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MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS.

MATRIX :

A rectangular arrangement of mn numbers, arranged in m rows and n columns,


enclosed in a bracket of the type [ ] or ( ) , is called a matrix of order m n.
It is denoted by capital letters.
General notation:
For example,

TYPES OF MATRICES:
ROW MATRIX:

A matrix having only one row is called a row matrix or a row-vector.

For example,
A matrix having only one column is called a column matrix or a
column-vector.

COLUMN MATRIX:

For example,
,
SQUARE MATRIX: A matrix in which the number of rows is equal to the number of
columns, say n, is called a square matrix of order n.
For example,

is a square matrix of order 2 in which the


diagonal elements are 2 and 5.

is a square matrix of order 2 in


which
the diagonal elements are 3 , -3 and 6.
DIAGONAL MATRIX:

A square matrix
is called a diagonal matrix if all the
elements , except those in the leading diagonal, are zero
i.e.
=0

for all i j.

A diagonal matrix of order n n having


diagonal
elements is denoted by
.
For example,

is a diagonal matrix , to be denoted by

is a diagonal matrix , to be denoted by

as

is a diagonal matrix , to be denoted by


.
SCALAR

MATRIX:

A
matrix in which all the diagonal elements are equal is called
the scalar matrix.

diagonal

For example,

is a scalar matrix of order 2

is a scalar matrix of order 3


IDENTITY OR UNIT MATRIX:

A diagonal matrix in which all the diagonal elements are


equal 1, is called the scalar matrix.

For example,

ZERO OR NULL MATRIX:

is a identity matrix of order 2

is a identity matrix of order 3


A matrix whose all elements are zero is called a null matrix. It is
denoted by O.

For example,

;
.
UPPER TRIANGULR MATRIX: A square matrix in which all the elements below main
diagonal are zero.

For example,

is an upper triangular matrix of order

4.
LOWER TRIANGULR MATRIX:

For example,

A square matrix in which all the elements above main


diagonal are zero.

is an lower triangular matrix of order

4.
TRIANGULR MATRIX:

A square matrix which is either upper triangular or lower


triangular, is called a triangular matrix.

A triangular matrix

STRICTLY TRIANGULR MATRIX:

is called a strictly

triangular matrix if
COMPARABLE MATRICES: Two matrices are said to be comparable if their orders are
same.
For example,
are comparable matrices.

Two matrices are said to be equal if


i) their orders are same
ii) their corresponding elements are same.

EQUAL MATRICES:

For example,

are equal

matrices.
ADDITION OF MATRICES:

Two matrices A and B can be added if A and B are of same


order.
Sum is obtained by adding corresponding elements of A and

B.
For example, If

A+B=

then
+

=
=

PROPERTIES OF MATRICES ADDITION:

i)
ii)

A + B = B + A Matrix addition is commutative.


(A + B) + C = A + (B + C) Matrix addition is

iii)
iv)
v)

A+O=O+A
A + (-A) = (-A) + A = O
A+ B =A+ C
B=C

vi)

B + A= C + A

associative.

B=C

If A is a matrix and k is a number then kA is a matrix


obtained by multiplying each and every element of A by k.

SCALAR MULTIPLICATION:

For example, If

then

.
PROPERTIES OF SCALAR MULTIPLICATION:

i)
ii)
iii)
TRANSPOSE OF A MATRIX:

k (A + B) = kA + kB
(m + n)A = mA + nA
(m n) A= m (nA).

Transpose of a matrix A is obtained by interchanging its


rows and columns. It is denoted by A or
.

For example, If

then

PROPERTIES OF TRANSPOSE:

i)
ii)
iii)
iv)

SYMMETRIC MATRIX:

(A) = A
(kA) = k A
(A + B) = A + B
(AB) = B A

A square matrix A is symmetric if A = A.

For example,
A = A
A is symmetric matrix.
SKEW-SYMMETRIC MATRIX:

A square matrix A is skew-symmetric if A =

For example,

A =
A
A is skew-symmetric matrix.
MULTIPLICATION OF MATRICES:

A.

then AB exists.

PROPERTIES OF MATRICES MULTIPLICATION:

i)
AB B A Matrix multiplication is
non-commutative.
ii)
(AB)C = A(BC)
Matrix multiplication is
associative.
iii)
AO = OA = O
iv)
AI = IA = A
v)
A(B + C) = AB + AC and (B + C)A = BA + CA.
DETERMINANTS:

Determinant is a number associated with a square matrix.


Determinant of a square matrix

is denoted by

.
MINORS:

THE MINOR OF A GIVEN ELEMENT OF A MATRIX IS THE


DETERMINANT OBTAINED BY DELETING THE
CORRESPONDING ROW & COLUMN OF THE GIVEN MATRIX
FOR EXAMPLE,

COFACTORS:

CO-FACTOR OF AN ELEMENT aij IS DENOTED BY Cij & IS


DEFINEDAS:
.

PROPERTIES OF DETERMINANTS:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The value of a determinant remains unchanged if its rows and columns are
interchanged.
If any two rows (or columns) of a determinant are interchanged, then the sign
of the determinant is changed.
If any two rows (or columns) of a determinant are identical, then the value of
the determinant is zero.
If each element of a row (or column) is multiplied by a constant k, then the
value of the determinant gets multiplied by k.
If any 2 rows (or columns) of a determinant are proportional, then the value of
determinant is zero.

6.

REMARKS:

If some or all the elements of a row (or column) are expressed as sum of two
or more terms, then the determinant can be expressed as sum of two or more
determinants.
7.
If to any row (or column) of a determinant, a multiple of another row
or
column) is added, the value of the determinant remains same.
1. If A is a square matrix

then

2. If A and B are two square matrices


3.
order n.

where A is a

then
square matrix of

SARRUS METHOD FOR EVALUATION OF A DETERMINANT OF ORDER 3 ONLY.

CRAMERS RULE :

[NOT IN C. B. S. E. SYLLABUS]

1. System of linear equations in two


variables:

2. System of linear equations in three


variables:

CRITERION FOR CONSISTENCY: [NOT IN C. B. S. E. SYLLABUS]

For system of linear equations in two variables:


1.
If D 0 then the system is consistent and has unique
solution.

2.
3.

If D = 0, Dx = 0 & Dy = 0, then the system is consistent & has infinite


solutions.
If D = 0 and any one of Dx & Dy is non-zero, then the system is
inconsistent and has no solution.

For system of linear equations in three variables:


1.
If D 0 then the system is consistent and has unique
solution.
2.
If D = Dx = Dy = Dz = 0 & then the system is consistent & has
infinite solutions.
3.
If D = 0 and any one of Dx , Dy & Dz is non-zero, then the system is
inconsistent and has no solution.
APPLICATION OF DETERMINANTS:

The area of triangle with vertices

AREA OF TRIANGLE:

is
given by,

=
: If the points

REMARK

sq. units
are

collinear then = 0.

i.e.
ADJOINT AND INVERSE OF A MATRIX:

A square matrix A is singular if

1.

SINGULAR MATRIX:

2.

NON-SINGULAR MATRIX:

singular if

A square matrix A is non-

3.
ADJOINT OF A
SQUARE MATRIX: Adjoint of a square

matrix A is transpose of matrix obtained


by replacing each element of A by its cofactor. It is denoted by adj A.
REMARKS

: 1. Adjoint

of a
matrix is obtained by
interchanging the diagonal elements and
changing the sign of other elements.
: 2. If A is a non-singular matrix of order n, then
A (adj A) = (adj A) =
: 3. If A and B are invertible matrices of same
order, then

adj (AB) = (adj B) (adj A).


: 4. If A is a square matrix of order n then

: 5.
4.

INVERSE OF A MATRIX:

A non-zero square matrix A is invertible if


A non-singular matrix is invertible.

REMARKS

: 1.
: 2.
: 3.

MATRIX METHOD:

EQUATIONS:

1.

SOLVING A SYSTEM OF LINEAR

Consider the following system of linear equations:

So that AX = B.
X=

B.

CRITERION FOR CONSISTENCY:

1.

If

then the system is consistent and has unique solution.

2.

If

, then the system is consistent & has

infinite solutions.
3.

If

, then the system is inconsistent and

has no solution.

EQUATIONS:

2.

SOLVING A SYSTEM OF HOMOGENEOUS

Consider the following system of homogeneous equations:

NOTE :

x = 0, y = 0 and z = 0 is a solution of these equations


called trivial solution.

CRITERION FOR CONSISTENCY:


1.

If
then the system of homogeneous is consistent and has
only trivial solution i.e. x = 0, y = 0 and z = 0. (unique solution).

2.

If
solutions.
NOTE :

, then the system is consistent & has infinitely many


Homogeneous equations can not be inconsistent
because x = 0, y = 0 and z = 0 is a solution for all
homogeneous equations.