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You are on page 1of 26

ECEN 4517/5517

Experiment 4: inverter system

12 VDC

Battery

DC-DC

converter

DC-AC

inverter

Isolated

flyback

H-bridge

vac(t)

AC load

120 Vrms

60 Hz

d(t)

Feedback

controller

d(t)

Vref

with isolation (flyback)

Feedback controller to

regulate HVDC

ECEN 4517

Digital

controller

Due dates

Right now:

Prelab assignment for Exp. 3 Part 3 (one from every student)

Due within five minutes of beginning of lecture

Nothing due. Try to finish Exp. 3.

Prelab assignment for Exp. 4 Part 1 (one from every student)

Definitely finish Exp. 3, and begin Exp. 4

Exp. 3 final report due

ECEN 4517

Exp. 4: A three-week experiment

vHVDC

Exp. 4 Part 1:

Design and fabrication of

flyback transformer

Snubber circuit

Demonstrate flyback

converter power stage

operating open loop

Vbatt

snubber

PWM

Compensator

Exp. 4 Part 2:

Design feedback loop

Measure loop gain, compare with simulation and theory

Demonstrate closed-loop control of converter output voltage

ECEN 4517

Vref

Exp. 4, Part 3

H-bridge inverter, off grid

vHVDC

IR3101

IR3101

iac(t)

+

AC load

120 Vrms

60 Hz

vac(t)

Digital

controller

integrated drivers

(required)

ECEN 4517

vac(t)

vac(t) has a

rectangular

waveform

Inverter transistors

switch at 60 Hz,

T = 8.33 msec

+ VHVDC

DT/2

T/2

VHVDC

desired Vac,RMS

Vac,RMS =

1

T

vac t dt = D V HVDC

0

Vac,RMS by variation of D

Waveform is highly

nonsinusoidal, with

significant harmonics

ECEN 4517

PWM Inverter

Average vac(t) has a

sinusoidal waveform

Inverter transistors

switch at frequency

substantially higher

than 60 Hz

vac(t)

Can regulate waveshape and value of Vac,RMS by variation of d(t)

Can achieve sinusoidal waveform, with negligible harmonics

Higher switching frequency leads to more switching loss and

need to filter high-frequency switching harmonics and commonmode currents

ECEN 4517

Vg

iL

inductor

inductor is transferred to output

Conversion ratio:

V = D

Vg

1D

Subinterval 1

iL

Vg

Subinterval 2

+

iL

Vg

ECEN 4517

See also:

supplementary

notes on Flyback

converter, Exp. 4

web page

A transformer-isolated buck-boost converter

Q1

buck-boost converter:

D1

Vg

V

+

Q1

construct inductor

winding using two

parallel wires:

D1

1:1

Vg

V

+

ECEN 4517

Isolate inductor

windings: the flyback

converter

Q1

D1

1:1

Vg

LM

Flyback converter

having a 1:n turns

ratio and positive

output:

1:n

Vg

LM

Q1

ECEN 4517

D1

C

Multiple winding transformer

i1(t)

n1 : n2

i1(t)

i2(t)

v1(t)

v2(t)

v1(t)

i1'(t)

n1 : n 2

iM(t)

LM

v2(t)

i3(t)

i3(t)

+

v3(t)

n 1 = n 2 = n 3 = ...

0 = n 1i 1' (t) + n 2i 2(t) + n 3i 3(t) + ...

v3(t)

: n3

: n3

ECEN 4517

i2(t)

Ideal

transformer

10

Transformer core B-H characteristic

Models magnetization of

transformer core material

B(t)

windings

If all secondary windings are

disconnected, then primary winding

behaves as an inductor, equal to the

magnetizing inductance

saturation

slope LM

H(t) i M (t)

to short-circuit. Transformers cannot

pass dc voltages

Transformer saturates when

magnetizing current iM is too large

ECEN 4517

v1(t) dt

11

Volt-second balance in LM

The magnetizing inductance is a real inductor,

obeying

i1(t)

di (t)

v1(t) = L M M

dt

+

v1(t)

integrate:

i M (t) i M (0) = 1

LM

t

0

ECEN 4517

Ts

0

n1 : n 2

i2(t)

+

iM(t)

LM

v2(t)

v1()d

the applied winding voltage. The magnetizing

current and the winding currents are independent

quantities. Volt-second balance applies: in

steady-state, iM(Ts) = iM(0), and hence

0= 1

Ts

i1'(t)

i3(t)

+

v3(t)

: n3

Ideal

transformer

v1(t)dt

12

Transformer model

ig

Vg

LM

vL

1:n

iC

D1

Q1

A two-winding inductor

Symbol is same as

transformer, but function

differs significantly from

ideal transformer

Energy is stored in

magnetizing inductance

Magnetizing inductance is

relatively small

Instantaneous winding voltages follow turns ratio

Instantaneous (and rms) winding currents do not follow turns ratio

Model as (small) magnetizing inductance in parallel with ideal transformer

ECEN 4517

13

Subinterval 1

Transformer model

ig

Vg

LM

vL

iC

1:n

vL = V g

iC = v

R

ig = i

CCM: small ripple

approximation leads to

Q1 on, D1 off

ECEN 4517

vL = V g

iC = V

R

ig = I

14

Subinterval 2

Transformer model

ig

=0

Vg

+

vL

i/n

v/n

+

iC

1:n

vL = nv

i C = ni v

R

ig = 0

CCM: small ripple

approximation leads to

vL = V

n

i C = nI V

R

ig = 0

Q1 off, D1 on

ECEN 4517

15

vL

Vg

Volt-second balance:

vL = D Vg + D' V

n =0

V/n

Conversion ratio is

M(D) = V = n D

Vg

D'

Charge balance:

I/n V/R

iC

i C = D V + D' nI V = 0

R

R

V/R

Dc component of magnetizing

current is

ig

I

I = nV

D'R

0

DTs

Conducting

devices:

ECEN 4517

Ts

Q1

D'Ts

I g = i g = D I + D' 0

D1

16

vL = D Vg + D' V

n =0

i C = D V + D' nI V = 0

R

R

Vg

Ig

DI

+ DV

g

D'V

n

D'I

n

I g = i g = D I + D' 0

D' : n

+

Ig

+

ECEN 4517

1:D

Vg

17

Need to step up the 12 V battery voltage to HVDC (120-200 V)

How much power can you get using the parts in your kit?

Key limitations:

MOSFET on-resistance (90 m)

Input capacitor rms current rating:

25 V 2200 F: 2.88 A

35 V 2200 F: 3.45 A

Snubber loss

Possible project for expo: build a better (and more complex) step-up dc-dc

converter

ECEN 4517

18

iM(t)

n1 : n2

i1

Vg

iM

LM

vM

D1

C

0

i1(t)

IM

i2

Q1

0

i2(t)

n1

I

n2 M

0

vM(t)

0

ECEN 4517

iM

IM

Transformer model

19

Vg

DTs

Approach

Use your PQ 32/20 core

Choose turns ratio n2/n1, LM, D, and fs (choose your own

values, dont use values in supplementary notes)

Select primary turns n1 so that total loss Ptot in flyback

transformer is minimized:

Ptot = Pfe + Pcu = core loss plus copper loss

Determine primary and secondary wire gauges

Make sure that core does not saturate

ECEN 4517

20

Core loss

CCM flyback example

B-H loop for this application:

B(t)

B(t)

Bsat

Bmax

Bmax

B

0

Hc(t)

vM(t)

Minor BH loop,

CCM flyback

example

B

Vg

n1 A c

Vg

DTs

BH loop,

large excitation

from Faradays law:

dB(t) vM (t)

=

n1 A c

dt

Solve for B:

ECEN 4517

21

subinterval:

VgDTs

B=

2n 1A c

Vg

dB(t)

=

n1 A c

dt

and core loss

Fitting an equation to the plot at right

P fe = K fe(B) A c l m

= slope

Kfe = constant that depends on fs

Aclm = core volume

At 60C:

= 2.6

Kfe = 16 (50 kHz), 40 (100 kHz)

with Pfe in watts, Aclm in cm3, B in Tesla

From previous slide:

VgDTs

B=

2n 1A c

ECEN 4517

22

Copper loss

Power loss in resistance of wire

Must allocate the

core window area

between the various

windings

Winding 1 allocation

1WA

Winding 2 allocation

2WA

0 < j < 1

1 + 2 +

{

{

Total window

area WA

etc.

Optimum

choice:

m =

n mI m

nI

n=1

j j

(MLT )n 21 I 2tot

The resulting total copper loss is: Pcu =

WAK u

Choose wire gauges:

ECEN 4517

+ k = 1

1 K uW A

n1

K W

A w2 2 u A

n2

A w1

with

I tot =

j=1

nj

n1 I j

more copper loss

23

Ptot = Pcu + Pfe

Power

loss

Co

ss P c

r lo

fe

ss P

P fe = K fe(B) A c l m

re l

o

ppe

(MLT )n 21 I 2tot

Pcu =

WAK u

VgDTs

B=

2n 1A c

Ptot

Co

There is a value of B

(or n1) that minimizes

the total power loss

Optimum B

spreadsheet or other computer tool to compute

Ptot vs. n1, and find the optimum n1.

Then design your flyback transformer.

ECEN 4517

24

Transformer model

Ll

ig

+ vl

1:n

LM

Vg

D1

C

Q1

Voltage spike

caused by

leakage

inductance

di

vl = L l l

dt

Vg + v/n

iRon

t

DTs

ECEN 4517

series with transistor Q1

When MOSFET switches off, it

interrupts the current in Ll

vT(t)

vT(t)

imperfect coupling of primary and

secondary windings

25

voltage spike exceeds the

voltage rating of the MOSFET,

then the MOSFET will fail.

Protection of Q1

using a voltage-clamp snubber

Snubber

Flyback transformer

ig

Rs

Vg

vs

1:n

Cs

D1

C

Q1

+

vT(t)

for current in leakage

inductance to flow after

Q1 has turned off

Peak transistor voltage is

clamped to Vg + vs

vs > V/n

inductance (plus more) is

transferred to capacitor

Cs, then dissipated in Rs

Usually, Cs is large

snubber power loss

See supplementary flyback notes for an example of estimating Cs and Rs

ECEN 4517

26

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