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FACTORS AFFECTING CONSUMER PURCHASE DECISION IN THE

BOOK INDUSTRY IN NAIROBI: A CASE OF BOOKS FIRST COMPANY

By
JUDITH NYAKERARIO OBAE
HD211-035-0039/2012

A PROPOSAL SUBMITTED TO THE SCHOOL OF BUSINESS IN


FULLFILMENT OF AWARD OF DEGREE IN PURCHASING AND
SUPPLY MANAGEMENT JOMO KENYATTA UNIVERSITY OF
AGRICULTURE AND TECHNOLOGY

AUGUST, 2015

DECLARATION
This Proposal is my original work and has not been presented for a Degree in any
other University. No part of this research should be reproduced without my consent
or that of the Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology.

Name: Judith Nyakerario Obae


Sign
Date
ADM. NO: HD211-035-0039/2012

Declaration by the Supervisor


This research proposal has been submitted for defense with my approval as the
Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology supervisor.

Name: Mr. Gilbert Otiende


Sign .Date

DEDICATION
2

I aspire to dedicate this project to my family and closest friends of whom through
their support and prayers I managed to complete this research.

ACKNOWLEDGEMNT
First, I want to thank the Almighty God for giving me this opportunity, strength,
wisdom and understanding. Were it not for his grace, I wouldnt have reached this
far. I will forever be indebted to him.

My special thanks go to my supervisor Mr. Gilbert who helped me with relevant


information and guidance. All the support I gained from him I acknowledge with
profound gratitude.

I also wish to acknowledge all others, such as family and friends, who gave me
support and encouragement, accorded me through their valuable discussions that
assisted me to complete my research project.
May God bless you all.

Table of Contents
Declaration......................................................................................................ii
Dedication......................................................................................................iii
Acknowledge..................................................................................................iv
List of tables.................................................................................................viii
List of figures.................................................................................................ix
List of Abbreviation........................................................................................x
Abstract..........................................................................................................xi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION.........................................................1
1.1 Background...............................................................................................1
1.2 Statement of the Problem..........................................................................3
1.3 Objectives of the Study.............................................................................4
1.3.1 Main objective........................................................................................4
1.3.2 Specific objectives.................................................................................4
1.4 Research questions....................................................................................4
1.5 Scope of the study.....................................................................................4
1.6 Significance of the study...........................................................................5
1.7 Definition of key terms.............................................................................5
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW.............................................6
2.1 Introduction...............................................................................................6
2.2 Theoretical Framework.............................................................................6
2.2.1 ................................................................................................................6
5

2.3 Empirical review.......................................................................................7


2.4 Conceptual Framework.............................................................................8
2.6 Research gap.............................................................................................8
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY..........................17
3.1 Introduction.............................................................................................17
3.2 Research Design......................................................................................17
3.3 Population of the study............................................................................17
3.4 Sample size..............................................................................................18
3.5 Sampling Techniques...............................................................................18
3.6 Data Collection Instrument.....................................................................19
3.8 Data collection Procedures......................................................................19
3.9 Data Analysis...........................................................................................20
CHAPTER FOUR.......................................................................................21
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS
.......................................................................................................................21
4.0 Introduction.............................................................................................21
4.1 Background Information.........................................................................21
4.2: Effect of specification on drug usage in public hospitals.......................24
4.3: Effect of planning on drug usage in public hospitals.............................26
4.4: Effect of contracting on drug usage in public hospitals.........................28
4.5: Effect of supplier selection on drug usage in public hospitals...............31
CHAPTER FIVE.........................................................................................35
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION..................35
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5.1 Introduction.............................................................................................35
5.2 Summary of Major Findings...................................................................35
5.3 Conclusion...............................................................................................37
5.4 Recommendations...................................................................................38
5.5 Proposed Areas for Further Research......................................................38
References.....................................................................................................39
Appendix I: Introduction letter......................................................................42
Appendix II: Questionnaire...........................................................................43
APPENDIX III: The Work Plan....................................................................45
Appendix IV: Budget.....................................................................................46

ABSTRACT
The general objective of this study was to investigate factors affecting purchasing
decisions of consumers in the book industry in Nairobi. The specific objectives
were therefore to find out the relative importance of these factors, the individuals
that influence purchasing decision and their roles and establish considerations for
the consumers making the purchase decision. Statement of the problem highlights
the need for the research; objectives of the study which addresses the purpose of
research; the methodology which addresses the plan of action i.e. how the project
will be carried out in terms of sample size, sampling design, data collection and
data analysis; the work plan which is the time-frame i.e. dates for competition of
all activities or tasks, their sequence and interdependence, the budget i.e. the cost
of the research. The questionnaires in this study were used to collect primary and
secondary data.
-The significance of this study is that the most challenging concept in marketing
deals with understanding why buyers do what they do or dont do.

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY.

One of the greatest challenges facing organizations today is the ever-changing


buying behavior of consumers and the continuous increase in customer
expectation. Consumer behavior is the action a person takes in purchasing and
using products, services, including the mental and social processes that precede
and follow these actions. Customers play the most significant part in business. In
fact, the customer is the actual boss in a deal and is responsible for the actual profit
for the organization (Kotler, 2008).
Ever since, many researchers from different areas of research such as economics,
procurement, marketing and psychology have shown interest in studying this
interesting and complex behavior in a traditional commerce context. These
researchers have made significant contributions to our understanding of consumer
behavior. A view of this body of knowledge indicates that the research on
consumer behavior in a traditional setting can be categorized in 3 general trends:
definition, explanation and extension. At first, researchers were primarily
interested in defining the phenomenon. Finally the focus has been to the extent of
consumer buying behavior research by identifying the various factors that increase
or decrease consumer buying or purchasing.
Belch and Belch defined consumer behavior as the process and activities people
engage when searching for, purchasing, using, evaluating and disposing of
products and service so as to satisfy their needs and desires. Belch and Belch
(2007) explained that the consumers undertake both internal (memory) and
external search. Bill Stinnet has expanded further in his book Think Like
Customer that consumers can buy anything, but there are four things that have to
be considered and four decisions to be made they include; Action, Course,
Resource, Source.
Successful businesses understand how to leverage the different factors that
influence consumer buying behavior to effectively market their products and
maximize sales. Studies show that there are generally four main factors that play a
role in the consumers buying behavior. These factors include cultural factors,
social factors, personal factors and psychological factors (Blackwell et al., 2001).
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1.2Books first Profile


Not every reader is a leader but every leader is a reader Harry Truman

Starting out as a single operation based in Nairobi, Books First has now grown to
have a number of branches in Nairobi and Mombasa. The company also has a
chain of successful restaurants and cyber facilities at each bookshop with new
services being announced regularly. A strong threshold that is also convenient for
the immediate customer.
After over ten years of serving book lovers the company has come to understand
what East Africans love to read. And, over the years, their bookshops and selection
has changed to meet these expectations. For example, they discovered that children
of all ages are truly mad about books and so they have brought in a huge selection
of titles to satisfy their reading appetite. Reading has never been as much fun for
everyone. Many companies have also discovered the use of books to assist in
training their staff to international levels. Sales and Marketing, Leadership and
Team Work, Human Resources, Strategy and Project Management - all of these
areas are served with books from the best and brightest minds in the world. They
make a great effort to bring in an outstanding selection of titles for business
organizations.
Then they established that Kenyans cannot get enough Inspiration and Motivation
books. And so they made sure there is enough Joel Osteen, Joyce Meyers, Anthony
Robbins and Napoleon Hill among other popular authors in this genre on our
shelves. They also committed themselves to bringing in the latest bestselling
fiction and non-fiction, biographies, cookery books, and art and crafts. Books First
therefore aim to satisfy each individual giving them a variety to select from.
Many of their best bookshops are located inside the larger Nakumatt stores, which
has been a passionate supporter and that has allowed them to bring their book
shops to the entire region of Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, and Rwanda.

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1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


Most Kenyans believe literacy is only about being able to read and write. Usually
they read books to fulfill a set purpose. If you want to hide anything from a
Kenyan, hide it in a book, Uwezo Kenya Country Coordinator Dr. John Mugo
describes the Kenyan reading culture. Some people claim they cannot be able to
afford these books, yet they can afford junk food, alcohol and fancy clothing. This
claim is a non starter since many libraries do not charge membership fee. This thus
becomes a lucrative opportunity for businesses.
To be successful, businesses have developed an understanding of what
considerations their consumers put in mind when making a purchase decision e.g.
who makes or influences the buying decisions. (Schiff man & Kanuk, 2009). Many
researchers have done research on other marketing varieties and yet it is a major
aspect of the market. This is because it is important for making marketing
decisions and developing the strategies that will be adopted. What makes this study
significant is the fact that it takes a quite different task of understanding the factors
that affect the purchasing decision of many if not all consumers.
Kenyas reading culture has been hampered by among others, poverty. Kenyans are
busy looking for money to fill the poverty gaps. It is more about priorities and
fulfilling immediate needs. Education in Kenya has always been impressed upon
the people as a means of overcoming poverty. But even with all the provisions,
most Kenyans are too lazy to read and a major factor is because of the modern
lifestyle. Kids are overindulging in video games and teens in social media
networks, adults also claiming to be too busy to find time to sit down with a book
and read. Book business in Kenya is extremely underdeveloped in many counties
in Kenya. It is therefore important for organizations to keenly take this into
consideration while trying to promote readership. Strategies as to how to promote
and enhance readership should the come from this key factor(s).
With a population of approximately 3.36 million, Nairobi is the most intelligent
city in Kenya and Africa according to International Think Tank, just three places
behind the worlds top seven finalists. . This intelligence directly or indirectly is
acquired from reading or studying books. It is the fifth richest city in the world and
thus a favourable place for investors and for business expansion. . However, 71
percent of this population lives in informal settings. Most businesses are located in
Nairobi, for the most part fairly accessible and this explains why many bookshops
are located in this county.
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In the eleven years the company has been in operation, Books first has carved a
niche for itself as a unique book store offering a unique experience of book
shopping at the comfort of the consumer. The company is best known for its
commitment to providing quality service in the expected time at a competitive
price to the potential customers. The difficulty arises when it comes to dealing with
a substantial amount of vital information about customers, customers future
performance and securing of new sales from existing and new customers. Due to
unexpected change in circumstance (economy), it is highly believed many things
have changed but the most effective that am going to focus on is the consumer
purchasing decision. How best can Books First promote readership in various if not
all areas in Nairobi while still providing quality service and meeting the
requirements? I believe by engaging consumers contribution to the later findings
of this research, I will be convinced the problem is solved.

1.4 Objectives of the study


1.4.1 Main Objective
The main objective is to establish the factors that affect consumer purchase
decision in the Book Industry in Nairobi
1.4.2 Specific objectives
i) To establish the relative importance of these factors.
ii) To determine the individuals (roles) that influence purchase decisions.
iii) To examine the considerations for the consumers making the purchase
decision.
1.5 Research questions
i. What are these factors that affect consumer purchase and what are their
relative importance?
ii. Who are the individuals that influence consumer purchase decision and what
are their roles?
iii. What is the importance of examining the considerations for the consumers
making the purchase decision?

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1.6 Significance of the study


i)
The findings may be of significance to the management of Books First in
improving their marketing strategies as well as their current policies on
customer management.
ii)
The books industry will be able to set more realistic goals, plan more
effective market strategies and select tactics that they can implement to
market successfully considering their customer purchasing decision i.e.
distribution, pricing, product and promotion strategies.
iii) Through the findings of this study employees of Books First may learn
what it requires to interact with customers to promote sufficient
purchasing behaviours or repeat purchases.
iv) The findings may also be significant to other companies in the book
industry who may like to enhance their customer purchasing behaviour
which would see their companies grow to a great extent.
v)
The study may also be used by other academicians as a basis of their
further research in the same area or areas closely related to consumer
consumption and their purchasing behaviours.
1.7 Definition of Key Terms
Consumer a person who purchases goods and services for personal use
Purchase to acquire by payment of money or its equivalent

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CHAPTER 2:
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
This chapter presents the literature review as presented by other authors in the
same field of consumer purchase decision process. The various sectors presented
here were; the stages involved in the purchasing decision process, factors
influencing the consumer purchasing decision process and the conceptual
framework.
2.1.1 Concept of Consumer Purchasing Decision
It is worth noting that consumer buying behaviour is studied as a part of marketing
and its main objective it to learn the way how individuals, groups or organizations
choose, buy use and dispose the goods and the factors such as their previous
experience, taste, price and branding on which the consumers base their purchasing
decisions (Kotler and Keller, 2012).
Decision Everyday each of us make numerous decisions concerning every aspect
of our daily lives. However we generally make these decisions without stopping to
think about how we make them and what is involved in the particular decision
making. It is the selection of an option from two more alternative choices (Schiff
man & Kanuk 2009)

2.2 Theoretical Framework


2.2.1 Hierarchical Theory of needs and Consumer Buying Behaviour
The first step in consumer purchasing process is the need recognition or
motivation, where consumers realize that s/he has need for something. It reflects an
inner state of arousal that directs the consumer to engage in goal relevant
behaviors, effortful information processing and detailed decision making.
Motivation is enhanced, when consumers regard something as personally relevant,
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consistent with their values, goals and needs, risky and moderately inconsistent
with their prior attitude (Hoyer, 2004).
When motivation is high, consumers are willing to do things which are closely
related to their goals, e.g. if one has aim to be buy clothes which can be
fashionable as well as give confidence to wear at work place and when such a style
comes in front of her then they immediately go for it. Highly motivated people pay
more attention and think about their goals, they evaluate the information critically
relevant to it and try to remember the information for later use. Consumers are
motivated when they feel processed information or things are personally relevant.
Maslow grouped these different consumers need in five major categories; (Hoyer,
2004) Physiological (Need for food, water and sleep), Safety (Need for shelter,
protection and security Social (need for affection, friendship and acceptance),
Egoistic (need for prestige, success, accomplishment and self esteem) and Self
actualization (need for self fulfillment and enriching experiences). In further detail
needs can be categorized as social, non-social, Functional, symbolic and Hedonic
needs.
Social needs are extremely directed and related to other individuals. Social needs
are fulfilled by the presence or action of other people. Non-social needs are those
in which achievement is not based on other people. Only one self is related to
usage of certain product and services. Functional needs motivate the search for
products that solve consumption related problems. Symbolic needs affect how we
perceive ourselves and how we are perceived by others. Achievement,
independence and self control are symbolic needs because they are connected with
consumer's sense of self. Consumers need for uniqueness is symbolic because it
drives consumption decision about how s/he expresses his/her own identity.
Achievement, status, affiliation and belonging are symbolic because they reflect
consumers social position or role. Hedonic needs reflect 9 inherent desires for
sensory pleasure. Sensory consumers simulation, cognitive simulation and novelty
are non-social hedonic needs, while needs for reinforcement, sex and play are
social hedonic needs (Hoyer, 2004).

2.2.2 Purchasing Decision Process Model


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Five Stages of consumer decision making process have been studied by


many researchers including Burner, Schiffman, Kanuk, Kotler and Keller.
Although different researchers offer various tendencies towards the
definitions of five stages, all of them have common views as they describe
the stages in similar ways. One of the common models of consumer decision
making process has been offered by Blackwell et al (2006). According to
him, the five stages of consumer decision making process are
followings: problem/need recognition, information search, evaluation of
alternatives, purchase decision and post-purchase evaluation.

Problem/need recognition

Information search

Evaluation of alternatives

Postpurchase
decision
Purchase
decision

Each stage is defined by a number of researchers varying slightly but leading to a


common view about what each stage involves. For example, according to Burner
(1993), first stage, need recognition occurs when an individual recognizes the
difference between what they want and need to have. This is supported by Neal
and Questel (2006) stating that recognition occurs due to several factors such as
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personal, professional and lifestyle which in turn leads to the formation of the idea
of purchasing.
In the next stage, consumers search for information related to the desired product
or service (Schiffman and Kanuk, 2007). Information search process can be both
internal and external. Internal search is the process where consumers rely on their
personal experiences and beliefs, external search involves wide search of
information which includes addressing the media, advertising, internet or
consulting other consumers for feedback (Rose and Samouel, 2009)
Once the relevant information about the product or service is obtained, the next
stage involves analyzing the alternatives. Kotler and Keller (2005) consider this
stage as one of the important stages as the consumer considers as types and
alternatives taking into account factors such as the seller or distributor, price,
quality or even appearance.
Backhaus et al (2007) suggested that purchase decision is one of the important
stages as this stage refers to occurrence of transaction. In other words, once the
consumer recognized the need, searched for relevant information and considered
the alternatives he/she makes decision whether or not to make the decision.
Purchasing decision can further be divided into planned purchase, partially
purchase or impulse purchase as stated by Kacen (2002).
Finally, post-purchase decision involves experience of the consumer about their
purchase. Although the importance of this stage is not highlighted by many
authors, Neal et al (2004) argues that this perhaps is one of the most important
stages in the consumer decision making process as it directly affects the
consumers purchases of the same product or service from the same supplier in the
future.
The most noteworthy writers that serve as academic advocates of the five stage
model of consumer decision making include; Tygai (2004), Kahle and Close
(2006), Blackwell et al (2006) among others.

2.3 Empirical Review


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2.3.1 Roles involved in the Purchase Decision Process


For many products, it is easy to identify the buyer. Men normally choose their
shaving equipment and women choose their lipsticks. Other products involve a
decision-making unit consisting of more than one person. This is referred to as a
Decision Making Unit.
Consider the selection of a home library. The teenage son may have suggested
buying new books. A friend might advise the family on the kind of books to
purchase. The husband might choose the publishers or sellers. The wife might have
definite desires regarding the librarys content and size. The husband might make
the financial offer. The son might use the books more than the parents.
Blackwell, Miniard and Engel describe 5 roles that are involved in the purchase
decision process.
i)

Initiator;
This is the person who first suggests the idea of purchasing a product or
service. An initiator recognizes that there is a need to be satisfied or a
problem to be solved. There could be many reasons which stimulate
initiation.

ii)

Influencer
This is a person who attempts to persuade others in the group concerning
outcome of decision. Influencers typically gather information and attempt
to compose their choice criteria on the decision.
Influencers are those who may have a persuasive role in relation to the
deciders. They may be specialists who make recommendations based
upon experience and their knowledge of products and services. Informal
influencers include family, friends and people at informal gatherings.

iii)

Decider
This is the individual with the power and /or financial authority to make
ultimate choice regarding which product to buy, where to buy and how to
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buy. The decider will review information provided from lower down the
purchase decision process from the buyers and original initiators
iv)

v)

.
Buyer
This is the person who conducts the transaction, who calls the supplier,
visits the store, makes the payment and effects delivery. A buyer is
responsible for sourcing and negotiation.
User
This is the actual consumer of product. Users are those who put the
service or product into operation after purchase. Their opinions are
paramount and are heavily involved in the post-purchase evaluation of
the consumer decision process.

- The question, who plays each of buying roles should be used to decide on
who the advertising is to be aimed at, the sort of appeal, the timing of the
message and placing of the message (Wilson and Gilligan, 2005)
2.4 Factors Influencing Consumer Purchase Decisions

19

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1. Price.
Customers have increasingly become price conscious and dealers with competitive
prices tend to attract more customers. Kotler and Armstrong, (2004); this is the
amount of money charged for a product or service or the sum of the values that
consumers exchange for the benefits of having or using the product or service.
Price is an economic factor and according to the law of demand, the higher the
price, the lower the demand and the lower the price, the higher the demand and
subsequently purchase.
2. Attitude.
According to Peter and Olson (2005) customers possess specific beliefs and
attitudes towards various products. This is the element that directs us to think and
react in a particular fashion. In the words of Schiff man and Kanuk (1991, p 227)
attitude is a learned predisposition to behave in a consistently favorable or
unfavorable way with respect to a given object. In other words, attitudes guides our
reaction to a given object, activity or idea. The attitude of an individual to a certain
product or company will greatly influence whether they will purchase the product
in question or not. Fishbein and Ajzen cited by (Chandon Jean-Louis, 2011)
denoted that attitude has an influence on purchase intention and consumer behavior
because it has basic psychological function.
3. Post-purchase evaluation.
The EKB model was further developed by Rice (1993) which suggested that there
should be a feedback.
Loop, Foxall (2005) further suggests the importance of post-purchase evaluation is
key due to its influence on future purchase patterns. Post purchase evaluation
simply means understanding how consumers have reacted to the product purchase
and whether they consider repeat purchase.
4. Merchandising.
Merchandising involves product related activities such as assortment, variety and
product information (Jarvenpaa and Todd, 1997). Rich product assortment can
increase the probability that consumers needs will be met and satisfied (Szymanksu
& Hise, 2000). This is therefore a paramount factor.
5. Promotions.
This involves advertising and sales events that attract customers such as frequent
buyer schemes, lottery games and product-related tips. (www.
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marketresearch.com). Promotions create awareness and provide information which


is a key ingredient when making a purchase decision.
6. Point of purchase (POP) advertising.
Traditional stores often use point of purchase (pop) advertising to focus customer
attention on certain items or events by adding New! or On Sale! (T-P Liang,
H-J. Lai/information and Management 39 (2002) 431-444). This is usually utilized
so as to attract the attention of potential buyers
7. Product quality.
This entails Those distinguishing characteristics or traits inherent in the product
or service that differentiate it from competitive product or service offering.
(Cronin 1996). Quality is simply fitness for purpose and it is one of the most
essential traits of a product that provoke buying or purchasing.
8. Product Variety.
This is the assortment of alternative and complimentary goods available from
retailers, Product variety is important to shoppers because it provides them with the
opportunity to compare, contrast and select from among multiple potential
solutions that meet their needs (Arnold, Handelman & Tiger, 1996; Baker, Levy &
Greual, 1992). With variety comes the power of choice and selection.
9. Social class
This is a social factor. It is a ranking within a society determined by the members
of the society. Social class exists in virtually all societies and peoples buying
behavior is oftenly strongly influenced by the class to which they belong or to
which they aspire to be in (Etzel, Walker and Stanton, 2007). An individual might
not necessarily need a product but will purchase it due to the social class he or she
is affiliated with.
10. Perception
Perception plays a major role in the buyer decision process where alternatives are
identified. What we perceive the meaning we give something sensed depends
on the object and our experiences (Etzel, Walker and Stanton, 2007).
One of the current fundamental assumptions in consumer behaviour research is that
individuals often purchase products for their subjectively perceived values rather
than their primary functions (Stavkova Stejskal and Toufarova, 2008)

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11. Personality.
This is an individuals pattern of traits that influence behavioral responses.
Personality traits do influence consumers perceptions and buying behavior (Etzel,
Walker and Stanton, 2007).
For example, it is a common belief that introverted people love reading more than
extroverted people do.
12. Time Dimension.
Organizations should be able to answer at least three time related questions about
consumer buying.
How is purchasing influenced by the season, week, day or hour?
How much time does it take for the consumer to make purchase and
consume the product? (Etzel, Walker and Stanton, 2007)

Figure 2.4 Conceptual Framework


The figure below represents the conceptual framework which illustrates the
factors selected which affect consumer purchase decision of books in the
book industry. The independent variables include: relative importance of
factors affecting consumer purchase decision, individuals and their roles in
influencing consumer purchase and considerations for the consumers
making the purchase decision. The dependent variable is consumer purchase
decision for books. The conceptual framework shows the relationship
between the variables.
Independent variables

Dependent variable

Relative importance of
factors affecting consumer
purchase decision
Individuals and their roles
in influencing consumer
purchase
Considerations for the
consumers making the
purchase decision

Affect

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Consumer purchase
decision of books

Source: Author (2015)

2.5 Research gap


Books First are no exception for every potential buyer has to consider various
factors before a purchase of their products which are books. For the company to
remain competitive in the Book Industry in Kenya there is need for the
management to understand their customers purchase decisions towards the books
they avail as well as how consumers react towards different prices, promotions and
consumer considerations to ensure strong competitive advantage.
Various studies in Kenya have been conducted. For example, Wasonga (2003) did a
study on the factors affecting consumer purchase decision of Kenya manufactures
fast moving consumer goods in Kenya. Wanjau (2001) did a study on the influence
of brand personality on consumers purchase decision; the case of malt based nonalcoholic drinks. Jacqueline Korir (2012) did a study on determinants of consumer
purchase decisions; a case of zero rated hotels in Eldoret, Kenya and Stephen
Ntuara did a study on determinants of childrens influence on family purchase
decisions in Kenya. It is therefore clear that most studies have a focus on industries
or sectors such as manufacturing, agriculture and insurance. Studies towards the
book industry are very limited therefore this particular study sought to investigate
factors that affect consumer purchase decision of books at the Book First
Company.

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CHAPTER 3:
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction
This chapter presents various stages and phases that will follow in completing the
study. In this stage, most decisions about how research will be executed and how
respondents will be approached, as well as when, where and how the research will
be completed. This chapter contains the research design, target population, sample
design, data collection instruments and procedures and data analysis.
3.2: RESEARCH DESIGN
The study utilized descriptive form of research, that is, it will research on who,
what, where and how on research topic.
3.3: SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
The study utilized non-probability sampling technique. This method is selected due
to the time factor for the survey and the fact that the population is very large and
only few elements are required to represent it.
I will specifically use convenience sampling technique, where I will position
myself at strategic positions i.e. bookshops, supermarkets and interview few
customers who will be shopping and the people who will be passing by.
3.4 SAMPLE OF POPULATION
Based on the small survey I have conducted in most of the players in the books
industry, approximately 1million plus people in Nairobi are book readers.
Therefore, from the total population of the entire 1 million people this is where the
representative sample will be drawn.
3.5 SAMPLE FRAME
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The respondents will be selected from bookshops in the Central Business District,
westlands and some part of Karen areas. For the case of my study I will select from
Westgate, Prestige, Mega and Karen due to the time factor and practicability of my
study.
3.6 SAMPLE SIZE
The sample sizes are 200 respondents which is 0.5% representative of population.
They will be distributed as follows:
Supermarkets in CBD:30% of 200-60 respondents
Westlands:20% of 200-40 respondents
Junction :25% of 200-50 respondents
Karen:25% of 200-50 respondents
This is because most of the residents of Nairobi do their shopping in the
supermarkets at the CBD, followed by their respective area of residential in this
case my focus will be based on Wetlands, Junction and finally Karen.
For this research only 40 respondents will represent the population. This is due to
time constraint i.e. limited time available for the collection of data and the
practicability of the survey.
3.7 NATURE OF STUDY
The study will be based on combination of primary and secondary data and thus
will be able to analyze various major factors which affect the purchase decision
regarding books.
Various customers will fill various questionnaires. This project is expected to serve
valuable information regarding various factors affecting consumers purchase
decision.
3.8 DATA COLLECTION METHOD
The instrument of collecting data is a closed ended questionnaire. The
questionnaire is a researcher administered to save time and for the sake of those
who could not read and write English. The data will be obtained directly from the
persons taking part in the survey. All data will be received immediately since the
survey will be conducted in person. Forty surveys will be answered before the data
is processed.
The questionnaire will have 3 sections:
a. Personal Information:

26

This information will help in understanding the respondents better i.e. their
demographics and helped in tabulating findings.
b. Factors Information:
This information will help to rate the factors from most important to least
important.
c. Considerations Information:
This information will understand the roles, participants in the purchasing
decision of the buyers in the books industry.
3.9 BUDGET
Expense
Printing (4 copies)
Photocopying (640 copies)
Transportation
Envelops
Stationery; 5 pens, 1 ruler, two
pencils, one sharpener and 3
erasers,
Internet

Cost (KES)
10 per copy 40
2 per copy 1280
1000
20 per envelope 40
400

Total

3260

500

QUESTIONNAIRE
It is with great appreciation to the realization of this Questionnaire, which the entire Books First
company fraternity has taken to ensure the satisfaction of its customers thereby, forming a
questionnaire on the factors that influence purchase decision of consumers in the books industry
Nairobi region
A) PERSONAL INFORMATION.
i)

Please indicate your gender.


Male
Female
27

ii)

Please indicate your age by ticking the appropriate category.

Under

15

16

30

31

45
Above 46

iii)

What is your marital status? (please tick)

Single

Married

iv)

Please indicate your occupation.

Employed
Un-

self employed
employed

B) FACTORS INFORMATION
Instructions:
Rate the importance you give the factors that determine whether or not you make a purchase of
books using the rates given below. If you have other factors please indicate.
Very important 4
Important
3
Not important 2
Undecided
1
Please fill in the ratings;
28

a) Price [

b) Attitude [

c) Post-purchase evaluation [
d) Merchandising [
e) Promotion [

f) Point of purchase advertising [


g) Information on books [
h) Books variety [

i) Social class [

j) Perception [

k) Personality [

l) Others (specify)

C) CONSIDERATIONS INFORMATION
i)

Which type of books do you buy? (please tick)

Self help

books

Business

books
Diet/nutrition book
Autobiography books
29

Sports

books

Legal

thrillers books/s
Romance books

Horror

books

Cook

books

(If more than one variant give the percentage consumption rate of each).
ii)

Who influences your decisions to make a purchase of books? (Please tick).


Parents

Daughter/son
Spouse
Peers
Self
(If all influence, rate them according to level of influence).

iii)

What seasons do you buy books? (please tick)


Christmas
30

Public

School

End

holiday

holiday

month

Weekly
Others(State percentage of each)

Thank you for your cooperation, time and taking part in this exercise.

31

CHAPTER 4: DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION


As indicated in the previous chapter, I verify the accuracy and integrity of the collected data so
as to make an assessment of the factors that affect the consumer buying behavior on
organizations performance in reference to Books first company. I calculated relevant averages,
percentages and plotted graphs. The analytical technique used was a thematic analysis where
the related topics were categorized. Information that was relevant to the research questions and
objectives was analyzed. The following are the findings of the research:
DEMOGRAPHICS OF THE RESPONDENTS
Age
Age in years
Under 15
16 30
31 45
Above 46

Frequency
10
40
20
30

32

Frequency
45
40
35
30

Frequency

25
20
15
10
5
0
Under 15

16 30

31 45

Above 46

Occupation
Under 15
16 30
31 45
Above 46
Total
Percentage

employed
0
28
8
2
38
42.222%

33

Self employed
0
4
6
5
15
16.667%

Unemployed
0
8
6
23
37
41.111%

FACTORS INFORMATION

Factors

undecided

Important
(3)
35

Very
important (4)
40

total

percentage

Not important
(2)
12

Price

87

12.64

Attitude
Post purchase
evaluation
Merchandising
Promotion
Point of purchase
advertising
Books variety
Information on books
Social class
Perception
Personality

0
0

12
10

16
13

17
29

45
52

6.54
7.55

0
0
0

7
9
22

14
25
23

26
27
24

47
61
69

6.83
8.86
10.02

0
11
11
12
12

0
21
14
24
1

35
24
24
13
22

35
16
22
14
16

70
72
71
63
51

10.17
10.46
10.31
9.15
7.41

34

Total

688

CONSIDERATION INFORMATION
Types of books
Self help books
Cook books
Business books
Diet/nutrition books
Autobiography book
Sports books
Legal thrillers books
Romance books
Horror

Number of people
70
20
100
19
100
12
26
30
10

35

Percentage
18.08
5.16
25.83
4.90
25.83
3.10
6.71
7.75
2.58

Number of people
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

Number of people

Roles influencing purchase decision


Parents
Daughter/son
Spouse
Peers
Self
Total

60
12
60
80
90

36

Respondents

parents

60

90

Daughter/son

12

Spouse
Peers

60

Selp

80

Seasons of buying books


Christmas
Public holiday
School holiday
End month
Weekly

0
5
6
69
20

37

CHAPTER 5: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND


RECOMMENDATIONS.
5.1 Summary of the main findings
From the study findings, the main readers of books are those between 16 to 35 years, the higher
percentages are single and female. Most of them are employed while the minority is self
employed.
Vincent (2012), a higher percentage of the respondents argued that for them to make a purchase,
the most important factor that they put into consideration is price followed closely by product
variety. Most of those who considered price referred to it as a determinant of the value of the
information contained in the books, while those who preferred variety, stressed on the fact that it
provided them many alternative, especially when they are browsing for a book to read.
From the research findings, it is clear that most of the respondents read autobiography books
followed by business books and motivation books, most of their purchase decision is influenced
by themselves and peers, the purchase pattern is that most purchasing is done at the end of the
month.
5.2 Conclusion and recommendation.
The study concluded that product variety and product price greatly influences the decision taken
to purchase books.
As a result, I recommend Books first to mainly focus on providing affordable books with the
best information, and wider variety to satisfy the consumer needs.
Books first can achieve this by the formation of a well informed and actionable marketing
department of their own, which will ensure that all the books bought for re-sell to the final
consumer adhere to a certain quality standard in relation to the price charged on it.
Further research in a similar topic should be extensively done as this area is a neglected topic of
study which should be exploited for the success of a good reading culture which will result into a
better community. This is because by understanding the buying decisions of the consumers;
appropriate marketing strategies will be formulated for the good of the customer. (The customer
is the king of the business).

5.3 Challenges.
In the course of my study, the following are the challenges I experienced:
1. Time constraint. This negatively influenced the population that was interviewed as the
sample population was representative, i.e. 15 respondents is not representative of a
population of 3 million.
2. Financial constraint. This affected me especially in terms of movement from one point to
another so as to collect data. The transport and photocopying expenses were costly.
3. Unlimited secondary data resources. Most of the material from which secondary data was
to be sourced was unavailable and others were out dated. This brought about difficulties
when coming up with a comprehensive literature review.
38

4. Hostile and dishonest respondents. Some of the respondents were rebellious and could
not fill in the questionnaires or be interviewed. Others gave dishonest response. As a
result, data collection was a bit difficult.

39

i)
ii)

iii)
iv)
v)
vi)

vii)

viii)
ix)

x)
xi)

REFERENCE
Baker, J, Levy, & Grewal, D 91992). An experimental approach to making retail
store environment decisions.
Consumer Behavior.
9th Edition.
By Leon G .Schiff man, Leslie Lozar Kanuk.
Year of publication: 2009
By: Pearson Education, Upper saddle River, New Jersy.
Clover, V.T (1950), Relative importance of impulse buying in retail stores, Journal
of marketing, 15: 1, 66-70.
Cronin, M.J.91996). Global advantage on the World Wide Web. New York: van
Nostrand Rein hold.
Foundations of marketing.
By William M. Pride, O.C Ferrell
2007
Marketing.
14th Edition.
By: Michael J. Etzel University of Notre Dame
Bruce J. Walker University of Missouri Columbia
William J. Stanton University of Colorado Boulder.
Year of Publication: 2007
By: McGraw Hill/Irwin, New York.
Strategic marketing Management Planning, Implementation and control.
2nd Edition
By: Richard M.S. Wilson and Collin Gilligan.
Year of publication; 2005
By Butterworth Heinemann, Linacre House Jordan Hill, Oxford 0X28DP.U.K.
Schiff man, Leon G and Leslie Kanuk (1991), consumer behavior Engle Wood Cliffs,
N.J: Prentice Hall, Inc.
Selling and sales marketing
8th Edition
By David Jobber- university of Bradford
Geoffrey Lancaster London school of commerce.
Year of publication: 2009
By Pitman Publishing, a division of the Longman group UK ltd.
www.marketreseeach.com.
(Stinnet, 2002)

40

APPENDICES
APPENDIX 1
TIME PLAN

TIME OF STARTING AND


COMPLETION (2012)
i)
July-06

ACTIVITY
Writing the proposal and constructing the
questionnaire.

ii)

July-10

Collection of data interviewing


respondents filling questionnaires.

iii)

July-mid August

Data analysis, report findings and writing


the final report.

iv)

Mid August

Submission of the finished project

APPENDIX 2
BUDGET

Expense
Printing (4 copies)
Photocopying (640 copies)
Transportation
Envelops
Stationery; 5 pens, 1 ruler, two
pencils, one sharpener and 3

Cost (KES)
10 per copy 40
2 per copy 1280
1000
20 per envelope 40
400
41

erasers,
Internet

500

Total

3260

42