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Performance appraisal in nursing

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I. Contents of getting performance appraisal in nursing

When searching for higher productivity and trying to develop quality, companies focus on their
employees, who are fundamental elements in terms of productivity and effectiveness towards
organizational goals.
The way the companies see their employees has changed because of the modifications in the
work market and in organizational culture. The term "human resources" is now referred to as
"human capital", and personal administrative processes are now called "people management",
which main focus is on organizational development.
Therefore, professional performance has evolved from a traditional hierarchical pattern, centered
on productivity measurement to a more flexible and participative pattern, which enables workers
to develop their skills, foster their personal and professional growth, and thus recognize their
potential and invest in their creativity and commitment to work.
For the employee it is relevant to know how he/she has performed and managed his/her
professional development according to the company's expectations.
For the companies it is a challenge to develop their contributors' qualifications and potential in
order to achieve optimal performances. An evaluating process can be used for that aim, and it is
an important tool to provide workers with feedback, as well as to develop new potentials, and
motivate group qualification.

Performance evaluations monitors group and individual work, the results obtained compared to
the expected ones. In addition, it enables a continuous, constant, and broad follow up of group
actions. When used correctly, it is one of the best tools a company can rely on to develop and
motivate workers.
At hospitals, the nursing staff has an important position in the human resources group because of
the high number of professionals. The performance evaluation technique is a useful tool to fit the
team's approach to production and personal achievement.
The quality of health services is strongly linked to the nursing staff's personal performance.
Being aware of that performance develops human resources and assures the quality regarding the
care they provide.
Evaluating workers' performance in the team that he/she coordinates is one of the nurse's
administrative assignments. The nurse who evaluates must be the worker's direct supervisor, and
must observe his/her work and take notice of biases and prejudice, avoiding subjective influences
and values. Moreover, he/she is responsible for the performance of his/her group and should be
able to arouse critical views in relation to the process and results.
The evaluation process is an important tool both for work development and for gaining benefits
for all those involved in the process.
Evaluators often observe and collect data about the employee who is going to be evaluated when
the assessment time is close, which results in an unclear representation that values recent issues .
In some cases, nursing professionals state that the evaluation "scares, hurts, oppresses, causes
fear" and as a consequence they "suffer in anticipation", thus it is often characterized as an
emotionally strong event .
Those feelings can be related to certain concepts that have been fastened upon the evaluation
process and that characterize it as "centered on mistakes, failures and negative feelings that are
consequences of such practice, which leaves deep wounds", or relating it to "a kind of
compensation and punishment, taking the evaluations as resources to identify workers'
problems". However, anxiety is overcome as a more participative process between evaluator and
evaluated is developed.
Performance evaluation is considered a continuous process and each member of a work team
uses and understands it in a different way. Understanding how all of that reflects on the group,
and consequently on the institution, and analyzing its real meaning in the work context are
significant aspects in outlining and conducting that process in the real world.


III. Performance appraisal methods

1. Essay Method
In this method the rater writes down the employee
description in detail within a number of broad categories
like, overall impression of performance, promoteability
of employee, existing capabilities and qualifications of
performing jobs, strengths and weaknesses and training
needs of the employee. Advantage It is extremely
useful in filing information gaps about the employees
that often occur in a better-structured checklist.
Disadvantages It its highly dependent upon the writing
skills of rater and most of them are not good writers.
They may get confused success depends on the memory
power of raters.

2. Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales

statements of effective and ineffective behaviors
determine the points. They are said to be
behaviorally anchored. The rater is supposed to
say, which behavior describes the employee
performance. Advantages helps overcome rating
errors. Disadvantages Suffers from distortions
inherent in most rating techniques.

3. Rating Scale

Rating scales consists of several numerical scales

representing job related performance criterions such as
dependability, initiative, output, attendance, attitude etc.
Each scales ranges from excellent to poor. The total
numerical scores are computed and final conclusions are
derived. Advantages Adaptability, easy to use, low cost,
every type of job can be evaluated, large number of
employees covered, no formal training required.
Disadvantages Raters biases

4. Checklist method
Under this method, checklist of statements of traits of
employee in the form of Yes or No based questions is
prepared. Here the rater only does the reporting or
checking and HR department does the actual evaluation.
Advantages economy, ease of administration, limited
training required, standardization. Disadvantages Raters
biases, use of improper weighs by HR, does not allow
rater to give relative ratings

5.Ranking Method
The ranking system requires the rater to rank his
subordinates on overall performance. This consists in
simply putting a man in a rank order. Under this method,
the ranking of an employee in a work group is done
against that of another employee. The relative position of
each employee is tested in terms of his numerical rank. It
may also be done by ranking a person on his job
performance against another member of the competitive
Advantages of Ranking Method
Employees are ranked according to their
performance levels.
It is easier to rank the best and the worst
Limitations of Ranking Method
The whole man is compared with another
whole man in this method. In practice, it is very difficult
to compare individuals possessing various individual
This method speaks only of the position where an
employee stands in his group. It does not test anything
about how much better or how much worse an employee
is when compared to another employee.
When a large number of employees are working,
ranking of individuals become a difficult issue.
There is no systematic procedure for ranking
individuals in the organization. The ranking system does
not eliminate the possibility of snap judgements.

6. Critical Incidents Method

The approach is focused on certain critical behaviors of

employee that makes all the difference in the
performance. Supervisors as and when they occur record
such incidents. Advantages Evaluations are based on
actual job behaviors, ratings are supported by
descriptions, feedback is easy, reduces recency biases,
chances of subordinate improvement are high.
Disadvantages Negative incidents can be prioritized,
forgetting incidents, overly close supervision; feedback
may be too much and may appear to be punishment.

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