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MATRIX :

enclosed in a bracket of the type [ ] or ( ) , is called a matrix of order m n.

It is denoted by capital letters.

General notation:

For example,

TYPES OF MATRICES:

ROW MATRIX:

For example,

A matrix having only one column is called a column matrix or a

column-vector.

COLUMN MATRIX:

For example,

,

SQUARE MATRIX: A matrix in which the number of rows is equal to the number of

columns, say n, is called a square matrix of order n.

For example,

diagonal elements are 2 and 5.

which

the diagonal elements are 3 , -3 and 6.

DIAGONAL MATRIX:

A square matrix

is called a diagonal matrix if all the

elements , except those in the leading diagonal, are zero

i.e.

=0

for all i j.

diagonal

elements is denoted by

.

For example,

as

.

SCALAR

MATRIX:

A

matrix in which all the diagonal elements are equal is called

the scalar matrix.

diagonal

For example,

IDENTITY OR UNIT MATRIX:

equal 1, is called the scalar matrix.

For example,

A matrix whose all elements are zero is called a null matrix. It is

denoted by O.

For example,

;

.

UPPER TRIANGULR MATRIX: A square matrix in which all the elements below main

diagonal are zero.

For example,

4.

LOWER TRIANGULR MATRIX:

For example,

diagonal are zero.

4.

TRIANGULR MATRIX:

triangular, is called a triangular matrix.

A triangular matrix

is called a strictly

triangular matrix if

COMPARABLE MATRICES: Two matrices are said to be comparable if their orders are

same.

For example,

are comparable matrices.

i) their orders are same

ii) their corresponding elements are same.

EQUAL MATRICES:

For example,

are equal

matrices.

ADDITION OF MATRICES:

order.

Sum is obtained by adding corresponding elements of A and

B.

For example, If

A+B=

then

+

=

=

i)

ii)

(A + B) + C = A + (B + C) Matrix addition is

iii)

iv)

v)

A+O=O+A

A + (-A) = (-A) + A = O

A+ B =A+ C

B=C

vi)

B + A= C + A

associative.

B=C

obtained by multiplying each and every element of A by k.

SCALAR MULTIPLICATION:

For example, If

then

.

PROPERTIES OF SCALAR MULTIPLICATION:

i)

ii)

iii)

TRANSPOSE OF A MATRIX:

k (A + B) = kA + kB

(m + n)A = mA + nA

(m n) A= m (nA).

rows and columns. It is denoted by A or

.

For example, If

then

PROPERTIES OF TRANSPOSE:

i)

ii)

iii)

iv)

SYMMETRIC MATRIX:

(A) = A

(kA) = k A

(A + B) = A + B

(AB) = B A

For example,

A = A

A is symmetric matrix.

SKEW-SYMMETRIC MATRIX:

For example,

A =

A

A is skew-symmetric matrix.

MULTIPLICATION OF MATRICES:

A.

then AB exists.

i)

AB B A Matrix multiplication is

non-commutative.

ii)

(AB)C = A(BC)

Matrix multiplication is

associative.

iii)

AO = OA = O

iv)

AI = IA = A

v)

A(B + C) = AB + AC and (B + C)A = BA + CA.

DETERMINANTS:

Determinant of a square matrix

is denoted by

.

MINORS:

DETERMINANT OBTAINED BY DELETING THE

CORRESPONDING ROW & COLUMN OF THE GIVEN MATRIX

FOR EXAMPLE,

COFACTORS:

DEFINEDAS:

.

PROPERTIES OF DETERMINANTS:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

The value of a determinant remains unchanged if its rows and columns are

interchanged.

If any two rows (or columns) of a determinant are interchanged, then the sign

of the determinant is changed.

If any two rows (or columns) of a determinant are identical, then the value of

the determinant is zero.

If each element of a row (or column) is multiplied by a constant k, then the

value of the determinant gets multiplied by k.

If any 2 rows (or columns) of a determinant are proportional, then the value of

determinant is zero.

6.

REMARKS:

If some or all the elements of a row (or column) are expressed as sum of two

or more terms, then the determinant can be expressed as sum of two or more

determinants.

7.

If to any row (or column) of a determinant, a multiple of another row

or

column) is added, the value of the determinant remains same.

1. If A is a square matrix

then

3.

order n.

where A is a

then

square matrix of

CRAMERS RULE :

[NOT IN C. B. S. E. SYLLABUS]

variables:

variables:

1.

If D 0 then the system is consistent and has unique

solution.

2.

3.

solutions.

If D = 0 and any one of Dx & Dy is non-zero, then the system is

inconsistent and has no solution.

1.

If D 0 then the system is consistent and has unique

solution.

2.

If D = Dx = Dy = Dz = 0 & then the system is consistent & has

infinite solutions.

3.

If D = 0 and any one of Dx , Dy & Dz is non-zero, then the system is

inconsistent and has no solution.

APPLICATION OF DETERMINANTS:

AREA OF TRIANGLE:

is

given by,

=

: If the points

REMARK

sq. units

are

collinear then = 0.

i.e.

ADJOINT AND INVERSE OF A MATRIX:

1.

SINGULAR MATRIX:

2.

NON-SINGULAR MATRIX:

singular if

3.

ADJOINT OF A

SQUARE MATRIX: Adjoint of a square

by replacing each element of A by its cofactor. It is denoted by adj A.

REMARKS

: 1. Adjoint

of a

matrix is obtained by

interchanging the diagonal elements and

changing the sign of other elements.

: 2. If A is a non-singular matrix of order n, then

A (adj A) = (adj A) =

: 3. If A and B are invertible matrices of same

order, then

: 4. If A is a square matrix of order n then

: 5.

4.

INVERSE OF A MATRIX:

A non-singular matrix is invertible.

REMARKS

: 1.

: 2.

: 3.

MATRIX METHOD:

EQUATIONS:

1.

So that AX = B.

X=

B.

1.

If

2.

If

infinite solutions.

3.

If

has no solution.

EQUATIONS:

2.

NOTE :

called trivial solution.

1.

If

then the system of homogeneous is consistent and has

only trivial solution i.e. x = 0, y = 0 and z = 0. (unique solution).

2.

If

solutions.

NOTE :

Homogeneous equations can not be inconsistent

because x = 0, y = 0 and z = 0 is a solution for all

homogeneous equations.

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