You are on page 1of 10

Red Book # 830-1

Chicago Bridge & Iron Company. For Internal Use only.


1
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Instructions for the Preparation and Writing of Welding


Procedure Specifications
Red Book Number: 830-1
Revised: 22/04/2002
Issuing Authority:
Tom J. Landon/Plainfield/CBI
Maintenance & Review: Corporate Welding & QA Technology

0.1
Scope: This standard provides instructions for the preparation and writing of welding
procedure specifications (WPS's) to ASME Section IX requirements, with and without a referenced
code of construction. It includes lists of the available forms and standard paragraphs to be used on
the forms for specific limitations or exceptions. The referenced forms and referenced Lotus Notes
WPS Database may also be used for welding/construction codes other than ASME.
0.2
Introduction: A welding procedure specification is a document written for a contract which
defines the materials and their preparation, the electrodes and their use and the customer, code and
CBI requirements, limitations and exceptions.
A welding procedure specification is composed of:
1
Title page (see 1.0)
2
Specific Welding Procedure Specifications for each electrode (see 3.0)
3
General Welding Procedure Specification for each process (see 2.0)
The referenced Procedure Qualification Records (PQR's) will be included in the local welding
manager's copy of the Welding Procedure Specifications package in addition to the copy maintained
by the originating Welding Embedded Engineering Groups (WEE) when WEE prepares the WPS's.
Control of WPS's and PQR's for nuclear work will be handled per the specific contract requirements.
0.3
Computer Generated WPS's: A database "WPS Database" is available in Lotus Notes for
writing, storing, retrieving and printing specific Welding Procedure Specifications (WPS's) including
the title page. It should be used to generate all WPS's except for special circumstances or when
unique contract requirements apply.

1.0
TITLE PAGE
A title page is prepared for all contracts except those involving ASME Section III (Nuclear)
vessels/components. Welding Procedure Specifications for Nuclear Work shall be handled per the
specific contract requirements.
A typical welding procedure specification title page consists of:
1
the title "Welding Procedure Specification"
2
a description of the structure(s)
3
the customer's and final owner's name(s)
4
the final location(s)
5
the CBI contract number(s)
6
an index of attachments including:
a
A listing of the Specific Welding Procedure Specifications (WPS) with revision numbers and
the contract number
b
A listing of the General Welding Procedure Specifications (GWPS)

2.0
GENERAL WELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATIONS (GWPS)
See Table 2.0 for a list of all attached GWPS available from Corporate Welding & QA Technology
and and available in the Forms Database in Lotus Notes. See GWPS-SMAW for a typical

Red Book # 830-1


Chicago Bridge & Iron Company. For Internal Use only.
2
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________

GWPS. GWPS used for ASME Section III (Nuclear) vessels/components are available from Corporate
Welding and QA Technology - Plainfield.
A GWPS is a general and standardized document which contains instructions applicable to a specific
welding process. If additional instructions are required for the use of a particular electrode, or if
there are limitations or restrictions to the GWPS, these should be shown on the Specific Welding
Procedure Specifications (see 3.0). The GWPS should not normally be altered.
Table 2.0 General Welding Procedure Specifications
Identification

Title

Form No.

GWPS-SMAW

General Welding
Procedure Specifications
for the Shielded
Metal Arc Process

WL 175A

GWPS-SAW

General Welding
Procedure
Specification for the
Automatic
Submerged Arc Process

WL 175B

GWPS-GMAW

General Welding
Procedure
Specification for the Gas
Metal Arc Process

WL 175C

GWPS-GTAW

General Welding
Procedure
Specifiation for the Gas
Tungsten Arc Process

WL 175D

GWPS-EGW

General Welding Process


Specificaiton for the
Automatic Electrogas
Process

WL 175E

GWPS-STUD

General Welding
Procedure
Specifications for the
Automatically
Timed Stud Welding
Equipment

WL 175F

3.0 SPECIFIC WELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATIONS (WPS)


A WPS is a specific document prepared on standard forms which provides information, restrictions,
limitations, and parameters for the use of a specific electrode on specific material. It consists
of completed form WL 100, WL 100A (if necessary), WL 100S (if necessary), and a
standard parameter sheet completed for the specific electrode. See 3.1 and 3.2 for

Red Book # 830-1


Chicago Bridge & Iron Company. For Internal Use only.
3
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________

completing WL 100 and WL 100A. See 4.7 for completing WL 100S. See 3.3 for a
discussion and list of available standard parameter sheets.
3.1
1

2
3
4
5

6
7
8
9
10

11
12
13
14

15
16
17
18

19

20

Form WL 100. The following is a description of each entry required on form WL 100 . The
paragraph numbers correspond to the circled numbers shown on the sample form in FIG. 3.1.
Identification: Enter the AWS-SFA classification of the electrode or an abbreviation of the
trade name of the electrode. See Table 3.3 for typical AWS-SFA classifications and
abbreviations.
If the WPS is for submerged arc welding (SAW), both the AWS-SFA classification of the wire
and the number (I.D.) of the flux should be given. Example: WPS EM 12K/860.
Enter the Contract Number or Standard I.D. for CB&I Standard WPS's.
Product: Give general description for all structures.
Customer: Enter the customer's name.
Page No.: Enter the page number and total number of pages included in the WPS. The total
includes form WL 100, WL 100A, WL100S, and the Standard Parameter Sheet for the
specific electrode(s).
Rev. No.: Enter the revision number.
By: Fill in initials of person making the revision or original.
Date: Enter the date the WPS is written or the date the revision is made.
Enter the initials of all welding process used on the WPS. See Table 2.0 for the GWPS's
available.
Enter the number of the Procedure Qualification Record (PQR) used to qualify the WPS. This
PQR must be reviewed to assure that it complies with ASME Section IX and that it fulfills
customer, code and CBI requirements. More than one PQR may be listed to qualify different
thickness ranges, use of preheat, post weld heat treatment, other position, etc.
If a PQR is used that has been post weld heat treated, enter the PQR number and then the
letters PWHT in parenthesis.
Enter the position(s) welded to qualify each PQR.
Enter the thickness range qualified by each PQR in accordance with ASME Section IX.
Enter the welding positions qualified to be used on the specific contract.
Enter the thickness range the PQR will be used on the specific contract. Code impact, preheat
and post weld heat treatment requirements, as well as CBI requirements, must be complied
with.
Enter the Code Edition and Addenda that the WPS is written for. Example: ASME Section IX,
Winter 82.
Enter the page number(s) of the General Welding Technique page or parameter pages that
joint details are shown on.
Give the type of backing required. This may be a tape, consumable insert, flux, strip or strap,
bar, temporary bar, etc. If no backing is to be used, state "None".
Enter the base material(s) by ASME or ASTM grade and whether they are welded together or
to another material. Also list the ASME group number of the base material(s). If a material
does not have an ASME or ASTM type and grade assigned, use proprietary names and state
that the group number is similar to an ASME material(s).
If several materials are to be welded together or to one another with the same electrode, it is
permissible to list all the base materials and their group numbers and state, "These materials
may be welded together or to one another in any combination."
Identify the filler metal to be used by ASME specification number, classification, analysis
number, and group number. Trade names may be referenced but may not be used alone
unless (a) the electrode does not have an ASME specification and/or classification; or (b) a
specific electrode must be used. Also specify the type of consumable insert or type of
supplemental powdered filler metal to be used. If none will be used state, "None" or "N/A"*
If flux is required, give the trade name with the AWS-SFA Flux-Electrode designation
(Classification) in parenthesis. The AWS-SFA Flux-Electrode designation is only applicable
when it is available from the flux manufacturer or from previous CB&I test to AWS A5.17 or
A5.23 Specifications. Alternatively to the complete Flux-Electrode designation being listed in
parentthesis next to the flux trade name, the complete flux-electrode designation
(classification) can be listed for the complelte ASME Classification: as referenced in paragraph

Red Book # 830-1


Chicago Bridge & Iron Company. For Internal Use only.
4
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________

"19" above. Otherwise, state "None" or "N/A".


Enter the page number of Form WL 100S in the WPS. Refer to Paragraph 4.5 for filling in
form WL 100S. If a preheat paragraph and an inter-pass temperature paragraph are to be
used instead of WL 100S, enter the page number of WL 100A that the paragraphs are
entered on.
22
Enter "Yes" if PWHT is required. Enter "No" if PWHT is not required.
23
If shielding gas is required, give the composition and the range of flow rate. Otherwise state
"None" or "N/A"*
24
If backup gas is required, give the composition and the range of flow rate. Otherwise state
"None" or N/A
25
State the type of current to be used (AC, DC) and whether the electrode will be positive or
negative. The phrases "Reverse Polarity" or "Straight Polarity" should be added in parenthesis
but should not be used alone.
26
Enter the page number(s) of the General Welding Technique page or parameter pages.
27
If impacts are required, state "Yes" and enter page number of Vertical Welding Technique
page for manual welding. For automatic processes list the welding heat input limitations on
form WL 100 A. If impacts are not required, state "No".
28
Enter mode of transfer for GMAW or FCAW. (Spray, Globular, Pulsed, Short Circuit). For other
processes state "N/A" (Not Applicable).
*Note: State N/A (Not Applicable) if subject does not apply to process being used. State None
if subject does apply but is not to be used with that process.
29
This space is used to indicate Form WL 100 A which lists all Customer, Code, and/or CBI
Limitations exceptions, and/or restrictions to the GWPS. See 4.0 for standard paragraphs.
30
Enter the page number(s) of the General Welding Technique sheet or the page number that
a statement for stringer or weave bead is used.
31
Mark the box that applies to the process being used.
32
This space is available for customer approval and may be filled in by the customer.
33
The right side portion will be filled in for all WPS's. The left side normally will only filled in by
QA for Nuclear work.

21

88.LIF

Fig. 3.1 - Form WL 100


Limitation Notes
A change from upward to downward, or from downward to upward, in the progression specified for
any pass of a vertical weld must be shown. Therefore, on WL 100A for the vertical welding specify
uphill or downhill for welding. Following are two examples:
1
A contract that does not have a special hardness requirement: "All passes uphill except the
rootpass or coverpass may be uphill or downhill".
2
A contract that has a special hardness requirement: "All passes uphill except rootpass may
be uphill or downhill".

Contracts that have impact requirements must have special instructions. These instructions are to
control welding heat input to the maximum qualified on the welding Procedure Qualifications
Records (PQR's) referenced to support the Welding Procedure Specification (WPS). The welding heat
input control requirements per ASME Section IX, QW-409.1 are listed below. The maximum allowed
heat input in KJ/in or maximum bead size including vertical weld pass/bead size sketch shall be
included, as applicable, on WL100 A See the CB&I heat input control requirements below. Multiple
pages of WL100 A form may be required to include all of the limitation requirements for some
Welding Procedure Specifications.
CB&I controls welding heat input per the following, except when special contract requirements apply:

Red Book # 830-1


Chicago Bridge & Iron Company. For Internal Use only.
5
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
l

Welding Heat input shall be controlled per paragraph QW-409.1 "a" (control of Voltage, Amperage
and Travel Speed) for machine/automatic welding processes, such as when the Automatic Girth
Welder (AGW) or Automatic Vert Welder is used.

Welding Heat input shall be controlled per paragraph QW-409.1 "b" (control of Volume of Weld
Metal) for manual and semiautomatic welding processes, such as SMAW, GMAW/FCAW and GTAW.
The Volume of Weld Metal control that CB&I uses is bead size.
QW-409.1 states a change in the type of current or polarity, or an increase in heat input, or an
increase in volume of weld metal deposited per unit length of weld, over that qualified. The increase
may be measured by either of the following:

a) Heat Input (J/in.) =

Voltage x Amperage x 60
Travel Speed (in./min.)

b) Volume of Weld Metal = An increase in bead


size, or a decrease in length of weld bead per unit
length of electrode.
l
l

For automatic welding, the maximum heat input allowed on the WPS must have a PQR with that heat
input or greater.
For manual welding the maximum bead size allowed on the WPS must have a PQR with that bead
size or larger.
Form WL 100Q can be used for processes not listed in Table 3.3 or when special instructions are
required for impact work.
For the SAW process, the electrode spacing when multiple electrodes are used is a nonessential
variable and must be specified on the WPS.
3.2

3.3

Form WL 100 A. The entries required on form WL 100 A as shown in Fig. 3.2 are:
thru :

same as for WL 100 described in paragraph 3.1 above.

Standard Parameter Sheets available are listed in Table 3.3. These contain amperage and
voltage ranges, travel speeds, burn-off rates and/or other pertinent data. Most of the
parameter sheets have typical joint detail sketches included on the form. WL 100Q is a blank
form to provide special joint details when necessary. All of the parameter pages, WL 100E to
WL100U, provide reference to the specific contract drawings for the applicable joint details
and dimensions for application of the specific WPS.

Form WL 100R is to be used for stud welding. The operating parameters and other essential
variables are to be listed for each size of stud and each position to be welded. Damper setting
and equipment specifications should be stated in the body of the WPS.
Applicable parameter sheets for automatic submerged arc welding are provided in the following Red
Book Standards: 814-2-2 , 814-2-5 ,814-2-6 ,814-3-2 , 814-3-3 . The general
welding parameters (amps, volts and travel speed ranges can be listed on form WL 100Q with
the specific welding parameter provided to the CB&I Welding and QC manager as a separate
attachment. The standard pages are considered proprietary infomramation and should not be
sent to customers when Welding Procedure Specifications are sent for review and approval. In
special cases the parameter sheets can be attached to form WL 100A and state stringer
beads as a general note on each parameter page.

Red Book # 830-1


Chicago Bridge & Iron Company. For Internal Use only.
6
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________

The entries required on Standard Parameter Sheets as shown in Fig. 3.3 are:
as for WL 100 described in paragraph 3.1 above.

thru :same

Where necessary, enter the electrode classification or name. Usually this will be the same as
the classification or name in .
Table 3.3 Standard Parameter Sheets
Form
WL
WL
WL
WL

100A
100B
100C
100D

Description

Typical No.

WPS Blank Pages


Unassigned
Unassigned
Unassigned

WL 100E

Parameters for E6010


or E7010 electrodes

WPS-E6010

WL 100F

Parameter for E6012


electrodes

WPS-E6012

WL 100G

Parameters for EXX18


electrodes

WPS-E7018

WL 100H

Parameters for Lincoln


innershield NR431
electrode (EGW
Process)

WPS-NR431

WL 100I

Parameters for McKay


Speedalloy
66 or 86 electrodes

WPS-SA66

WL 100J

Parameters for E71T-1


electrodes and E81T1-X
electrodes

WPS-E71T-1

WL 100K

Parameters for E300


series stainless
electrodes

WPS-E308

WL 100L

Parameters for E7024


or E7024-1 electrodes

WPS-E7024-1

WL 100M

Parameters for
ENiCrMo-6 electrodes

WPS-ENiCrMo6

WL 100N

Parameters for GTA


welding

WPS-ER308-GTA

Red Book # 830-1


Chicago Bridge & Iron Company. For Internal Use only.
7
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________

WL 100P

Parameters for GMA


welding with ER 300
series stainless steel
electrodes

WPS-ER308-GMA

WL 100Q

Standard Parameter
Sheet. (To be used
when other forms listed
do not apply.)

WL 100R

Standard Parameter
Sheet for Stud Welding

WL 100S

Welding Procedure
Specifications Preheat
Chart (Information)

WL 100T

Parameters for E70T-1


electrodes

WPS-E70T-1

WL 100U

Parameter sheet for


E3XXLT1-1 or
E3XXLT1-4 stainless
steel FCAW electrodes

WPS-E316LT1-4

WPS-STUD

8301.LIF

Page 1 - Fig. 3.2 - Form WL 100A


Page 2 - Fig. 3.3 - Form WL 100G (Example for all Parameter Pages)
4.0 STANDARD PARAGRAPHS FOR USE ON FORM WL 100A.
The following paragraphs are standard paragraphs and should be used to insure uniformity of
welding procedure specifications on a company-wide basis. Most of these paragraphs are CBI
limitations, exceptions, and/or requirements. Code and/ or customer limitations, exceptions
and/or requirements vary a great deal and therefore will have to be handled on an individual
basis; however, they should be patterned after the following paragraphs.
4.1
1
2
3
4

Limitations to the General Welding Procedure Specification. The following are typical
limitations to the GWPS:
E6010 and E7010 electrodes: "Normally this electrode is for use on materials less than
3/8" thick."
E6012, E6024, and E7024 electrodes: "Limit the use of this electrode to fillet and lap
welds."
AVW welding: "Normally this process is used on materials 3/8" thick and greater."
Low hydrogen type welding of impact tested material in the vertical and overhead
position: Limit bead size to that shown in the appropriate table in 813-1-3 , 813-1-4 ,
813-1-4-1
,813-1-5 , Attach a copy of the appropriate table as another page to the
WPS on form WL 100 A and complete per 3.1.

Red Book # 830-1


Chicago Bridge & Iron Company. For Internal Use only.
8
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________

4.2
1
2

4.3
1
2
3
4
5
6

Exceptions to the General Welding Procedure Specification. The following are typical.
Materials on which no flame burning is allowed: "No flame burning shall be permitted
on______________ material."
Materials where no arc gouging is permitted: "No arc gouging is permitted on
______________material."
Miscellaneous requirements. The following paragraphs may be required in certain
applications.
Where welding shall be performed from one side with a single pass: "All
____________ joints shall be welded from one side with a single bead."
Where joints shall be finished uphill: "All ____________________ joints over
__________________ inch shall be finished uphill."
Where stainless steel brushes must be used: "Use only stainless steel brushes on
______________________ material."
Where all passes are deposited downhill: "All passes shall be deposited downhill."
Where all passes are deposited uphill including the root pass. "All passes shall be
deposited uphill."
For stainless and nickel welding where customer specifications address stress corrosion or
when CBI is concerned about stress corrosion: "Remove all visible traces of anti-spatter
compound after welding and before PWHT."

4.4

Combination of processes or electrodes: In some instances, two or more processes or


electrodes may be needed to weld a joint. When this happens, the dominant process or
electrode may be written as one WPS while the subordinate process or electrode may be
written as another WPS, with the subordinate WPS referenced on the dominant WPS. This
may be used in lieu of a combination of processes of electrodes on one WPS.
The following are typical paragraphs to use:
1
AGW: "Refer to WPS-E7018 for welding of the root pass on joints 1 1/8" and over."
2
AVW: "Refer to WPS-E7018 or WPS-E70T-1 for welding of the second side of joints less than
or equal to 1" thick."
If one PQR is used to qualify two processes or electrodes and the subordinate one is not used for
any other welding, reference the same PQR on both WPS. On the dominate WPS give the
thickness range qualified by the PQR and on the subordinate WPS state that only one
application is qualified; i.e., "Root pass only is qualified" or "Second side only is qualified", etc.
4.5

Preheat requirements. Refer to Standard 895 for CBI minimum preheat requirements.
Pertinent code and customer preheat requirements must also be addressed.

For standard CBI preheat requirements, use pertinent information directly from 895 tables for the P
and Group numbers of materials,
4.5.1 Form WL 100S The following is a description of each entry required on form WL 100S.
The paragraph numbers correspond to the circled numbers shown on the sample form in Fig. 4.7.
1
List maximum interpass temperature.
2
List P number, Group number, material type, and if material is PWHT. Example: Preheat
requirement for P-1 Gp-1 materials (A36, A283C) PWHT.
3
Use ambient temperature requirement. Example: 32F and above.
4
Use thickness range of materials. Spell out; do not use symbols. Example: Less than or equal
to 1 1/4".
5&6
List preheat temperature and referencing notes, Notes to be used are listed below.
Example: 100F Note-2.
Notes:*
1
Preheat for removing moisture may be used.
2
100F is considered warm to hand. (Use this note whenever 100F is
specified).
3
Preheat within 3" of the point of welding and maintain 3" ahead of arc.

Red Book # 830-1


Chicago Bridge & Iron Company. For Internal Use only.
9
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Maintain uniform heat over entire joint.

4.5.2 Preheat requirements for various welding processes are given in standard 895. Do not
confuse preheat requirements for different processes.
4.5.3 Normally preheat charts will be used for SMAW, GMAW, and GTAW.
4.5.4 In lieu of tables, preheat statements may be used for limited preheat requirements. Examples
are listed below.
Materials P-1 - Group 1
Maximum t 1 1/4" with or without PWHT: "No preheat is required except as an aid for removing
moisture or unless the ambient temperature falls below 32F. When the ambient temperature
falls below 32F, the plate shall be preheated warm to the hand within 3" of the point of
welding and maintain 3" ahead of arc.
Materials P-1 - Groups 2 and 3 ambient temperature 50F:
Maximum t 1 1/4" with or without PWHT: "No preheat is required except as an aid for removing
moisture."
Materials P-1 - Groups 2 and 3 ambient temperature < 50F:
Maximum t 1 1/8" with or without PWHT: "No preheat is required except as an aid for removing
moisture or unless the ambient temperature falls below 50 F. When the ambient temperature
falls below 50 F, preheat within 3" of the point of welding and maintain 3" ahead of arc.
*
The use of these notes shall be dictated by the notes in Standard 895, code, and the customer
requirements.

93.LIF

Fig. 4.7 - Form WL 100S


Non-ferrous or austenitic welding: "No preheat is required except as an aid for removing
moisture or unless the ambient temperature falls below 0F. When the ambient temperature falls
below 0F, a preheat of warm to the hand (approx. 100F) is required within 3" of the start of
welding."

5.0
DISTRIBUTION OF THE WELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATIONS
See Table 5.0a and 5.0b. In all cases the completed WPS should be checked before distribution to
assure that it complies with code, customer, and/or CBI limitations, exceptions, and/or restrictions
and that it is correct and complete. The checker must initial and date the WPS in space 33 of form
WL 100.
The procedure qualification records (see 831-1 ) must also be checked to assure that they meet
customer, code and CBI requirements and comply with ASME Section IX, but do not provide more
data than necessary. Unless specifically required, impact data, dropweight data, chemistries, or
other special information should not be included.
When hardness data is required, it should be reported on form WL 1 or WL 10, as applicable. Form
WL 120, Hardness Test Report, should not be sent out.
Table 5.0a
Distribution of Welding Procedure

Red Book # 830-1


Chicago Bridge & Iron Company. For Internal Use only.
10
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Specification for All Structures Except


Those Built to ASME Section III (Nuclear)

Cover Letter
Title Page
All WPS's
Referenced GWPS
Referenced PQR
RBS Attachments
Special Instructions

CB&I Organization
Local Welding & QC Originating
Manager
Department (1)
Original
1 Copy
Original (2)
1 copy
Original (2)
1 copy
1 copy
On File
1 copy
On File
1 copy
On File
Original (2)
1 copy

Notes:

(1)
(2)

Customer or Owner
Copies as Required
Copies as Required
Copies as Required
Copies as Required
Copies as Required
Not to be Sent
Not to be Sent

Originating Department will be CWT or assigned WEE Group.


Documents will be sent to contract file.
Documents may be saved in electronic format in Lotus Notes.

Table 5.0b
Distribution of Welding Procedure Specification
for Vessel Built to ASME Section III (Nuclear)
CB&I Organization
Local Welding & QC Originating
Manager
Department (1)
Cover Letter
Title Page
All WPS's
Referenced GWPS
Referenced PQR
RBS Attachments
Special Instructions

Customer or Owner

As Required by Contract Requirements

*******
Chicago Bridge & Iron Company, 2006. All Rights Reserved. For Internal Use Only.
NOTICE: THIS DOCUMENT, AND ALL TEXT, DRAWINGS, DETAILS AND DATA SHOWN HERETO, IS THE SOLE PROPERTY OF
CHICAGO BRIDGE & IRON COMPANY, AND SHALL NOT BE REPRODUCED IN ANY MANNER OR USED FOR ANY PURPOSE
WHATSOEVER EXCEPT BY EXPRESS WRITTEN PERMISSION OF CHICAGO BRIDGE & IRON COMPANY.