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Chapter 3

Continuous Wave and Pulsed Radars

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Prof. Y Kwag@ RSP Lab

3.1. Functional Block Diagram

< CW radar block diagram >


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Prof. Y Kwag@ RSP Lab

3.1. Functional Block Diagram

Narrow Band Filters (NBF)


: bandwidth Doppler measurement accuracy

, noise power

In practical, operating bandwidth of CW Radar is finite bandwidth

NBF bank (Doppler filter bank) is implemented using an FFT of size NFFT
- individual NBF bandwidth (FFT bin) f
effective radar Doppler bandwidth

N FFT f / 2

Single frequency CW radar cannot measure target range

- in order to measure target range


transmit and receive waveforms must have some sort of timing marks
- timing mark : implemented by modulating the transmit waveform

commonly technique Linear Frequency Modulation (LFM)


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Prof. Y Kwag@ RSP Lab

3.2. CW Radar Equation


- Dwell interval : determine frequency resolution or bandwidth of the individual NBFs

f 1 / TDwell

(3.1)

N FFT 2B / f

(3.2)

TDwell N FFT / 2B

(3.3)

- NBF bank size

- for (1), (2)

- CW radar equation : derived from high PRF Radar equation high PRF Radar equation

PavTi G 22
SNR
4 3 R 4 kTe FL

(3.4)

- Pav PCW (CW average transmitted power over the dwell interval), Ti TDwell
PcwTDwell Gt Gr 2
SNR
(3.5)
3 4
4 R kTe FLLwin

Lwin : loss term associated with the type of window (weighting)


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Prof. Y Kwag@ RSP Lab

3.3 Frequency Modulation


General formula for an FM waveform
t

s(t ) A cos 2f 0t k f cos 2f mu du


0

cos 2f mt : modulating signal

f 0 : carrier frequency,

A : constant,

- Phase

(3.6)

k f 2f peak

f peak : peak freq. deviation

(t ) 2f 0t 2f peak cos 2f mu du 2f 0t sin 2f mt

(3.7)

- FM modulation index

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f peak
fm

(3.8)

Prof. Y Kwag@ RSP Lab

3.3 Frequency Modulation


Received radar signal

sr (t ) A r cos2 f 0 (t t ) sin 2 f m (t t )

(3.9)

- Time Delay
t

2R
c

(3.10)

Phase detector : extract target range from the instantaneous frequency

<Extracting range from an FM signal return K1 is a constant.>

Korea Aerospace Univ.

Prof. Y Kwag@ RSP Lab

3.3 Frequency Modulation


FM waveform

s(t ) A cos2 f 0t sin 2 f mt

s(t) A Re e j2 f0t e j sin2 f mt

(3.11)

(3.12)

- Using the complex exponential Fourier series (F.S)

j sin 2 f m t

C e

jn 2 f m t

(3.13)

- F.S coefficient

1
Cn
2

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j sin 2 f m t

e jn 2 f mt dt

(3.14)

Prof. Y Kwag@ RSP Lab

3.3 Frequency Modulation


- Bessel function of the first kind of order n,

1
J n ( )
2

Cn J n ( ),

j sin 2 f m t

u 2 f mt

j ( sin u nu)

du

(3.15)

( )e jn 2 f mt

(3.16)

<Plot of Bessel function of order 0, 1, 2, and 3>

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Prof. Y Kwag@ RSP Lab

3.3 Frequency Modulation


- Total power in the signal s(t)
2

1 2
1
P A J n ( ) A2
2
2
n

(3.17)

- Substituting Eq.(3.16) into Eq.(3.12)


j2 f0t
jn2 f mt
s(t) A Re e
J
(

)
e

n
n

(3.18)

- Expanding Eq.(3.18)

s(t ) A J n ( ) cos(2 f 0 n2 f m )t

(3.19)

Korea Aerospace Univ.

Prof. Y Kwag@ RSP Lab

3.3 Frequency Modulation


- Since J n ( ) J n ( ) for n Odd &

J n ( ) J n ( ) for n Even

s(t) A{J 0 ( )e jn2 f0 t


J1 ( ) [cos(2 f 0 2 f m )t cos(2 f 0 2 f m )t ]
J 2 ( ) [cos(2 f 0 4 f m )t cos(2 f 0 4 f m )t ]

(3.20)

J 3 ( ) [cos(2 f 0 6 f m )t cos(2 f 0 6 f m )t ]
J 4 ( ) [cos(2 f 0 8 f m )t cos(2 f 0 8 f m )t ]
..........}
- The spectrum of s(t)
Amplitude of the central spectral line
- AJ 0 ( ),
Amplitude of the nth spectral line
- AJ n ( ),
<amplitude line spectra sketch for FM signal>

Korea Aerospace Univ.

Prof. Y Kwag@ RSP Lab

3.3 Frequency Modulation


- Bandwidth can be approximated using Carsons rule

B 2( 1) f m

(3.21)

- When is small, J 0 ( ) and J1 ( ) : significant value

s(t) A{J 0 ( ) cos 2 f 0t


J1 ( ) [cos(2 f 0 2 f m )t cos(2 f 0 2 f m )t ]}

(3.22)

For small , the Bessel functions can be approximated by

J 0 ( ) 1

J1 ( )

(3.23), (3.24)

s(t) A{cos 2 f 0t

1
[cos(2 f 0 2 f m )t cos(2 f 0 2 f m )t ]}
2

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(3.25)

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Example 3.1 & 3.2


Prob.3.1

- Solution:

If the modulation index is = 0.5, give an expression for the signal s(t).
J 0 (0.5) 0.9385

J1 (0.5) 0.2423

s(t) A{(0.9385) cos 2 f 0t


(0.2423) [cos(2 f 0 2 f m )t cos(2 f 0 2 f m )t ]}

Prob.3.2

Output signal: s(t) 100 cos(2000 t (t ))


Frequency deviation : 4Hz
Modulating waveform : x(t) 10 cos 6t
How many spectral lines will pass through a band pass filter whose
bandwidth is 58Hz centered at 1000Hz?

- Solution:

f peak 4 10 40Hz

f peak
fm

40
5
8

B 2( 1) f m 2 (5 1) 8 96Hz
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Prof. Y Kwag@ RSP Lab

3.4 Linear FM (LFM) CW Radar


LFM CW radar range & Doppler information

Fig 3.5. Transmitted and received triangular LFM signals and beat frequency for stationary
target

Korea Aerospace Univ.

Prof. Y Kwag@ RSP Lab

3.4 Linear FM (LFM) CW Radar


- Modulating frequency

fm

- Rate of frequency change

(3.26)

1
2t0

f
t0

f
(1/ 2 f m )

2 f m f

(3.27)
(3.28)

- Beat frequency

f b t f

Eq.(3.28) rewrite

f
fb

When Doppler is present.

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c
2R

2R
c

fb

4 Rf m f
c

f b f received f transmitted

(3.29)
(3.30)

(3.31)

Prof. Y Kwag@ RSP Lab

3.4 Linear FM (LFM) CW Radar

Fig 3.6. Transmitted and received LFM signals and beat frequency, for a moving
target.

Positive slope Doppler shift term subtracts from the beat frequency
Negative slope the two terms add up
Korea Aerospace Univ.

Prof. Y Kwag@ RSP Lab

3.4 Linear FM (LFM) CW Radar


-Beat frequency during positive slope fbu
f bu

2 R 2 R

f
c

(3.32)

-Beat frequency during negative slope fbd


f bd

2 R 2 R

f
c

c
R ( f bu f bd )
4f

Range

R ( f bd f bu )
4

Range rate

-Maximum time delay

tmax 0.1t0

-Maximum range

Rmax

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0.1c t0
2

(3.33)
(3.34)

(3.35)

(3.36)
0.1c
4 fm

(3.37)
Prof. Y Kwag@ RSP Lab

3.5 Multiple Frequency CW Radar


Multiple frequency scheme (CW radar)
- very adequate range measurement, without using frequency modulation
-Waveform :

s(t) A sin 2 f 0t

(3.38)

-Received signal :

sr(t) Ar sin(2 f 0t )

(3.39)

-phase :

2 f 0

2R
c

(3.40)

-Solving for R

4 f 0 4

(3.41)

Maximum unambiguous range occurs when


R is limited to impractical small values.
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is maximum. 2

Prof. Y Kwag@ RSP Lab

3.5 Multiple Frequency CW Radar


Two CW signals

s1(t) A1 sin 2 f1t

(3.42)

s2(t) A2 sin 2 f 2t

(3.43)

Received signals from moving target


s1r(t) Ar1 sin(2 f1t 1 )

s2r(t) Ar 2 sin(2 f 2t 2 )

(3.44)
(3.45)

Phase difference between the two received signals

4R
4R
2 1
( f 2 f1 )
f
c
c
Maximum unambiguous range 2
c
R
2f
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(3.46)

(3.47)
Prof. Y Kwag@ RSP Lab

3.6 Pulsed Radar


Pulsed Radar
- Transmit & receive a train of modulated pulsed.
- Two way time delay between a Transmitted and Received pulse
extract range information.
- If accurate range measurements are available between consecutive pulses
Doppler frequency extracted from the range rate

R R t

Defined the pulsed radar waveform


carrier frequency : depend on the design requirements and radar mission.
pulse width : related to the BW and defines the range resolution.
modulation : difference modulation techniques are usually utilized to
enhance the radar performance.

PRF : must be chosen to avoid Doppler and range ambiguities.


Korea Aerospace Univ.

Prof. Y Kwag@ RSP Lab

PRF Classification & Agility


Radar system employ low, medium, and high PRF schemes.
Low PRF : accurate, long, unambiguous range measurements,
but, severe Doppler ambiguities.
Medium PRF : must resolve both range and Doppler ambiguities. but, provide
adequate average transmitted power as compare to low PRFs.
High PRF : superior average transmitted power and excellent clutter rejection
capability. but, extremely ambiguous range
- Radar system utilizing high PRFs are often called Pulsed Doppler Radar (PDR)
- Moving Target Indicator (MTI) radar use the PRF agility known as PRF staggering

PRF agility
use to avoid blind speed
use to avoid range and Doppler ambiguities
use to prevent jammers from locking onto the radars PRF PRF jitter

Korea Aerospace Univ.

Prof. Y Kwag@ RSP Lab

Pulsed Radar Block Diagram

range gate : implemented as


filters that open and
close at time intervals
that correspond to the
detection range.

NBF bank : implemented using an


FFT, individual filter
BW = FFT freq.
resolution

Korea Aerospace Univ.

Prof. Y Kwag@ RSP Lab

3.7 Range and Doppler Ambiguities


Range and Doppler Ambiguities

Fig 3.8. Spectra of transmitted and received wavwforms and Doppler bank.
Korea Aerospace Univ.

Prof. Y Kwag@ RSP Lab

3.7 Range and Doppler Ambiguities


Range and Doppler Ambiguities
- Range ambiguous : Second pulse is transmitted prior to the return of the first pulse.
- Radars operational requirements radar PRF chose.
ex. long-range search(surveillance) low-PRF
- Line spectrum of a train of pulses has sinx/x envelope Line spectra are separated by the PRF(fr).
- The Doppler filter bank is capable or resolving target Doppler as long as the anticipated Doppler
shift is less than one half the bandwidth of the individual filters

f r 2 f d max

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2vr max

(3.48)

Prof. Y Kwag@ RSP Lab

Multiple PRF
Doppler ambiguous;
If the target Doppler freq. is high enough to make an adjacent spectral line
move inside the Doppler band of interest.
Detecting high speed target Require high PRF
Detecting the high speed target by using long range radar
range and Doppler ambiguous.
resolving by using multiple PRFs.
Multiple PRF schemes;
incorporated sequentially within each dwell interval (scan or integration frame)
use a single PRF in one scan and resolve ambiguity in the next.
may have problems due to changing target dynamics from
one scan to the next.
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Prof. Y Kwag@ RSP Lab

Resolving Range Ambiguity

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Prof. Y Kwag@ RSP Lab

3.8 Resolving Range Ambiguity


Resolving Range Ambiguity
- Radar uses two PRFs f r1 ( Ru1 ) and f r 2 ( Ru 2 ), to resolve range ambiguity
Ru1 , Ru 2 Ru (desired radar unambiguous range)

- Desired PRF that corresponds to Ru as f rd


- One choice is to select f r1 Nf rd and f r 2 ( N 1) f rd for some integer N
- Within one period of the desired PRI( Td 1 f rd)
the two PRFs f r1 and f r 2 coincide
only at one location true unambiguous range.

- M1(M2) : number of PRF1(PRF2) intervals between transmit of a pulse and receipt


of the true target return.
- Over the interval 0 to Td , the only possible result are M1=M2=M or M1+1=M2.

- Time delay t1 and t2 correspond to the time between the transmit of a pulse on
each PRF and receipt of a target return due to the same pulse.
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Prof. Y Kwag@ RSP Lab

Resolving Range Ambiguity


2. case II : t1 t 2

1. case I : t1 t 2
t1

M
M
t2
f r1
fr 2

t 2 t1
T1 T2
where T1 1

f r1

, T2 1

t1

(3.50)

(3.51)

true target range is


R ct r

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(3.54)
f r1

, T2 1

fr2

round trip time to the true target location is


t r1 MT1 t1

t r MT1 t1

(3.53)

(t 2 t1 ) T2
T1 T2
where T1 1

fr 2

round trip time to the true target location is


t r MT2 t 2

M
M 1
t2
f r1
fr2

(3.49)

(3.55)

true target range is


R

ct r1

(3.56)

(3.52)

Prof. Y Kwag@ RSP Lab

Resolving Range Ambiguity


3. case III : t1 t 2
The target is in the first ambiguity
t r 2 t1 t 2

(3.57)

true target range is


R

ct r 2

(3.58)

- Blind range : pulse cannot be received while the following pulse is being
transmitted, these time correspond to blind range.
resolved by using a thired PRF
f r1 N ( N 1) f rd
f r 2 N ( N 2) f rd
f r 3 ( N 1)( N 2) f rd
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Prof. Y Kwag@ RSP Lab

3.9 Resolving Doppler Resolution


Resolving Doppler Ambiguity
-The Doppler ambiguity problem is analogous to that of range ambiguity.
same methodology can be used to resolve Doppler ambiguity.
- Measure the Doppler frequency f d 1 and f d 2 instead of t1 and t 2 .
1. case I :

f d1 f d 2
M

( f d 2 f d1 ) f r 2
f r1 f r 2

(3.59)

2. case II : f d 1 f d 2
M

f d 2 f d1
f r1 f r 2

(3.60)

and true Doppler is


f d Mf r1 f d 1 or f d Mf r 2 f d 2

(3.61)

3. case III : f d 1 f d 2
f d f d1 f d 2

(3.62)

- Blind Doppler can occur can be resolved using a third PRF.


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Prof. Y Kwag@ RSP Lab

Example 3.3
A certain radar uses two PRFs to resolve range ambiguitie s. The desired
unambiguou s range is Ru 100km . Choose N 59 . compute f r1 , f r 2 , Ru1 , and Ru 2 .
* solution : first , desired PRF , f rd
c
3 108
f rd

1.5kHz
2 Ru 200 103
It follows that
f r1 Nf rd (59)(1500) 88.5kHz
f r 2 ( N 1) f rd (59 1)(1500) 90kHz
c
3 108
Ru1

1.695km
2 f r1 2 88.5 103
c
3 108
Ru 2

1.667 km
3
2 f r 2 2 90 10

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Prof. Y Kwag@ RSP Lab

Example 3.4 (1)


Consider a radar wit h three PRFs; f r1 15kHz, fr 2 18kHz, and f r 3 21kHz.
Assume f 0 9GHz. Calculate the frequency position of each PRF for a target whose
velocity is 550m/s . Calculate f d (Doppler freq.) for another target appearing at 8kHz ,
2kHz , and 17kHz for each PRF.

Korea Aerospace Univ.

Prof. Y Kwag@ RSP Lab

Example 3.4 (1)


* solution : Doppler frequency is
vf0 2 550 9 109
fd 2

33kHz
8
c
3 10
using Eq.(3.61) ni f ri f di f d where i 1, 2 , 3
n1 f r1 f d 1 15n1 f d 1 33
n2 f r 2 f d 2 18n2 f d 2 33
n3 f r 3 f d 3 21n3 f d 3 33
Choose n1 0, and 1 f d 1 33kHz, and 18kHz : not acceptable value since f d 1 f r1 .
Choose n1 2 f d 1 3kHz : acceptable value. same way n2 1 , n3 1 .
Thus, apparent Doppler freq. are f d 1 2kHz, f d 2 15khz , and f d 3 12kHz.

Korea Aerospace Univ.

Prof. Y Kwag@ RSP Lab

Example 3.4 (2)


Second part of the problem. using Eq.(3.61)
n1 f r1 f d 1 f d 15n1 8
n2 f r 2 f d 2 f d 18n2 2
n3 f r 3 f d 3 f d 21n3 17

Smallest integers n1 , n2 , n3 that satisfy the above three relations is

f d from f r1

23

38

53

68

f d from f r 2

20

38

56

f d from f r 3

17

38

39

Thus , n1 n2 2 , and n3 1 and the true target Doppler is f d 38kHz


vr 38000

0.0333
623.7 m / s
2

Korea Aerospace Univ.

Prof. Y Kwag@ RSP Lab

range_calc.m
3.10. MATLAB program range_calc.m
- The program range_calc.m solves the radar range equation of the form
P f T G G

R t 3 r i t r
(
4

)
k
T
F
L
(
SNR
)
e
0

Pt

fr
Gt
Gr

Peak transmitted power


Pulse width
PRF

Transmitting antenna gain


Receiving antenna gain
Wavelength

1
4

(3.63)

k
Te

Boltzmans constant

F
L
Ti
(SNR) 0

System noise figure

Effective noise figure

Total system losses


Dwell interval (time on target)
Minimum SNR required for detection

Target cross section

- This equation applies for both CW and pulsed radar.


- In the case of CW radars, the terms Pt f r must be replaced by the average CW
power PCW.
Korea Aerospace Univ.

Prof. Y Kwag@ RSP Lab