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# CFD Applications in Ship Design

Optimization
Khairul Hassan
Doctoral student in Department of Maritime Engineering
Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, Japan
Maurice F. White
Professor of Marine Engineering
Department of Marine Technology
Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)
Norway
Cosmin Ciortan, PhD, Consultant
Dept. of Ship Hydrodynamics, Det Norske Veritas (DNV),
Oslo, Norway
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Introduction

## Brief description of the CFD procedure

CFD application
CFD application in ship design optimization
CFD application in drag analysis for different wind directions
Limitations of the CFD simulation
Conclusion

## CFD simulation in Ship design optimization

During design optimization the important considerations

Ship Hull

Aerodynamic
resistance

Hydrodynamic
resistance
Ship design
optimization

Dimensions
optimization

CFD simulation
can be used for
both of the
optimizations

Shape
optimization

## Geometry of the problem

For wind resistance simulations, only the part above the waterline is
considered

Ship Hull

Principle particulars
Length water line, LWL=221.65m
Depth=18.5m
Draught=10.78m
Block coefficient, CB=0.674
Cargo capacity: 2800TEU containers;
Design speed: 23 knots
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## Boundary conditions and simulation conditions

CFD simulation conditions for above water hull
analysis:
Mesh size: On container stacks and deck house- target
size 0.6m and minimum size 0.2m, on the deck and on the
above water hull- target size 0.8m and minimum size 0.2m.

Simulation Space
Motion
Time
Flow materials
Air density
Dynamic viscosity
Flow type
Equation of state
Viscous Regime

3 dimensional
stationary
Gas / air
1.18415 kg/m^3
1.85508E-5 Pa-s
Couple
Constant density
Turbulence (Reynolds
averaged Navier-Stokes)
Reynolds averaged K-Epsilon turbulence
turbulence
Ship speed
23knots

## The total boundary length is 1000m, and

breadth also is 1000 m, the height is 245m
and the ship position at the centre of the
bottom surface. The length and the breadth
are the same because the ship is rotated
from 0 deg to 180deg.
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Mesh/grid generation
Grid/mesh generation is the most
important task and valid mesh generation is
the most time consuming part in CFD
analysis.
The quality of the CFD analysis mostly
depends on the quality of generated mesh.
Mainly three types of mesh: structured,
unstructured and hybrid. Here the
unstructured mesh and hybrid mesh are
used.
Generating the mesh type for CFD
analysis by Starccm+ is Polyhedral. In
analysis the volumetric control density is
2.5m.
The used numbers of prism layers are 4
for 3 cm

## Graphical presentation of CFD Simulation Result

The simulation results can be
presented by

1. graphical from
2. tabular form
In graphical form the
streamlines represent the air
flow and help to give us a
better understanding of the
numerical results

## Graphical presentation of the

simulation result

## Gaps between container

stacks can have a significant
influence on the resulting
forces
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## Simulation Result as Tabular Form

The result of the pressure and shear forces on different stacks are
presented in the following table (ship speed 23 knots in head wind 20 knots)
The drag force acting on the different parts of the ship hull and container stacks
Part
Pressure(N)
Shear(N)
Net(N)
------------------------------ ------------- ------------- ------------DH
-2.068550e+04 -1.023979e+02 -2.078790e+04
hull
-1.369280e+04 -2.036224e+03 -1.572903e+04
Stack_1
-7.055177e+03 -5.296690e+01 -7.108144e+03
Stack_2
-4.209718e+02 1.244562e+01 -4.085262e+02
Stack_3
-2.034496e+04 -1.264827e+01 -2.035760e+04
Stack_4
1.518748e+04 -3.620133e+01 1.515128e+04
Stack_5
-1.888242e+04 -3.576994e+01 -1.891819e+04
Stack_6
1.559257e+04 -4.994998e+01 1.554262e+04
Stack_7
-2.733035e+04 -4.540582e+01 -2.737576e+04
Stack_8
2.933077e+03 -8.248552e+01 2.850592e+03
Stack_9
1.596127e+02 -8.651351e+01 7.309917e+01
Assign the container
Stack_10
-5.175854e+02 -8.462801e+01 -6.022134e+02
Stack_11
-7.120480e+03 -8.316351e+01 -7.203644e+03
stacks, deck house and
Stack_12
-2.639828e+03 -7.487794e+01 -2.714706e+03
the hull
Stack_13
1.671533e+03 -4.370696e+00 1.667162e+03
Stack_14
9.267767e+02 2.337641e+00 9.291143e+02
------------------------------ ------------- ------------- ------------Total:
-8.221904e+04 -2.772820e+03 -8.499186e+04
Monitor value: -84991.85938N
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## Above water hull optimization

The forecastle deck is removed
during the simulation in order to
investigate the stacks effect on the
aerodynamic resistance properly.
The ship speed is 23 knots
and wind speed is 20knots with
The internal spaces among
the stacks are 0.6 and 1.2m

The simulation results are taken from the M. Sc. project work done under Marine Technology, NTNU, Norway and partially financed by DNV

Comparison
By applying:1.General form of stacks
2. By modifying 3 rear container stacks, for
considering accommodating the available spaces due
to remove the stacks
3.The 45o drag reduction surface with the front edge
of the first stack, with modifying rear stacks
4.Sloping upper surface including above modification

Air resistance
(KN)
1

103.6

96.84

85

69.86

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The simulation results are taken from the M. Sc. project work done under Marine Technology, NTNU, Norway and partially financed by DNV

## Streamlines & pressure of air on stacks

and on hull when incidence angle 0

## Streamlines & pressure of air on stacks

and on hull when incidence angle 90
and the stacks 9 and 10 are removed
Full loaded means all of the container
stacks are present during simulation

400000
350000

## Partially loaded means the container

stacks 9 and 10 are removed during
simulation

Drag force

300000
250000
200000
150000
100000
50000
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

Angle betweent the ship sailing direction and the wind direction

180

## For the angle between wind direction

and the ship advance 140 and 30 the
drag forces are highest.
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## Results of container stacks modification

Due to optimization of the
container stacks for 1000
nautical miles distance
Reduction of fuel
consumption 2.83 tonnes
Reduction of emission gas
For the reduction of the produced emission gases the counter
action may create other severe problems
This paper reviews the reduction in the production of the emission
gases which is achievable by reducing the fuel consumption.
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Conclusions
By applying the design optimization: The aerodynamic drag force can be reduced by attention to the layout
and steamlineing of the container stacks
Due to increase in the spaces between containers the drag forces will
also increase
The emission of exhaust gases produced from the fuel can be reduced
by design optimization
The most important things are the proper knowledge and
understanding about ship design optimization and that CFD simulation is
used properly. Interesting questions are:- Verification of the CFD results
- Size and resolution of the model
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Summary of CFD results for this case study: A drag reduction surface at 45 on front row of containers reduced air
flow resistance by 11.5%
By sloping the upper surface of the container stacks and avoiding large
gaps between stacks the air resistance could be reduced by about 15%
Streamlining of containers on the after deck behind the deck house
reduced the air resistance by about 6.5%
By design optimization a reduction of air resistance of about 33% was
achieved.

The air resistance was 3.2% of the total resistance for this design and
speed of ship leading to fuel and emissions reductions of ~ 1% .
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