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Korea Aerospace Univ.

: bandwidth Doppler measurement accuracy

, noise power

NBF bank (Doppler filter bank) is implemented using an FFT of size NFFT

- individual NBF bandwidth (FFT bin) f

effective radar Doppler bandwidth

N FFT f / 2

transmit and receive waveforms must have some sort of timing marks

- timing mark : implemented by modulating the transmit waveform

Korea Aerospace Univ.

- Dwell interval : determine frequency resolution or bandwidth of the individual NBFs

f 1 / TDwell

(3.1)

N FFT 2B / f

(3.2)

TDwell N FFT / 2B

(3.3)

- CW radar equation : derived from high PRF Radar equation high PRF Radar equation

PavTi G 22

SNR

4 3 R 4 kTe FL

(3.4)

- Pav PCW (CW average transmitted power over the dwell interval), Ti TDwell

PcwTDwell Gt Gr 2

SNR

(3.5)

3 4

4 R kTe FLLwin

Korea Aerospace Univ.

General formula for an FM waveform

t

0

f 0 : carrier frequency,

A : constant,

- Phase

(3.6)

k f 2f peak

(3.7)

- FM modulation index

f peak

fm

(3.8)

Received radar signal

sr (t ) A r cos2 f 0 (t t ) sin 2 f m (t t )

(3.9)

- Time Delay

t

2R

c

(3.10)

FM waveform

(3.11)

(3.12)

j sin 2 f m t

C e

jn 2 f m t

(3.13)

- F.S coefficient

1

Cn

2

j sin 2 f m t

e jn 2 f mt dt

(3.14)

- Bessel function of the first kind of order n,

1

J n ( )

2

Cn J n ( ),

j sin 2 f m t

u 2 f mt

j ( sin u nu)

du

(3.15)

( )e jn 2 f mt

(3.16)

- Total power in the signal s(t)

2

1 2

1

P A J n ( ) A2

2

2

n

(3.17)

j2 f0t

jn2 f mt

s(t) A Re e

J

(

)

e

n

n

(3.18)

- Expanding Eq.(3.18)

s(t ) A J n ( ) cos(2 f 0 n2 f m )t

(3.19)

- Since J n ( ) J n ( ) for n Odd &

J n ( ) J n ( ) for n Even

J1 ( ) [cos(2 f 0 2 f m )t cos(2 f 0 2 f m )t ]

J 2 ( ) [cos(2 f 0 4 f m )t cos(2 f 0 4 f m )t ]

(3.20)

J 3 ( ) [cos(2 f 0 6 f m )t cos(2 f 0 6 f m )t ]

J 4 ( ) [cos(2 f 0 8 f m )t cos(2 f 0 8 f m )t ]

..........}

- The spectrum of s(t)

Amplitude of the central spectral line

- AJ 0 ( ),

Amplitude of the nth spectral line

- AJ n ( ),

<amplitude line spectra sketch for FM signal>

- Bandwidth can be approximated using Carsons rule

B 2( 1) f m

(3.21)

J1 ( ) [cos(2 f 0 2 f m )t cos(2 f 0 2 f m )t ]}

(3.22)

J 0 ( ) 1

J1 ( )

(3.23), (3.24)

s(t) A{cos 2 f 0t

1

[cos(2 f 0 2 f m )t cos(2 f 0 2 f m )t ]}

2

(3.25)

Prob.3.1

- Solution:

If the modulation index is = 0.5, give an expression for the signal s(t).

J 0 (0.5) 0.9385

J1 (0.5) 0.2423

(0.2423) [cos(2 f 0 2 f m )t cos(2 f 0 2 f m )t ]}

Prob.3.2

Frequency deviation : 4Hz

Modulating waveform : x(t) 10 cos 6t

How many spectral lines will pass through a band pass filter whose

bandwidth is 58Hz centered at 1000Hz?

- Solution:

f peak 4 10 40Hz

f peak

fm

40

5

8

B 2( 1) f m 2 (5 1) 8 96Hz

Korea Aerospace Univ.

LFM CW radar range & Doppler information

Fig 3.5. Transmitted and received triangular LFM signals and beat frequency for stationary

target

- Modulating frequency

fm

(3.26)

1

2t0

f

t0

f

(1/ 2 f m )

2 f m f

(3.27)

(3.28)

- Beat frequency

f b t f

Eq.(3.28) rewrite

f

fb

c

2R

2R

c

fb

4 Rf m f

c

f b f received f transmitted

(3.29)

(3.30)

(3.31)

Fig 3.6. Transmitted and received LFM signals and beat frequency, for a moving

target.

Positive slope Doppler shift term subtracts from the beat frequency

Negative slope the two terms add up

Korea Aerospace Univ.

-Beat frequency during positive slope fbu

f bu

2 R 2 R

f

c

(3.32)

f bd

2 R 2 R

f

c

c

R ( f bu f bd )

4f

Range

R ( f bd f bu )

4

Range rate

tmax 0.1t0

-Maximum range

Rmax

0.1c t0

2

(3.33)

(3.34)

(3.35)

(3.36)

0.1c

4 fm

(3.37)

Prof. Y Kwag@ RSP Lab

Multiple frequency scheme (CW radar)

- very adequate range measurement, without using frequency modulation

-Waveform :

s(t) A sin 2 f 0t

(3.38)

-Received signal :

sr(t) Ar sin(2 f 0t )

(3.39)

-phase :

2 f 0

2R

c

(3.40)

-Solving for R

4 f 0 4

(3.41)

R is limited to impractical small values.

Korea Aerospace Univ.

is maximum. 2

Two CW signals

(3.42)

s2(t) A2 sin 2 f 2t

(3.43)

s1r(t) Ar1 sin(2 f1t 1 )

s2r(t) Ar 2 sin(2 f 2t 2 )

(3.44)

(3.45)

4R

4R

2 1

( f 2 f1 )

f

c

c

Maximum unambiguous range 2

c

R

2f

Korea Aerospace Univ.

(3.46)

(3.47)

Prof. Y Kwag@ RSP Lab

Pulsed Radar

- Transmit & receive a train of modulated pulsed.

- Two way time delay between a Transmitted and Received pulse

extract range information.

- If accurate range measurements are available between consecutive pulses

Doppler frequency extracted from the range rate

R R t

carrier frequency : depend on the design requirements and radar mission.

pulse width : related to the BW and defines the range resolution.

modulation : difference modulation techniques are usually utilized to

enhance the radar performance.

Korea Aerospace Univ.

Radar system employ low, medium, and high PRF schemes.

Low PRF : accurate, long, unambiguous range measurements,

but, severe Doppler ambiguities.

Medium PRF : must resolve both range and Doppler ambiguities. but, provide

adequate average transmitted power as compare to low PRFs.

High PRF : superior average transmitted power and excellent clutter rejection

capability. but, extremely ambiguous range

- Radar system utilizing high PRFs are often called Pulsed Doppler Radar (PDR)

- Moving Target Indicator (MTI) radar use the PRF agility known as PRF staggering

PRF agility

use to avoid blind speed

use to avoid range and Doppler ambiguities

use to prevent jammers from locking onto the radars PRF PRF jitter

filters that open and

close at time intervals

that correspond to the

detection range.

FFT, individual filter

BW = FFT freq.

resolution

Range and Doppler Ambiguities

Fig 3.8. Spectra of transmitted and received wavwforms and Doppler bank.

Korea Aerospace Univ.

Range and Doppler Ambiguities

- Range ambiguous : Second pulse is transmitted prior to the return of the first pulse.

- Radars operational requirements radar PRF chose.

ex. long-range search(surveillance) low-PRF

- Line spectrum of a train of pulses has sinx/x envelope Line spectra are separated by the PRF(fr).

- The Doppler filter bank is capable or resolving target Doppler as long as the anticipated Doppler

shift is less than one half the bandwidth of the individual filters

f r 2 f d max

2vr max

(3.48)

Multiple PRF

Doppler ambiguous;

If the target Doppler freq. is high enough to make an adjacent spectral line

move inside the Doppler band of interest.

Detecting high speed target Require high PRF

Detecting the high speed target by using long range radar

range and Doppler ambiguous.

resolving by using multiple PRFs.

Multiple PRF schemes;

incorporated sequentially within each dwell interval (scan or integration frame)

use a single PRF in one scan and resolve ambiguity in the next.

may have problems due to changing target dynamics from

one scan to the next.

Korea Aerospace Univ.

Resolving Range Ambiguity

- Radar uses two PRFs f r1 ( Ru1 ) and f r 2 ( Ru 2 ), to resolve range ambiguity

Ru1 , Ru 2 Ru (desired radar unambiguous range)

- One choice is to select f r1 Nf rd and f r 2 ( N 1) f rd for some integer N

- Within one period of the desired PRI( Td 1 f rd)

the two PRFs f r1 and f r 2 coincide

only at one location true unambiguous range.

of the true target return.

- Over the interval 0 to Td , the only possible result are M1=M2=M or M1+1=M2.

- Time delay t1 and t2 correspond to the time between the transmit of a pulse on

each PRF and receipt of a target return due to the same pulse.

Korea Aerospace Univ.

2. case II : t1 t 2

1. case I : t1 t 2

t1

M

M

t2

f r1

fr 2

t 2 t1

T1 T2

where T1 1

f r1

, T2 1

t1

(3.50)

(3.51)

R ct r

(3.54)

f r1

, T2 1

fr2

t r1 MT1 t1

t r MT1 t1

(3.53)

(t 2 t1 ) T2

T1 T2

where T1 1

fr 2

t r MT2 t 2

M

M 1

t2

f r1

fr2

(3.49)

(3.55)

R

ct r1

(3.56)

(3.52)

3. case III : t1 t 2

The target is in the first ambiguity

t r 2 t1 t 2

(3.57)

R

ct r 2

(3.58)

- Blind range : pulse cannot be received while the following pulse is being

transmitted, these time correspond to blind range.

resolved by using a thired PRF

f r1 N ( N 1) f rd

f r 2 N ( N 2) f rd

f r 3 ( N 1)( N 2) f rd

Korea Aerospace Univ.

Resolving Doppler Ambiguity

-The Doppler ambiguity problem is analogous to that of range ambiguity.

same methodology can be used to resolve Doppler ambiguity.

- Measure the Doppler frequency f d 1 and f d 2 instead of t1 and t 2 .

1. case I :

f d1 f d 2

M

( f d 2 f d1 ) f r 2

f r1 f r 2

(3.59)

2. case II : f d 1 f d 2

M

f d 2 f d1

f r1 f r 2

(3.60)

f d Mf r1 f d 1 or f d Mf r 2 f d 2

(3.61)

3. case III : f d 1 f d 2

f d f d1 f d 2

(3.62)

Korea Aerospace Univ.

Example 3.3

A certain radar uses two PRFs to resolve range ambiguitie s. The desired

unambiguou s range is Ru 100km . Choose N 59 . compute f r1 , f r 2 , Ru1 , and Ru 2 .

* solution : first , desired PRF , f rd

c

3 108

f rd

1.5kHz

2 Ru 200 103

It follows that

f r1 Nf rd (59)(1500) 88.5kHz

f r 2 ( N 1) f rd (59 1)(1500) 90kHz

c

3 108

Ru1

1.695km

2 f r1 2 88.5 103

c

3 108

Ru 2

1.667 km

3

2 f r 2 2 90 10

Consider a radar wit h three PRFs; f r1 15kHz, fr 2 18kHz, and f r 3 21kHz.

Assume f 0 9GHz. Calculate the frequency position of each PRF for a target whose

velocity is 550m/s . Calculate f d (Doppler freq.) for another target appearing at 8kHz ,

2kHz , and 17kHz for each PRF.

* solution : Doppler frequency is

vf0 2 550 9 109

fd 2

33kHz

8

c

3 10

using Eq.(3.61) ni f ri f di f d where i 1, 2 , 3

n1 f r1 f d 1 15n1 f d 1 33

n2 f r 2 f d 2 18n2 f d 2 33

n3 f r 3 f d 3 21n3 f d 3 33

Choose n1 0, and 1 f d 1 33kHz, and 18kHz : not acceptable value since f d 1 f r1 .

Choose n1 2 f d 1 3kHz : acceptable value. same way n2 1 , n3 1 .

Thus, apparent Doppler freq. are f d 1 2kHz, f d 2 15khz , and f d 3 12kHz.

Second part of the problem. using Eq.(3.61)

n1 f r1 f d 1 f d 15n1 8

n2 f r 2 f d 2 f d 18n2 2

n3 f r 3 f d 3 f d 21n3 17

f d from f r1

23

38

53

68

f d from f r 2

20

38

56

f d from f r 3

17

38

39

vr 38000

0.0333

623.7 m / s

2

range_calc.m

3.10. MATLAB program range_calc.m

- The program range_calc.m solves the radar range equation of the form

P f T G G

R t 3 r i t r

(

4

)

k

T

F

L

(

SNR

)

e

0

Pt

fr

Gt

Gr

Pulse width

PRF

Receiving antenna gain

Wavelength

1

4

(3.63)

k

Te

Boltzmans constant

F

L

Ti

(SNR) 0

Dwell interval (time on target)

Minimum SNR required for detection

- In the case of CW radars, the terms Pt f r must be replaced by the average CW

power PCW.

Korea Aerospace Univ.

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