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Grammar

Adverbs and adjectives (p22-32) ALG 21, 22, 24

Adjectives
They do not charge their form (except comparatives and superlatives)
Adjective patterns

Words that give extra information about a noun. Many adjectives are
formed from other words.

+ic

+ (i)al

+ able

History
historic

Politics
political

+ ous

+ less

Fashion Beauty
fashionab beautiful
le
Particles Compounds

Danger
dangerou
s

Hope
hopeless

Interestin
g
intereste
d

+ ful

+ ent

+ ive

Depend
dependen
t

Effect
effective

Home-made
Red-hot

Sometimes adjectives can act as nouns:

Old people are becoming more numerous the old are becoming more
numerous
! we cannot use the possessive s with adjectives used as nouns

Attributive: in front of a noun


Predicative: after a linking verb

Adjectives usually used in attributive position:


Classifying adjectives: chemical, chief, criminal, elder, entire, former,
local, main, maximum, national, only, social, whole,
Emphasising adjectives: mere, sheer, utter

Adjectives usually used in predicative position:

Beginning with a : ablaze, afloat, afraid, alike, alive, alone, aloof ,


asleep,
Health and feelings: content, fine, glad, ill, pleased, poorly, ready,
sorry, unwell,

We use adjectives after indefinite words like something, anyone, no


one, nothing, somewhere,

Some adjectives have a different meaning when used before or after


a noun
e.g. the meeting was full of concerned residents (=worried)
the students concerned were a small minority (=who took part)

Participle (-ing or ed) adjectives


Before or after a noun: affected, chosen, identified, infected,
remaining, selected, stolen
Only after a noun: applying, caused, discussed, found, provided,
questioned, taken
-ing:
active meaning
describe a feeling that something causes it was a frightening film
(=it frightened us)
-ed:
passive meaning
describe a feeling that someone experiences I felt frightened when
I watched that film (= I was frightened)
objects dont have feelings, so we dont use ed about feelings to
describe them
+ that/those (the one/ the ones that)

Compound adjectives: combination of particles and other words


(particle comes last)
Slow-growing, rarely-performed, Spanish-speaking,

Groups of adjectives

The order of adjectives=

Opinion + size + quality/character + age + shape + colour + participles +


origin + material + type + purpose

(We dont usually use more than 3 or 4 adjectives before a noun. If we


want to give more information, we can use additional clauses)

If two adjectives describe different parts of the same thing we put


and between them.
The chrome and steel faade glinted in the sunlight (=some parts
were chrome, some parts were steel)

We always use and between colours


The players will be wearing blue and red shirts for this match.

When two adjectives describe contrasting aspects of the same thing


we put but, yet or though between them.
The flat was located in a rundown but central part of town.
Group therapy can be a simple yet effective solution to this sort of
problem.

when there are several predicative adjectives we usually put and


before the last one (but not when they are of different categories)
I found him a friendly, knowledgeable and dedicated guide.

Comparison
Comparative and superlative adjectives

Comparative adjectives: to compare two (or more) things or people.


Superlative adjectives: to distinguish one thing or person from a
number of others.

Adjectives with 1
syllable: cheap

Ending in silent e:
safe
Ending in a consonant
+ y: dry
Ending in a single
vowel + a single
consonant: big
Adjectives with 2 or

Comparative
adjectives
Adjective + -er (+
than):
The hamburger is
cheaper (than the
cheeseburger)
Omit final e: safer

Superlative
adjectives
The + adjective + -est:
The hot dog is the
cheapest

Double the final


consonant: bigger

Omit final e: the


safest
Change y to i: the
driest
Double the final
consonant: the biggest

More + adjective: the

The most + adjective:

Change y to i: drier

more syllables:
expensive
Irregular adjectives:
Good/bad
Far
Old

hamburger is more
expensive (than the
hot dog)

The cheeseburger is
the most expensive

Better/ worse
Further/farther
Older/ elder

The best/worst
Furthest/farthest
oldest/ eldest

1-syllable adjectives ending in ed and the adjectives real, right,


wrong comparative and superlative with more and most
I was more bored than I was on the flight to Sydney.
2-syllable adjectives ending in ly, -y, -ow, -r and l and the
adjectives common, handsome, mature, pleasant, polite, simple,
stupid more and most OR er and est
The photographer wanted something more lively (or livelier)
Your son needs to develop a mature (or more mature) attitude to his
work.

We cant use elder immediately after a verb.


NOT my sister is elder than me BUT my sister is older than me

We use further (not farther) with the meaning of extra or more


Let me know if you have any further questions

Comparatives can be made stronger or weaker by inserting a word


or phrase in front of them:
- Stronger: even, much, far, a lot, lots, considerably, a great deal +
comparative
The cheeseburger is even more expensive than the fishburger
- Weaker: a little, slightly, a bit, somewhat + comparative
The hot dogs a bit cheaper than the hamburger

Superlatives:
- Stronger: by far, easily + superlative
Hes by far the cleverest student in his class
- Weaker: one of, some of + superlative
New York is one of the largest cities in the world

To say two things are equal:


- Is + no + comparative the fishburger is no more expensive
than the hamburger
- Is + not + any + comparative the fishburger isnt any cheaper
than the hamburger

Less and least (>< more and most)

I prefer the paisley pattern, its less bold than the others.
The hot dog is the least expensive.
BUT: usually not asas in British English I prefer this pattern, it
isnt as bold as the others

Adjectives with as, so, too, enough and such

Two things are equal by using as + adjective + as


The hamburger is as expensive as the fishburger
+ just (more emphatic) its just as bad as I predicted it would be!
Almost equal: just about, about, almost, nearly shes nearly as old
as I was

Negative: not as/so + adjective + as


+ nearly, quite
the hot dog isnt quite as expensive as the hamburger (= it is
slightly cheaper)
the hot dog isnt nearly so expensive as the cheeseburger (= it is
much cheaper)

as and such to introduce a comparison


as + adjective + a + noun + as
It wasnt as bad a result as Id expected
such a + adjective + noun + as (or that)
It wasnt such a bad result as I had expected
It was such a dark night that I couldnt really see her face

Other types of comparison

We can describe how something increase or decreases by repeating


the same comparative two or three times, putting and between
them.
Her visits became rarer and rarer

To describe how a change in one thing causes a change in another,


we can use two comparative with the.
The longer you leave it, the worse itll get

We use like before a noun when we are making a comparison


between two things which seem similar
You look like a man whos seen a ghost!

We use as before a noun when we are describing someones job,


role or identity, or somethings function
Simons working as a waiter

Adverbs
Words that modify or give extra information about verbs, adjectives, other
words or whole clauses.
Form
-

Not formed from other words: just, well, soon, too, quite, still
Fixed phrases: kind of, of course, at last
Formed from other words:
Adjective + -ly:
tragic tragically, excitable
excitably, easy easily, realy really
Noun/preposition + -ward(s)/-wise:
home homeward,

after afterwards, price pricewise, health healthwise


Compounds: some + times sometimes
Adverbs which have the same form as adjectives: close, dead, fast,

fine, long, low, pretty, short, straight, wide, strong


Common adverbs from the same base, with different meanings:
Direct (= without stopping)
Late (=not on time)
High (= to a great height)
Hard (= with a lot of effort)
Right (=direction/correctly)
Free (=without paying)

Directly (= immediately/very soon)


Lately (=recently)
Highly (=extremely)
Hardly (= scarcely, almost not)
Rightly (=correctly in my opinion)
Freely (= without limitation or

Deep (= to a great depth/distance)

control)
Deeply (= thoroughly)

Use

The most common to modify adjectives. The adverb comes before


the adjective.
I thought his answers were pretty good on the whole
To modify another adverb, e.g. really, almost, quite, pretty
The French team did really well in the first round
To modify following noun phrases, prepositional phrases and
numbers, e.g. quite, roughly, about, approximately
Her new came as quite a shock

Position of adverbs in sentences

Depends on its meaning and the word of phrase it is modifying


Adverbs which modify adjectives, adverbs and noun phrases: fixed
position
Adverbs which modify a verb or add information about how, when or
where something happens: several positions
o Front position: before the subject
o Mid position: next to the verb
o Final position: after the object or complement

After negative adverbs or after adverbs of time and place followed


by a verb of movement of position, we put the verb before the
subject
Never have I seen such a disturbing sight.

Mid position:
- Adverbs of indefinite frequency: always, frequently, generally,
hardly ever, never, normally,
- Adverbs of degree: absolutely, almost, completely, entirely,
just, hardly,
- Adverbs of certainty: certainly, definitely, probably
- One-word adverbs of time: already, finally, immediately, just,
now, soon,

With a simple verb we put the adverb between the subject and the
verb, but with simple forms of to be, the adverb goes after the
verb.
She always arrives by taxi and she is always on time.

if theres a modal or auxiliary verb, we put the adverb after the


(first) auxiliary verb

final position:
-

yet, a lot, any more, any longer, too, as well


They arent selling it any more.
Adverbs of manner
Adverbs of definite frequency
We DONT use hardly ever of never in final position
If we put often, rarely and seldom in final position, we must
use very or quite
These days I eat desserts very rarely.
Order adverbs of manner, place, time

Sentence adverbs (24.4)