more suburban character (figure 3)

existing situation

new situation

↕ ► Infrastructure, Car traffic: To improve the internal accessibility by car, a traffic ring is appointed and connected to the A10 highway (figure 4)

Now

Future

Figure 3 : Living Environment

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T.van Agt, L.Houtman, A.Maessen (Delft University of Technology)

PART 4. PREPARATORY STUDENT WORK ; case-study Amsterdam WEST
► Infrastructure, Public Transport: Metro, tram, and bus will be more tightly connected, and more strategic stops will de made. (figure 5)

existing situation

new situation

► Water structures; The water structure plan aims to increase the amount of water storing capacity. The water network, with the Sloterplas in the heart of it, is a structural element of AmsterdamWest. Much attention will be paid to making more places at the water. (figure 6)

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PART 4. PREPARATORY STUDENT WORK ► Green structures; The development plan points out the green structure, which is a condition for all urban renewal plans. (figure 7)

► On a smaller scale, many plans and proposals have been made by different architectural firms and urban designers, according to the ambitions of Bureau Parkstad, for example Faro Architecten (figure 8)

Conclusions Right now, many renovation projects are being carried out in Amsterdam-West. They focus on improving the infrastructure network, renovating dated houses, bringing more differentiation in the housing stock and defining the open space more clearly. Bureau Parkstad monitors the developments and sets up new plans for the area on the urban scale, on infrastructure, green, water, formal and informal structures, and on the definition of public space and environment. The same integral approach Bureau Parkstad applies on Amsterdam-West can be useful in analyzing and defining the problems and possibilities in Nowa Huta, Cracow. REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 85

PART 4. PREPARATORY STUDENT WORK; case-study KEMEROVO
A. Moiseeva, S. Panzer (Delft University of Technology)
THE CASE OF KEMEROVO IN RELATION TO NOWA HUTA The aim of this article is to present the socioeconomic and spatial transformation of Kemerovo city (Russian Federation), after 1989, in relation to Nowa Huta (Poland). Both cities are the socialist cities: Nowa Huta is the best and the most famous example of socialist realistic city in Poland and Kemerovo is one of the first examples of rational socialist city planning of Siberian towns. According to its design, a socialist city was intended to be something more than a mere town-planning and architectural creation. The socialist city was created along communist principles: no private property, small income differences, mass-planned residential housing stock, industrial building. The dominant factor of their growth was the production plant. Like a Nowa Huta – a centre of big volume of steel production in the past, Kemerovo was an important centre of mining and chemical industry in Siberian region. The role of the production plant ↑ played in the life of a socialist society went further than simply the process of production and work. The creation and further development of the working class was the major “practical” objectives to which the socialist cities owed its existence. A socialist city was supposed to reflect: democracy and humanism, ideas of the great revolutionary struggle, the idea of freedom, peace, heroism and patriotism, constructive labour of the people. Architecture was a very important weapon for the creation of new social ideas. Patriotic ideas were implemented in the urban structure of the socialist city: centralized composition of squares in the city ensemble, monumental character of the city centre like ‘monumental chronicle of the glory and solemnity of the motherland’, Superstructure - a system of wide boulevards and a chain of avenues which connect to the main square. Socialist cities are important examples of the mutual construction of society & space and epitomize top-down attempts to built society. Urban changes brought by the collapse of communist regimes in the former socialist countries are as important as changes induced by the establishment of these regimes. They seem to be even more intensive, due to the fact that they comprise two simultaneously running transformations. One is the complex of transformations from an authoritarian (top-down), non-pluralistic political system to a democratic and pluralistic one and from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. The modern market economy, in Kemerovo (and in Russia in whole), can be shown to have several characteristics, such as: quality of economic entities, openness to the outside, 86 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

Industrial Centre Composition of monumental square ↓

Mass-planned appartment buildings ↓

Superstructure of wide streets & boulevards ↓

PART 4. PREPARATORY STUDENT WORK privatization of the state-run sector, development of private enterprise, competition on local markets, a regulatory role of the market, competitiveness of economic entities, the emergence and development of business environment services. The changes in economies and social lives are gradually being followed by changes in their spatial development of the city. The main changes are concentrated in two major areas: into central parts of the city and into the peripheral zones. In Kemerovo city, readily visible are: appearance of stretches of streets offering prestigious shopping; the appearance in peripheral areas, especially along the motorways, of the big shopping malls, administrative buildings, stores, but also new peripheral housing estates; the modernization of communication routes; a change in the model of residential construction manifesting itself in the building of small, often ‘closed’, housing estates with an atmosphere of their own whose architecture departs radically from the typical unimaginative blocks of flats of the socialist period; the undertaking of projects for the renewal of the historic urban architecture in the city centre, including residential buildings, areas formerly in industrial and transport; the development of single family housing in the suburban zone. In the new public spaces, a new type of public life emerged: leisure zones, cafes, restaurants, casinos were established along with the formation of rich and poor districts and the fragmentation of urban space. Moreover, the process of complex and contradicting post-Soviet transformations is becoming rather stabilized. In a nutshell, this means the formation of a new social order or, at least, its initial scaffolding: new values, norms, ideals, and lifestyle. Realistically, this also means the transformation of various urban spaces, disappearance or corrosion of certain social environments. These are the very spaces where one seems to be able to read the signs of a new situation and perspective.

Former public space: drama theatre Former public space: philharmonic society

↑ ↓

New commercial functions on ground floor ↓

New shopping mall ↓

Transformation of public boulevard ↓

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B. Haba, K. Steinhof, S. Chmiel, E. Szafraniec, M. Kasprzyk, J. Szmukier, O. Senderska, A. Ludzik, S. Kurzydlo, A. Krzeszowska (CUT
The domain of The Old City The main Market Square which is 200 x 200 m wide is the biggest plaza of Europe and proclaims the heart of the composition of the Old City. Its shape was the result of location of Cracow in 1257 by Prince Bolesław Wstydliwy. There are two important dominants – City Hall and Mariacki Church. The area is divided into smaller interiors by architectural accents, like Sukiennice –the medieval merchant center. They are situated in the center of the Market Square separating him in two individual but compact spaces. The structure of The Old City is orthogonal with ten perpendicular streets leading to the Main Market Square. The exception is Grodzka Street, which is diagonal and creates very special kind of organic mollification which can be seen the best from the south part of The Market and from the interiors of The Dominikański Plaza or The Wszystkich Świętych Plaza. Another phenomenon are the numerous churches which are rotated according to the orthogonal net .The quarter structure of buildings contains apartment houses with outbuildings behind. The ground levels are used for commercial spaces so the courts are an expansion for the function of the street. The characteristic feature of the old city is cohesion of historical structure with strong composition surrounded by a green ring – Planty. The old city dominates in the space of Cracow. However, because of its exceptional composition historical and cultural qualities are individual by functional and programmatic integrity. The amount of occupants is not very large. It is the space of meetings of the society of Cracow as well travellers, because its program offers many kinds of functions: administration, culture, education, science, commercial, gastronomy. 88 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

PART 4. PREPARATORY STUDENT WORK; case-study NOWA HUTA

Moreover, very interesting is the sociological aspect of The Old City. Besides the group of inhabitants there is also the social group which stays temporary in this area. The atmosphere of the place, its program and the way of using it leads to the characteristic behavior of people, groups and communities created all the time from the beginning. It depends on time – a day, week, month, year, according to the events.

The main Market Square which is 200 x 200 m wide is the biggest plaza of Europe and proclaims the heart of the composition of the Old City. The structure of the old city is orthogonal with ten perpendicular streets leading to the Main Market Square. The exception is Grodzka Street, which is diagonal and creates very special kind of organic mollification. Its program offers many kinds of functions: administration, culture, education, science, commercial, gastronomy.

Cracow University of Technology)

PART 4. PREPARATORY STUDENT WORK located here. The place for housing buildings is being used more intensively here. Spacious flats can be used for offices and commercial functions, what lead to displacement of living functions. Well connected places on the east side of the railway station are not used enough. In this place a new city centre could be located. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT (1) Reconstruction of Cracow settlement complex until the 12th century. Including the main mercantile routes (2) Reconstruction of the rectangular grid plan made in 1257. Including the main mercantile routes (3) Development of the city structure between 14th and 19th century. Medieval agglomeration with Kazimierz and Kleparz and the 19th century suburb Podgórze (4) Urban composition marking the fortifications built in 19th century

Structure of the city The historical centre is surrounded by down town buildings which concentrate the most valuable groups of buildings and historical monuments. This is the place where people can still notice a growing concentration of services and administration. High prestige of this area is consolidated despite the fact of existence of the new commercial centres. Objects connected with the metropolitan function of cities such as: Universities Diplomatic embassies, departments of administration, cultural objects are REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 89

B. Haba, K. Steinhof, S. Chmiel, E. Szafraniec, M. Kasprzyk, J. Szmukier, O. Senderska, A. Ludzik, S. Kurzydlo, A. Krzeszowska (CUT
(5) Relation between the Old City Center and Nowa Huta today Nowa Huta in its oldest part is a residential and service district designed with a strictly defined structure and the layout created by streets, squares, frontages, passages and greenery. Previously planned as an independent city development of this district was not properly combined with the historical growth axis (northsouth) of Cracow. In following years after the period of social realism development of Nowa Huta did not provided expected traffic system connections and clear vision for the area between. New estates consisted of groups of free standing concrete blocks of flats dominated territory of the district and today cover the main part of Nowa Huta. In these groups there are densely inhabited parts with the mono-functional character like Bieńczyce, Mistrzejowice, Wzgórza Krzesławickie very similar to other new developments like Wola Duchacka, Piaski Nowe, Kozłówek, Nowy Prokocim, Nowy Bieżanów. These are mainly built in 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. They are not fulfilling today’s expectations of standards for living, services, parking places and the quality of public spaces. Single family houses are 70% of the number of residential houses, but it is only 10% of the whole amount of flats.

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Cracow University of Technology)

PART 4. PREPARATORY STUDENT WORK

Housing estates from years between world war I and II like Osiedle Oficerskie, “garden city” on Salwator, Cichy Kącik, Osedle Legionów (Dębniki), enclosing of Axentowicz Square have defined structure. In Cracow the suburban zone behavior matches the behavior of old villages (emerged alongside the main street) filled by new detached housing. That place is characterized by low-intensity, diversity of building and not enough public space. The topic of our elaboration is post-war Cracow. That is why we focused on analyzing of housing estates raised in that period. The best description of character of this place can be achieved by observing public space. We focused on public domain which is, according to Marc Koehler, ‘place of physical and visual cultural exchange’. Showing the historical city in ‘schwarzplan’ gives a clear view of public spaces. The situation changes in case of the post-war housing estates. Distract layout of buildings causes that the interpretation and even localization of public space is almost impossible. That is why we decided to use bubble diagrams. According to Paul Kroese (“Mapping public domain”) The Bubble Diagram maps space. The influences are represented by colored areas or ‘bubbles’. Each category of program has its own color to create an instant idea of the variety of main functions in particular area.’ The result of our work is based on deep analysis of space rather than on static data. By our research we are able to define how the public space in housing estates works. This knowledge can be used for the reanimation of the post-war developments.

← Relation between the Old City Centre and the first part of Nowa Huta according to territory and structural development of Cracow REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 91

B. Haba, K. Steinhof, S. Chmiel, E. Szafraniec, M. Kasprzyk, J. Szmukier, O. Senderska, A. Ludzik, S. Kurzydlo, A. Krzeszowska (CUT

PART 4. PREPARATORY STUDENT WORK; case-study NOWA HUTA

ZABINEC “Zabiniec” residential community was the biggest investment in 1992 in Cracow. New residential part consists about 1000 units and it’s situated between streets: Prądnicka, Żmujdzka, Zdrowa and 29 Listopada.

It was designed by “ARCHE” Architects and the main designer was Kazimierz Koterba. It was intended that a new part would remain the character of the old city quarters. Space inside the blocks is semi-private and consists of a lot of playgrounds and green spaces. There is also no car circulation inside the blocks. The walking, recreation passage going along the composition axis of all design connects important places: church, commercial spaces, main square and sport-recreation spaces. Parking spaces are situated inside the building. The old part of the żabiniec consists a high density residential buildings and some big city villas. There are also some commercial pavilions, nursery school and some recreation space.

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Cracow University of Technology)

PART 4. PREPARATORY STUDENT WORK

OSIEDLE WIDOK Housing estate Widok was built in 1970s. General architect was K.Bień. The whole layout has not uniformed urban structure. There are both big housing units and semi-detach houses. Functionally important public buildings are chaotically spread in a space that would be big enough for a whole housing estate. Characteristic in that the area provides also the space for spontaneous recreation, which is performed mostly along the main axis in the urban plan.

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PART 4. PREPARATORY STUDENT WORK ; Case-Study NOWA HUTA
J. Szmukier, O. Senderska, A. Ludzik, S. Kurzydlo, A. Krzeszowska (Cracow University of Technology)

CICHY KĄCIK & MIASTECZKO STUDENCKIE AGH Housing estates Cichy Kącik and Miasteczko Studenckie AGH are situated in the western part of Cracow. Cichy Kącik has a concentric-radial layout covered partly by free standing and partly by detached houses built before World War II. After the war the structure expanded on the north direction. There are two houses designed by Adolf Szyszko-Bohusz, a famous polish architect, founder of Faculty of Architecture in Cracow. In the area of the detached housing estate public space is limited to access streets. The housing estate is situated in the vicinity of Cracow’s recreational spaces of Blonia field, Wisla and Cracovia sport clubs complex and H.Jordan Park. 94 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

In the 1970s at the east side of Cichy Kącik, rose up the structure of Students Hotels of AGH. Both the urban structure and architecture of these buildings are designed by Tomasz Mańkowski. The urban tissue is not uniform. 4-storey buildings in linear composition are completed with 11-storey tower blocks. The public space has a very specific character as the estate is inhabited only by students, people of similar age leading quite similar lifestyle. The public area became very active on certain times of the day. The place that gathers most attention in the day is the supermarket and a big pub by night. Public places are limited by buildings and greenery. What is special about this public space is that it is used by a certain community that introduces extraordinary functions, like grilling or summer party.

PART 4. PREPARATORY STUDENT WORK

WOLA DUCHACKA The housing Estate Wola Duchacka is situated on the south-east part of Cracow. Wola Duchacka was built in the 1990s and it is developing up until today. 5- and 11-storey buildings are arranged irregularly. The whole structure is cut with the green zones.

REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY

95

B. Haba, K. Steinhof, S. Chmiel, E. Szafraniec, M. Kasprzyk, J. Szmukier, O. Senderska, A. Ludzik, S. Kurzydlo, A. Krzeszowska (CUT

PART 4. PREPARATORY STUDENT WORK; case-study NOWA HUTA

WZGÓRZA KRZESLAWICKIE Housing estate Wzgórza Krzesławickie is situated on the northeastern part of Cracow, and belongs to Nowa Huta.Wzgórza Krzesławickie was built in the 1960s.The urban fabric is shaped together with valuable natural surroundings. A linear composition arranges the 5-storey buildings with higher accents of 10-storey ones. A wonderful park with pathways cuts trough the middle of the whole urban structure.

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Cracow University of Technology)

PART 4. PREPARATORY STUDENT WORK

OSIEDLE TEATRALNE

Osiedle Teatralne housing estate is placed in Cracow’s district XVIII. It was built from 1954-55 according to the socialist principles as a quarter of culture. The layout was based on Clarence Perry’s idea of neighbourhood unit. The most important buildings are: Ludowy Theatre, Świt Cinema,(1954 - 1955, designed by J.Ingarden, J.Dąbrowski) with detail inspired by Egyptian motives and Nowa Huta Cross located on the edge of internal housing estates within the strip of greenery. Outside the social realism part of Nowa Huta, in part of district called Bieńczyce (name of former village) one of the first new churches in Nowa Huta has been built. The church (1967-1977, designed by Wojciech Pietrzyk) inspired by Le Corbusier’s chapel in Ronchamp, reminds the Bible ark with its shape of boat and mast. REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 97

B. Haba, K. Steinhof, S. Chmiel, E. Szafraniec, M. Kasprzyk, J. Szmukier, O. Senderska, A. Ludzik, S. Kurzydlo, A. Krzeszowska (CUT

PART 4. PREPARATORY STUDENT WORK; case-study NOWA HUTA

OSIEDLE PIASTÓW Within the confines of the third stage of the Nowa Huta extension in Mistrzejowice in 1974-82 a housing estate complex “Piastów” (according to W.Cęckiewicz, M.Czerwińska, J.Gardulski, M.Rekaszys-Rataj projects) was built. Piastów consist of a few dozen blocks of flats (most are 4-storey named “Puchatek”) and trade buildings, cultural and health-care institutions. In the neighborhood an old Austrian fort is located.

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Cracow University of Technology)

PART 4. PREPARATORY STUDENT WORK

OSIEDLE II PUTKU LOTNICZEGO Housing estate II Pułku Lotniczego, made according to a project by W.Cęckiewicz, was built next to the old airport 1978-90. Estate consists of 4-storey and 11-storey blocks of flats (according to projects by. M.J.Chronowski, S.Golonka), commercial buildings, cultural and health-care institutions. Today, the surroundings of the airport runway is an undeveloped and untidy place where drunks and hooligans meet together. Because the space between the blocks is boring it does not stimulate or encourage inhabitants to inter-act socially or relax.

REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY

99

B. Haba, K. Steinhof, S. Chmiel, E. Szafraniec, M. Kasprzyk, J. Szmukier, O. Senderska, A. Ludzik, S. Kurzydlo, A. Krzeszowska (CUT

PART 4. PREPARATORY STUDENT WORK; case-study NOWA HUTA

PRĄDNIK BIAŁY Housing estate Prądnik Biały is situated in the northern part of Cracow, east from the road towards Warsaw. It was built in the 1970s. The plan is arranged in linear composition of 5-storey buildings. The overall layout is closed by 11-storey buildings. The whole urban fabric is cut by an access road dividing it into two parts. The west side has a strictly recreation character, swimming pools and park with historical architecture monuments are located here. The east side was planed as a public place with schools and kinder gardens. The main market place for northern part of Cracow is also situated here – Plac Imbranowski, which includes a mainly commercial function in the housing estate. 100 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

Cracow University of Technology)

PART 4. PREPARATORY STUDENT WORK

AZORY

The Azory estate is situated in the northern part of Cracow. The housing estate was designed by architect M.Turski previously for 20 thousands inhabitants. This project was being realized since 1960. The middle of the estate consists of detached houses surrounded on the edges by high tower blocks of flats. Destroyed buildings emphasize defects in appropriate public space. Narrow streets and little amount of formal squares give low values of space. In the center of the estate there is a bus lines ending square with attached shabby commerce. At the east side there is a big open space of city including sports fields and S.Wyspiański Park (with small complex of city farms) linking Azory with another housing estate Osiedle XXX-lecia. REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 101

B. Haba, K. Steinhof, S. Chmiel, E. Szafraniec, M. Kasprzyk, J. Szmukier, O. Senderska, A. Ludzik, S. Kurzydlo, A. Krzeszowska (CUT

PART 4. PREPARATORY STUDENT WORK; case-study NOWA HUTA

OSIEDLE 30-LECIA Situated on the south from the Cracow east-west traffic line, XXXlecia housing estate has an urban fabric that is still expanding. The layout is being filled by architecture from the last two decades of 20th century. At the north side there are a couple of 11-storey tower blocks, the rest of the housing estate are 5-storey blocks of flats. A special place in the whole layout is taken by the concrete solid church designed by Romuald Loegler. Beside the church there is a green area for gardening and the city park which became the main gather point of the district.

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Cracow University of Technology)

PART 4. PREPARATORY STUDENT WORK

ODIEDLE PODWAWELSKIE Housing estate Podwawelskie was designed in the 1960s and together with the area of Ludwinów village in the bend of the Vistula River is very close to the old city center. Leading designer was Witold Cęckiewicz. The urban composition has been formed with two axes of the local streets and perpendicular access streets with low multifamily buildings. High blocks of flats are surrounding the whole site. Public space is created by service objects such as schools, nursery schools and small commercial buildings. Green spaces, squares, playgrounds, sport fields are located between the threads of residential buildings.

REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 103

B. Haba, K. Steinhof, S. Chmiel, E. Szafraniec, M. Kasprzyk, J. Szmukier, O. Senderska, A. Ludzik, S. Kurzydlo, A. Krzeszowska (CUT

PART 4. PREPARATORY STUDENT WORK; case-study NOWA HUTA

NOWY PROKOCIM Housing estate Nowy Prokocim was built in 1975-1994 and is situated on south-east side of Cracow. It was built using a prefabricated slab system, and today it is mainly with defected equipment of sewage and water pipes and electricity as well. The overall layout developed in a few phases starting with 11-storey buildings on the north side to 5-storey on the south. South of the housing estate is a monumental public garden where Jerzmanowskiego residency is situated. The housing estate has provided space for own commercial, education and recreation facilities, which makes it a friendly place to live.

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Cracow University of Technology)

PART 4. PREPARATORY STUDENT WORK

NOWY BIEŻANÓW Housing estate Nowy Bieżanów consists of typical multifamily buildings called “wielka plyta” made of prefabricated slabs. There are only two types of buildings in this estate: 11- and 5-storey. There are some single-family building enclaves: Duża Górka Street, Aleksandry Street, Mała Górka Street. This district it stretched in a northern direction – south from the commuters’ heavy traffic road to Bochnia and Wieliczka, 10 km from the centre of Cracow. Public spaces are organized between the schools, health-care centers, churches and several supermarkets. All the time some new trade buildings, shops and cultural spaces are emerging between threads of habitable buildings. REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 105

Exploring Nowa Huta |J. Szmukier, A. Paaβen, M. Verlinden, S. Jaschke, M. Stigter, S. Old, J. Seidl, T. van Agt, V. Spijker, M. Kasprzyk
We have been gathering extensive information about different commercial spaces throughout the city of Nowa Huta. The central axis, leading from the main market square, Plac Centralny, towards the end of Aleja Roz, was investigated, as well as shopping areas on and between Aleja General W. Andersa, Aleja Jana Pawla II, Aleja Solidarnosci and Aleja Jana Pawla II. The collected information is mapped in different ways trying to explain differences between well functioning and badly functioning commercial areas. By means of these maps designproposals will be presented where necessary. Walking through the city of Nowa Huta, different typologies of commercial activities can be identified on a varying level of scale. On the local level kiosks provide in the daily needs of inhabitants. These kiosks are all connected to much frequented pedestrian routes. On the scale of the neighbourhood, small concentrations of shops or supermarkets are found. Through connectivityanalyses, not included here, these supermarkets seem to be centrally located in the neighbourhood as well as connected to roads of bigger importance. The shopping street, located at traffic nodes where public-transport, car traffic and pedestrian movement come together, fulfils the needs on the highest scale. They serve the needs of different neighbourhoods.

PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE; COMMERCIAL PUBLIC SPACE

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PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE The overall map clearly shows the location of shops in the city of Nowa Huta. A concentration of shops is found around the Main Market Square, Plac Centralny. Although you would expect the squares between the Main Market Square and Aleja Roz to be a well functioning commercial axis, the opposite is true. Together with Aleja Roz, they house a small amount of commercial activity. The perpendicular axes seem to be much more attractive. Interesting to see is that Aleja Gen. W. Andersa seems to be a commercial street of bigger importance, connecting the heart of the area with the open market on Kocmyrzowska. The open-air market, its surrounding shops and the shopping street on Aleja Gen. W. Andersa constitute a bigger commercial area on the regional scale. The most remarkable is that the main market square and the central axis, don’t function commercially as one would expect, further research will be concentrated on the comparison between commercial spaces on the Main Market Square and Aleja Gen. W. Andersa.

a. kiosk b. shoppingmall c. shoppingstreet
REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 107

Exploring Nowa Huta |J. Szmukier, A. Paaβen, M. Verlinden, S. Jaschke, M. Stigter, S. Old, J. Seidl, T. van Agt, V. Spijker, M. Kasprzyk
Looking at the connectivity-patterns of the main market square and the central axis, the Main Market Square seems to be very well connected to the surrounding area, even better than the shops on Aleja Gen. W. Andersa. The success of the shopping street on Aleja Gen. W. Andersa could be explained by its connection to a traffic junction and the presence of the open-air market. The pedestrian activity-map shows a concentration of activity around the Main Market Square. Because shops and services are not the main attraction poles, pedestrian activity is mainly due to the presence of an important node of public transport. The large amount of people passing the main Market Square could be considered as a not used opportunity. The Main Market Square offers quite a broad variety of products and services, ranging from banking services to a second-hand clothing shop. The shops located in the Aleja Gen. W. Andersa, on the other hand, not only offer a much broader variety of products and services, but for the same service you can as well chose between different competing shops. The basic principles of the free market have evolved here in a much broader and intense sense.

PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE; COMMERCIAL PUBLIC SPACE

Connectivity maps (upper left and right) Activity map (upper right) Shops (lower right)
108 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

↑ → →→

PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE ← Atmosphere map

Using the deep maps to explain why there is a difference between our objects of research, the following can be derived ... The atmosphere map indicates that there is a significant difference between the atmosphere on the Aleja Gen. W. Andersa and the Main Market Square. The latter is felt as uncomfortable, while the commercially undiscovered squares towards Aleja Roz are experienced as comfortable. The same goes for Aleja Gen. W. Andersa. Additionally cross sections were drawn to investigate why the Main Market Square is not experienced positively.

REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 109

Exploring Nowa Huta |J. Szmukier, A. Paaβen, M. Verlinden, S. Jaschke, M. Stigter, S. Old, J. Seidl, T. van Agt, V. Spijker, M. Kasprzyk
Deep mapping While creating deep mapping of Plac Centralny and Aleja Róż four kinds of commercial spaces were identified: daily needs, special needs, services and entertainment. Further, the map shows the facade typology (closed, semi transparent and opened) and the influence commercial activity has on public space. The Plac Centralny‘s commercial program is very poor and not adequate to its importance. Additionally, the shops are only accessible from the streets and pavements, not from the central park. The lack of any connection between public and commercial spaces and the impossibility of crossing the square safely due to the presence of heavy car- and tram traffic, badly influences the quality of the square. Another point of interest is the rectangular public space, connecting Plac Centralny to Aleja Róż. Although this is the most popular and crowded square in Nowa Huta, there are actually no commercial spaces

PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE; COMMERCIAL PUBLIC SPACE

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PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE However the main axis of Nowa Huta – Aleja Róż, was designed to be the important commercial line housing a variety of commercial spaces, this role has been taken over by the streets perpendicular to it. There is a line of services with opened facades in front of the park. The location is very attractive, but the quality of architecture is not comparable to this place. The next part of the avenue is, commercially spoken, not continuous. It has some breaks in the ground floor due to closed facades. A little further, two lines of shops border the widening street, although they are hidden by disorganized green areas. From this point, the commercial spaces disappear and Aleja Róż is finished by housing blocks.

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Exploring Nowa Huta |J. Szmukier, A. Paaβen, M. Verlinden, S. Jaschke, M. Stigter, S. Old, J. Seidl, T. van Agt, V. Spijker, M. Kasprzyk
In order to compare the Main Market Square and Aleja Roz with the shopping street Aleja Gen. W. Andersa, a representative part of this street was mapped. Aleja Gen. W. Andersa is a continuous commercial area showing a variety of transparent and less transparent facades and offering a variety of products and services. The street widens at the height of the former cinema, to create a square with a terrace and kiosks. This little square became a welcome relaxation point.

PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE; COMMERCIAL PUBLIC SPACE

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PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE Comparing the cross sections of the two areas investigated, it is remarkable to notice the differences in scale of public space. The Main Market Square is composed of different non-integrated elements, some of bigger scale. Moving from one shop on the West side of the market-square to a shop on the east side of the market-square, one firstly has to cross the arcades, then the stairs, the pedestrian walkway, the road, the pedestrian walkway, the stairs to finally reach the shop of interest. Although designed as a place for people, it is therefore not felt as such. The next two cross sections are of much more comfortable dimensions, connecting the human scale to the public space and its surrounding buildings. It is rather surprising that commercial activities like restaurants and bars with terraces are not to be found here. Comparing the cross sections of the Main Market square to the cross section of Aleja Gen. W. Andersa, it is obvious that the public space of the shopping street feels more comfortable. The pedestrian walkway is bordered by trees on the left and smaller buildings on the right. The roads, the tramway and the green area on the other side of the street do not make part of the commercial public space, as it was for the main market square. ← Cross section

REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 113

PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE; GREEN PUBLIC SPACE
Referring to the garden city, Nowa Huta was designed as a counterbalance to the gigantic industrial area east of Krakow, so that the people who work in the factory have a good and healthy place to live. Therefore a huge amount of trees were planted in the streets and within the blocks. During the past fifty years this vegetation has become a forest like, green roof in the whole area. Although it seems like it is a big quality to have a lot of greenery in the city, the district has changed into a dark, shady part of Krakow, where the former nice courtyards transformed in neglected places and the green outside of the city is completely separated from the rest of the city. We’ve split up the area in three different scales: ► the green belt around Nowa Huta, the public parks in ► Nowa Huta itself and the semi-public parks ► in between the building blocks.

Exploring Nowa Huta | F. van der Veek, V. Scherlowski, B. Stanik, O. Senderska, A. Ludzik, D. Laufer, L. Houtman, S. Steffin, J. Boon, A. Zech

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PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE GREEN BELT On the south and east side of Nowa Huta is a belt of green which consists of several types of vegetation. Each vegetation part is an object of his own which isn’t connected to the other parts. There is also a difference in maintaining: some are very well maintained, others completely neglected. The lake area for example is a very well developed area. The river in comparison is neglected completely. To check the connectivity of the green belt we’ve split up the green belt in two parts, one on the south of Nowa Huta and one on the eastern side of the city. Both areas have a connection with Cracow Old City Centre. Furthermore the areas have a good connection with the southeastern suburb of Nowa Huta itself. Other suburbs are not very well connected. For the identity map we’ve split up the categories in two parts, a developed and an undeveloped part. There are areas which are temporary used, the vegetable gardens for instance. Although they are really well maintained by the owners, they are completely closed (also visually) for people who don’t have a garden. The lake on the other hand, also developed, is used by all people and also very popular. There are also parts which are undeveloped, not liked and not used. For example most people won’t go to the area in the north, where the stadium is situated. Also you’ve got areas’ which are undeveloped, but are liked and used, the meadows on the south side of Nowa Huta for example. Along the green belt are several functions situated. But the influences on the surroundings of these functions are really bad. Only three functions will reach the greenery, so there is no input from the outside. REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 115

PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE; GREEN PUBLIC SPACE

exploring Nowa Huta | F. van der Veek, V. Scherlowski, B. Stanik, O. Senderska, A. Ludzik, D. Laufer, L. Houtman, S. Steffin, J. Boon, A. Zech

East side connectivity map

South side connectivity map

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PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE

REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 117

PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE; GREEN PUBLIC SPACE
INNER CITY PUBLIC GREEN The huge amount of inner city public green is one of the biggest qualities of Nowa Huta. Nearly every road is accompanied by either one or even two green strips and a number of small parks can be found throughout the city. While most parks are in a decent shape, there is quite an amount of maintained green space in Nowa Huta and the green strips are widely neglected. The unorganized structure of the green and the lack of maintenance decrease the quality of this green city. The focus of the deep mapping will be the central park near the main square, which is due to its prominent position supposed to be the most attractive one. The connectivity map indicates that this place is very well connected to nearly the whole inner city.

exploring Nowa Huta | F. van der Veek, V. Scherlowski, B. Stanik, O. Senderska, A. Ludzik, D. Laufer, L. Houtman, S. Steffin, J. Boon, A. Zech

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PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE There are two different types of green strips along the streets of Nowa Huta, featuring either one or two rows of trees. The trees are greatly enhancing the overall look and feel of the city sometimes by hiding some deficiencies in the facades. They’re also improving the walking experience by separating the sidewalk from the street. However these green strips are often neglected and serve only as dog toilets. Because of the lack of maintenance, the trees are quite dense, limiting the amount of sunlight coming through resulting in rather dark alleys.

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PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE; GREEN PUBLIC SPACE
The deep mapping of the Park near the main square reveals a number of problems making it less attractive to the inhabitants. The two concrete tiled paths crossing the park divide into small triangles leaving only little space for any activity. Evenly spread vegetation shrinks the amount of usable space even more. The Noise level created by main roads on the western and southern side has a severe impact on the atmosphere on the park. Even though illuminated at night the inhabitants tend to avoid this park feeling unsafe. This green space lacks recognisability, identification and free space for activities making it largely unattractive for young people resulting in a limited public domain.

exploring Nowa Huta | F. van der Veek, V. Scherlowski, B. Stanik, O. Senderska, A. Ludzik, D. Laufer, L. Houtman, S. Steffin, J. Boon, A. Zech

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PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE SEMI-PUBLIC GREEN SPACE We divided the semi-public green space into two types:

► Type 1: semi-public green spaces in between higher density building. These spaces are usually enclosed by higher buildings.

► Type 2: semi-public green spaces in between lower density building. These spaces are situated in an open and lower building structure. They are only used by the residents tending to claim their own space e.g. by hanging their laundry or planting flowers. REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 121

PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE; GREEN PUBLIC SPACE
Deep mapping This higher-density public green area is situated in a closed building block, between six and eight stories high. Obviously the block height casts a huge shadow over the green space, adding to this are a lot of cluttered trees which create an umbrella above the enclosed green space. This semi-public space is pretty neglected and not a lot of people use it. It is mainly being used by people who cross the space to get to their house entrance as fast as they can. Because of the fact that all of the entrances to the building are situated at the inside of the block, all the residents park their Cars on the side walk in front of their entrances. Despite the presence of benches and playing objects the green space is not being used. People rather visit a public park in the nearby area.

exploring Nowa Huta | F. van der Veek, V. Scherlowski, B. Stanik, O. Senderska, A. Ludzik, D. Laufer, L. Houtman, S. Steffin, J. Boon, A. Zech

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PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE Conclusion We can conclude that in the “lower density semi-public greenspaces” there is a need for individuality and recognisability, also for a little private green, that is hard to be found in the area. For the sake of identity and orientation, in the green areas in and around the building blocks the green should have much more variation, and in some places the green could even be cut away, to focus more on the public green spaces in the area.

On this connectivity map it is easily seen that this “high density public green space” is very well connected to the city. The residents of the block can easily visit one of the many public parks in the area.

On this connectivity map of the “low density public green spaces” can be seen that this space is not well connected to the rest of the city and the public parks. In these areas we can also see that the residents tend to use their surrounding green for recreational purposes and to practice their gardening.

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PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE; INFORMAL PUBLIC SPACE
If you would describe formal space as planned spaces, informal space would be not-planned spaces. According to this description, informal places would be the left out places in an urban plan, or on the border of it. In these places, not-planned, or informal, activities can take place. However, in formally planned spaces, informal activities can take place as well; they can have developed during the years, comprise of more or less spontaneous but singular gatherings or be temporally planned events. Formal space can be designed to facilitate informal use. These informal activities could be all kinds of activities; Kids playing football on a small piece of grass, skateboarding on the street, or drinking on a bench. These activities could be more formal or informal, they could be pleasant or unpleasant and they could be accepted or unacceptable. In informal activities, we have defined three kinds of activities, named under: subculture, spontaneous and unacceptable activities. Subculture would include positive expressions of underground scene, like arts, music, sports, dancing. Also fashion could be part of this. Spontaneous activities could include all different kinds of activities in this definition. It could be the selling of flowers on the street, it could be the personification of private or semi-public space, like laundry hanging in the courtyards, or people painting their balconies. Also the building of personal bird housing would be in this subdivision. The unacceptable activities would be graffiti, pollution, vandalism, car races, and it also includes the hooligan activities. 124 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

exploring Nowa Huta | P. Strohm, O. Skerbs, M. Wesselman, A. Krzeszowska, K. Steinhof, B. Venema, J. Brück, J. Warnink, A. Maessen, A. Speelman

PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE

RESEARCH STRATEGY For mapping the environment, three teams have explored it by car, motorcycle and bicycle. They all chose routes that fitted their means of transport. The car team explored the main routes through the area. The motorcycle team could take smaller roads in the area, following their architectural instinct. The bicycle team followed a straight line which was drawn on the map, as good as possible, crossing all different areas.

LEGENDA Functions, objects areas, zones atmospheres, influences

1

2
“flower lady” (street selling) birdhouse informal communication monument trash hooligan vandalism hangout kiosk movable kiosk

2
void racism ruin homeless people mysterious objects sport field garage graffity

Informal Public Space

Car

Scooter

Bicycle

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PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE; INFORMAL PUBLIC SPACE

exploring Nowa Huta | P. Strohm, O. Skerbs, M. Wesselman, A. Krzeszowska, K. Steinhof, B. Venema, J. Brück, J. Warnink, A. Maessen, A. Speelman

Kiosks: on strategic places; crosses, important axes and entrances to housing buildings

Graffiti: all over the place
126 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE URBAN VOIDS Urban Voids are spaces in the city with high concentrations of informal activities due to lack of planning and un-clarity of function. We have identified a strip of urban voids in Nowa Huta where unacceptable activities dominate accepted activities. Because the voids are well connected to Nowa Huta and the outside, as can been seen in these maps, the negative image is very strong. These connectivity maps indicate how strongly the voids are represented in the image of Nowa Huta. You can see the line demonstrate the structure of Nowa Huta as well as link up these voids with Cracow and Katowice. These voids consist of large spaces along the edges of Nowa Huta that can be given new functions and transformed into successful public domain. A new informal space can be designed on a location that is less connected.

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PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE; INFORMAL PUBLIC SPACE
UNACCEPTABLE ACTIVITY How to transform unacceptable activities? Move problem somewhere else → does not solve problem ‘Zero Tolerance’ method → less freedom, expensive Integrate problems → tolerance required, creates tension Formalize problem → problem becomes controllable By creating a specific space for informal activities, these activities become more formal, and therefore recognizable. From here the situation can become controllable. Formalising the informal: Sleeping outdoor Drinking on street Car dumping Hooligans Mysterious object Car racing Tagging Trashing, Vandalism maintenance Racist tagging 128 homeless shelter Spanish steps car graveyard fanclub clarity of function racetrack graffiti wall quality and direct removal

exploring Nowa Huta | P. Strohm, O. Skerbs, M. Wesselman, A. Krzeszowska, K. Steinhof, B. Venema, J. Brück, J. Warnink, A. Maessen, A. Speelman
Unacceptable Activity Accepted Activity

Sleeping outdoors

Homeless shelter

Drinking on streets

Spanish steps

EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE Designing Informal Public Space By creating a specific space for informal activities, these activities become more formal, and therefore recognizable. From here the situation can become controllable. It is possible to design informal space as Nike has done in Berlin. In the book Who’s afraid of Nike town, Friedrich von Bolz describes how Nikes different advertising strategies work through creating new informal public domains for the city. One strategy works as follows: “Everything is forbidden, nothing sanctioned” The users of this space get the feeling they are doing something illegal, but in fact are not. This is a way to create informal space and encourage subcultures. Informal space could possibly work as a “blikvanger”, “eye catcher”. The word had a double meaning in Dutch. First of all “blik” means “look”, so eye catcher, and secondly “blik” means “can”. The idea is that you can throw your garbage in the net from your bike or car. If you miss it is no problem because the garbage will assimilate in a radius around the blikvanger. It will be easier to clean now it is concentrated in stead of spread out. REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 129

PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE; INFORMAL PUBLIC SPACE

exploring Nowa Huta | P. Strohm, O. Skerbs, M. Wesselman, A. Krzeszowska, K. Steinhof, B. Venema, J. Brück, J. Warnink, A. Maessen, A. Speelman
BRANDING NOWA HUTA Defining problems Nowa Huta: ► negative image ► lack of identity ► negative dominate positive aspects ► unacceptable triggers fear = Also general conclusions Potential: Existing qualities of Nowa Huta can be made visible, so people start to identify with them. Strategy:

Our general strategy for taking these problems would be a bottom-up approach. We call it: BRANDING Meaning: doing small things, developments, which stimulate larger developments to take place around it. Branding will be an important aspect to change the image of Nowa Huta. 130 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE Branding is a strategy to solve the problem of missing identification in Nowa Huta. In reference to Friedrich von Borries’s book “who’s afraid of Nike town” which analyses the marketing strategies of Nike in Berlin’s public space we propose to catalyse the hidden potential of Nowa Huta for creating a unique image. This bottom-up approach is referring to focus on small interventions which will stimulate bigger actions...

branding

branding

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PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE; INFORMAL PUBLIC SPACE
ANALYSING LOCAL STYLES AND PERSONIFICATION

exploring Nowa Huta | P. Strohm, O. Skerbs, M. Wesselman, A. Krzeszowska, K. Steinhof, B. Venema, J. Brück, J. Warnink, A. Maessen, A. Speelman

colo ure

d

n urba

entrance tuning

mail box communication

ca
rotten

b l o w

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PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE polish people love flowers... they’re selling them nearly everywhere the Nowa Hutans have a huge amount of undefined semipublic green space + they love gardening... so why not flowering Nowa Huta?!

atapeople love feeding birds + the Nowa Hutans love the production of birdhouses. that’s why the birds will love Nowa Huta... and their population will grow. in a few years they will be a tourist attraction...

+maybe you’ll receive that postcard from your bird watching grandparents...

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PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE; INFORMAL PUBLIC SPACE
SUBCULTURES Problem: Researching Nowa Huta showed poor visible sub cultural expressions. Some traces were to be found, but these were scattered all over the city and hardly recognisable. ► poor sub cultural activities ► badly recognisable ► no critical mass The identity of a city, or a part of the city, is often strongly related to its subcultures. Subculture could be described as the culture of the youth. Subculture could include artistic expressions, all kinds of sports, music, fashion, but it could also include unacceptable expressions like graffiti tagging, vandalism, hooliganism and racism. Potentials: By bringing together the dispersed activities the subcultures could be more recognisable and they can get their own identity. This could stimulate the development of the subcultures in Nowa Huta. So, the potential lies in creating critical mass, which leads to a catalysing effect on related activities. SOLUTION If we could centralise the existing subcultural activities on specific hot spots, we could awaken the subculture. This will contribute to a better image of Nowa Huta. It will work like the “tipping point effect’’ applied in Barcelona, where the public space was improved on a micro scale but all over the city. This inspired people to actively participate in revitalising their own dwelling block. 134 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

exploring Nowa Huta | P. Strohm, O. Skerbs, M. Wesselman, A. Krzeszowska, K. Steinhof, B. Venema, J. Brück, J. Warnink, A. Maessen, A. Speelman

PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE

Subculture

identity

=

By concentrating create critical mass ...

recognisability, identity

awakes an inspires attracting people into subculture

triggering contra subcultures

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exploring Nowa Huta | O. Bauer, L. Vernooij, N. Papenfuβ, S. Achter, J. Mewes, S. Kurzydlo, B. Haba, J. Nauta, S. Hoogerheide, S. Panzer
EXTERNAL CONNECTIONS There are four routes connecting Nowa Huta to Cracow. They consist of two central routes passing all three landscape identities. One of these roads connects the two central stations with each other. Considering the landscape identities there are 3 categories: the city centre, the suburban/industry and the green corridor. The green corridor is situated halfway between Nowa Huta & Cracow. Entering Cracow city centre is a clear experience. The green ring road defines the city centre in a strong way. This clear definition is missing in Nowa Huta. It is unclear what part of the city is centre and what part is suburb. This experience of entering the city could be manipulated to create a stronger feeling of identity of Nowa Huta. If, for instance, the road would lead through the southern green area, instead of the suburbs, higher contrasts experience could result into a stronger identity of Nowa Huta.

PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE; INFRASTRUCTURE & PUBLIC SPACE

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PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE

REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 137

exploring Nowa Huta | O. Bauer, L. Vernooij, N. Papenfuβ, S. Achter, J. Mewes, S. Kurzydlo, B. Haba, J. Nauta, S. Hoogerheide, S. Panzer
EAST AND WEST FRAME The west frame is important for the connection between the inside and the outside of Nowa Huta. It also connects Nowa Huta with the old city of Cracow. The west frame crosses the important transit line from Nowa Huta. Currently the situation at the west frame is that the commercial centre is not good connected to the centre of Nowa Huta. The west frame is a big barrier between these parts of Nowa Huta. The two junctions are too large and need too much space. Also the recovery areas are not well connected from the west frame. For the future of the west frame it’s important to make better connections from the inside to the outside of Nowa Huta and to connect the commercial areas. A mixture of commerce and offices is possible and can be a good influence for the development of the city. Another point is to transform the junctions so it becomes a better public space.

PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE; INFRASTRUCTURE & PUBLIC SPACE

West frame

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PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE The east frame is important for the connection between the green belt and Nowa Huta centre. The east frame crosses a major transit line of Nowa Huta. The green belt is the border line between Nowa Huta and its industrial areas. Around the lake infrastructure is focused on pedestrians and cyclists. The connection between Nowa Huta and the green belt is poor. The connection consists only of car and tram connection. The eastern flank of Nowa Huta has a great potential. Its future could be focusing on sport and recreation. The connection to, and in, this area must be improved.

East frame

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exploring Nowa Huta | O. Bauer, L. Vernooij, N. Papenfuβ, S. Achter, J. Mewes, S. Kurzydlo, B. Haba, J. Nauta, S. Hoogerheide, S. Panzer
INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK When we look at the hierarchy of the internal structure of Nova Huta we can divide this structure into 3 groups: primary, secondary and tertiary. The primary roads are the connection roads of Nova Huta. The two main ones show a large contrast. The east west road, a transit route, functions as a barrier of the city, as it is clearly defining the city edge. The north south road is cutting through the city. It clearly marks the end of the city centre leaving a periphery behind with an urbanism that consists of big blocks like supermarkets and construction stores. The secondary network connects the local areas to the main network. It is not a grid and therefore it is an inefficient network, leading to complex connections. The tertiary network connects on a local level. It penetrates the blocks and shows a large coverage of the area.

PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE; INFRASTRUCTURE & PUBLIC SPACE

primary roads

secondary roads

tertiary roads

road network

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PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE When we look the centre axe, which is part of the secondary network, we can conclude that it is not an essential element of the connection network. Because it is not connecting in its full line its function can be moved to the other secondary roads and the tertiary network without too many problems. This could result in a larger axe connecting north to south with the city centre in the middle. The public green areas are situated mainly on the central axe. They are not connected to the primary roads.
commercial public green and squares

The public squares are mainly located on the secondary network, with an exception of the central square. This square has a badly accessible heart because the traffic functions as a borderline between inside and outside. The circulation traffic function is not necessary on the central square. By rearranging this system a larger and better accessible public space could be created. The commercial network is located on the primary and the secondary network.

infrastructure network

REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 141

exploring Nowa Huta | O. Bauer, L. Vernooij, N. Papenfuβ, S. Achter, J. Mewes, S. Kurzydlo, B. Haba, J. Nauta, S. Hoogerheide, S. Panzer

PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE; INFRASTRUCTURE & PUBLIC SPACE

bus map
142 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

night bus map

PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE BUS AND TRAM MAP The public transport system consists of buses and trams. The mapping shows the connectivity of the different stops. The bus network is concentrated mainly at the centre and in the industrial area. When we look outside of these areas we see gaps in the connected area. Looking at the night bus network teaches us that this network is focused on the connection between city and industry. The tram network is functioning as a connection system between Nova Huta and its surroundings, and not as an internal transport system. The complete public transport connectivity map shows holes everywhere, even in the central part of the city.

tram map
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exploring Nowa Huta | O. Bauer, L. Vernooij, N. Papenfuβ, S. Achter, J. Mewes, S. Kurzydlo, B. Haba, J. Nauta, S. Hoogerheide, S. Panzer
Zone A
► (A1) The main road is the key connection inside the block. There is a clear link to the access of the block. The second order roads resemble the access from one block to the next. Two main roads are strongly connected to the inside. There is almost no connection to the southern road. An important aspect is the third order line leading through the block. This stranger is only connected to second order lines. That makes it an entrance for outsiders. The area around this road could be used for informal activities in a negative sentence.

PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE; INFRASTRUCTURE & PUBLIC SPACE

INTERNAL BLOCK Different times, different philosophies. Nova Huta is divided in three building typologies, each in the context of time.

► (A2) There is no maintaining of the green parts inside the block. The green is misused by cars. These cars create a physical, mental and visual blockade for pedestrians.

► (A3) The mental map is a reaction on the green map. The sharp contrast shows interaction between all streams of transport. Because there is no public domain, it’s a short-term interaction. CONCLUSION ZONE A: the third order road inside the block should be transformed into a second order. Closing this gap could lead to a more private and individual area for the inhabitants. 144 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE

Zone B

Zone C

► (B1) The first order roads show a strong fragmentation. Several inner spaces transform into small communities. That means the second order of roads integrate’s these divided parts. Three equal lines provide access on three sides of the zone. The third order lines form already an entrance to the surrounding areas. ► (B2) The green areas show a strong character. There is a link between the private investment and the semi public areas. ► (B3) Together with a clear overview there is an opportunity for communication and public domain. The mental map indicates the fragmentation, a formation of three small communities. CONCLUSION ZONE B: we see neglected green outside these communities because of private interest inside. Integrating these areas into the communities would result in a better used green space. ► (C1) There is almost no first order line related to the access of the zone. The local connections on the lowest level divide the zone into three areas. The second order lines provide a relation between the different parts. This relation is made by a few strict lines. The third order lines show a separation between Nova Huta and the western side. ► (C2) Wide unused public areas with strong roads leading through. Forces people to take a predicted path. As a result people create their own paths. Short-cuts without interest in public relations. ► (C3) There is no interaction between the different parts. In the middle part there isn’t even an intern interaction. CONCLUSION ZONE C: by creating or expanding the horizontal roads, the use of the bigger road on the west side is going to be increased. This leads to a better connection with the surrounding areas in the west. More roads inside the zone lead to a more personal movement. REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 145

exploring Nowa Huta | O. Bauer, L. Vernooij, N. Papenfuβ, S. Achter, J. Mewes, S. Kurzydlo, B. Haba, J. Nauta, S. Hoogerheide, S. Panzer

PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE; INFRASTRUCTURE & PUBLIC SPACE

facades

cars

bicycles
146 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

walking and sitting

PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE The speed map studies the human movement on the central axis. It is divided into 4 groups. The high density of movement is concentrated on the southern part of the axis. The car and bicycle movement show a clear interruption at the square. Sitting is concentrated on the sunny side of the squares, the green areas and at the public transport stops around the central square. When we look at public green areas we can see that the most of them are located on the central axis, but they are badly connected.

speedmap
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exploring Nowa Huta | K. Imbrzykowska, M. Schneider, A. Moiseeva, K. Stöckmann, S. Chmiel, S. Wittmer, E. Szafraniec, B. Schuit, S. Broekhof

PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE; OFFICIAL PUBLIC SPACE

OFFICIAL PUBLIC SPACES

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PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE

garden city

radial city

model of Nowa Huta

According to theory, the architecture of the socialist city was supposed to reflect “great public ideas, ideas of the great revolutionary struggle, the peaceful, constructive labor of the Soviet people, their heroism and patriotism.” And it was supposed to create an atmosphere of sunlight even in winter. Priority was given here to a tradition of Russian, national city building that supposedly had always implemented within itself patriotic ideas, a tradition in which the centre of the city was to be understood above all else as a “monumental chronicle of the glory and solemnity of the motherland.” The chain of avenues linked with squares became an important trait of urban planning of the period. Its strictly axially based construction centralized the composition of squares in the city’s ensemble. The ideal, central, urban complex consisted of a system of wide boulevards, framed by rows of solemn architecture with symmetrically arranged tower like superstructures, ending in towering usually governmental buildings that were surmounted by single central spires

Nowa Huta is the best example of a socialist realist city. The city plan is based on a half of a classical Renaissance city. The streets run radially out from the central square situated on the edge of the Vistula embankment and are connected by the avenues forming a web. Such a layout was imposed by the natural relief of the ground. The plans preserved the historical road network. All the building rules of social realist were realized in Nowa Huta. It is this fact that is always stressed by specialists and it is this very fact that distinguishes this town from the other achievements of that period that are incomplete and hence less attractive. The most characteristic feature is the axial composition - referring to the baroque town planning. The city layout is based upon the Anglo-Saxon concept of “neighbourhood units” - dating back to the 1920s when the regional plan for New York was being developed. These units assemble 5000 - 6000 residents, further forming districts of 15 - 20 thousand residents.

Several districts were built around a central square. Inside these districts, children and parents could comfortably walk to the main square without ever having to cross a major road.

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exploring Nowa Huta | K. Imbrzykowska, M. Schneider, A. Moiseeva, K. Stöckmann, S. Chmiel, S. Wittmer, E. Szafraniec, B. Schuit, S. Broekhof

PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE; OFFICIAL PUBLIC SPACE

ADMINISTRATION BUILDINGS

EDUCATIONAL BUILDINGS

CULTURAL BUILDINGS

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PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE

HEALTH BUILDINGS

SACRAL BUILDINGS

GREEN OFFICIAL SPACES

REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 151

exploring Nowa Huta | K. Imbrzykowska, M. Schneider, A. Moiseeva, K. Stöckmann, S. Chmiel, S. Wittmer, E. Szafraniec, B. Schuit, S. Broekhof

PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE; OFFICIAL PUBLIC SPACE

Monuments
← Formal public spaces

Overview

The main axis in the middle contains a pattern of undefined public spaces consisting of monumental roads, greenery and squares. The public buildings however are scattered all over the area. This is due to the plan that every neighbourhood of 5.000 citizens should have all public functions within. The churches and the hospital were not included in the original plan and were placed later in open places. From the beginning the area south of the main square was labelled as a lake area. Therefore the area is monumental but still undefined. 152 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE

The most important step for understanding relations between official buildings distribution and street-road pattern is step analysis. We have done two types of step analysis. Both analyses give us an understanding on how the area functions from the position: ► of the planned structure of road network, so called ‘Top-Down’ step analysis ► of real situation, how road networks ‘works’ now, so-called ‘Bottom-Up’ step analysis.

On the map ‘Top-Down’ step analysis primary roads are roads which were planned as main roads for public transport and pedestrian movement (Alley Rose). These roads link to the central square. Second and third step reveal integration between official public buildings and middle scale network. From the map we can see that the biggest concentration (these area is highlighted in pink colour) of official buildings is not very well integrated. But in reality these area functions very well and can be characterized as easy accessible and lively area. REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 153

exploring Nowa Huta | K. Imbrzykowska, M. Schneider, A. Moiseeva, K. Stöckmann, S. Chmiel, S. Wittmer, E. Szafraniec, B. Schuit, S. Broekhof

PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE; OFFICIAL PUBLIC SPACE

THREE-STEP ANALYSIS

‘Bottom-Up’ step analysis reflects existing situation. One of the main roads which is located at the right angel to the central square is represented like a second order road, and roads, which are drawn parallel in Central Square, are primary roads. These roads are heavily used by cars and public transport. After drawing the second and third orders roads it easily to see that official public buildings are integrated very well. It proves our feeling and perception of this area when you are walking along the road network. 154 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006 Our conclusion is, because of primary location of cultural and administration buildings on the west part of Nowa Huta, roads which were planned as second order roads, are used as primary roads by people – ‘Bottom-Up” influence. Step analysis obviously shows a shifting city centre form the central square to the western part of Nowa Huta. The official public spaces along the central axis because of lack of official public buildings are not used like a main monumental axis.

PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE Our analysis of the official public space and buildings are based on the 3 main principals: Connectivity, Recognisability and Activity. These 3 principals are essential part of successful public space. For the analyses the diagram designed by Ir. M. Koehler was used and adapted for this project. During the analysis we concentrated on the 3 main locations in relation to the official public spaces: ► The central square and 3 main axes linked to the central square. Primary attention was paid to the central axis. ► The existing city centre, which we revealed using step analysis, so-called ‘City-centre inside-out.’ ► For an example of a building block in Nowa Huta we zoomed in to one of the most typical ones.

Main square and 3 axes

City-centre Inside-Out

Main street and zoom block

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exploring Nowa Huta | K. Imbrzykowska, M. Schneider, A. Moiseeva, K. Stöckmann, S. Chmiel, S. Wittmer, E. Szafraniec, B. Schuit, S. Broekhof
3 MAIN AXIS

PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE; OFFICIAL PUBLIC SPACE

The central square is very good accessible by public transport due to a crossing of tram and bus routes. The 3 main axis are directly linked to the central square providing the public transport and car movement trough Nowa Huta in every direction. In relation to the accessibility central square and main axis are perfectly accessible. But there is neither a strong identity nor diversity of functions. From analysis of public spaces & buildings: ► The western axis can be characterized as a cultural and commercial direction (cinema, theatre, shopping street) ► The eastern axis leads to an educational area and local recreation (multiple educational institutions, public green & a lake) 156 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

► The central axis doesn’t have any strong identity. There is a lack of commercial, administration and official buildings. Public spaces do not have a pronounced recognisability. ► Our conclusion from the analysis: reinforce identity of every axis. We don’t tell about hierarchy between axes, we emphasize the necessity to create or reinforce recognisability for every axis. Design for Main Square should be concentrated on a multifunctional identity. The central axis was planned to be the most important and recognizable street in the social city of Nowa Huta. Unfortunately primary design has not been realised completely. It is the main reason why today this axis doesn’t ‘work’ like the Nowa Huta Concourse.

PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE

IDEOLOGY

CENTRAL AXIS

REALITY

According the original design a theatre should be constructed in the central square, a town hall and other official buildings were planned along the main axis, several monuments had to be located in the different parts of central axis. All these features were planned in order to create the feeling of glorious monumentalism of the socialistic main axis. The present situation shows a completely opposite situation. The absence of the official buildings and monuments is replaced by parking places, a monotony of green space and an inexpressive public spaces surround residential buildings. Our design task is creating sufficient public space along the main axis using multifunctional diversity. The most important issue is to create coherent structure which is compiled by different functional elements, but all together they create a mentally united subject. REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 157

exploring Nowa Huta | K. Imbrzykowska, M. Schneider, A. Moiseeva, K. Stöckmann, S. Chmiel, S. Wittmer, E. Szafraniec, B. Schuit, S. Broekhof
CITY CENTRE INSIDE-OUT This area is very good connected wit the main street. You can recognize the area from the main street by the church which is located on the corner of this block. Within the area there is an old theatre still in use and an old cinema which now is used for little shops, like a barbershop and a second hand store. The cinema is nearly still intact. These ‘public’ buildings have attracted little pubs with terraces. The area has an odd structure. In comparison to a traditional square surrounded by living areas this area is the opposite. The domestic blocks are surrounded by the public buildings and two schools. Within the domestic blocks there’s a supermarket and some little shops. That’s why we call this area: ‘City Centre Inside-Out’. In between the domestic blocks it’s really hard to orientate. There isn’t a clear structure and connection between the shattered buildings and you don’t know that there a two public buildings. Because it’s so hard to orientate and there is now only one main function intact, it has been separated from the main city, by there for there aren’t a lot of people going there.

PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE; OFFICIAL PUBLIC SPACE

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PART 5. MAPPING PUBLIC SPACE

ZOOM BLOCK

school by Bijvoet & Duiker

This is one of the many semi-closed residential blocks that have schools within. During the day these blocks work really well, because of the activity by the children who are playing around their schools. But during the night this atmosphere makes a 180 degrees turn. In the night these innerplaces are used by hooligans and other people who can do whatever they like to do. Because of the many collective shrubbery’s it’s hard to oversee the area. From the outside these domestic blocks all look the same. The entrances for the dwellings are located in the inside of the block. Maybe it is a solution to make fences that can close the block and controls the safety and using of them. The inhabitants on the ground floor can use a part of the green public space inside to create their gardens. The entrances can be located at the outside of the block. A good example is the “open air” school in Amsterdam. REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 159

interventions in Nowa Huta |J. Szmukier, A. Paaβen, M. Verlinden, S. Jaschke, M. Stigter, S. Old, J. Seidl, T. van Agt, V. Spijker, M. Kasprzyk
We have different reasons to believe that former “steel city” Nowa Huta can be redeveloped to a fresh, young and green environment to work, shop and live. On a higher level, research shows that investing in Poland is not only interesting but also very popular. As a good country to invest in, Poland is only passed by China, the USA, Germany and the UK. Opening shops and offices in the heart of Europe guarantees access to the Polish market (38 million people), the EU market (500 million people) and the CEE market (250 million people). On a lower level Kraków is as attractive thanks to its big supply of young and highly educated people. Its position as capital city of the Malapolska region (3,8 million people), its extensive rail network and international airport and its connection to main traffic arteries are advantages which make Kraków a leader on the office market with a growing amount of foreign investment. Thanks to these advantages Kraków has since recently been attracting the attention of the high-tech industries. Thanks to its position near the research and scientific centre of Kraków and its good connection with the capital city, Nowa Huta could very well be developed to attract new industries trying to establish near Kraków. Its green and spacious environment and its historical importance are qualities which make it even more attractive as a city to invest in. Not only offices will be better off in Nowa Huta, also its inhabitants will face a promising future. Labour conciliation, training & education and career guidance are means to re-integrate the inhabitants in the new labour market, giving them access to services and goods which they are now separated from. The future transformation of the steel factory into a business park and/or industrial landscape will attract even more investment as well as tourists. In order the make Nowa Huta’s economic revival a success, a 160 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006 master plan has been elaborated to enhance existing commercial structures and to guide Nowa Huta’s economic growth. The main idea is to let the market free, as is happening now. Shops can be started wherever the market needs them. However, in order to guarantee Nowa Huta’s commercial identity or unity, a quality map will be elaborated to watch over the physical appearance of new commercial spaces. Transformation of commercial public space will follow successful commercial activity. Different centres of commercial interest have been identified. The main market square as the heart of the area and future cultural centre, Rondo Kocmyrzowskie as a commercial centre and the junction between Aleja Solidarnosci and Bulwarowa street as a possible commercial centre, depending on the transformation of the steel factory. The axes that connect these nodes are treated as boulevards-shopping streets. The already existing commercial streets connected to them will be transformed into attractive shopping streets with a more familiar character.

PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE; COMMERCIAL PUBLIC SPACE

Poland in relation to the EU Kraków in relation to Poland

↑ ↓

Nowa Huta in relation to Kraków

PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE ← (1) cultural attraction ← (2) commercial node ← (3) future commercial node To ensure another economic backbone for Nowa Huta’s economy, office spaces will replace living spaces at certain locations in the area. In the beginning, new office space will be located above the ground floor of the existing commercial axes, creating a lively area with good access to existing commercial functions. Attractive living areas in and around Nowa Huta provide nice living in a green and historical environment. As a city, focusing on high-tech, Kraków has created a list of industries they would like to attract. This list can be used as a starting point to identify the target group for the new Nowa Huta office spaces. Examples are companies focusing on technologies of information systems and telecommunication networks electronics, including opto-electronics and microelectronics. To finance these development plans, plenty of financial resources and lobby-groups could be addressed. Since Poland’s admission to the EU, Poland gets easy access to funds destined for redevelopment (e.g. EIRA). Through the different lobbygroups, foreign as well as Polish capital could be attracted. The knowledge and experience of the main local developers is necessary. A necessary ingredient for the success of Nowa Huta is the branding of Nowa Huta, a common feeling and character that people can experience through the entire city of Nowa Huta and only in Nowa Huta. Based upon the characteristics of Nowa Huta, shopping and working should become a fresh, qualitative, bright and green journey through the past.All commercial public spaces should breathe this air and interventions in commercial public space should all be born out of this idea. One idea where everything starts from: Nowa Huta’s commercial identity. REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 161

commercial axes (a) smaller shopping streets (b) ↓.

interventions in Nowa Huta |J. Szmukier, A. Paaβen, M. Verlinden, S. Jaschke, M. Stigter, S. Old, J. Seidl, T. van Agt, V. Spijker, M. Kasprzyk
To guarantee this idea, a basic quality map is elaborated to be used as a basis for transformation of commercial public space. A general requirement for the Nowa Huta’s commercial identity is that street furniture should be unique for Nowa Huta, based on the original furniture. Further, Nowa Huta’s buildings and streets should be rebuilt in their original state (colour and detailing). Part of Nowa Huta’s economic identity is that it is a city for smaller shops. Bigger supermarkets will be instructed to start their shops in commercial areas outside Nowa Huta. A set of rules should be worked upon. As we identified Nowa Huta as a city with a clear structure, based on hierarchy, we propose a “quality map” based on the same principles. Commercial public space is divided in different scales of importance. These levels show varying types of public commercial space, with their own materialization and detailing. On the large scale (the centres of commercial interest) commercial public space should have the following characteristics: clear, orientation point, enabling overview, scale and detailing following scale and detailing of the surrounding buildings. The public space should tell something about the basic ideas of Nowa Huta: uniform, monumental, green and clear. On the medium-scale (connecting axis), the following principles should be implemented. The axes should have characteristics of a shopping street and a boulevard. From the boulevard we take over the idea of continuity, a line connecting points. The shopping street concept on the other hand requires attention to detailing of the high ground level facade. As these axes are of a lower scale, detailing and green is adapted to the human scale, not following the robust housing structures bordering the streets. Smelling, tasting, touching and feeling become more important. An intensive focus on detailing is proposed. 162 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006 Shopping streets connected to these axes will be redesigned less intensively, so that consumers feel the different levels of shopping streets. Although there will be a big focus on detailing and human scale, these streets will have to do with less financial means. As we consider these streets as streets where social contact between shopkeepers and customers prevail, public space should have a calmer, more familiar character. Here shops have the possibility to show their goods in the streets. The walking rhythm should be made slower, enabling easier social contact. The lowest scale of commercial public space is the space attached to the characteristic kiosks. Now these commercial unities penetrate public space in a very unorganized way: on the pedestrian walkway, in the green lawn next to the walkway, … Because these kiosks, as objects, make part of the image of Nowa Huta we would like to strengthen this perception. Therefore these kiosks will be placed on stone ‘carpets’ emphasizing them as objects. Finally, in order to make the project payable, the development plan should be split up in different phases. We propose the following phases. Firstly, a Nowa Huta development group should be established, containing legal and financial advisors as well as representatives of different governments involved, different financial parties and local inhabitants. Additionally a supervision team should be founded to keep watch over the implementation of the quality plan. The next step consists of restructuring the main central square, its connected squares and building a hotel. Rondo Czyzynskie and the west-side of Aleja Jana Pawla I, leading to the new attraction pole at the main market square should as well be restructured using the “quality map”. Already successful economic will be enhanced following the quality plan and the development group can start buying/letting office spaces.

PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE; COMMERCIAL PUBLIC SPACE

large scale

medium scale

PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE The third phase consists of buying housing-facilities for office people at Osiedle Sprtowe, Osiedle Sportowe, Krzeslawice, areas which are identified as qualitative livingspace. Further, the enhancement of newly growing economic structures should be continued by using the “quality map”. When the moment is there the area connected to the new industrial landscape / new business park should be restructured together with Aleja Solidarnosci. It should as well be considered to broaden Bulwarowa street to absorb growing car traffic caused by these developments in the former steel factory.

← phase 1 ← phase 2 ← phase 3

lowest scale

↑ REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 163

interventions in Nowa Huta |J. Szmukier, A. Paaβen, M. Verlinden, S. Jaschke, M. Stigter, S. Old, J. Seidl, T. van Agt, V. Spijker, M. Kasprzyk
Designing the main square and the green space behind The thing we noticed about the main square was that it is not functioning in the way that a commercial space should function. People don’t seem to use the shops very much and the appearance of the square is not attractive, there is a huge not used space in the centre and all the traffic makes the square feel chaotic. It is, also a square that seems to end suddenly at the point where the beautiful green is starting. So, question is, how to create a more attractive square for a diverse public and connect this square with the green area behind.. What are the good things of the square? First, it is centrally located and has good connectivity, we found that out by making connectivity maps. Second, the architecture is authentic and asks for more respect. The ground floor shops all have beautiful high ceilings and big windows. Apparently the shops don’t work over here, so why not create a place for artists by removing the shops and transform them into galleries. Open minded artists will bring some new and refreshing ideas into Nowa Huta and this will attract more people from abroad. As said before, traffic is a main issue.

PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE; COMMERCIAL PUBLIC SPACE

creating a place for artists ...

... and replace the shops for galleries
The large amount of traffic is like a barrier between the galleries and the central square on one hand, and also between the whole main square and the green behind on the other hand. Working together with the people from infrastructure seemed to be a good solution as they designed an elevated square with underneath a theatre and no traffic on the main square any more.

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PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE

We worked further on this design by connecting this elevated square with the green behind by designing a two floored building. The ground floor offers space for sport and leisure and on the first floor there will be located restaurants and bars with a big terrace which offers a great view over the green. Creating such a multifunctional building as this will offer more jobs for people from Nowa Huta and will attract people from for example Kraków to enjoy the landscape and nature.

The square will become a place were artists and musicians come together and expose themselves. From the square, two big stairs will lead to the terrace and the restaurants. In the mean time these stairs will function as a social meeting point as well. People can sit, talk and enjoy the view. The main road goes underneath the square, therefore we decided to use a special type of glass for the construction of the square so that enough daylight will come through and it won’t feel like you’re in a tunnel when you’re passing by.

REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 165

interventions in Nowa Huta |J. Szmukier, A. Paaβen, M. Verlinden, S. Jaschke, M. Stigter, S. Old, J. Seidl, T. van Agt, V. Spijker, M. Kasprzyk
Concept COMMERCIAL Small Scale ? what is good for the inhabitants of nowa huta? The first step: respect the existing structure! Because of a current lack of entertainment, new ways of entertainment should be introduced in this area. kiosks will be used as a starting point for the creation of new entertainment unities. THE IDEA ► the kiosk is a well functioning part of daily life in Nowa Huta ► these original kiosks are working very well As a starting point we take the kiosk as a meeting point and create a new kind out of it… > ’THE CUBES OF NOWA HUTA’ Combined with other functions, giving the inhabitants of Nowa Huta a new tool for claiming public space, this new type of building could have a daily use, forcing people to move more, guaranteeing in that way an improvement to their quality of life.

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PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE 1 THE ART-CUBE The existing Nowa Huta museum shows pictures and sculptures from children and adults, they want to show what they are doing to be proud of their work. Therefore it would be good to give them more art-cubes for exhibitions, these cubes could be placed in education areas, in semi-public spaces and in public spaces and should offer the children a possibility to show proudly their artwork in the nearer neighbourhood and at official places with the result that children can show their creative ideas to their parents and to other people. 2 THE DATING-CUBE ► we haven’t seen many people in the park, only some old people were talking to each other . we saw some cafes, which where popular spots for the inhabitants despite the fact that they didn’t look very nice Therefore we think that some coffee-cubes and internet-cubes could provide this entertainment. As an example, it would be very nice to create some world-championship-football-cubes where people can gather to look soccer all together. another possible function is the idea-cube to collect the emendations of Nowa Huta’s inhabitants for a better way of living. 3 THE ACTIVITY-CUBE This kind of cube is the moveable one and contains film-cubes for open-air cinema (big screen), theatre boxes with stage, sitting cubes serving as furniture (banks, chairs, tables) for public spaces, sporting boxes [skate ramps,…], play-boxes [water-toys, lego, bouncing castle, midget golf, graffiti, party box], … “ohhhh, let us meet at 3 in the park for drinking a cup of coffee!” REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 167

interventions in Nowa Huta |J. Szmukier, A. Paaβen, M. Verlinden, S. Jaschke, M. Stigter, S. Old, J. Seidl, T. van Agt, V. Spijker, M. Kasprzyk

PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE; COMMERCIAL PUBLIC SPACE

USED MATERIALS / CONSTRUCTION ► frame: Nowa Huta steel / plates [sheets]: translucent plastic ► the cubes can be folded, all furniture and toys are inside ► the size will be 3.00m x 1.60m x 2.20m ► the cubes can illuminate at night, creating a safer environment ORGANISATION ► the organization will be an autonomy government, maybe in cooperation with the administration of Nowa Huta and finally: it will create jobs. AT LEAST ► we want to pay the inhabitants respect. ► we see the problem as a bottom up thing. ► we think the changing of a better way of living must come from the inside, from the inhabitants themselves, because it’s their town, their area. At first they have to change their way of thinking, living to feel comfortable. they have to getting more open to create their city. they need to become their own story to start in a new movement for a better way of living. Later they will have a better communication with other people outside. and nowa huta will be a blooming town. with our idea we only want to give a first input to the inhabitants of nowa huta. 168 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE

NOWA HUTA ALL THE BEST FOR A HAPPY END +++ WE WISH NOWA HUTA ALL THE BEST FOR A HAPPY END +++ WE WISH NOWA REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 169

PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE; GREEN PUBLIC SPACE

interventions in Nowa Huta | F. van der Veek, V. Scherlowski, B. Stanik, O. Senderska, A. Ludzik, D. Laufer, L. Houtman, S. Steffin, J. Boon, A. Zech
Designs for the Green Public Space ► Green necklace & Urban path ► Urban stroke - punkt przeciecia ► The Cut ► Nowa Huta Park ► Zig Zag Park

Legenda

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PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE THE GREEN NECKLACE & URBAN PATH Nowa Huta has got an abundance of the same (public) green. Therefore the city has become a monotony area, where people can’t find their way any longer. The solution for this problem is to differentiate the green into more public and private parts and give them their own identity. Another problem is the border between the green belt and the city, so that people won’t go outside. A connection between the green belt and the meadows through the city will solve these problems. This connection should be like a necklace with connections between different public green parks. The courtyards could be private gardens to compare with the public corridor through the city. To increase the quality of living around the public urban centre a belt of youth activities will be created. To avoid making the inner courtyards too public several private gardens will give a good mixture. The outer blocks can be more private to create a counterbalance to the metropolitan life in the centre.

← Connection between green belt, meadows & differentiation ↑ REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 171

PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE; GREEN PUBLIC SPACE

interventions in Nowa Huta | F. van der Veek, V. Scherlowski, B. Stanik, O. Senderska, A. Ludzik, D. Laufer, L. Houtman, S. Steffin, J. Boon, A. Zech

A

B

C

D

E

F

← Orientation, each crossing its own identity

Connectivity, 1st and 2nd order Each pearl of the necklace will have its own atmosphere

→ ↓

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Impressions & suggestions for inner block design Different functions inner courtyards, private & public side
Legenda necklace & central blocks

Diversity of metropolitan blocks and green necklace

Legenda functions inner courtyards

REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 173

PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE; GREEN PUBLIC SPACE
URBAN STROKE - PUNKT PRZECIECIA A 600m long “future ramp” with different boxes in it connect the three main squares in Nowa Huta. The ramp is starting in Osiedle Zgody, running through the Block Osiedle Centrum C and crossing Plac Centralny at the intersection of the three main axis. The ramp rises up to 60m. The end of the ramp fades away. It is a sign and symbol of starting into the future.

interventions in Nowa Huta | F. van der Veek, V. Scherlowski, B. Stanik, O. Senderska, A. Ludzik, D. Laufer, L. Houtman, S. Steffin, J. Boon, A. Zech

1st Step

The “future ramp” is filed up with “boxes” with different usage. There are two possibilities: ► education facilities, secondary school, university institutes ► mix of function (like sports: different kinds of sports) With this ramp we’d like to bring vital life and nature as part of the urban infrastructure to this part of Nowa Huta.

3rd Step

2nd Step Side view

↑ ↓

4th Step

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Nowa Huta - “Future Ramp”

Bird view

↑ REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 175

PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE; GREEN PUBLIC SPACE
Why Nowa Hutas inner city green is due to the lack of capital largely unstructured an unmaintained, leaving the impression of indistinguishable green. So, to improve the quality of green spaces there’s a need to generate money. Since the local steel mine is not providing enough jobs, either new industry has to be attracted, or there has to be a shift from an industrial to an informational or service society. Purpose of this design is to increase tourism in Nowa Huta to create employment and finally generate money to be used refining the green structure within the city.

interventions in Nowa Huta | F. van der Veek, V. Scherlowski, B. Stanik, O. Senderska, A. Ludzik, D. Laufer, L. Houtman, S. Steffin, J. Boon, A. Zech

RUIN To improve the inner city green quality, the central park is to be enlarged, by joining the areas on both sides of the Aleja Roz. The building on the western side will only partly remain, as an identification mark for the central park. The original floor plan will be still readable in the water plane, following the contour of the building. This Ruin can still feature commercial functions.

PARK By gaining more space the park can actually be used for open air activities resulting in a strengthened interaction between different age groups. The idea is to leave the structuring of the park and the development of the paths to the inhabitants of Nowa Huta. To avoid the splitting into small triangles seen in the actual park trees will block the main crossing axis. After a given time the naturally evolved paths will be paved. Within the park separated by the water plane will be a stone void, functioning as a meeting point or market place. 176 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE

The CUT is designed to develop a landmark and identity to the city of Nowa Huta. By cutting open one typical totally enclosed block, an insight for this unique architecture is created, turning this building block into an open air museum. The trapezoid of glass walls leading from the central square of Nowa Huta to the central park, exaggerating the centralized linear structure even more, is starting at a diameter of 2 meters only, thus creating a physical experience. While the eastern part of the building can still function as normal housing block, the converted western part could be hosting a large variety of information facilities, galleries or even clubs. Some of the cut dwelling will show a frozen state, a still life of the interior of Nowa Huta. To even strengthen the idea of a multifunctional cultural building, it could be considered to turn the eastern wing into part of a university making this place more attractive to young people. REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 177

PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE; GREEN PUBLIC SPACE

interventions in Nowa Huta | F. van der Veek, V. Scherlowski, B. Stanik, O. Senderska, A. Ludzik, D. Laufer, L. Houtman, S. Steffin, J. Boon, A. Zech

Concept During our analysis we came to the conclusion that the green belt separating Nowa Huta from the steel factory was divided in 4 separate divisions. The area where the stadium is located, the park area with the lake, the private gardens and the forth area is the green area with building structures. My idea is to connect all these areas with a unique footpath; this footpath will be a recognizable element in the landscape. Unifying the green belt into one great ring with this footpath there is also a great possibility to connect to the meadows and nature reserve on the south-side of plac centralny. This footpath is placed in a zig zag pattern to give the visitors different focal points during their route. The path is separated in three orders 1 large main path combining the separate areas. There will be a second order spreading out into the areas and to connect with the residential area on the border of the centre of Nowa Huta. Finally the third order will be connecting the areas with the secondary paths. 178 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

MAIN PATH The main path has a rigid and dominant appearance it is used to connect the main areas the path also varies in height; large white concrete slabs lying on top of each other when they cross each other. The height difference is not along the whole with of the path in the middle there will be a ramp for the elderly and cyclists. When the main path crosses the road there will be traffic lights installed to ensure an easy crossing. The concrete footpath will slice through the asphalt so that the path isn’t interrupted also the road users will clearly notice a change. And they know that they need to watch for crossing people.

PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE SECONDARY PATH The secondary path is made of different materials so each can easily be recognized and your position in the park is clear. The secondary path connects the main path with the functions in the green belt. It is characterized by different surfaces this way the long main road has a recognizable division. TERTIARY PATH The tertiary path connects the pedestrian to the park this path dissolves into the park. Thus making the park less formal and inviting visitors to stray off the beaten path. PRIVATE GARDENS The private gardens south of the park area can be considered as a gem in nowa huta. These gardens form a nice place of relaxation for many former steel mill workers these gardens are one of the best maintained pieces of green space in Nowa Huta. It would be interesting to provide some form of visual access to these gardens. Many of the owners are proud of their gardens and won’t mind showing their gardens to the public off course most part of the garden will still be private and only on some locations will this fence of privacy be punctured. The old plans show a large area of private gardens I intend to cut trough this big private space to show it to the inhabitants of Nowa Huta hoping it will inspire them. In the middle of these gardens I will place a public green area for the children of the nearby schools. There will also be a public square with a fruit and vegetable stand where the garden owners can sell their produce. REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 179

PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE; GREEN PUBLIC SPACE

interventions in Nowa Huta | F. van der Veek, V. Scherlowski, B. Stanik, O. Senderska, A. Ludzik, D. Laufer, L. Houtman, S. Steffin, J. Boon, A. Zech

LOCATION ► north part of Nowa Huta ► lake area surrounding ► limited by two rivers ► undeveloped area ► unsafe ► large potential and possibilities

IDEA ► make a safe and developed area ► attractive for youth (to spend time, identify themselves) 180 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE Adding leisure facilities to green FUN RELAX ACTIVITIES WALKING

Three rules for using 1. tolerance 2. no drugs 3. no violence

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PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE; INFORMAL PUBLIC SPACE
A number of informal designs have been made. The project map on the right shows the location of the projects. Three strategies have been used while designing: ► Branding: Introducing catalyst strategy to create chain of reaction of activities, building a new image of positive aspects in Nowa Huta ► Centralisation: By concentrating sports and other activities which are now scattered, these activities will become recognizable. This will encourage participation, and trigger development of other activities around it. ► Formalisation: By creating a specific space for informal activities, these activities become more formal, and therefore recognizable. From here the situation can become controllable.

interventions in Nowa Huta | P. Strohm, O. Skerbs, M. Wesselman, A. Krzeszowska, K. Steinhof, B. Venema, J. Brück, J. Warnink, A. Maessen, A. Speelman

air strip

spots

central sports

link

flowering plac centralny, skarpa

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PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE ► Spots: Formalizing unacceptable activities: ► Car tuning: For the police it’s easier to control them and the car-tuning community will work on a square with more quality. ► Soccer fan club: A soccer fan club near the stadium gives the hooligans a new feeling of recognition in the city they live in. ► Mysterious objects: Signs or symbols give such places a concrete definition ► Graffiti walls: Graffiti writers get a chance to do graffiti legally. As a result, the subcultures ( sk8ters, break dancer etc.) have a space which gives them a new identity. ► Racist tagging: Young people create a company which is responsible of direct removal of racist tagging in their district, so they earn money and get hope. ► Sleeping outdoor, drinking on streets, trashing: Give the homeless people their own responsibility, so they will grow up in their own living standard.

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PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE; INFORMAL PUBLIC SPACE
“Discover the new way of moving forward in Nowa Huta” The main issue is how to connect the redeveloped former airport of Nova Huta with the city centre and specifically with the existing cultural centre! The strategy is to create a sort of “activity belt” that offers many sub cultural facilities for their users. This belt should be a strip out of concrete and steel in memory of the tradition as an industrial city with an important heritage in steel production. The route could be covered by graffiti arts and taggings of everyone who feels free to sign statements on it. We suggest a free line in the shape of a snake that functions for several opportunities. Sometimes it is waved, curved or twisted and therefore a exciting way of movement for skaters or bikers. Sometimes it curves through the landscape so that it gives the inhabitants the possibility to gather around or relax. Starting from the cultural centre, the route leads through the cultural park and next on the other side of the road further along the “al. Jana Pawla II” to the roundabout “Rondo Czyzynskie”. After passing the graffiti covered tunnel underneath the junction the belt continues sloping through the fields south-east of the former airport. THE LINK BETWEEN THE CITY AND THE STRIP

interventions in Nowa Huta | P. Strohm, O. Skerbs, M. Wesselman, A. Krzeszowska, K. Steinhof, B. Venema, J. Brück, J. Warnink, A. Maessen, A. Speelman

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PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE Join the activity belt, relax on spots for hanging out …

… and find out the spirit of Nova Huta

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PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE; INFORMAL PUBLIC SPACE
Air strip: NO BUDGET DESIGN We have created several solutions depending on budget. Option, that requires little financial means is introducing temporary installations and letting users to create the space themselves. The surrounding area gives chances to organize a day of building BMX jumps of soil or tree house constructing.

interventions in Nowa Huta | P. Strohm, O. Skerbs, M. Wesselman, A. Krzeszowska, K. Steinhof, B. Venema, J. Brück, J. Warnink, A. Maessen, A. Speelman

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While designing we have been thinking of whole variety of needs for Nowa Huta society. Proposed solution can be used both for children, different groups of youths, adults and elderly.

We are also proposing solutions that requires more budgets.

We have divided a space in such a way that cooperate area is provided to every user group in proper distance so that they do not disturb each other but have a space for interactions.

By founding connection with Central Square the air strip became available for large part of Nowa Huta inhabitants. We have partly formalized the space that still gives various opportunities for informal actions. The area of old landing stripe is decided into sections depending on the user.

DESIGN CONCEPT
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PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE; INFORMAL PUBLIC SPACE

interventions in Nowa Huta | P. Strohm, O. Skerbs, M. Wesselman, A. Krzeszowska, K. Steinhof, B. Venema, J. Brück, J. Warnink, A. Maessen, A. Speelman

The area old landing space is divided into parallel stripes that work like a tape, that moved, slips out in places where a certain function is introduced. Usage of different groups of people is underlined with changing of material. Wooden surface suits relaxing area where tape slips into benches, concrete creates skate jump and soft caoutchouc covers playground area. The space in between is left as concrete surface that gives opportunities for father informal actions, that users going to choose purpose for them.

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PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE PLAC CENTRALNY AND SKARPA (Central square) Low budget project: The solution for the two squares lies just in exaggerating their qualities and re-including them in the axis. Plac Centralny will be part off the main axis again just by taking away part of the road and giving a function to it. By lowering the square with 60 cm and placing transparent walls around it, you create a space surrounded by movement but without the noise. Perfect for exhibitions. The design of skarpa park is nothing more than extending and magnifying the architectural lines of the central square, with trees and pavement. This visual connection between the two squares will restore the main axis, and lure the people to cross the big street, that is cutting the city off. All you need to finish the axis is a real anchor point that functions as a reward for taking on the barriers. For Nowa Huta this reward could only consist of a bridge to nature with perhaps an added function like an amphitheatre.

REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 189

PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE; INFORMAL PUBLIC SPACE
FLOWERING NOWA HUTA By analysing the huge amount of undefined semi-public green space in Nowa Huta and the big potential which is included in the styles of personification done by its inhabitants, we were searching for ways to combine this 2 elements to redesign the public space. Flowers are very popular in Poland but a big amount of the sold products are imported from third-world-countries. By establishing an educational centre for gardening, the inhabitants are able to develop their skills for the production of flowers and economic facts. Starting on the outskirts of Nowa Huta with typical production of roses etc. we move to a more specified flowering in the blocks with herbs or orchids, which will define the identity of the courtyards. The courtyards will become mostly car free and the parking is located in parking lots which are topped of by greenhouses. The pedestrian paths pass the flower fields which will be visible from the avenue of roses. The local flower market will be located on the main axis between the main square and the park so that the clients are able to see how their product was produced. This effect can be used for marketing aspects like how American apparel, the sweatshop free producers from downtown LA did it. Nowa Huta will be able to brand itself as a fair trade flower production community, where economic aspects will fit with the human scale. 190 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

interventions in Nowa Huta | P. Strohm, O. Skerbs, M. Wesselman, A. Krzeszowska, K. Steinhof, B. Venema, J. Brück, J. Warnink, A. Maessen, A. Speelman

may 2006

april 2007

existing centrum b

pedestrian

PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE

june 2008

february 2009

...the future

cars

open air flowering

greenhouses
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PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE; INFORMAL PUBLIC SPACE

interventions in Nowa Huta | P. Strohm, O. Skerbs, M. Wesselman, A. Krzeszowska, K. Steinhof, B. Venema, J. Brück, J. Warnink, A. Maessen, A. Speelman

flower market

icon

entrance

greenhouse section

economic research
192 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

courtyard

PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE CENTRALIZATION OF SPORTS One of the problems we identified was the lack of stimuli for subcultures. We think that the problem lies in the structure of the informal space. We have observed that recreational areas are spread out homogeneously over the whole area and the number of these areas is to big for the number of people able to use these facilities. As a result these areas, situated primarily in the courtyards are mostly deserted and do not appeal inviting to new possible users. We believe that we need to diminish and concentrate recreational area’s in the courtyards to create new informal urban spaces. We have called this concept ‘courtyarding’. We think that by doing this, these areas will become identifiable and the usage will increase. We will have established a critical mass of users who will persuade other potential users to join and create a subculture. From this other (contra) subcultures will arise. The courtyard works as a catalyst. Possible examples of courtyarding are: flowering, football, playground, chess, basketball, ect. We concentrated on the last. We advise to bring all basketball courts into one courtyard, situated in a more urban part of Nowa Huta where the blocks are five or six stories high. Once this is done it will be possible to go there alone and find a game. Ballplayers will interact and create a subculture with strong connections. This will inspire young kids to take up basketball. Next to this, basketball is connected to other subcultures such as Hip Hop. We know this from MTV. So, an increase of ballplayers will lead to an increase in Hip-Hopers. This will challenge other kids to distinguish themselves through music from Hip Hop. Again this triggers other subculture forming. We can speak of a chain of reaction of which the result is a Nowa huta with a layered diversity in subcultures.

Don’t combine different functions

Concentrating one function leads to a stronger identity

REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 193

interventions in Nowa Huta | GREEN CONNECTION | S. Hoogerheide, S. Kurzylo, L. Vernooij
By Sven Hoogerheide, Sabina Kurzylo and Lennert Vernooij Along the road Bulwarowa, in the east of Nowa Huta, a green ring is situated. Nowadays there is a bad connection between the infrastructure of the city-centre and this road. Because of all the qualities of this green zone the road in between could function as an important connection in the future. The green, the water and the sport facilities have to be better accessible for the inhabitants of Nowa Huta. This can be reached by creating a cycling track, starting from the inside of the city. This cycling track connects some of the green parks and places in the city. In the green zone the track gets a Zigzag-form parallel to the main road. Next to the cycling track a pedestrian route is situated. This will be a prominent road leading through the nature. Some paths diverge from the main pedestrian route and go into the green, the lake or sport facilities. The pedestrian paths as well as the cycling paths a really dominant in the area. They are white coloured and made of concrete. Because of the different heights in the pedestrian paths, it’s also an attractive route for skaters. By this intervention biking in Nowa Huta will be stimulated. For people who visit the area by car, there are parking places along the main road.

PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE; INFRASTRUCTURE & PUBLIC SPACE
GREEN CONNECTION

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interventions in Nowa Huta | GREEN CONNECTION | S. Hoogerheide, S. Kurzylo, L. Vernooij

PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE; INFRASTRUCTURE & PUBLIC SPACE

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REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 197

interventions in Nowa Huta | CENTRAL CARPET | S.Achter, O.Bauer, J.Nauta
CENTRAL CARPET
BY by Sven Achter, Oliver Bauer and Jan Nauta The current system of tram lines is very complicated. There are 12 tram lines that connect Nowa Huta to the old city of Cracow. The idea is to simplify the existing system. To preserve the current accessibility quality only four lines are needed. In this case three important junctions will regulate the public transport of Nowa Huta. When transferring on the central square, passengers must cross the central square in order to reach the other line. So a constant stream of activity is guaranteed on this square.

PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE; INFRASTRUCTURE & PUBLIC SPACE

current tram line system
198 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

new tram line system

PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE

The central square of Nowa Huta was never completed. The planned theatre that was supposed to be the defining element of the central square has never been built. Therefore the square never reached the status of a square, it is no more than a large, mainly deserted, traffic junction. The vertical axis that “ends” on the central square does not actually end. It leads to undefined space and therefore is unclear in its direction. Studying the map of Nowa Huta shows that the central square is dominant for its location. It is clearly the city centre. The reorganization of the traffic system around the square results is larger, better connected public space. Instead of having to cross a road and a badly accessible tramway, the new situation offers a continue connection between the axe and the central square, merely interrupted by a tram way that is integrated in the pedestrian area. The new square is formed as a ramp in order to create the missing visual barrier. The ramp is also the connection between the tram lines, guaranteeing a constant activity stream on the square. On top of the ramp, at the end of the axe, a lookout platform is created. This platform gives people a perfect view over the green valley. The program under the square consists of a theatre. It will be accessible from the south side, under the lookout platform, and through two cuts in the side wing integrating the street level into the structure. REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 199

existing situation

new situation

interventions in Nowa Huta | CENTRAL CARPET | S. Achter, O. Bauer, J. Nauta

PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE; INFRASTRUCTURE & PUBLIC SPACE

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interventions in Nowa Huta | CENTRAL CARPET | S. Achter, O. Bauer, J. Nauta

PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE; INFRASTRUCTURE & PUBLIC SPACE

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REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 203

interventions in Nowa Huta | CENTRAL AXIS | B. Haba, J. Mewes, N. Papenfuss
CENTRAL AXIS
By Beata Haba, Johanna Mewes and Nora Papenfuss To amplify the situation of the main axis, likewise both shopping areas it is necessary to contrive some cautious changes to instance a distinct separation of different zones like shopping, bar & coffee range and the green area. The idea is to guide all pedestrians in different zones with special light settings on the footpath, individually organic formed benches with integrated atmospheric illuminations. Some small elements like street furniture make the walk interesting and everyone will be unconsciously conduct to the main axis with the ramp as important landmark. The changing structure at the street floor will lead every pedestrian to walk to the top of the ramp. On top of these changes are special designed bus stations to stimulate the people getting off the bus and create a recognizable spot in the centre of the up coming main shopping promenade. In addition to these elements it is important to provide some multifunctional tools like changing exhibitions and a varying play street for kids. Both designs are integrated within the green – calm area near by the park. To improve the inner city it is important to direct action to specify a car – free - zone along the main axis for pedestrians. For pedestrians it is necessary to change the current traffic situation, the exiting secondary roads are positive influenced by speed limit to 30 km/h, with exception of the east – west frame. To deal with the up coming volume of traffic it is necessary to map a multi storey car park at the entering of the shopping area.

PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE; INFRASTRUCTURE & PUBLIC SPACE

204

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interventions in Nowa Huta | CENTRAL AXIS | B. Haba, J. Mewes, N. Papenfuss

PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE; INFRASTRUCTURE & PUBLIC SPACE

206

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REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 207

interventions in Nowa Huta | K. Imbrzykowska, M. Schneider, A. Moiseeva, K. Stöckmann, S. Chmiel, S. Wittmer, E. Szafraniec, B. Schuit, S. Broekhof

PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE; OFFICIAL PUBLIC SPACE

Official Public Space: big scale interventions
The city of Nowa Huta is unique in its position. Not only does it contain an internationally renown marble of socialistic urban planning and architecture, it can also become the greatest green park and water area within the immediacy of the centre of Cracow. By improving the structure of the city, with respect to the original ideology of the planners, one can reveal the beauty 208 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

Official Public Space: Masterplan

↑ as part of its centre. The part east of the main axes is more local for the people of Nowa Huta, the students and the future workers at the business-park at the steel factory. The city centre “inside out” will be the main point of liveliness for not only the people of the old Nowa Huta but also for the newer residential areas.

of their plan. To do this one should give a clear identity to each of the axis and improve the connectivity of the areas. When one is looking at the formal public spaces it is important to understand that there is still a barrier between the two centres of Nowa Huta and the centre of Cracow. The central square of Nowa Huta has a good connection to the city of Cracow and therefore can be seen

PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE ► Multifunctional using ► Visual and physical connection with other “components” of main axis in southern and northern directions (through the same type of pavement, solving the transport problem) ► Integration with surrounding buildings ► Create commercial functions on the ground flour ► Design for Central Square should create a new strong identity like a real central point, not a junction as how it functions now. COMMERCIAL SQUARE ► Only pedestrian movement. ► No car parking. ► Introduction commercial functions and business in the ground floor (like crafts hops, travel agency, consulting agency, informational centre Nowa Huta). ► Urban square can be used for side walk cafes, like recreation area for people involved in commerce and business, providing good quality street furniture and pleasant street profile. URBAN PARK ► Combination of recreational function (park) with social activities: like open market several days during the week, children social programmes in collaborate with educational programs. ► Open area ► Symmetrical shape relative to the main axis ► Only pedestrian movement, no car movement through the park in vertical direction ► Providing good quality street furniture ► Providing different types of sitting places: shadow, sun etc. ► introduction the dysfunctional features of art. This can be sculptures that are designed in order to punctuate the space, serving as visual gathering points ► creating sufficient lighting providing in the feeling of safety ► combination green - blue - grey (vegetation, water, pavement) ADMINISTRATION CENTRE ► Mostly administrative and official buildings like Town hall, Banks and post offices ► Rehabilitation of Alley Rose, this can be with roses ► Two line traffic: one in each direction, to keep traffic slow and make the Alley comfortable for pausing to sit and watch ► Combination of official and administration buildings with stores, cafes and bars in the northern direction, around road crossing ► Creation of the parking places along the road ► Introduction of street furniture, mostly benches along the Alley, also providing movable furniture (like chairs), which can be used by people according their willing to sit where they want. URBAN SQUARE ► Create an entrance and visually accessible space to the northern direction of main axis ► Remove redundant big trees ► Create an open attractive urban square ► Combination green – blue – gray (vegetation, water, pavement) ► Emphasize the shape of space which was originally designed GREEN PARK ► Improve existing green area ► Create Green Park attractive for children and elderly people ► Introduction of street furniture for different functions: toys for children, chess tables for elderly people ► Create network of walking paths which go in different directions following people’s wishes REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 209

Quality Plan for Official Public Spaces
NEW RECREATIONAL ZONE AND ARTIFICIAL LAKE

► The creation of an artificial lake will make one of the most attractive object in Nowa Huta for people from Cracow and it’s surrounding areas. ► This unique attraction will contain green leisure, entertainment and recreation in a large Park around existing cultural centre with a beach along the lake. ► The slope should be used for the creation of a panoramic view over the Valley. CENTRAL SQUARE

interventions in Nowa Huta | K. Imbrzykowska, M. Schneider, A. Moiseeva, K. Stöckmann, S. Chmiel, S. Wittmer, E. Szafraniec, B. Schuit, S. Broekhof
URBAN SQUARE

PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE; OFFICIAL PUBLIC SPACE

MASTER PLAN

NEW RECREATION ZONE AND ARTIFICIAL LAKE

210

EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE Design Project: New Main Square We have already mentioned that Nowa Huta is unfinished city. Not all ideas of architects about construction ideal socialistic city were realised. The main idea of this design project is to finish construction of Nowa Huta and finally reach idea of Ideal City. According the primary project, which was done in the beginning of 50s year, a theatre has to be behind the main central square. It is obviously that the location of monumental building like a theatre in that point will logically ‘shape’ the end of main axis. Another important point is a green area (green Valley) on the south of Nowa Huta. This area is isolated place today and serves like a boundary. In the future this green area should be integrated to Nowa Huta. It will give openness and ‘freedom” and logical end of city.

Present

Proposal

REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 211

interventions in Nowa Huta | K. Imbrzykowska, M. Schneider, A. Moiseeva, K. Stöckmann, S. Chmiel, S. Wittmer, E. Szafraniec, B. Schuit, S. Broekhof

PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE; OFFICIAL PUBLIC SPACE

GATE

MONUMENT

View from square
CONNECTION OLD - NEW

New design project should give a new identity for Nowa Huta. But it is very important that Old Nowa Huta and New Nowa Huta will be connected. We intend to create a ‘red line’ between past and future. Our design decision is to introduce a significant sign which will remind about history of city construction. Nowa Huta was created like a living place for workers in the Steel Factory. Steel Factory gave an identity for city in the past like ‘The Idealistic City for working class’. According our design a steel monument will be located on the main square where all axes go to the one point. Behind the square (in northern direction) there will be a steel gate. Steel gate is an ‘Allegoric Gate’ to the freedom of open green area. 212 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE IDENTITY - ACTIVITY CENTRAL SQUARE Today the main central square is surrounded by heavy traffic. It looks like an isolated island. Steel monument will ‘work’ in composition with a surrounding it fountain. The main idea is that sound of fountain murmur will neutralize street’s sound. Sitting place around the fountain will encourage people for pausing, sitting and observing the Gate to the Green Valley. Behind the Gate a square with cafes and restaurants will be located. It will serve like an additional gathering point in order to attract people and offer rest and drinks.

GATE

Observation platform

THEATRE - CINEMA - CULTURE PLATFORM

REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 213

interventions in Nowa Huta | K. Imbrzykowska, M. Schneider, A. Moiseeva, K. Stöckmann, S. Chmiel, S. Wittmer, E. Szafraniec, B. Schuit, S. Broekhof VISION

PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE; OFFICIAL PUBLIC SPACE

Ahead of square people can enjoy a picturesque and fabulous view to the countryside from the observation platform, which will be constructed at the end of main axis. Difference in the land elevation will be solved by means of stair, which will conduct people to the open space. 214 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

The significant of the central square will shift to the new square in the water. This square will be the most attractive leisure and entertainment centre with a cinema, theatre and cultural centre. Thanks the terrific architecture the new square in the water will become the monumental place.

PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE

Theatre
shop entertainment church school Design Project: Entertainment Centre TODAY ► church, supermarket, theatre, closed cinema, shops, bars ► could have a very strong identity within Nowa Huta ► good connection to the main street and main centre ► disorientating ► no connection between different public buildings

Masterplan ↑

Today

Old cinema

↑ REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 215

interventions in Nowa Huta | K. Imbrzykowska, M. Schneider, A. Moiseeva, K. Stöckmann, S. Chmiel, S. Wittmer, E. Szafraniec, B. Schuit, S. Broekhof

PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE; OFFICIAL PUBLIC SPACE

TOMORROW ► re-open the cinema (for alternative movies) ► connect the theatre and cinema with the new square > IDENTITY ► place supermarket at the end of the walkway > ORIENTATION ► close domestic blocks > IMPROVING LIVING-AREA ► place shops/bars in the facade of the domestic blocks > LIVELINESS ► place entrances of dwellings in facade > LIVELINESS ► structurise parking policy underneath square >CONNECTIVITY 216 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

← Tomorrow shop entertainment church school

Future ↑
inner garden terrace dwellings future shopping

Plan →

PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE

FUTURE ► more shops ► inner gardens can change into shopping area ► atracts people from outside Nowa Huta IMPRESSIONS ► elevated square ► wooden structure / terrace > PLATFORM / TERRACE > IDENTITY > ORIENTATION > ORIENTATION >ORIENTATION REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 217

► mark the supermarket by placing fountain ► elevator boxes clearly situated on the square ► mark the square with trees

interventions in Nowa Huta | K. Imbrzykowska, M. Schneider, A. Moiseeva, K. Stöckmann, S. Chmiel, S. Wittmer, E. Szafraniec, B. Schuit, S. Broekhof

PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE; OFFICIAL PUBLIC SPACE

Today: no sight because of the trees

Design Project: Urban Square This square connects three major points in Nowa Huta, on the south you have the main square, in the west the entertainment centre and on the east there’s the educational area. But when you are at this place, it’s not clear where to find these areas. Everything is hidden behind trees and there are no activities in this place itself. The structure of the north-blocks are like open arms. With less trees, this structure will welcome you, making it a pleasant and clear place to stay.

New Map: clear plan, connecting all the activities

Bringing in extra activity will make it more lively. This activity is created by an outdoor exhibition of sculptures. The central corner houses are transformed into galleries.This transformation is highly noticeable on the outside, creating a portal to ‘the village’. These building formerly had loggias, these will now function as watchtowers. Giving a very interesting view over the main axis and Żeromskiego street.

Tomorrow: clear sights and landmarks
218 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

PART 6. (RE)DESIGNING PUBLIC SPACE

Impression of Żeromskiego street
Also four other corners are accentuated and in combination with an elevated surface it will make the square more monumental. The official and administrative buildings on the main axis are directly accessible by an elevated side walk. Noise of traffic will be reduced and there is space for some terraces for cafes of restaurants. You will find the same side walk on Żeromskiego street on the south-side, creating direct access to shops.

Impression of square

This side walk is for guiding people from the main axis to the entertainment and commercial centre. On the north-side of the street you will find posters containing information about theatre shows or even temporarily exhibitions, it will be a cultural route. REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 219

Timothy van Agt (Delft University of Technology)
Nowa Huta’s future Looking back at the different design proposals that have been made within the different groups, this text will concentrate on an evaluation of these proposals. Because different frames can be used for evaluation, only one will be selected on the basis of historic and contemporary arguments. The reader and possible designers of Nowa Hutas future are suggested however to work out different backgrounds for evaluation, probably leading to new insights. The importance of this elaboration of different design strategies and additionally the opportunities of parallel designing will be highlighted through the evaluation of design- proposals. Looking for an evaluation frame: situation Visiting Cracow and its surroundings one cannot deny the presence of reminiscence of three ideologies that have dominated recent history for a certain period or still continue to do so: catholicism in Cracow, fascism in Auschwitz and communism in Nowa Huta. Not only the fact that these ideological cities have been constructed on such a small distance from each other, but as well the fact that they have been preserved in such a good way generate a unique experience, a trip through recent history. As for Cracow and Auschwitz, Nowa Huta is a beautiful and historically important example of how urban development and architecture have been used not only to represent power but as well to create a new human race (FIG). Looking closer at Nowa Huta there are however elements that do not work any more: the ideological basis, justifying Nowa Huta is no more. Capitalism is taking over, collectivism is being replaced by individuality and economy is shifting from production to service providing. This makes that locations originally planned for certain functions do not work as such any more. Plac Centralny, 220 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

PART 7. EVALUATING INTERVENTIONS; COMMERCIAL PUBLIC SPACE
meant as a square for mass demonstration, is now nothing more than a traffic junction and theatres, meant as means to spread the communist ideology are being converted into shopping malls. Economic space, located according to plan along the central axis, recently proved to be inadequate for its function. Further, the collectively planned inner-gardens are not used any more and the axis leading to the steel factory is losing importance because of declining steel production. All though Nowa Huta can be seen as an important monument of recent history craving for restoration and preservation, the plan does not fully comply any more with recent social, political and economic changes. EVALUATION FRAMES Different strategies are possible to tackle the problem. It is interesting to elaborate several of these strategies, if possible to elaborate them, comparing them afterwards by means of their physical results. Comparing these strategies by a list of predetermined criteria could as well be very interesting. A good list can definitely be used as a clear evaluation tool. Disadvantages are however that it works restrictively and that a lot of attention should be paid to the elaboration of the list of criteria. Looking at the results of interventions in a not predetermined way, on the other hand, generates a lot of freedom towards discovering the opportunities of the different strategies. Strategies, together with their design proposals, can be investigated looking at their outcome, their effect: some designs could have an effect on public space, other on a commercial strategy and again others will seem to be only beautifully designed. In this text design proposals will be evaluated in the not predetermined way, only looking at the different effects of strategies and designs. Finally, once different strategies have

PART 7. EVALUATING INTERVENTIONS been elaborated, a new strategy could be born out of their evaluation. The following strategies are proposed. Firstly, one could think of a relativation of the historic importance of the area, replacing non-functioning elements by contemporary functioning ones. Adding functions, ignoring context (fig. 1). A second strategy could consist of the preservation of Nowa Huta. The presence of important monuments, the socialist-realist urban structure with monumental architecture is unique and should be preserved. Finish the unfinished plan and house new functions (f.e. theatre) here. Top-down (fig. 2). Thirdly, Nowa Huta could be considered as a passive testing ground. Don’t make any interventions, Nowa Huta developing in a bottom-up way. A process we might learn from, possibly creating new ways of use of public space and unique design-approaches. This strategy could be considered as socially unacceptable, denying Nowa Hutas inhabitants from Cracowian or foreign financial input (fig. 3). Nowa Huta could on the other hand as well be treated as an active testing ground. Different design strategies could be implemented in equivalent areas, guaranteeing the same conditions. Results of transformations could be compared to each other, implementing successful transformations in the rest of Nowa Huta. As for the former strategy, there are few ethic grounds to justify it. All though very interesting, this strategy could be considered as a new commercial ideology, trying in the end to impose a new way of living on Nowa Hutas inhabitants (fig. 4). On economic basis, I finally choose for a compromise-situation: preserve Nowa Huta as much as possible, without drastically inhibiting economic development. a) For economic revival it is, among other things, necessary to build upon the touristic potential of Nowa Huta. Its historical characteristics should therefore be preserved and even enhanced. b) As stated in earlier texts (see text accompanying the largescale design of the commercial group), it is important for Nowa Huta to present itself as a commercial unity with a unique and positive image. What makes Nowa Huta unique, compared to other shopping and working areas, is its communistic past, physically still present through its structure, its collective green spaces and its architecture. c) Attracting new kinds of labour, f.e. office-spaces, is more difficult as Nowa Huta is mainly conceived as a living area, with housing blocks not suited for flexible use. Complying to the demands of this new economic activity, it will be necessary to enable interventions behind Nowa Hutas facades, affecting in some way Nowa Hutas DNA (fig. 5). Before using the compromise-situation as an evaluation background, a few more questions should be answered. 1) What elements will be used? Those elements that in the new political and social conditions prove to be still viable: the clear hierarchy and structure. Further Nowa Hutas architecture and green atmosphere are unique qualities. 2) To what extent should Nowa Huta be preserved? It is obvious that a complete preservation of Nowa Huta and an additional restoration to its original state is irrational, since spontaneous transformations are already taking place, showing the inability of the original structure to accommodate some new needs and ideas. A minimal restoration on the other hand would not be strong enough to disseminate Nowa Hutas brand, based on REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 221

EVALUATION FRAMES Fig. 1 relativation of historic importance Fig. 2 preservation of Nowa Huta Fig. 3 passive testing ground Fig. 4 active testing ground Fig. 5 compromise

Timothy van Agt (Delft University of Technology)
Nowa Hutas important historical heritage. A compromise could therefore be found in the restoration of facades (with its original detailing), leaving building content free for market development. The critique that such interventions lead to empty architecture, a shopping theatre, is a valid argument, However, design directions too radical I have excluded above: complete destruction leads to a loss of historic heritage while complete restoration misses its ideological component. 3) What area should be preserved? A necessary first step is the treatment of the inner-ring, since this area has the best examples of socialist-realistic urban development and architecture. Consequently, Nowa Hutas inner-ring could be experienced as a centre, with a specific and unique character. Concentrating on a smaller area makes the strategy more workable and controllable. Finally, the freely developing surrounding areas will make, by their physical appearance the contrast between Cracow and Nowa Hutas centre even bigger, enhancing shopping in Nowa Huta as a unique experience. 4) How to redesign Nowa Huta? Through a quality plan, focusing on commercial public space and the use of this commercial public space. This quality plan, concentrating on the inner-ring, will be based on the preservation of Nowa Hutas historical heritage and will focus on Nowa Hutas qualities, mentioned above. An in detail elaboration of this quality map goes too far for this text. A small example, on the other hand, can show the richness of such an approach. The qualities could be combined with each other, put in a matrix and be related to the different commercial typologies identified in Nowa Huta. A possible outcome could be that hierarchy, structure, architecture and green will become part of the typologies DNA. Within the inner-ring f.e. some areas could be treated with care (think of pavement, advertisement, windows, doors, …) while others could 222 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

PART 7. EVALUATING INTERVENTIONS; COMMERCIAL PUBLIC SPACE
be relatively free to develop, emphasizing the existing hierarchy of Nowa Huta: main shopping streets in contrast to smaller, local shopping streets. Not only through structure, but as well through physical appearance, hierarchy will be made visible. A well elaborated quality plan could be successful for commercial public space, but would be more convincing if applied in a holistic way: a quality plan for official public building, green, infrastructure and informal public space! Nowa Huta as one. 5) How to deal with ongoing transformations? Taking the principle of “the free market” into account (introduced in the text accompanying the large-scale design of the commercial group), these evolutions cannot be blocked nor impeded. They could only be corrected in their physical appearance, as another shopping typology. The approach, as defined above, will finally result in a dynamic tension between past and future. The second frame that will be used for the evaluation of the different design proposals of the economic group, is the map that resulted out of the analysis-phase: a mapping of all the economic functions, official public spaces, green public space, informal public space and infrastructure. The map used for evaluation is treated earlier in the booklet. This map can however not be used without hesitation. The map only shows the situation on one particular moment in time. It doesn’t show any growth, shrinkage or displacement, in fact necessary for a better insight in Nowa Hutas situation. On the other hand, this map could very well be used as a starting point for integration of different functions in one design. After all, the map clearly shows the convergence (or divergence) of different functions.

PART 7. EVALUATING INTERVENTIONS Evaluation For more information about the projects evaluated here, I refer to the different chapters on design proposals elsewhere in the booklet. PROJECTS Fig. 6 large scale design Fig. 7 design proposal Plac Centralny Fig. 8 Bilbao-effect Fig. 9 connection Aleja Roz and Plac Centralny Fig. 10 the cube Fig. 11 art wall LARGE SCALE On the large scale (fig. 6), the commercial group decided to work according to one concept, all though not clearly defined and founded: the preservation of Nowa Huta, with the necessary freedom for economic activity. The idea to shift from a topdown approach (communism) to a bottom up situation (with top down corrections: through the quality map they introduced) is interesting and could lead, with the help of a well elaborated quality map to a lively city. The fact transformations are already ongoing, economy finding its own way, probably led to this approach. The overall map is obviously used to develop a masterplan: centres and lines of economic activity were identified, subsequently designing a masterplan on the basis of this information. Identifying possible future economic gravity points, the commercial group directs the governments or developers attention to an holistic approach. Looking at how commercial space could add value to public space, the main idea of this workshop, is not worked out. It could be very useful, and in the line of a quality map even necessary, to propose a variety of uses of commercial public space. An investigation of the inhabitants of Nowa Hutas use of commercial public space is crucial: do they use commercial public space in a unique way or is a generic design approach acceptable? PLAC CENTRALNY The design proposal for Plac Centralny (fig. 7) is a good example of how a different strategy can lead to different results. Through relativation of the historic importance, replacing non-functioning elements by contemporary ‘functioning’ ones, a conflict of identities has been created: a competition between contemporary architecture and socialist realist architecture. Additionally, this design predetermines the location of economic functions. This approach is contradictory with the “free-market” principle inherent to the evaluation frame used here. This could therefore be considered as another fruitful result of a different design strategy. BILBAO-EFFECT Within the evaluation frame used here and the economic masterplan, a combination of two other ideas (one from infrastructure and the other from official public building) would fit better. Think f.e. of a partly traffic diversion away from the central REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 223

Timothy van Agt (Delft University of Technology)
square, while the new tourist-attraction (=theatre) could be housed in the lake, connected to Plac Centralny by a bridge (fig. 8). An overwhelming design will possibly lead to a Bilbao-effect. This combination of interventions could lead to the restoration of Plac Centralny as a central square for people, a place of orientation connecting the valley to the 3 axes. Economy would definitely find its way here. This holistic design is a nice example of interventions, not competing with each other, but the one enhancing the other. CONNECTING ALEJA ROZ AND PLAC CENTRALNY The square, connecting Plac Centralny to Aleja Roz (fig. 9), is a well-visited one, with a lot of opportunities. A simple intervention, a bar or restaurant with a terrace could trigger local economy. The design proposal for this square follows this idea, adding functions to the ground floors of the surrounding buildings. However, against the compromise-frame the design result seems to be a mix between vague preservation and plastic surgery, not utilizing all available opportunities. The physical form of the square works well. The design would have been therefore more interesting if the designers had started from a clearly defined design strategy: simply adding terraces, preserving the existing square versus a complete new context less design of the square. THE CUBE Cubes (fig. 10) as a way to give people self-management of their ideas, at the same time rediscovering public space, is brilliant as such. After all the inhabitants ideas have been determined in a top down way since the beginning, through communism. Moreover the design situates itself on the edge between commercial and informal, an holistic approach on the lowest scale. 224 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

PART 7. EVALUATING INTERVENTIONS; COMMERCIAL PUBLIC SPACE
The design proposal fits very well in the evaluation frame used so far. It respects the existing structure, it reinforces Nowa Hutas qualities by the ease these cubes can be implemented in the existing structure and with a well thought off materialisation and design, they can enhance the existing architecture by contrast. However, there should be paid some attention to the fact that Nowa Huta, using these cubes, will not pervert in another direction, becoming a city of kiosks. If not managed properly, the cubes and the existing kiosks could spread over Nowa Huta like parasites, taking over the city, covering in the end the richness off Nowa Hutas structure and architecture, finally leading to a failure of the commercial concept. It is the only design in the commercial group that proposes some ideas on the actual use of public space. The large and intermediate scale proposals only addressed its quality. Further it seems that these cubes are overcoming the disadvantages of the fixed existing structure. These temporary commercial units do not affect Nowa Hutas DNA. The cubes can move from one place to another, not destroying Nowa Hutas structure, but using it: a temporary layer of commercial units growing on the existing structure, an idea that could very well fit into the economic masterplan. Because of these elements, the design throws a new light over the evaluation strategy used so far. While design processes are usually worked out in a top-down way, this example clearly shows the advantage of a parallel design process. Design concepts on the lower scale help in this case to reinforce designs on the other scales, highlighting opportunities and deficiencies. Small scale worked out next to higher scale, leads here to a reinforcement of the overall plan. A process in which parallel design is possible, with repetitive evaluation over the different scales, would therefore be a good alternative for the common top-down approach. Looking finally at the overall-map one can clearly see that the cube as a means to reach people is derived from the kiosks mapped here. The designers did however pay few or no attention to the possible locations of the cubes. Will they be connected to existing pedestrian routes, competing with kiosks? Will they be spread around parks, in gardens? A thorough investigation is necessary to avoid chaos in Nowa Huta. ART WALL Another interesting design, is a design coming from the green group: a gigantic art wall cutting through housing blocks, affecting the DNA of Nowa Huta (fig. 11). A very valuable design if you look at the tension it invokes: Nowa Hutas historical structure fighting against a major incision. Result, Nowa Hutas DNA (hierarchy and structure) proves to be still viable. Looking back at the different designs evaluated here, it is interesting to summarize their qualities and look at how they could be integrated through the different scales. Again, the compromise-frame will be used as background. The economic masterplan proposes one concept: a free market in a historic environment. On the intermediate scale, Plac Centralny is redesigned. Through an infrastructure intervention a sloping square is created. The idea is to reinforce the central squares identity. A combination of different designs (infrastructure and official public building) showed however that are different ways of reinforcing the main squares identity.

PART 7. EVALUATING INTERVENTIONS

Through its contrast (this should be envisioned during design) it can enhance the existing structure. Think of a Bilbao-theatre in the lake or contemporary cubes in the streets and parks. On the other hand, the use of these cubes should be controlled. Too many cubes could change the character of Nowa Huta. Nowa Huta is a city with historic importance, not a theme park. Further there should be an overall definition on how to use commercial public space in Nowa Huta. The different commercial scales should take over this definition, adapting it according to their needs. Instead of a communistic top-down approach, Nowa Hutas commercial public space should be welcoming, offering free choices and be adapted to human scale. Letting the market free (under the restrictions of a quality map) is the beginning. Enabling its growth by opening groundfloor-facades and by the use of cubes are further elements for success. Finally, it should be emphasized at the success of this strategy depends on the holistic character of any new interventions in Nowa Huta. Groups concentrating on infrastructure, green, official public building or informal public space should always take the principles of the economic plan (whatever strategy will be chosen) into account. Green shopping streets with good access, commercial cubes as meeting points, … The different designs evaluated above show that the new economic strategy can be easily implemented through the different scales. Fig. 12 shows how a particular street in Nowa Huta could work: the buildings facades opened for shopping, kiosks located on their own public space fulfilling daily needs and a cube in the park generating additional informal public space, highlighting the environment through contrast.

Conclusion As shown, it can be very useful to elaborate different design concepts. Results of different approaches could be compared to each other and strengths and weaknesses of each model can be distinguished. A combination of qualities could lead to a new and well grounded design approach. There are different truths; elaborate them, compare them and combine the better elements. Immediately down scaling within a certain design approach, from large-scale interventions to the smaller scale (call it a parallel design process) can improve the completeness and quality of the overall work. We saw that a small scale intervention led to an approach that not yet had been implemented on the larger and intermediate scale. Implementing a parallel design process, imperfections and anomalies can be detected soon, leading to a complete plan. In the different designs evaluated here, only empiric data (of a certain moment in time) were used. All though this led to very differing and interesting designs, one could ask what the designs would have been like if the available data had been combined with sociological data, data showing evolution over time, etc.

The quality of the design for the square connecting Plac Centralny to Aleja Roz lies in the proposal to open the groundfloor-facades. Fig. 12 compromise-situation Economic activity will be housed here, leading to an even better functioning square. The cubes, finally, have different qualities. They propose ideas on how to use public space and they easily fit in Nowa Hutas structure, without damaging it. These ideas could be used to create a new strategy. Note that considerations as what kind of economic activity should be stimulated are not taken into account here. The new strategy that will be proposed is therefore a compact one, only to be used as an example of how an elaboration of strategies could lead to a new and consistent strategy. First of all, the importance of the basic qualities of Nowa Huta should be emphasized: structure, hierarchy, green and historic architecture. These elements should prevail through the different design scales. New interventions should never collide with these principles, they may only enhance them. This doesn’t mean for example that contemporary architecture is not done. On the contrary, contemporary architecture can very well be used.

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PART 7. EVALUATING INTERVENTIONS; GREEN PUBLIC SPACE
Laurien Houtman (Delft University of Technology)
Pearl necklaces & jewels

“On the banks of the Wisla River, stands a jewel – Kraków.” Not just the old city-centre, but Nowa Huta (a part of Kraków with a more rough surface) is a sparking pearl in the green surroundings too. Moreover the fellow threads of impressions and experiences are like pearls in your development.
Kraków As centre of art Kraków is named “The Florence of the north”, because of the 140 churches in the city-centre “The second Rome” and when you bear the university in mind (1364, one of the oldest of Middle-Europe) it’s called “The new Athens”. That the city is satisfied with hundreds of churches is clearly noticeable. On the street you encounter an exceptional number of nuns, communions are given by hundreds away, even as marriages and along the green ring, which is situated around the old city-centre, is an exhibition of paintings of John Paul II. It seems that the city is living for the catholicism; churches are so replete that the religious are standing outside and during a ceremony in the direction of the Wawel cathedral it seems the whole city is driving off. Other pearls of Kraków are the green spaces in the city. Inner courtyards of churches, Park Blønia, cemeteries; the green spaces are like holes in the concentrated, overcrowded urban fabric. It isn’t possible to see all those pearls in this sparkling city, without using them in my design for Nowa Huta. I give two of the pearls in my design a religious background for example, because the axle of live of people in Nowa Huta seems to be Christianity too. The churches are the most modern and maintained buildings of the district. 226 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

The courtyards in Kraków played an important role too. Striking is, the more monumental (and monotone) the building on the street side is, the more people want to do ‘their own thing’ on the back yards. They all have a different door, washing lines on the courtyards and they paint their balconies in their own favourite colour. The need for private space and how you can design them, were used as a model for the designing of the courtyards of Nowa Huta. Nowa Huta The district, now characterized as an area of that is unsafe and you feel unsure, presents a sharp contrast to its historical characterizing. Directly after the World war a lot of migrants were coming specifically to Nowa Huta, because the city was well known for her opportunities, stability and safety. Nowa Huta figured as a sample of the communistic train of thought. The human being as inhabitant of Nowa Huta was confronted in the same way with the city as with the socialistic state. De architect was not just designing buildings and streets, but the minds of his fellow-creatures too. The appearance of the buildings has to show the socialistic ideas; the massive, collective character and the huge amount of opportunities it would give people. The city was therefore witnessed in the socialistic world as a worthwhile paradise for the working class: an integrated industrial city. The steel factory Huta Lenina was ruling the whole lives of the inhabitants; the factory didn’t take care for work only, it arranged the social, cultural and sportive lives of their employees too. In this period people became really close to each other. One of the most important effects of the transformations is the dropping off of these bindings; not just at work, but in addition too.

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REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 227

PART 7. EVALUATING INTERVENTIONS; GREEN PUBLIC SPACE
Laurien Houtman (Delft University of Technology)
Evaluation designs of Nowa Huta at Kraków Presenting the different designs in one map develops the masterplan of the Public Green Space Group. The designs are not created in common with each other, so the map can’t be officiate as a real masterplan. The designs of the Green group are mainly designed (and evaluated) on a conceptual basis (▲ = PRO; ▼ = CON) Dennis Laufer & Laurine Houtman - Green Necklace & Urban Path PRO ▲ Southern meadows and green belt connected across the most important, public green spaces in the inner city ▲ Differentiation of the green spaces in the inner city (discontinuing monotony) ▲ Intensification of public green (clear division between public and private area) ▲ Contrast with public green ribbon by situating private gardens in inner courtyards ▲ Every pearl its own identity and activity (orientation object) ▲ By privatising inner courtyards, need for outside public green ▲ Ribbon of public activities (reinforce public centre: soccer, basketball, skate park) ▲ Creating safety feelings in inner courtyards by visual connection with public area and chopping of trees ▲ Each courtyard its own activities: preventing monotony, identification ▲ Different activities in one courtyard: preventing monotony ▲ Every house public and private facade (clear division) Alex Zech & Violetta Scherlowski - Urban Stroke / Punkt Prezecieca PRO ▲ Southern meadows connected with central city park ▲ Connecting commercial sites: Plac Centralny and streets along central park ▲ Crowd-puller (Bilbao-effect) and orientation object (monument for Plac Centralny) ▲ Actuating of modernising Nowa Huta, interaction old and new buildings (stopping monotony) 228 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

PART 7. EVALUATING INTERVENTIONS Jurrien Boon & Sebastian Steffin – The Cut CON ▼ Elaboration of private (abroad of centre) courtyard is missing, only global design ▼ Southern, scenery part of Nowa Huta ignored in green necklace ▼ Only few additions of other groups in masterplan PRO ▲ Plac Centralny connected with central city park ▲ Open-air museum gives people a glance on inner courtyards ▲ Meeting point and crowd-puller for young (cultural) people ▲ Different kinds of culture: design, art, education and nightlife ▲ Increase of west side formal city park (symmetry with regard to Aleja Róz) ▲ Monument at formal square: history and orientation object Agatha Ludzik, Ola Senderska & Mila Stanik - Nowa Huta Park PRO ▲ Creating safety feelings by controlling area ▲ Connection with Aleja Róz and south side of green belt ▲ NOWA HUTA is something to be proud of, identification ▲ Different sport and leisure activities: soccer, basketball, skate park, roller coaster and graffiti exhibitions Frank van der Veek - Zig-zag CON ▼ Unrealistic and expensive adjustment ▼ Just connecting two points, no elaboration of road in between PRO ▲ Different parts of green belt connected with each other ▲ Green belt connected with urban area (extension of residential area) ▲ Zig-zag element and river as orientation object and create permanently new focal points ▲ Commercial resources in green belt as crowd-puller ▲ Private gardens area throwing open to the public, identification ▲ Cheap adjustment CON ▼ Is connecting the different parts of the green belt with each other the solution, or will they stay separated parts? In short will the zig-zag discontinue the border? ▼ Elaboration of bridging the heavy infrastructure is missing (bridges/tunnels or visual connection?) CON ▼ Expensive adjustment ▼ No connection with residential area (except for northern extremity of the city) ▼ Sport and leisure functions are outside of the city (too far for children and old people) CON ▼ Inner courtyards (open-air museum) become less private: glance of courtyards is unrealistic ▼ Target of design is indistinct. Which problem of the analysis is solved?

REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 229

PART 7. EVALUATING INTERVENTIONS; GREEN PUBLIC SPACE
Laurien Houtman (Delft University of Technology)
Continuation of design The Green Necklace at Delft In Kraków was already concluded that Nowa Huta has too many and a monotony of green space in the city. A solution for these problems were the pearls with their own identity, which should care for more differentiation in the city. These pearls were connected with each other to a green necklace that connected the southern meadows and the eastern green belt on a bigger scale. Nevertheless the design created in Kraków doesn’t consider the heavy infrastructure, which is separating the different green areas from each other. By brimming over the green areas and doesn’t let them border by a heavy road, there will become a better communication between the different green parts and the green and the city. Besides the northern, crossing the city green corridor, there will be a southern, countryside green necklace too. The identity of the pearls will correspond to this concept, so that the orientation of the inhabitants will become better. By these two green necklaces arises a circuit, partly through and partly along the city, so that people can easily find their way. Particularly the privatisation of the inner courtyards will people give the need for public green outside of the city. The green corridor contributes to the connectivity of these green areas. Another problem was the monotony of the district: each little place is public area and all the facades are monotone faces. In short there is too much of the same, so that people have the need to display their own identity and to trace their own little area. To make the green necklace more public, there is need for a better division between private and public field. The formal axis, the Aleja Róz, with adjacent areas, should become a public area, even as the green necklace. The remaining areas of Nowa Huta should have a more private character. 230 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006 Therefore some inner courtyards were elaborated. At the courtyard that is adjacent to the Aleja Róz is a little skate park situated. Also private gardens and small meeting places could be created in this courtyard. By this combination, the space that is in contact with the formal axis will get a public character, whereas the remaining space will used by inhabitants of the blocks. Accordingly to this, there will become a differentiated public of inhabitants and visitors of the courtyard. In the courtyards, which are less centrally situated, will be more private gardens created, even as small meeting places. Because the inhabitants of the surrounding blocks are the only users of these courtyards, bindings between people will become strong again. Masterplan Elements above, in combination with the conclusions of the other groups, are forming a masterplan for Nowa Huta. Besides the green circuit the design exist of a formal axis, the Aleja Róz, were all the formal activities and buildings are coupled to. Most important points are Plac Centralny and the central park/ city square. Along Plac Centralny, even as along the city park, are commercial functions situated too. Furthermore there is a shopping centre on the west side (Rondo Kocmyrzowskie). On the east side (the entrance to the factory) will come a business centre in the near future; all though we have to wait for it for a while, the consequences for Nowa Huta will be enormous. The masterplan exist of informal public space too. The skate park and the school yards along the Aleja Róz can be seen as a designed informal space. The old airport grounds, adjacent to the western commercial centre, is more informal: a barely designed area, all though it will be controlled so that it wouldn’t be developed in an undesirable and unsafe area.

PART 7. EVALUATING INTERVENTIONS

REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 231

PART 7. EVALUATING INTERVENTIONS; GREEN PUBLIC SPACE
Laurien Houtman (Delft University of Technology)
Frankfurt: design and workshop After the workshop in Kraków, people from Delft did a two days workshop in Frankfurt too: one day analysing and one day designing. Target of this workshop was attempting generic design implements. The design should pursue the same target as defined for Nowa Huta; the tools should be the same (a generic solution), either different (a location specific solution). The workshop was situated at Römerstadt, a Siedlung that is designed and build in 1927-1928 by Ernst May. As many public space as in Nowa Huta is, so major is the shortage of it in Römerstadt. Squares and meeting places in the neighbourhood were completely absent and should be a good addition to the city to clarify the division between public and private. Furthermore the public necklace would work as an orientation object and can function as a route between the metrostation and the near cultural park. The most important resemblance between the two workshops seems the lack of time, and as a consequence sometimes the superficialness of it. Nevertheless it doesn’t turns on the final design. The experience and the process itself are more important. How can you manage, in a really short time, to put a logical story together? And how can you manage to relate your ideas with the other designs of the group and (in this case) how can you let your design implements correspond to the implements you have used on Nowa Huta? Evaluation of the International Intensive Program The pearl necklace symbolizes a red thread through my evaluation of the International Intensive Program. Below is a compendium to create the most beautiful pearl necklace. 232 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

EXCURSION To make a pearl necklace you have to see other necklaces first; how long should it be, how big are the pearls, who is wearing it? In short how does a general pearl necklace look like? Therefore there should be more excursions done during the workshop. For example a lot of people didn’t see much of Kraków itself (after all it is a good functioning city, so it’s a nice model for Nowa Huta). COMPARISON – DISCUSSION Furthermore there are two aspects whereby you can judge the pearl necklace: comparison and discussion, so you know if the necklace is beautiful or not. Therefore working in small groups would be better. One of the reasons is that you can compare the analysis and designs more easily (after all there are twice as much designs). Another reason is the stake of some people. Now there

were some people who were keeping a low profile, either by the language barrier or a lack of interest. Another striking aspect is the lack of discussion between teacher and student. For this purpose can be two reasons too: either in Poland and Germany prevails the idea “the teacher is always right”, or at Higher Vocational Education students are not used to discuss with their teacher. CHAIN Besides to know what is making a pearl necklace beautiful, you also have to know some technical knowledge. Finally it’s more important to know the necklace is not falling apart, than the pearls itself. Important is a good cooperation between students of different countries and education. Sometimes it seems that people forgot this cooperation and only thought about the end target, the booklet. All though I think the experience and

PART 7. EVALUATING INTERVENTIONS cooperation (the chain) were the most important things of this workshop. LINK In a pearl necklace is one link, which contains the pearls together. Without this one, people can’t use the necklace (or cooperation). That the Dutch people, and especially the ones from Delft, filled in this function became clear quit quickly. Not only having more responsibility feelings, but also the HVE-niveau seems to be important again. It looks like you learn at Scientific Education level to have more synopsis of a group, to think about consequences of actions. CONCEPT As soon as you have all knowledge standing above, you can start with creating your own, extreme, cool, unconventional, super great necklace. And that’s exactly the thing I have missed in this workshop. Finally they gave you the chance to make a conceptual design - there is even not enough time to make a realistic design - but almost nobody was using this chance. UNITY As soon as you have created your own, extreme, cool, unconventional, super great necklace, you will understand why a pearl necklace is beautiful as it is: the simplicity. People forget sometimes the simplicity and unity within this workshop; and the masterplan, and the designing, and the integration of the different groups. Sometimes there were too many ambitions; all though the simplicity of the experience and cooperation within an international group is just like the pearl of this workshop. REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 233

PART 7. EVALUATING INTERVENTIONS; INFORMAL PUBLIC SPACE
Amber Maessen (Delft University of Technology)
Informalising Nowa Huta The two weeks of workshop in Cracow were very intense and gave an opportunity to be completely fascinated by a subject and experimenting with some ideas and methods. Only afterwards there is time for reflection on the products and the used methods. This article is a reaction on the total workshop results and the group results of the informal public space group. TOTAL WORKSHOP RESULTS Working with so many people can be really instructive and a lot of work can be done. One important result of the cooperation is the analysis integration map. I think the map looks very professional and it is very interesting to combine all knowledge in one map. However, some notes must be made: ► the mapping is the result of only one (or two) visits to the area. ► the mapping does not make a difference between not-mapped area and area which has been mapped, but nothing is found there. I think this is an important difference to make. ► the main axis has been area of deep mapping, but that is not explicitly clear from the map. This can lead to conclusions that the main axis is more important than it actually is, because more is to be found there on the map. One must be careful with making these conclusions. Another result are the many designs and ideas made for the public space, in which there is only some interaction between the different group topics. But I think most interesting about the design phase is the amount of ideas generated in such a short 234 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006 time. This is very inspiring. I feel like one subject is missing: housing. Although this workshop is about public space, and a house is a private place, but the way the housing is planned is definitely important for the public space! Perhaps the official group could have paid more attention to this, for example I missed the relation between the house and the inner court yard, or the street. I feel this relation is missing, this could be one cause for the feeling of danger and the people who do not feel any relation to their court yard. GROUP RESULTS To summarize, the design task was: Reanimation of the post-war city of Nowa Huta, focusing on informal public space. Informal public space can, in short, be formulated as: Space where informal activities can take place, or develop. Analyses resulted in an interesting map of all kinds of activities taking place in Nowa Huta. Most striking in these analysis were the amount of graffiti, the position of the kiosks, and the presence of the urban voids. It was unfortunate that, because of a lack of time, the area could only be observed once. That is why I call this map a ‘moment map’. We did not experience Nowa Huta by night, or in winter. The general conclusion of the analysis was: Nowa Huta has a lack of identity, and has a negative image. The general strategy for handling this problem is called branding. The observations can be categorized in three different topics: Spontaneous developments, subcultures and unacceptable activities. Together these topics cover all the activities found. They form three different ways of approaching different activities found in the area. They can have an overlaps, like for example the hooligan culture, which is (by many people) an unacceptable subculture. Looking at a hang-out, this could be a more accepted or a more unacceptable activity, it could be part of a subculture, but not necessarily. After the analysis phase, the design phase started in which a lot of ideas and designs were generated. This was a very inspiring period. However, there was no general master plan made where all the designs are based on. Some designs do have some connection with the analysis, but there are also analysis results that have lead to nothing in the design phase. One example of this is the noting of the voids, about which nothing is said in the design phase. I can think of two reasons why there is something missing between analysis and design phase: ► The conclusions to the analysis maps are quite general. More profound conclusions can give a better starting point for design. ► The missing link can be the masterplan which is based on the analysis results. On this master plan the designs can be based. This essay will add these products and discuss if this can really be the missing link. Deeper analysis We started the workshop by defining what is exactly informal public space and by making a division into subculture, unacceptable and spontaneous activities. Some analysis results, for example the personification map, and the map of unacceptable and accepted activities can be placed in one of

PART 7. EVALUATING INTERVENTIONS SPORT FIELDS UNACCEPTABLE these subjects. However, no map was made showing all the subcultural activities, spontaneous, or unacceptable activities. In this essay, these maps will be added an attempt is made to make more profound conclusions to them. Nowa Huta, analysis: SUBCULTURE ► Graffiti is spotted at a lot of places. Especially, as it seems from this map, in the more monumental centre and along the edge of Nowa Huta. ► On this map, two urban voids have been noted down, both in the belt around Nowa Huta. ► Hang outs are to be found in and around Nowa Huta. The map of the SPORT FIELDS shows that: ► There are no central sport places. Small sport fields, like basketball or street football fields are scattered around the city. ► They are all situated next to schools, and also function as a school square. ► Most of them are badly maintained and perhaps they are used by the school pupils during school time, but in the afternoon they do not seem to be used a lot, by young children or by youth. ► there is almost no variation in them Nowa Huta, analysis: Spontaneous ► kiosks on all strategic places for these commercial functions, where a lot of people come by ► informal communication to be found at a lot of places ► the gardens are of course, planned at that place, but the people have the chance to personalize, and they do that abundantly. ► other personification like birdhouses and spontaneous REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 235

SUBCULTURES

SPONTANEOUS

PART 7. EVALUATING INTERVENTIONS; INFORMAL PUBLIC SPACE
Amber Maessen (Delft University of Technology)
gardening, are not on the map, but have been spotted. Nowa Huta, analysis: Unacceptable ► The unacceptable activities can be found in the centre as well as in the belt ► In the centre, the mapped unacceptable activities are mainly consistent of graffiti. In the belt, more different activities take place, like vandalism, hooligans and racism General conclusions to analysis ► A number of interesting informal locations can be pointed at the map. In the centre some positive informal activities take place, but there is still a lot of space in the centre and along the main axis to develop more activities. There is little space for personification in the centre, because of the monumentality of the urban fabric. When going away from the centre, more signs of personification can be found. ► There is no variation in the inner court yards of the housing blocks, they lack identity. ► When looking at the edge of Nowa Huta, a lot of unacceptable activities take place, which mainly take place at places which are undefined and uncontrolled. They are mainly situated in large green areas, where the green forms a kind of border. It is not clear to who this land belongs to. ► Not only activities were to be found, but also a lack of some activities, for example no real recognizable subcultures were to be found. Some activities are present, but they are scattered. We have spotted a lot of small outdoor sport fields, for example basketball courts, but these are all scattered and badly maintained. ► The location of kiosks show very well how flows of people come through the area. The kiosks are flexible and can therfore situate themselves at commercially most interesting places, where most people come by. These are first of 236 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006
Spontaneous development -There is too much public space with only little variation in it. -People want to personalize! -kiosks positioning Topic: General Problem -Nowa Huta has a bad image Potential -Nowa Huta has many positive aspects Strategy -branding! -by centralisation of the acitivities, critical mass is created identity catalizing effect on new developments -branding! -make a more clear definition of space -create more space for personification -make use of flows of people -branding! -Spatially: Defining the functions and use of spaces -Socially: By formalizing and centralizing the unaccepted activities they can become controllable

Subculture

-subcultures are badly recognizable -subcultural activities are scattered

-demand for activities

Unaccepted activities

-Spatially: There is a lot of undefined space where people feel unsafe -Socially: a lot of unaccepted and uncontrolled activities take place

-Spatially: huge amount of space can be used, planned for needed functions -Socially: some activities could be turned into positive

all along the important axes, the centre, and also at the entrances to the housing blocks. Some factors which could have influence on the development of informal activities are: ► The urban fabric, how much space does it give for activities or personification? ► flows of people coming by ► identity of a place, recognizability ► accessibility of the place

Nowa Huta, informal strategies Although a start has been made determining strategies for every topic, this was not finished during the workshop. Of every topic, problems and potentials were stated, and a strategy is pointed out. This matrix (above) gives a clear overview on all the ideas and strategies.

Strategies implemented in the urban plan of Nowa Huta

PART 7. EVALUATING INTERVENTIONS SCATTERED SPORT FIELDS TOO MUCH PUBLIC SPACE URBAN VOIDS


CENTRALISATION OF SPORTS


PRIVATISATION


DEFINITION OF FUNCTIONS

REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 237

PART 7. EVALUATING INTERVENTIONS; INFORMAL PUBLIC SPACE
Amber Maessen (Delft University of Technology)
Evaluation To see what information this strategy map could have added in the design process, I have laid the strategy map and the project map onto each other. Locations where a strategy is pointed out, but NO design: THE VOIDS These locations are concentrations of big problems in Nowa Huta. While in the analysis phase these locations have already been pointed out as voids, no design was made for them. PRIVATISATION OF PUBLIC SPACES The locations chosen for this operation are spread and one of them is filled in with the flowering project. However, this flowering project is actually one option of how to fill in this strategy, but it is not the only option. Also, to make the flowering project possible, the gardens should not be completely privatized, but be owned by someone. To make one design for the privatization would focus on how to divide the land property rather than making a spatial design for it. Locations where a design is made, but NO strategy: PLAC CENTRALNY, SKARPA Although there was no strategy pointed out for this location, especially the skarpa plan is a very interesting design. The designer has done well in taking a look around a saw that this place was missing something. 238 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

The combination of these maps make the strategic master plan

PART 7. EVALUATING INTERVENTIONS LINK I do not know if the connection made is one that is going to be used a lot. It does not lead from one strategic place to another. Maybe some more data should have been collected about the cultural centre. ► spots: the strategy for this design was actually pointed out, but not located on the map, because the design is about all kind of small actions, which do not have a defined location on the map. Locations where both a strategy is made and a design: ► air strip: when visiting, it was clear this spot was an interesting location for concentrating activities. That fact has been the basis for making the design and for putting it in the master plan. ► centralization of sports:the strategy exists in both the project map and in the strategy map. However, the location pointed out was slightly different. I have my doubts about the location chosen on the project map. I think that the investigation done afterwards points to a better location. Conclusions Making this strategic master plan before doing the design phase, would have given more starting points for design. The designs would have had more connection with the analysis. Also a deeper analysis can give more grip on the subject during the design phase. However, during the workshop, a lot of different ideas were generated, some would not have been made if this master plan was already there. In this way, a master plan can limit the amount of different ideas. Sometimes letting go the master plan ideas can lead to inspiring new ideas! REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 239

PART 7. EVALUATING INTERVENTIONS; OFFICIAL PUBLIC SPACE
living in the space of post-socialism, Part II | Anastasia Moiseeva (Delft University of Technology)

LIVING IN THE SPACE OF POST-SOCIALISM: NOWA HUTA

240

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ANALYSIS: PRESENT

PART 7. EVALUATING INTERVENTIONS ANALYSIS: PRESENT 2.3. Analysis of Official Public Spaces OFFICIAL PUBLIC SPACES AND BUILDINGS Cities and settlements have evolved through three historical areas. In the first, they were primary market places; in the second, primary centers of industrial production; and in the third, they are primary centers of service provision and consumption. The original basis for cities was people’s need to come together, for purposes including security and defence; trade and the exchange of goods and services; access to information, other people and place-specific resources; to engage in activities requiring communal effort or organization; and to use particular equipment, machines, etc. The essential factor was that activities required people to communicate, which, at least initially, meant being in the same place at the same time. The coming together of people in space and time facilitates an important social dimension which has subsequently been taken as the essence of the ‘urban’ in a cultural sense. An official public space is one of the most important components of ‘urban’ life. Official public spaces serve as public gathering places integrated in people’s life. In this way analysis of official public spaces is an essential base for future urban design in relation to the main subject ‘Reanimation of the post-war development’. Official public space can be divided into several groups according functional dimension: ► institutional public space such as municipal buildings like the city hall, library, hospitals, cultural center, churches, etc. ► educational institutions like primary and secondary schools; ► outdoor public property with an official character such as primary REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 241 ► squares and parks; ► political centers, monuments Conducting analysis I have defined several groups of official public spaces and official buildings in Nowa Huta: ► administrative buildings ► educational buildings ► cultural buildings ► health buildings ► sacral buildings ► green official spaces ► formal public spaces ► monuments

PART 7. EVALUATING INTERVENTIONS; OFFICIAL PUBLIC SPACE
living in the space of post-socialism, Part II | Anastasia Moiseeva (Delft University of Technology)

ADMINISTRATION BUILDINGS

EDUCATIONAL BUILDINGS

CULTURAL BUILDINGS

Administration buildings in Nowa Huta mostly are presented by local administration, fire station, police station, local post office and small local library in the ground floor in residential building. On the map we can see that the building location on the western part of Nowa Huta. But it is difficult to tell about well recognizable administrative center thus thers is no orientation between mixture of residential and official buildings. There is an absence of administration buildings along the central axis. 242 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

Secondary schools, primary schools and kinder gardens are educational buildings in Nowa Huta. It is impressive how many educational buildings are located within one settlement for which was constructed for 250.000 people. There are more than 20 secondary schools. This situation can be explained by means of city plan concept than every neighborhood unit should be equipped with all necessary community facilities (school, kinder garden, shops)

The analysis of cultural buildings reveals the huge lack of cultural buildings in relation to quantity and quality. There are 2 museum (one about history of Nowa Huta and another one is devoted to WWII), one cultural center (on the south, near the green valley) is the typical example of bad architecture and bad-organized public palace around it, unrecognizable local cultural club, still functioning Theatre Ludowy and local cinema used for the second hand shops.

new church

PART 7. EVALUATING INTERVENTIONS
lake

gothic church

HEALTH BUILDINGS

SACRAL BUILDINGS

GREEN OFFICIAL SPACES

Health buildings are concentrated on the north-eastern part of Nowa Huta. There is a complex of different hospital buildings. Several private dental offices are distributed in the area.

Sacral buildings have not been included into the primary plan of Nowa Huta construction. They appeared later in 60-70s in opposition to the government. The shocking bulk of the Arka church has become a symbol of the Roman Church’s triumph over communism. There is a wooden Gothic church in the old historical part. The new church is under construction now; it is located practically in the end of central axis in the north. Sacral buildings play an important role in Nowa Huta.

Green official spaces were planned along the three main axes. A green area near existing artificial lake, it is the most pleasant and attractive area in Nowa Huta. Official greenery along the main axes, doesn’t have significant quality and structure. Everything is the same: a lot of green trees without hierarchy, there is merging between official greenery and vegetation in residential unit. Because of enormous amount of green spaces in general official parks are not used and don’t have value for local residences. REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 243

PART 7. EVALUATING INTERVENTIONS; OFFICIAL PUBLIC SPACE
living in the space of post-socialism, Part II | Anastasia Moiseeva (Delft University of Technology)

cultural center

FORMAL PUBLIC SPACES

MONUMENTS

OVERVIEW

The central axis contains a pattern of undefined public spaces consisting of monumental space, greenery and squares. The administrative buildings are scattered all over the area. Educational buildings are in majority, this is due to the plan that every neighbourhood unit for the 5.000 citizens should have all public functions within. According the primary plan of Nowa Huta construction like a socialist city official public spaces should be monumental and compose the structure of the main axes. Different colour intensity reflects the degree of monumentalizm (importance) in spatial structure. Because of lack official, commercial and cultural buildings along the main axes, the same type of vegetation and low quality monumental spaces today don’t present their portliness. 244 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006 Monuments (art details) are the very important component of spatial structure and dimensions of public space. Photos show existing monuments in Nowa Huta. Churches also can be considered like monuments. Obviously there are no real art monuments which work like a gathering points in public spaces, create special atmosphere and space quality. The churches and the hospital were not included in the original plan and were placed later in open places. From the beginning the area in the south of the main was labelled as an artificial lake. Therefore the area is monumental but still undefined and unbuilt. There is no any official buildings around the central square, thus Central Square is also public space without an identity.

PART 7. EVALUATING INTERVENTIONS ‘TOP-DOWN’ STEP ANALYSIS The most important step of official public buildings analysis is an understanding relation between official buildings distribution and street’s frame. In order to understand official public buildings and places distribution “Two-step analysis” and Method “Frame, Pattern, Circuit” [27] were used. Frame is a complete system of streets and spaces. Pattern is all possible destinations, landmarks, anchor points. Circuit is an intermediate system of routes and network (personal routes). The frame facilitates the formation of complex cognitive pattern (spread of destinations) and interconnecting circuit. In this psychological principle that “feeds” the town from the below, that makes parties eager to investing in certain areas, locations and programme, that creates a self-sustainable basis for development and transformation. [28] “Two-step analysis” is the pattern of routes by tracing all linear connections to a depth of two turns away from the starting point (two-three turns ahead is the average with regard to a personal anticipation and orientation). The method provides insight in the reach and potential support basis of specific programmatic elements, as well as in the coherence of the urban frame as whole. [29] For Nowa Huta I have done two types of “two-step analysis”. Both analyses are mental understanding how this area functions from the position: ‘Top-Down’ structure (the planned structure of road network), so called ‘Top-Down’ step analysis ‘Bottom-Up’ structure (the real situation, how road networks ‘works’ now), so-called ‘Bottom-Up’ step analysis. On the map ‘Top-Down’ step analysis primary roads are roads which were planned as main roads for public transport and pedestrian movement (Alley Rose). These roads link to the central square. First and second steps reveal integration between official public buildings and middle scale network. On the map we can see that the biggest concentration (these area is highlighted in pink colour) of official buildings is not very well integrated. But in reality these area functions very well and can be characterized as easy accessible and lively area. [27] Method “Frame, Pattern, Circuit” was developed by Peter de Bois (Delft University of Technology) and Karen Buurmans (Delft University of Technology). [28], [29] P. G. de Bois., K.A. Buurmans, (2005), Genesis of urban Frame – case study: New town Almere., CZASOPISMO TECHNICZNE, Cracow. REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 245

TOP >>>>> DOWN

PART 7. EVALUATING INTERVENTIONS; OFFICIAL PUBLIC SPACE
living in the space of post-socialism, Part II | Anastasia Moiseeva (Delft University of Technology)
‘BOTTOM-UP’ STEP ANALYSIS ‘Bottom-Up’ step analysis reflects existing situation. One of the main roads which located at the right angel to the central square is represented like a second order road, and roads, which are drawn parallel in Central Square, are primary roads. These roads are heavily used by cars and public transport. After drawing second and third orders roads it easily to see that official public buildings are integrated very well. It proves our feeling and perception of this area when you are walking along the road network. My conclusion is, because of primary location of cultural and administration buildings on the west part of Nowa Huta, roads which were planned like a second order roads, are used like a primary roads by people – ‘Bottom-Up” influence. Step analysis obviously shows a shifting city centre form the central square to the western part of Nowa Huta. What I found from the analysis of official buildings that cultural and administrative buildings are located in this area. Also this area can be characterized like the main commercial centre in Nowa Huta. The official public spaces along the central axis because of lack of official public buildings are not used like a main monumental axis.

BOTTOM >>>>> UP

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PART 7. EVALUATING INTERVENTIONS CONNECTIVITY, RECOGNASIBILITY, ACTIVITY The analysis of official public spaces and buildings is based on the 3 main principals: CONNECTIVITY, RECOGNASIBILITY and ACTIVITY. The diagram designed by Ir. M. Koehler was used for analysis. These 3 principals are essential part of successful public space. These principals constitute a public domain. During the analysis several important conclusions have been revealed. These conclusions are concerted on the following main locations in relation to the official public spaces: ► central square and 3 main axes linked to the central square, primary attention was paid to the central axis ► existing city center, which we revealed using step analysis, socalled ‘City Center Inside-Out’ Every location has been analyzed according the main principals of public domain: connectivity, identity and activity. The main direction for the future redevelopment and design were defined. It is necessary to notice that lack of identity and multifunctional activities are the main problems in Nowa Huta.

Main axis and central square

Central axis

City centre “inside out”

MAIN AXES AND CENTRAL SQUARE

CENTRAL AXIS

CITY CENTER ‘INSIDE-OUT’ 25 REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 247

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living in the space of post-socialism, Part II | Anastasia Moiseeva (Delft University of Technology)
ANALYSIS: 3 MAIN AXIS, CENTRAL SQUARE The central square is very good accessible by public transport due to a crossing of tram and bus routes. The 3 main axes are directly linked to the central square providing the public transport and car movement trough the Nowa Huta in every direction. In relation to the accessibility the central square and main axes are perfectly accessible. But there is neither strong identity nor a diversity of functions. From the analysis of public spaces and buildings I can do several conclusions: ► The western axis can be characterized as a cultural and commercial direction (existing cinema, theatre, shopping street) ► The eastern axis leads to an educational area and local recreation (multiple educational institutions, public green and a lake) ► The central axis doesn’t have any strong identity. There is a lack of commercial, administration and official buildings. Public spaces do not have a pronounced recognasibility. Main conclusion for the future design reinforce identity for every axis. I don’t want to emphasize the hierarchy between axes, it is necessary to create or reinforce recognasibility for every axis. Design for Main Square should be concentrated on a multifunctional using.

3 main axis and central square

Exisiting identity

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PART 7. EVALUATING INTERVENTIONS ANALYSIS: CENTRAL AXIS The central axis was planned to be the most important and recognizable street in the social city of Nowa Huta. Unfortunately primary design has not been realised completely. It is the main reason why today this axis doesn’t ‘work’ like the Nowa Huta Concourse. According the original design a theatre should be constructed behind the central square, a town hall and other official buildings were planned along the main axis, several monuments had to be located in the different parts of central axis. All these features were planned in order to create a feeling of glorious and monumentalism of socialistic main axis. The present situation shows a completely opposite situation. The absence of the official buildings and monuments is replaced by parking places, a monotony of green space and an inexpressive public spaces surround residential buildings. The design task for the central axis is creating sufficient public space along the main axis using multifunctional diversity. The most important issue is to create coherent structure which is compiled by different functional elements, but all together they create a mentally united subject.

Central axis

Central axis, according to original plan

Central axis, existing situation

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ANALYSIS: CITY CENTER ‘INSIDE-OUT’ This area is very good connected wit the main street. You can recognize the area from the main street by the church which is located on the corner of the block. Within the area there is an old theatre still in use and an old cinema which now is used for second-hand shops, hair dressing saloon and a little shops. The cinema is nearly still intact. These ‘public’ buildings have attracted little pubs with terraces. The area has an odd structure. In comparison to a traditional square surrounded by living areas this area is the opposite. The domestic blocks are surrounded by the public buildings and two schools. Within the domestic blocks there is a supermarket and some little shops. There is a reason to call this area: ‘City Center Inside-Out’. In between the domestic blocks it’s really hard to orientate. There is no a clear structure and connection between buildings. If you are inside area you don’t know that public buildings are located there. Anyway this area is the liveliest in Nowa Huta. The main directions of future design should be turned to organising entertainment-cultural centre. This centre should be more visible and modern. Existing cultural buildings need to be reconstructed and integrated with surrounding public spaces. One of the possible direction of development is to create a promenade (boulevard) between the existing cultural buildings inside the area – turn on the ‘city inside-out’ to the ‘usual’ model of the city centre.

City centre inside-out

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PART 7. EVALUATING INTERVENTIONS 2.4. SWOT Analysis and Strategies SWOT analysis is a final part of the chapter ‘Analysis: Present’. In SWOT I tried to combine to the maximum economical, social and urban characteristics of the area and define integrated strategies which are based on the above mentioned factors. CRITICAL FACTORS FOR SWOT ANALYSIS ► Location ► Accessibility (connectivity) ► Identity and Image (recognisability) ► Activity (multifunctional diversity) ► Heritage (historical value) ► The structure of official public space ► Quality of official public space ► Future development (spatial, economic, social) SWOT AND STRATEGY ► SO STRATEGY, EXPAND OPPORTUNITIES how to utilize strong points for exploting the opportunities optimally ► WO STRATEGY, CHANGING DIRECTION how weak points can be minimalised ► ST STRATEGY, DEFINING ALTENATIVES to utilize strong points, while at the same time, to avoid threats ► WT STRATEGY, ELIMINATE EXTERNAL THREATS to eliminate threats from surrounding areas ←← City centre inside-out, concept ← City centre, “usual” concept REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 251 WHAT ARE THE STRENGTHS THERE? WHAT POTENTIAL IS THERE? WHAT KIND OF ALTERNATIVE DECISIONS SHOULD BE TAKEN IN ORDER TO REMOVE OBSTACLES? ALTERNATIVES STRENGTHS POSITIVE INTERNAL OPPORTUNITIES POSITIVE EXTERNAL

EXPAND

WEAKNESSES NEGATIVE INTERNAL WHY THERE IS A LAKE OF IDENTITY, RECOGNASIBILITY AND CONNECTIVITY? HOW WE CAN REINFORCE THESE COMPONENTS OF PUBLIC DOMAIN? CHANGE

THREATS NEGATIVE EXTERNAL

WHAT EXTERNAL FACTORS COULD HAMPER THE POSITIVE DEVELOPMENT?

ELIMINATE

PART 7. EVALUATING INTERVENTIONS; OFFICIAL PUBLIC SPACE
living in the space of post-socialism, Part II | Anastasia Moiseeva (Delft University of Technology)
SO STRATEGY - EXPAND OPPORTUNITIES O

external internal

OPPORTUNITIES O

T

ATTRACTIVE LOCATION AND EXISTING POTENTIAL ► Location near famous historical and cultural city Krakow (part of Metropolitan area) ► Accessible area ► Good connection with city center of Krakow ► Existing potential for the future development ► Object of cultural heritage (well-known in the World like ‘The best example of socialist realistic city”)

What are the strengts factor there?

What factors can work as obstacles for furture developmen in Crooswijk?

S

S

EXPAND

ALTERNATIVIES

What potential is there? How W can achieve a new identity? CHANGE we

What external factors could influence on the unsuccessful development of this area? How we can avoid this?

ELIMINATE

► to use existing potential in the area in order to strength the connection between Nowa Huta and Krakow (spatial, educational, cultural, business connections) ► to reinforce and protect cultural heritage

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PART 7. EVALUATING INTERVENTIONS WO STRATEGY - CHANGING DIRECTION O EVERYTHING IS THE SAME, BORING AND CONTROLLED BY PEOPLE’S BUDGET ► Low living standards of local residence ► Limited purchasing capacity thus there is no demand for commercial functions and entertainment facilities ► Low educational level among the community ► Irregular rate of real property and land ownership ► Pollution & contamination of environment due to industry ► Lack of good quality public space ► Absence of recognasibility, diversity of activities and liveliness in the streets and public space ► Lack of good quality street furniture ► Absence of official and administrative institutions ► Lack of entertainment opportunities ► No orientation – lake of land marks ► Blind ground floor in the buildings ► Low building’s transformation and mobility ST STRATEGY - DEFINING ALTERNATIVIES T NEGATIVE IDENTITY & NO EMPLOYMENT POSSIBILITIES ► There is an identity “Social realistic city”, but at the same time a strong identity “Hutnik Hooligans” and association with poverty and insecurity ► There is a powerful industrial potential with existing technical infrastructure, but at the same time lack of employment possibilities – only one ‘monoindustry’ Sendzimira Steel Plan ► It is an accessible area, but at the same time there is a lack of sufficient accessibility WT STRATEGY - ELEMINATE EXTERNAL THREATS T LACK OF FINANCIAL RESOURCES ► Lack of economical and social mechanism that could accelerate the improvements in Nowa Huta ► Lack of financial resources ► Low revenues for potential private investors and entrepreneur especially in the first stage ► Undefined land ownership

W

S

W

► to develop a social and economical programme for people rehabilitation (introduction new job opportunities, utilizing the intellectual potential of Krakow) ► to develop master plan for official public spaces and buildings: define main directions of development (axis, centrality), identity ► to create a coherent structure of official public spaces within the area with diversity of functions ► to define a list of required qualities for official public space ► to introduce public space for different age groups ► to create a public domain

► to search for alternatives for the unique position and new identity in the structure of Krakow, Krakow Metropolitan area and World scale (recreation, culture, entertainment) ► to search for alternatives for the future redevelopment of Industrial area (Sendzimira Steel Plant) in order to achieve economical upturn in the area ► to utilize existing infrastructure and transport network – to search for alternatives to improve accessibility

► to create a development programme ‘Future of the Nowa Huta” at the governmental level: ► to attract external capital ► to create favorable investment conditions for the internal capital (local private investors) for developing commercial and entertainment facilities in Nowa Huta ► to take a loan from the European Union for the promotion of Nowa Huta ► to promote the prospect of tourism development both for the external and internal visitors REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 253

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living in the space of post-socialism, Part II | Anastasia Moiseeva (Delft University of Technology)
NEW STRATEGIC CONCEPT, NOWA HUTA – POLYCENTRIC CITY Conlcusion: ► New strategic concept should deal with the redevelopment of Nowa Huta into unique place for investment and business activity ► The proposal is to transform a degradated industrial area into an active suburb (possible functions: technologies of information systems and telecom networks; electronics, including optoelectronics and microelectronics; healthcare and medical engineering technologies) ► To promote the area as a multifunctional urban center which will be an integral part of Krakow metropolitan area (historical cultural heritage, multifunctional business park, commercial center, good accessibility and transport connections) ► To define the strategies and opportunities dealing with economical and social problems which are directly connected with the re-structuring of the Steel plan and industrial area ► To shape polycentric structure of Nowa Huta stimulating the spatial order opposing chaotic urbanization, so to make balanced development ► Urban places should be planned by architecture, landscape and urban design

cultural cente historical heritage connecting Nowa Huta with green Valley majour tourist attraction

existing commercial and entertainment center region character connecting Nowa Huta with Krakow big open market road junction

possible economical center (business park) the entrance to the huge industrial area

restructure of the entrance area connected to the Steel factory

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PART 7. EVALUATING INTERVENTIONS 3.1. Official Public Space Masterplan BIG SCALE INTERVENTIONS The city of Nowa Huta is unique in its position. Not only does it contain an internationally well-known marble of socialistic urban planning and architecture, it can also become the greatest green park and water area within the immediacy of the centre of Krakow. By improving the structure of the city, with respect to the original ideology of the planners, one can reveal the beauty of their plan. To do this one should give a clear identity to each of the axis and improve the connectivity of the areas. When one is looking at the formal public spaces it is important to understand that there is still a barrier between the two centres of Nowa Huta and the center of Krakow.

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living in the space of post-socialism, Part II | Anastasia Moiseeva (Delft University of Technology)
OFFICIAL PUBLIC SPACE MASTER PLAN The central square of Nowa Huta has a good connection to the city of Krakow and therefore can be seen as part of its center to offer cultural and historical heritage, and connection with a new recreational area. The main axis will be ‘Multifunctional Hub’ composed by diverse set of official public space. It will have a complete spatial structure. The east axis is important for the local people in Nowa Huta, for students and the future workers at the business-park. The western location, the City Centre “Inside-out”, commercial and intertainment center, will be the main point of liveliness for not only the people in Nowa Huta but also for the surrounding reas.

entrance to the business park

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MAIN AXIS: FUTURE PROPOSAL MAIN AXIS: REALITY PART 7. EVALUATING INTERVENTIONS

MAIN AXIS: ACCORDING HISTORICAL PLAN

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living in the space of post-socialism, Part II | Anastasia Moiseeva (Delft University of Technology)
3.2. Design: Main Axis DESIGN CONCEPT FOR MAIN AXIS The concept design for the main axis is to create a multifunctional hub. Where different kind of activities will meet. Main axis will be compiled by different functional elements which will be repeated one after another: recreational area – commercial square – urban park – administrative center – urban square – park for children and elderly. The main axis will be represented like a coherence structure of different elements “Colored pearl necklace”. Proposal functions will provide different kind of activities for different age groups.Another important point is a green area (green Valley) on the south of Nowa Huta. This area is isolated place today and serves like a boundary. In the future this green area should be integrated to Nowa Huta and reconstructed like a leisure green park with an artificial lake. It will give openness and ‘freedom” and logical end of city. Ahead of central square people can enjoy a picturesque and fabulous view to the green park from the observation platform, which will be constructed at the end of main axis. Difference in the land elevation will be solved by means of stair, which will conduct people to the new leisure zone. Proposed design desions for main axis are the possible solutions which follow design requirments. It is an attemp to make an impression, to exspress the first ideas how this area can look. It is not a final design for every part of main axis, of course, it can be improved or even changed completly.

park for children and eldery urban square administration center

urban park

commercial square central cquare

new recreational area

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PART 7. EVALUATING INTERVENTIONS DESIGN: NEW RECREATIONAL ZONE Distinguishing features not only for Nowa Huta but for whole Krakow and surrounding areas ... Design requirements: ► Create artificial lake which will serve like one of the most attractive object in Nowa Huta for people from Krakow and surrounding areas ► Create line of beaches along the lake ► Create green leisure, entertainment and recreation Park around existing cultural center and artificial lake ► Features of relief should be used for creating view to the Valley

new recreational area

Design proposal

PLATFORM

PLATFORM EXISTING CULTURAL CENTER STAIR

39 REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 259

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living in the space of post-socialism, Part II | Anastasia Moiseeva (Delft University of Technology)
DESIGN: CENTRAL SQUARE [Karin Stockmann and Mathias Schneider (TU Berlin)] New design project should give a new identity for Nowa Huta. But it is very important that Old Nowa Huta and New Nowa Huta will be connected. The intention is to create a ‘red line’ between past and future. The design decision is to introduce a significant sign which will remind about history of city construction. Nowa Huta was created like a living place for workers in the Steel Factory. Steel Factory gave an identity for city in the past like ‘The Idealistic City for working class’. According a design a steel monument will be located on the central square where all axes go to the one point. Behind the square (in northern direction) there will be a steel gate. Steel gate is an ‘Allegoric Gate’ to the freedom of open green area. ← Existing situation Design requirements: gathering point, important spatial component of main axis ► Visual and physical connection with other “components” of main axis in south and northern directions ► Design for Central Square should create a new strong identity like a real central point

central cquare

Steel gate and sign ↓→

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PART 7. EVALUATING INTERVENTIONS DESIGN: COMMERCIAL SQUARE pedestrian square between residential buildings with commercial functions in the ground floor Design requirements:
commercial square

► Only pedestrian movement ► No car parking ► Introduction commercial functions and business in the ground floor (like craftshops, travel agency, consulting agency, information) ► Urban square can be used for sidewalk cafes, like recreation area for people how involved in commerce and business ► Providing good quality street furniture and pleasant street profile

References
← Existing situation

Design proposal

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living in the space of post-socialism, Part II | Anastasia Moiseeva (Delft University of Technology)
DESIGN: URBAN PARK Combination of recreational function (park) with social activities: like open market several days during the week, children social programmes in collaborate with educational programs. The main features of urban park: Design requirements: ► open area ► symmetrical shape relatively to the main axis ► only pedestrian movement, no car movement in vertical direction through ► providing good quality street furniture ► providing different types of sitting place: sitting in the shadow, sitting in the sun ► introduction the dysfunctional features – features which are ► designed in order to punctuate the space, serving like visual gathering points rather than a functional meaning ► creating sufficient lighting system which provides feeling of safety ► combination of green – blue – gray (vegetation, water, pavement)

urban park

References
← Existing situation

Design proposal ↓

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PART 7. EVALUATING INTERVENTIONS DESIGN: ADMINISTRATIVE AND OFFICIAL ZONE Design requirements:
administration center

► mostly administrative and official buildings like town hall, banks, etc. ► two line traffic: one in each direction this keeps traffic slow and makes street comfortable for pausing to sit and watch ► combination of official and administration buildings with stores, cafes and bars in the northern direction, around road crossing ► creation of the parking places along the road ► introduction of street furniture, mostly benches, also providing movable furniture (like chairs), which can be used by people according their willing to sit where they want

References
← Existing situation

Design proposal

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DESIGN: URBAN SQUARE Design requirements:
urban square

► create entrance and visually accessible space to the northern direction of main axis ► remove existing green trees ► creation of open attractive urban square ► emphasize the shape of space which was originally designed ► combination green – blue – gray (vegetation, water, pavement)

EXISTING SITUATION

References
← Existing situation

Design proposal

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PART 7. EVALUATING INTERVENTIONS
park for children and eldery

DESIGN: GREEN PARK FOR CHILDREN AND ELDERLY location between existing schools Design requirements: ► improve existing green area ► create Green Park for children and elderly people ► introduction of street furniture for different functions: toys for children, chess tables for elderly people ► create network of walking paths which go in different directions follow people wishes

SQUARE FOR DIFFERENT WATERFOUNTAIN

SCHOOL

References Design proposal
← Existing situation

↑ →
SCHOOL

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PART 8. EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY; NOWA HUTA, KRAKÓW
analysis integration map | Karen Buurmans

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compilation & conclusions drawn by K.A. Buurmans

PART 8. ANALYSIS INTEGRATION MAP The cognitive map in a new perspective Ask several people to denote their user activities in their town of residence onto a topographical chart and a picture will emerge of what this specific group considers essential within the physicalspatial system of the town in casu. This is what a cognitive map intends; it is a research method through which the perceptions of a large population are gathered and abstracted into a key notion of the questioned territory. Insight can thus be obtained into (1) the physical system, i.e. lines of movement and areas, objects and places of destination; (2) population behaviour, i.e. information processing, identification, priorities and efficiency; and (3) corresponding universally applicable principles of orientation. Obviously, Use of public urban space is not free of value. Although, in principle, public domain is universally accessible, it is not utilised to the same extent by the entire population. Differences not only occur due to functional distinction, but also, and perhaps primarily, due to differences in social status and accessibility in psychological sense. In addition to the previously mentioned elements, a cognitive map thus also visualises: (4) social relationships between distinctive sections of the population; (5) areas and/or objects that tend to isolation; (6) features of social and spatial hierarchy; and (7) physical-spatial elements and/or objects that are or may become strategically important. [1] This aspect -- the compilation of multiple individual viewpoints into a single coherent image -- is also of great of interest with regard to plan analysis. Naturally, asking a group of (urban) designers to review a specific area will not produce an outcome similar to the cognitive map of the inhabitants of that same area, but nonetheless: an image of the questioned territory will emerge. Though, instead of visualising daily use etc. this image will likely reflect the transformation potential of the region. After all, transformation (in its broadest sense) is the main occupation of designers and planners. Design analysis as a strategic tool But plan elaboration and presentation primarily emphasize the “form” component of the designs in casu. Reducing those “form” proposals to their structural characteristics by means of retrospective processing, might result in a coherent pallet of ideas and interventions corresponding to originally underlying motives. A collection of seemingly incompatible individual elaborations can thus be projected into a single diagram, consequently producing an overview of specific elements, lines and areas that are of strategic significance. Key to symbols It should be noted that discussing what defines a certain aspect is an invaluable part of the learning process, fixing the inventarisation key too stringently is clearly undesirable. The prescribed key to symbols is therefore limited to the reltaively abstract mapping of (1) FUNCTIONS, OBJECTS; (2) RELATIONS / FLOWS; (3) AREAS, ZONES; and finally, (4) SPHERES OF INFLUENCE. All categories are divides into four “shades” of intensity, importance. (1) and (2), being concrete, measurable, are characterised as “solid” colours; (3) and (4) are transparant. [1] amongst others: ¶ Lynch, Kevin. (1960). The Image of the city. MIT / Harvard College Press. GENERAL CONCLUSIONS: THE SIGNIFICANCE OF CONTEXT The design for the New Town of Nowa Huta is explicitly formal and monumental. Symmetry is one of its key ingredients. Public space, Architecture and distribution of programme are all organised to create a focus on the central axis with a climax at the central square. The New Town of Nowa Huta is exemplary for the physical implementation of social-realistic ideology. Analysis of the current situation, however, learns that dispersion of programme all but follows the trodden paths of the original planners and designers. With centralised social ideology gone bottom-up developments are finding their way within the pre-existing formal frame-work. And, obviously, other aspects than the original glorified notion of social-realism factor in their implementation. Signification of place and spots, lines and areas no longer derives from predetermined and top-down ideology. The context that induces them with identity and makes them attract various types of use and development, investment, is a different one, a more physical one. Characteristic to the social-realistic centralistic planning model is the strive after congruence between form and function, “pattern” and “frame”, the result of the ideological paradigm of equality that basically steers away from the “exception”. The result is a flow and behaviour concept that reckons with fixed “circuits”. The demise of socialist top-down governmental control, the “psychological context” so to speak, has triggered a shift towards a need for a more “bottom-up” based “physical context”. An exclusively mental context such as the one standing at the basis of the design for Nowa Huta is an artificial one per definition. The moment it starts to lose validity the quest for the underlying physical, more durable framework arises. REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 267

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analysis integration map | Karen Buurmans
CONNECTIVITY (FRAME) MAPS (three-Step / 1st, 2nd & 3rd order) ACTIVITY (PATTERN) MAPS ↓ IDENTITY (CIRCUIT) MAPS ↓ atmospheres, influences objects landmarks anchorpoints clearly defined zones

3

1 1

2

general zones, areas psychological connection physical connection conceptual physical connection

2

Infrastructure Public Space / (pedestrian) flow & gathering Green Public Space / green, leisure, recreation & nature

→ →

example atmosphere/influence (bubble) map: a bench on a square

1 1 1

2

2

Commercial Public Space / retail, shopping, private investment →

1 1
Informal Public Space / spontaneous & temporal activities →

2

2

← facade typology (closed / open / apertures)

1 1
Official Public Space / public services and facilities, formal →
hangout kiosk

2

2

movable kiosk monument

birdhouse hooligan

informal communication void ruin

trash

vandalism

racism garage

homeless people sport field graffity

1 1 1

“flower lady” (street selling)

mysterious objects

2

2

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PART 8. ANALYSIS INTEGRATION MAP COMMERCIAL PUBLIC SPACE As said, the original plan for Nowa Huta envisioned emphasis along the main axis with a climax at the central square. Superposition of the analysis results, however, shows that commercial concentration has shifted to the west diagonal which forms one of the main infrastructural connections with the city of Kraków. This west diagonal functions on an intermediate level of scale and carries a large portion of the public transport lines in the region. It is an important economic backbone on the level of the Kraków conurbation as a whole. This The original east-west axis perpendicular to the main central axis can be regarded a mere local connection.

In correspondence to its regional economic significance and in addition to the central square a second commercial node is emerges at the junction of this west diagonal and the Nowa Huta ringroad. Between these two nodes a flow of of activity is triggered, varying in scale and typology from more or less local at the central square to slightly more regional at the junction. The shift from the main formal axis to the west diagonal can also be recognised in the commercial activation of the streets perpendicular to both lines.

As opposed to the eastern part of the town, the whole west side of Nowa Huta has the potential to develop a more urban character, spreading out from the west diagonal and through the smaler streets perpendicular to the main axis.

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PART 8. EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY; NOWA HUTA, KRAKÓW
analysis integration map | Karen Buurmans
GREEN PUBLIC SPACE Eastern part of Nowa Huta offers great potential for developing into a dwelling environment with more tranquil and spacious character than the urban oriented west part of the town. Reprofiling the east diagonal in contrast to the west diagonal can be used to emphasise the difference between both sides. The programme that is located along this east diagonal is already more spaciously set. Those plots can be redesigned and incorporated in the formal green system. In order to make the most of the pre-existing environmental qualities, the conection to the green belt east of Nowa Huta, between the town and the industrial area, could be strengthened. This requires (both visually and physically) diminishing the barrier currently imposed by the ring road. There are opportunities to create a larger scale recreative circuit that connects the green belt, the landscape area south of the town and Nowa Huta itself. The central axis could play a vital part in this circuit. In accordance with its previously mentioned decreasing significance in terms of commercial activity it could focus more on attracting leisure-orientated facilities such as horeca and recreation. On the smallest level of scale chances lie in revitalising the great many (semi)informal courtyards. A system of secondary routes that functions independently from the otherwise formal structure of the original town plan can provide the necessary triggers for a more diverse infill of these areas -- diversity, both in terms of design and level of accessibility (public or private). All the different circuits and route systems meet at a central focal point, a pre-existing square, along the main axis. 270 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

PART 8. ANALYSIS INTEGRATION MAP INFORMAL PUBLIC SPACE Current (desired and undesired) informal activities appear randomly scattered thoughout Nowa Huta. However, closer investigation reveals a pattern can be distiguished that locates particular types of element along different north-south oriented axis, most of them along the periphery of the town. The central axis, previously formal but as already showed in preceding thematic analyses now void of original purpose, takes a very special place in this system and could be latched onto in order to cluster a number (desired) informal developments and activities currently located in said periphery. Main conclusion of the analysis is that desired informal activitiies should be better facilitated because they can add greatly to the identity of Nowa Huta and the feel of participation by its inhabitants. Clustering them a most feasible option. A particularly signifiant node is formed by the former and currently deserted airport strip west of the town. This area could be transformed in a location for some larger scale informal and/or temporary activities that currently either have no place in town, are situated in the undefined green belt east of Nowa Huta or simply scattered all over the place without adding anything to quality ot recognisability. This former airport strip can be transformed in a flexible area housing both spontaneous, various yet distinctive activities. Connection this zone with the central axis (and simultaneously all other axes) is vital. Important is to develop a framework of connections that organises the various spots, areas and lines of informal development into a coherent system that facilitates a certain spinoff and ensures recognisability. It is of the utmost importance that users and inhabitants alike will start to feel related, responsible and henceforth eager to appropriate their territory in all its facets. REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 271

PART 8. EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY; NOWA HUTA, KRAKÓW
analysis integration map | Karen Buurmans
INFRASTRUCTURE & PUBLIC SPACE In accordance to the other analysis the infrastructure analysis also shows a distinct asymmetry contradicting the formal layout of Nowa Huta. The main infrastructure “burden” lies on the western part of the ring road and the main external entrance route and internal distribution axis is the west diagonal. This obviously corresponds with the shifts in dispersion of commercial and retail activities along this axis. The west diagonal is after all the main connection with on the scale of the Cracow region as a whole. In terms of infrastructure the significance of the central axis of the town is virtually nil. It would make sense to makes this line free car traffic altogether in order to faciliate the more leisure-like and informal activities proposed by the respective other groups. Main issue and complicated issue however is the main square where all infrastructure, both public transport and cars, com together. The enormous flux of traffic into this spot and the way it is currently designed -- roads and tram tracks framing all four sides of the square -- render the centre space pretty much unusable for pedestrians and any type of either commercial or leisure activities. In line with the shifi in commercial focus to streets perpendical to the main axis a model could be derived diverting ongoing traffic along these streets. However, t is not necessary to design the central square completely void of cars. A cleverly implemented one-way system comined with a reorganisation of routes along the square could result in a (collection of) much more useable space(s). The combination of measures does not aim at restricting traffic. It follows the already present diversion in spatial-function dispersion of programme and use and merely tries to facilitate, guide and optimise this natural phenomenon. 272 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

PART 8. ANALYSIS INTEGRATION MAP OFFICIAL PUBLIC SPACE Paradoxically, but oddly enough in line with the original paradigm of “the elevation of the working class” and the (if only visually) “evening out” of hierarchical power, most official buildings are not situated in or along the most formally appearing public spaces. Worse even: much official programme is situated in the inside of blocks. Result is that formal and official locations are randomly scattered throughout the fabric and offer few clues as to recognotion and navigation. The dissolution of the artoficially projected ideal of equality triggers the need for a new type of hierarchy, clustering and recognisabilty. Analysis reveals that already there can be found a tendency of concentration half-way and primarily on the east side of the central axis. The dewelling blocks in this part of the fabric offer the opportunity to be transformed so that they will manifest their purpose and programme on the outside, along the streets. The currently existing area north of the park, void of any real purpose, could be redeveloped to provide a clear boundary and facade on the axis. On ground level this location would be nmost fitting for explicitely public programme.The most important carrier in this area is the street that connects both the central axis and the commercially oriented west diagonal. Moving and zoning programme to the area between the central axis and the west diagonal, concentrating them along the connecting street, creates the opportunity of labeling this area more recognisable. It would also fit with the conclusion that in terms of developing a more urban identity with possibly higher density as opposed to the green west side of Nowa Huta this part of town can gain a more formal character. REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 273

Who, where, what ...

PART 9. WORKSHOP IMPRESSIONS; PARTICIPANTS & PHOTOGRAPHS

Oliver Bauer (D) Frankfurt, infrastructure

Phillipp Strohm (D) Frankfurt, Informal

Lennert Vernooij (NL) Amsterdam, Infrastructure

Nora Papenfuß (D) Berlin, Infrastructure

Justyna Szmukier (PL) Cracow, Commercial

André Paaßen (D) Berlin, Commercial

Marije Verlinden (NL) Amsterdam, Commercial

Sabine Jaschke (D) Berlin, Commercial

Frank van der Veek (NL) Amsterdam, Green

Katarzyna Imbrzykowska (D) Berlin, Official

Matias Schneider (D) Berlin, Official

Oliver Skerbs (D) Frankfurt, Informal

Markus Wesselmann (D) Berlin, Informal
274

Anastasia Moiseeva (RUS) Delft, Official

Violetta Scherlowski (D) Berlin, Green

Sven Achter (D) Berlin, Infrastructure

Bogumila Stanik (D) Frankfurt, Green

Marieke Stigter (NL) Amsterdam, Commercial

EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

PART 9. WORKSHOP IMPRESSIONS

Johanna Mewes (D) Berlin, Infrastructure

Sabrina Old (D) Frankfurt, Commercial

Ola Senderska (PL) Cracow, Green

Agata Ludzik (PL) Cracow, Green

Sabina Kurzydlo (PL) Cracow, Infrastructure

Agnieszka Krzeszowska (PL) Cracow, Informal

Beata Haba (PL) Cracow, Infra

Katarzyna Steinhof (PL) Cracow, Informal

Berend Venema (NL) Amsterdam, Informal

Karin Stöckmann (D) Berlin, Official

Sabina Chmiel (PL) Cracow, Official

Johannes Brück (D) Frankfurt, Informal

Susanne Wittmer (D) Frankfurt, Official

Dennis Laufer (D) Frankfurt, Green

Ewa Szafraniec (PL)Berlin, Cracow, Official

Laurine Houtman (NL) Delft, Green

Janiek Warnink (NL) Amsterdam, Informal

Juliane Seidl (D) Frankfurt, Commercial

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Who, where, what ...

PART 9. WORKSHOP IMPRESSIONS; PARTICIPANTS & PHOTOGRAPHS

Sebastian Steffin (DE) Berlin, Green

Timothy van Agt (B) Delft, Commercial

Bas Schuit (NL) Amsterdam, Official

Jurrien Boon (NL) Amsterdam, Green

Steven Broekhof (NL) Amsterdam, Official

Jan Nauta (NL) Amsterdam, Infrastructuur

Victor Spijkers (NL) Amsterdam, Commercial

Sven Hoogerheide (NL) Amsterdam, Infrastructuur

Michal Kasprzyk (PL) Cracow, Commercial

Amber Maessen (NL) Delft, Informal

Alexander Speelman (NL) Amsterdam, Informal

Sophie Panzer (D) Delft, Infrastructuur

Alexander Zech (D) Berlin, Green
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PART 10. REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY; LITERATURE & REFERENCES

IN ENGLISH IIP Exploring the Public City (2005), Urbanising the Suburb, Amsterdam workshop, Hogeschool van Amsterdam Auge M. (1995), NON-places, introduction to an antrhropology of supermodernity, verso Berry G. (2005), Tools for Connecting People to Place, [in:] “Public Space of Contemporary City” vol. 1, X International Conference of Institute of Urban Design CUT, Krakow Bois P.G. de, Buurmans K. (2005), Genasis of Urban Frame, [in:] “Public Space of Contemporary City” vol. 1, X International Conference of Institute of Urban Design CUT, Krakow Burg L. van den, ed. (2004), Urban Analysis Guidebook. Typomorphology, Department of Urbanism TU Delft Carmona M., Heath T., Oc T., Tiesdell S. (2003), Public Places - Urban Spaces. The Dimensions of Urban Design, Architectural Press, Oxford Cresswell T. (2004), Place, a short introduction, Blackwell Publishers Cupers K. ea. (2002), Spaces of Uncertaincy, Verlag Hajer M., Reijndorp A. (2001), In Search of New Public Domain, Nai Publishers, Rotterdam Hall P. (2002), Cities of Tomorrow, Blackwell Publishers Koehler M., van Lith A. (2003), de Nieuve Openbare Ruimte, Office.ing Koehler M. (2005), Public Architecture: The Architectural Project as a Catalyst for Public Domain, [in:] “Public Space of Contemporary City” vol. 1, X International Conference of Institute of Urban Design CUT, Krakow Kroese P. (2005), Mapping Public Domain, [in:] “Public Space of Contemporary City” vol. 1, X International Conference of Institute of Urban Design CUT, Krakow Lofland L. (1998), The Public Realm, Aldine Lynch K. (1960), The Image of the City, The Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, Cambridge Proovost M. (1993), Dutchtown: A city Center Designy by OMA?Rem, NAi IN POLISH Bojanowski K., Lewicki P., Moya González L., Palej A., Spaziante A., Wicher W. (1998), Elementy analizy urbanistycznej, Program TEMPUS JEN-3533, Politechnika Krakowska, Kraków Juchnowicz S., Lorek A. ea. (2006), Nowa Huta – architektura i tworcy miasta idealnego. Niezrealizowane projekty, Muzeum Historyczne Miasta Krakowa Salwinski J., Sibilia L. eds. (2005), Nowa Huta: przeszlosc i wizja. Studium muzeum rozproszonego, Muzeum Historyczne Miasta Krakowa 280 EXPLORING THE PUBLIC CITY 2006

PART 10. LITERATURE & REFERENCES BIBLIOGRAPHY PART 3 & 7 | Living in the space of post-socialism, Part I & II | Anastasia Moiseeva (Delft University of Technology) Books and papers: Aleksandrowicz, D., (1999), The Socialist City and its Transformation, Discussion Papers №10, Frankfurt institute for Transformation Studies, http://fit.euv-frankfurt-o.de/Veroeffentlichungen/Discussion%20Papers/PDF-Format/99-10Aleksandrowicz.PDF De Bois P., Buurmans K., (2005), Genesis of urban frame – case study: New town Almere., CZASOPISMO TECHNICZNE, Cracow. Carmona, M., Heath, T., (2005), Public Places – Urban Spaces, Architectural Press, Great Britain Hook W., Corb. J., Can the “Model city” be rebuilt?, Prague Business Journal, autumn 2002. Lukasz Stanek, Technical University Delft, Faculty of Architecture, Department of Architectural Theory, http://web.mit.edu/comm-forum/mit4/papers/stanek.pdf Stenning A., Representing Transformations/Transforming Representations: Remaking Life and Work in Nowa Huta, Poland., Birmingham, September 2001, www.nowahuta.info/papers/wes2001.pdf Stenning A., Living in the space of (Post)-Socialism: The case of Nowa Huta, www.nowahuta.info/reports/NH%20report%20UK.pdf Warren, S., (1981), International Hand Book of Contemporary Developments in Architecture, Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut, London. Zachwatowicz, J., (1967), Polish Architecture, Dom Slova Polskiego, Warsawa Websites: www.answers.com/topic/nowa-huta www.buero-kopernikus.org/en/project/2/16/5/ www.nowahuta.info/proposal/proposal.shtml#pageTop www.nh.pl/english/ www.ff.uni-lj.si/oddelki/geo/publikacije/dela/files/dela_21/012%20parysek.pdf www.pin.nowa-huta.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=34&Itemid=48 REANIMATING THE POST-WAR CITY 281

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