DEFINITION : Wine is an Alcoholic Beverage produced by natural fermentation of freshly gathered Grape juice. Produced according to the Local traditions and practices. WINE PRODUCING REGIONS OF THE WORLD. OLD WORLD WINES : Wine producing countries of Europe such as France, Germany, Italy, Spain & Portugal. NEW WORLD WINES : Wines producing countries such as Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, North & South America.


GROWING GRAPES. Grapes grow on vines. There are many different types of grapes, but the best wine grape is the European Vitis vinifera. It is considered optimal because it has the right balance of sugar and acid to create a good fermented wine without the addition of sugar or water.

HARVEST Weather is a major factor is determining whether a year is going to be a "good vintage" (or "year"). For example, was there enough heat during the growing season to lead to enough sugar? At harvest time, the short-term effects of weather are quite important. To produce great wine, the fruit should have a high (but not overly high) sugar content ("brix"). Think of raisins. As the fruit dries, the water evaporates. What is left is the sugary fruit. If it rains just at the point the wine grapes are ready, and before the grapes can be harvested, the additional water will cause the water level to increase, and the brix will go down. Not good. (You might ask, why not just add some sugar in the wine making process? Some do. Also considered "not good.") Every year the wine grape grower plays a game of chance and must decide when to harvest. Simplistically, if you knew it wasn't going to rain, you would just test the brix until it was just right, then harvest. If you harvest too soon, you will probably end up getting a wine too low in alcohol content (there won't have been enough sugar to convert to alcohol). These wines will be "thin." If you delay harvest, there may be too much sugar, which leads to too low acid content. This also affects the taste (and the aging possibilities) of the wine.

INITIAL PROCESSING OF THE GRAPE JUICE Grapes can (and might still) be crushed by stomping on them with your feet in a big vat. But a more practical way is to use a machine which does the job (and at the same time, removes the stems). What you get may or may not get immediately separated. Skin and seeds might immediately be removed from the juice. Separation may not immediately occur

(especially for red wines), since skins and stems are an important source of "tannins" which affect wine's taste and maturity through aging. (See Aging Wines.) The skins also determine the color of the wine (see WHAT IS WINE). Maceration (the time spent while skins and seeds are left with the juice) will go on for a few hours or a few weeks. Pressingwill then occur. One way to press the grapes is to use a "bladder press," a large cylindrical container that contains bags that are inflated and deflated several times, each time gently squeezing the grapes until all the juice has run free, leaving behind the rest of the grapes. You can also separate solids from juice through the use of a centrifuge. OPERATIONS IN A WINERY

FERMENTATION - TURNING GRAPE JUICE INTO ALCOHOL Grape juice is turned into alcohol by the process of "fermentation." Grapes on the vine are covered with yeast, mold and bacteria. By putting grape juice into a container at the right temperature, yeast ( SACCHROMYCES ELLIPSOIDUES )will turn the sugar in the juice into alcohol and carbon dioxide. The grape juice will have fermented. Fermentation is carried out in stainless steel vessels. Yeast also gives flavor to the wine. But the yeast that is on the grape skin when it is harvested may not have the desired flavor. Other things on the outside of a grape are not good for wine (for example, acetic bacteria on the grapes can cause the wine to turn to vinegar). The winemaker can eliminate unwanted yeast's, molds and bacteria, most commonly by using the "universal disinfectant," sulfur dioxide. Unfortunately, the sulfites which remain in the wine may cause a lot of discomfort to some wine drinkers. (See ALLERGIC REACTIONS TO WINE.). Some winemakers prefer NOT to do this, and purposely create wines that are subject to the vagaries (and different flavors) of the yeast that pre-exist on the grapes ("wild yeast fermentation"). The winemaker has many different yeast strains to choose from (and can use different strains at different times during the process for better control fermentation ). The most common wine yeast is Saccharomyces. This is a good point to stop and mention "Brett," also known as the Brettanomyces strain of yeast (which can be added or come from wild yeast fermentation). As yeast works, it causes grape juice ("must") to get hot. But if there's too much heat, the yeast won't work. Cooling coils are necessary to maintain a temperature below 30  C. A less modern, but still wide widely used way to ferment wine is to place it in small oak barrels. "Barrel fermentation" is usually done at a lower temperature in temperature controlled rooms and takes longer, perhaps around 6 weeks. The longer fermentation and use of wood contributes to the flavor (and usually expense) of the wine. The skins and pulp which remain in a red wine vat will rise to and float on top of the juice. This causes problems (if it dries out, it's a perfect breeding ground for injurious bacteria), so the winemaker will push this "cap" back down into the juice, usually at least twice a day. In large vats, this is accomplished by pumping juice from the bottom of the vat over the top of the cap. Eventually the yeast is no longer changing sugar to alcohol (though different strains of yeast, which can survive in higher and higher levels of alcohol, can take over and contribute their own flavor to the wine-as well as converting a bit more sugar to alcohol). After all this is completed what you have left is the wine, "dead" yeast cells, known as "lees and various other substances.

MALO-LACTIC FERMENTATION The winemaker may choose to allow a white wine to undergo a second fermentation which occurs due to malic acid in the grape juice. When malic acid is allowed to break down into carbon dioxide and lactic acid (thanks to bacteria in the wine), it is known as "malo-lactic fermentation," which imparts additional flavor to the wine. A "buttery" flavor in some whites is due to this process. This process is used for sparkling wines.

FIRST RACKING After fermentation completed naturally or stopped by addition of distilled spirit, first racking is carried out. This involves the wine to stand still until most yeast cells and fine suspended material settle out. The wine is then filtered without disturbing the sediment or the yeast.

WINERY AGING The winery may then keep the wine so that there can be additional clarification and, in some wines, to give it a more complex flavors. Flavor can come from wood (or more correctly from the chemicals that make up the wood and are taken up into the wine). The wine may be barrel aged for several months to several years. No air is allowed to enter the barrels during this period. Ignoring any additional processing that might be used, you could empty the barrels into bottles and sell your wine. However, during the winery aging, the smaller containers may develop differences. So the winemaker will probably "blend" wine from different barrels, to achieve a uniform result. Also, the winemaker may blend together different grape varieties to achieve desired characteristics.

STABILIZATION, FILTRATION Stabilization is carried out to remove traces of tartaric acid. These tartarates present in the grape juice tend to crystallize in wine and if not removed completely can slowly reappear as glass like crystals in final bottles on storage. Stabilization with respect to tartarates may involve chilling of wine that can crystallize tartarates and these crystals can be removed by filtration. PASTEURIZATION If the wine has an alcohol content less than 14% it may be heat pasteurized or cold pasteurized through microporous filters just before bottling. BOTTLING WINE Producers often use different shaped bottles to denote different types of wine. Colored bottles help to reduce damage by light. (Light assists in oxidation and breakdown of the wine into chemicals, such as mercaptan, which are undesirable.

History Of Wine

The history of wine spans thousands of years and is closely intertwined with the history of agriculture, cuisine, civilization and humanity itself. Archaeological evidence suggests that the earliest wine production came from sites in Georgia and Iran, dating from 6000 to 5000 BC. The archaeological evidence becomes clearer and points to domestication of grapevine in Early Bronze Age sites of the Near East, Sumer and Egypt from around the third millennium BC. Evidence of the earliest European wine production has been uncovered at archaeological sites in Macedonia, dated to 6,500 years ago. These same sites also contain remnants of the world’s earliest evidence of crushed grapes. In Egypt, wine became a part of recorded history, playing an important role in ancient ceremonial life. Traces of wild wine dating from the second and first millennium BC have also been found in China Wine was common in classical Greece and Rome and many of the major wine producing regions of Western Europe today were established with Phoenician and later Roman plantations. Wine making technology, such as the wine press, improved considerably during the time of the Roman Empire; many grape varieties and cultivation techniques were known and barrels were developed for storing and shipping wine.[9] In medieval Europe, following the decline of Rome and therefore of widespread wine production, the Christian Church was a staunch supporter of the wine necessary for celebration of the Catholic Mass. Whereas wine was also forbidden in medieval Islamic cultures, Geber and other Muslim chemists pioneered the distillation of wine for medicinal purposes[10] and its use in Christian libation was widely tolerated. Wine production gradually increased and its consumption became popularized from the 15th century onwards, surviving the devastating Phylloxera louse of the 1870s and eventually establishing growing regions throughout the world.

Wine, ancient art, modern science and global business
In one form or another wine production has been carried out for thousands of years. Pottery discovered in Persia (present-day Iran), dated at 5,500 BC show evidence of grape use for winemaking. Jars from Jiahu in China containing wine from wild grapes date to between 6000 and 7000 BC. But whether ancient or modern, many of the same conditions are required and similar techniques used. The chemistry of grapes is eternal. Wine grapes grow, with few exceptions, only in bands delineated by latitudes 30-50 degrees North and 30-45 degrees South of the equator. Unlike most crops, grapes don't require fertile soil. The thinness of the soil restricts the quantity of the crop, producing fewer grapes of higher quality. Paradoxically, soils too rich in nitrogen and other nutrients —highly beneficial for most plants— can produce grapes unsuitable for winemaking. Fine for eating, but lacking desirable quantities of minerals, sugars and acids. The best wines are produced from soil that would be considered poor quality for other agricultural purposes. The stellar wines from Bordeaux are made from grapes grown in gravelly soil, atop a base of clay or chalk. Fewer grapes are grown, but high in quality. The pebbly earth allows for good drainage — grapevines require access to adequate, but not excessive, water. As the roots reach down further, more complex minerals are absorbed. Vineyards are most often founded in river valleys, with slopes that provide abundant sunshine. Vines there are most often of the European species vitis vinifera, from which many common wines are made, such as Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Merlot. Viticulture, the practice of growing grapes for wine, is today one of the most complex agricultural undertakings. A master vintner (today, sometimes called an oenologist), must be an expert in soil chemistry and fermentation, climatology and several other ancient arts and modern sciences. In addition to categorization by variety, the products of these vines are classified by vinification methods - sparkling, still, fortified, rosé, blush — or by region — Bordeaux, Burgundy and Alsace — and of course by vintage, as well as a dozen other methods. After the farmer, chemist and manufacturer have had their say, the businessman must take over. In 2002, 595 million gallons of wine were sold in the U.S. alone, representing over $20 billion in consumer spending. France led the pack with 22% of export volume, with Italy a close 20% behind. The bold artists of wine must possess a sensitive nose and palette and balance dozens of time-sensitive factors such as when to harvest, how long to ferment and age, when to

bottle. And that's before considering modern manufacturing and marketing requirements, not to mention legal restrictions. An art, a science and a business definitely not for the timid.

Wine clubs for every taste
If there's a country somewhere with only one citizen, it probably has a wine club with a dozen members. Once the province of the enthusiast or specialist, wine clubs are now as popular as Starbucks. Wine clubs are founded for as many reasons as there are founders. Many are started in order to take advantage of group or special pricing available only to members. Others simply want to enjoy the variety that comes with receiving a new and often unexpected, vintage or vineyard every month. And, of course, a great many begin because the members seek the social interaction and the joy from sharing their favorites with others. With a wine club comes an invaluable source of information about varieties, vintages and wineries from around the world. Clubs in every country exist that are devoted to the wines of that country, and other clubs seek out the new by exploring wines imported from elsewhere. French clubs investigate wines from Australia (though they don't confess it!), and Italians and Spaniards review wines from California — many made by relatives with family ties going back generations. Some wine clubs are as new as ten minutes ago, others started over 100 years ago. Often the experts that found or join these clubs are equal in knowledge and experience, regardless of the age of the clubs. From these experts comes advice about wine glass preparation, tasting methods or home winemaking tips along with recommendations for the best whites, reds or dessert wines. There are clubs devoted to the product of a particular winery, often having been started by the owners themselves. These specialists can give early information about their own harvests, so enthusiasts can look forward in the coming years to sampling the finest these entrepreneurs offer. Such clubs will often make certain wines available only to club members and at reduced prices. One club is even dedicated to those who have sampled over 100 different wines — and the forum discussing the wines is very lively! Each member has tasted over 100 wines, so the total selection ranges in the several hundred, with some overlap. But at the end of the day, all the clubs provide their members with the expertise and experience of some of the world's most knowledgeable and enthusiastic makers and drinkers of wine. And a mind-boggling amount of material it is. The ease of sharing information worldwide and almost instantaneously, made possible by e-mail and the Internet, has produced a cornucopia of opinions about every aspect of

wine. Debates rage about best vintage, pairing, vineyards, pros and cons of soil and climate types and on and on. Passions around political disagreements pale beside this United Nations of wine. Fortunately, no wars have recently broken out, (some historians assert the influence of the grape is responsible in part for more than one!), but there are occasional skirmishes. Still, next time you're invited to attend that special event honoring the 'premier' of a new wine, leave the Kevlar vest at home. Just be prepared with some oenological (the study of wine) ammunition — and don't forget, the purpose is to enjoy!

Wine, storing before pouring
Wine, like anything else, will always change over time. The trick is to control the rate and types to produce desirable changes and avoid harmful ones. The variables needing to be controlled are air, temperature, light, vibration and humidity. Nothing spoils good wine faster than too much air — it causes wine to age rapidly, oxidizing and losing freshness. Before long you have vinegar. Fortunately it's not necessary to build a vacuum chamber, glass is impermeable to air for centuries and a good cork will keep air exchange to a minimum for years. Still, there's some air in the bottle to begin with — this is good, since it's essential to a proper aging process — and corks can go bad. Keeping wine bottles stored horizontally helps keep corks moist, preventing cracking or shrinking that admits air. Storing wine at around 70 percent humidity is important to keep corks properly moistened — too low humidity dries them out, but higher humidity encourages growth of mold and mildew which injures racks, casks and spoils cork tops. Even more importantly, proper temperature keeps corks from shrinking when too cold and wine from aging too quickly when too warm. In a cellar of 25 percent whites, 75 percent reds, 45-55F (7C-13C) is preferred. Some areas are blessed with natural conditions in this range, but most will need some kind of refrigeration unit. For smaller collections, wine cabinets can be purchased. Almost as important as the actual temperature is the rate of change. A ten degree change over a season is harmless, but frequent and rapid changes can severely damage wine, even when stored within the desired range. Not surprisingly, the higher the storage temperature the faster a wine will age. Conversely, colder storage temperatures slow the aging process. Adjust for the type of wine stored. Along with controlling temperature and humidity, light exposure should be kept to a minimum. Though modern bottles have good UV filters, some can still penetrate — leading to a condition called 'light struck', which shows up as an unpleasant aroma.

Incandescent bulbs produce less ultra violet light than fluorescents, so the former are preferable. Vibration interferes with aging, stirs up sediments and in extreme cases can cause racks to deteriorate faster. Try to avoid moving bottles until ready to be served. Bottle size plays a small part, since a larger bottle has a smaller ratio of air to wine. Purchase or use larger bottles when possible. Once a bottle has been opened transfer the leftover wine to a smaller bottle if the remainder isn't consumed within a few days.

Wine producing areas


Country (with link to wine article) Italy France Spain United States Argentina China Australia South Africa Germany Chile Portugal Romania

Production (tonnes) 5,329,449 5,056,648 3,934,140 2,232,000 1,564,000 1,300,000 [1] 1,274,000 1,157,895 1,014,700 788,551 576,500 575,000

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

Russia Hungary Greece Brazil Austria Ukraine Moldova Bulgaria Croatia Serbia and Montenegro FYR Macedonia New Zealand Switzerland Lebanon Mexico

512,000 485,000 437,178 320,000 258,000 240,000 230,000 200,000 [2] 180,000 174,000 150,000 120,000 120,000 112,559 102,778

28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42

Japan Algeria Georgia Czech Republic Canada Slovenia Uzbekistan Peru Slovakia Cyprus Morocco Tunisia Turkmenistan Turkey Kazakhstan

90,000 77,000 65,000 55,000 50,400 50,000 45,000 43,500 39,519 38,500 35,000 24,000 24,000 22,548 21,000

43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57

Cuba Albania Belgium Luxembourg Uruguay Madagascar Armenia Belarus Bosnia and Herzegovina Israel Tajikistan Paraguay Lithuania Azerbaijan Egypt

17,300 17,000 16,000 16,000 15,000 8,900 8,000 7,500 7,500 6,500 6,175 6,000 5,160 5,000 4,200

58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70

Kyrgyzstan Venezuela Bolivia Ethiopia Zimbabwe United Kingdom Malta Syria The Netherlands Panama India Liechtenstein Réunion

3,500 2,100 2,048 1,699 1,600 1,450 630 300 180 165 130 80 13

Types of wine
Red Wine -

Red wine is made from grapes that are usually red or purple in color. The color of the wine comes from leaving these dark colored skins in with the juice during the wine making process. This is different from white wine where the skins are removed before the wine making process begins.

Wine has been around for thousands of years. Until recently the process to make red wine, no matter what grape was used, was always exactly the same. In the 1940s, wine makers began to experiment with the wine making process. Today, wine makers use a variety of different wine making techniques leading to the unique combination of taste, aroma and flavor in each wine you try.

It is also different from white wine because of the tannin from the grape skins. Tannin gives it the ability to age longer than white wine. It also allows the wine to continue to improve during the aging process. You may have noticed the wine is categorized as having one of three body types: light bodied, medium bodied and full bodied. The body type does not refer to how the wine tastes, instead it gives you an idea of its overall depth and structure.

Red wine is the most popular and preferred form of wine world over. But not many people know about the different types of red wine. The wines are classified according to the grapes they are produced from and the area they are prepared in. when only one variety is mentioned on the bottle, it is called a ‘varietal wine’. Such wines are named after the grape and the first letter would be a capital letter. Read on to know the different types of red wine. Syrah / Shiraz (Pronounced as See-Rah / Shear-Oz) Syrah wine, also known as Shiraz, is produced widely in places like Rhone Valley (France), California and Australia. The Syrah is known for its rich aroma and dark color. The taste usually is a rich, fruity black-currant one. The Syrah is one of the most common grape varieties. Depending on the location and fermentation of the grapes, it is used to produce a spicy, complex wine or a simple wine. Shiraz wine is usually used to produce some of the finest wine varieties in the world with dark color and rich aroma and flavor. Merlot (Pronounced as Mehr-Low) The Merlot is preferred by people these days due to the fact that it has a very soft and light taste. The Merlot grapes can be used independently to make Merlot wine and can also be blended with other grapes to produce some really fine wines. A cool consistent climate is preferred to grow Merlot wine grapes. It is grown in abundance in Italy, Romania, California, Washington State, Chile and Australia. The typical flavor of this wine resembles with the taste of black cherry and herbs.

Cabernet Sauvignon (Pronounced as Cah-burr-Nay Sow-vee-Nyoh) One of the best varieties of wine, Cabernet Sauvignon is said to be one of the best varieties of wine, accepted world-wide. It is fermented in oak barrels to give it a unique

taste. Cabernet Sauvignon grapes are most widely planted grapes world over. The grapes need ample sunshine and well-drained soils to grow. This wine is supposed to have health properties and when taken in moderation, is supposed to have health benefits like preventing cardiovascular diseases. Pinot Noir (Pronounced as Pee-noh Nwah) A rare variety, the Pinot Noir is known as the noblest variety of red wine grape. This rare grape is not very easy to grow and is produced in select places like Loire valley, California, Oregon, and New Zealand. Pinot Noir grapes are among the oldest varieties of wine grapes that are grown. Often, it so happens that the parent grape may produce a fruit that may be totally different in size, flavor, color and even aroma. Zinfandel (Pronounced as Zin-fan-Dell) This is one of the most versatile wines and is grown only in California. It is used to produce the red as well as white wines. The Zinfandel grapes are red skinned and have a very luscious texture. The skin is usually quite thin and if not picked in time, it may rot quickly. They grow in tight bunches and the fruits have much depth of flavor. Sangiovese (Pronounced as San-jo-vay-zay) Sangiovese wine is produced in Tuscany (Italy) and California. It has a strong plum and berry taste and is one of the most important grape that is planted. They are black colored grapes and are widely grown in Italy. These grapes usually give a high yield, even though they take time to ripen. The Sangiovese grapes produce wines that have medium to high natural acidity. Barbera (Pronounced as Bar-bear-ah) Though it has similar attributes as the Merlot, it is not as popular. This is a versatile wine and is produced on a large scale in California. It has a silky texture, juicy plum fruit taste and just the right amount of acidity. The grape that is used to produce Barbera wine is a juicy black one that grows in long tight bunches.

White Wines –

White wine differs from red wine in, first and most obviously, color. Under that skin, the pulpy part of a white grape is the same color as that of a red grape. The skin dictates the end color for red wine, which differs from the white's color determinates.

This is mainly due to the pressing of the grapes. When white grapes are picked, they are immediately pressed and the juice is removed from the skins with little contact. Color in white wine does vary, often from the type of grape, occasionally from the use of wood. Listed below are a few of the most common white varieties in the world wine market and of They are listed from lighter bodied, and lighter colored, to fuller bodied with deeper colors. The list is not set in stone – winemaker's decisions and climate may affect the end result of a white wine's body and color – we just give you the guidelines. Grapes/Region Champagne Where primarily grown Champagne, France

Pinot Grigio/Pinot Gris Alsace, France; Italy; Oregon; California Sauvignon Blanc Chenin Blanc Riesling Chardonnay Viognier Loire, France; New Zealand; California; South Africa Loire, France; South Africa Germany; Alsace, France; Australia; New Zealand; Washington State; California Burgundy, France; Australia; California; South America; South Africa; Oregon Rhone, France; California

Other white grapes to notice, listed alphabetically: Grapes Albariño Gewurztraminer Sémillon Where they grow best Spain Alsace, France; Germany Bordeaux, France; Australia

White Wine Types
The taste and texture of the white wine differs according to the different types of grapes

that are used to prepare the white wine and also several other variables like the weather, soil, yeast and the aging manner of the wine. White wine or any of the different types of wine differ according to the outside conditioning that the grapes go through along with the process of wine making. The more they are pampered, the best types of wine they produce. When we try to find out the types of white wine, we come to know that there are more than at least 1000 varieties of grapes that can be used for the production of the wine. Chardonnay Chardonnay is the most famous and largest selling white wine amongst them all. There is the "ABC; Anything But Chardonnay" formula that tells us the popularity of the Chardonnay white wine. Chardonnay can be said as the best wine to accompany a great food. Chardonnay is also referred as the queen of white wines. Chardonnay white wine is medium to highly acidic with the hint of nuts, oak,fruits, vanilla and several spices as well. Gewürztraminer Gewürztraminer is the famous white wine that is largely produced in Germany and France (Alsace). Gewürztraminer is a type of German wine, the name actually means "spicy". Gewürztraminer is a sweet wine that has floral fragrance. This type of white wine is produced in the cooler parts of the world. Gewürztraminer has light acidity and crispy bold flavor, which is loved all over the world. Pinot Grigio Pinot Grigio is known as Pinot Gris in the US. Pinot Gris is the second most favorite white wine amongst the wine admirers. Pinot Grigio tastes best when combined with delightful seafood! Pinot Grigio has a citrus aroma. European Pinot Grigio is acidic than the American Pinot Gris. You can try all the American wine, Italian wine and the French wine, all of them will taste very different from each other. Sauvignon Blanc Sauvignon blanc is also known as 'fumé blanc'. Sauvignon blanc is very popular amongst the middle class white wine admirers as it is the most cost effective wine amongst all other types of white wine. It is mostly produced in Loire and Bordeaux which are the wine regions of France. Sauvignon blanc is also produced in South Africa, California and New Zealand. Sauvignon blanc has very crisp and light acidic taste. Sauvignon blanc is a totally aromatic type of white wine with a flavor of lemon, gooseberry and grapes. Nothing can compare the shining glass of Sauvignon blanc combined with delicious coconut shrimp!

Riesling Riesling, the most expensive white wine, is ideal for a special occasion. Riesling is produced in Germany, France and Finger Lakes District of New York. Riesling has a

great fruity aroma and medium to light acidic taste. Riesling has a great ability to age and taste the most delightful. Riesling can age more than many of the red wines as well! Riesling and Asian cuisine can be said as the ultimate lip-smacking combination! Viognier Viognier is a type of French wine, primarily made in the Rhone region of France and also in California. Viognier has a great tropical smell, like a banana or a peach. Viognier has the highest alcohol levels amongst all types of white wine. Since the Viognier has a great floral and tropical aroma any rich tropical food or baked brie cheese will suit just great with it. Along with the above mentioned types of white wine, semillon, muscat, roussanne or marsanne are also very popular amongst the white wine aficionados. White wine always seem interesting when combined with different cuisines. You can learn more about the different types of wine by joining one of the wine clubs in your city, they can be a great help regarding wine and all the information on wine making as well. This was all about the different types of white wine, I hope now you have decided your kind of white wine that will suit your taste!

Fortified wines

A fortified wine is a wine to which spirits such as brandy have been added. In addition to raising the alcohol content of the wine, the spirits also change the flavor profile, making a unique and very distinctive wine. While fortified wine was originally born out of necessity, consumers began to appreciate and enjoy the flavor, and so producers continue to make it.

There are a wide number of varieties of fortified wine, although some of the most famous are Vermouth from France, Marsala from Italy, Sherry from Spain, and Madeira and Port

from Portugal. Most fortified wines are named after the regions that they are produced in, as each regional fortified wine has a distinct style. They may also be further classified by grade and fermenting process, as is the case with sherry, which comes in varieties like Fino and Oloroso. In some cases, a fortified wine may be protected with an Appellation of Controlled Origin, meaning that only wines from a certain region may bear that name. Wines not made in that region can only be labeled as being in the “style” of that particular area. The origins of fortified wine can be found in the 16th century, when a growing number of countries were exporting wine. Unfortunately, these wines were not terribly shelf stable, and they often went bad during the shipping process. To compound the problem, the wines were also not able to stand up to the often violent movements belowdecks. In an effort to preserve their wines, winemakers began adding brandy, creating fortified wine. In brandy is added before the fermentation process begins, the result is a very sweet, rich fortified wine such as Port, which is often used as a dessert wine. Adding brandy afterwards makes a more dry wine, like traditional dry Vermouth. Depending on how the wine is aged and handled, the flavor can vary widely, from the mellowness of cream sherry to the extreme tartness of an extra-dry vermouth.

Champagne and Sparkling Wines

Champagne, that wonderful nose tickling beverage, is by far the most famously celebrated of all sparkling wines.

Champagne is a type of Sparkling Wine, but... The type of sparkling wine that can be truly called Champagne is made only from grapes of the Champagne region of France. Not only that, but French law dictates that all sparkling wines made in that area must be made by a special process called the traditional orchampagne method. The French term is méthod champenoise. Only then, should it be called Champagne. Bubblies produced in other parts of the world, even if they are created by the traditional method, should be referred to as sparkling wines. This does not necessarily mean that they are of lower quality. It simply means that they would not be referred to as Champagne. There are many high quality sparkling wines made in other areas of the world.

Wines From All Around The World

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3 Blind Moose Acacia Achaia Clauss Adelsheim Alamos Alderbrook Alfasi Alice White Allegrini Alois Lageder Amberhill Andrew Angoves Anne At Home Annie's Lane Antinori Apaltagua Arbor Archipel Argiolas Argyle Ariel Arnold Palmer Arrowood Artesa Astoria Au Bon Climat Austin Avalon Avia Babich BABOR Bacardi Backsberg Banfi Barkan Baron Barton & Guestier Baxter Belle Glos

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Benziger Bergstrom Beringer Bernardus Bertani Bethel Heights Black Box Black Opal BLACK SWAN Bloom Bodega Norton Bogle Bonny Doon Bouchaine Bouchard Pere & Fils Boucheron Boutari Brancott Buehler Buena Vista Burgess Byron Cakebread Caldwell Callaway Cambria Campo Viejo Candoni Canoe Ridge Cantele Canyon Cape Mentelle Cardinal Carica Carmen Carpe Diem Cartlidge & Browne Casa Lapostolle Casanova di Neri Castlewood Catena Cavit

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Caymus Cecchi Cellarbrokers Chalk Hill Chalone Chappellet Chasseur Chateau Lamargue Clarendon Hills Clos du Bois Clos Du Val Clos LaChance Clos Pegase Coastal Coates Cobb Columbia Sportswear Concha y Toro Conn Creek Coppo Cousino Macul Creative Technology CRU d'Arenberg Darioush David Bruce DaVinci De Loach Delicato Directed Electronics Dog House Dominio de Tares Dominus Estate Dr. Loosen Dry Creek Vineyard Dunnewood Duo Dymo E. GUIGAL Earthquake Sound Earthworks Ecco Domani

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Echelon Edge Edmunds St. John Edna Valley Vineyard Elsa Emma Encyclopaedia Britannica EOS Errazuriz Estancia Eventide Evil Excelsior Fairview Falesco Far Niente Farnese Fat Bastard Felipe Rutini Ferrari Carano Fetzer Feudi di San Gregorio Fisher Multimedia Flora Springs Folie a Deux Folonari Fonterutoli FoodSaver Foppiano Forefathers Forest Fox Brook Francesco Rinaldi Francis Coppola Franciscan Frankland Estate Freeman Freemark Abbey Frei Brothers Frescobaldi Gainey

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Gallo of Sonoma Gary Farrell Georges Duboef Geyser Peak Giant GiftTree Girard Gladiator Glass Mountain Glen Carlou Gloria Ferrer Goats do Roam GoldenEye Greg Norman Grgich Hills Guerlain Hagafen Hall Hammond Hanna Hartford Haywood Heartland Hedges Henry Estate Henschke Heritage Heron Hess Hogue Honig Howard Park Indigo Hills Inniskillin Innocent Bystander Iron Horse Ironstone J. Garcia J. Lohr Jaboulet Jacob's Creek Jacuzzi

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Jean-Luc Colombo Jerry Garcia Jim Barry Jordan Joseph Drouhin Joseph Phelps Justin Boots Kangarilla Road Kanu Kedem Kendall Kenwood Kim Crawford King Estate Kraft Kris Kunde La Carraia La Crema La Monica Laboure Roi LaGarde Lagaria Lake Sonoma Lancaster Landmark Lighting Langtry Laroche Latour Laurel Laurent Perrier Leasingham Leeuwin Estate Legacy Car Audio Lewis Liberty Lily Lindemans Livio Felluga Logan Los Vascos Louis Jadot

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Louis Latour Louis Martini Louis Roederer Luca Luce Luna Luna Di Luna Lynx M. CHAPOUTIER Mad Fish Mak Malibu Man Vintners Manischewitz Margaux Marilyn Mark West Markham Marques de Caceres Marquis Philips Masi Matanzas Creek Matua Valley maXimo Melville Merryvale Mezzacorona Michele Chiarlo Mills Reef Mirassou Mitchell Montevina Morgan Muga Mulderbosch Murphy NAPA Natura Nautilus Neil Ellis Nepenthe Nero

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Newman's Own Neyers Nobilo NorthStar Nova Development Oggi Ojai Oracle Osborne Oxford Garden Palladio Parducci Paringa Pascal Jolivet Paul Hobbs Pavilion Pegasus Penfolds Penguin Penley Pepi Pepperwood Grove Perrin Petaluma Peter Lehmann Pine Ridge Pisoni Placido Planeta Pol Roger Pommery Ponzi Porcupine Ridge Pratesi Prevail Prunotto Ramos Pinto Rancho Raphael Ravenswood Raymond

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Red Diamond Redbank RedEnvelope Regaleali Renard Revolution Rex Hill Ricardo Santos Richards Riedel Riseccoli Robert Mondavi Robert Pecota Winery Rock Rabbit Rock River RockBare Rodney Strong Roederer Estate Rombauer Rosemount Rosenblum Cellars Rosenthal Ruffino Running With Scissors Rutherford Ranch Rutherford Vintners Saint Cosme Saintsbury Sanford Santa Margherita Santa Rita Sartori Savage Schiopetto Schott Schweiger Vineyards Sebastiani Seghesio Selby Sena Sensi Silver Oak

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Silverado Silverado Vineyards Simi Simonsig Smoking Loon Snoqualmie Solaris Sonoma Creek Spice Route Spring Valley St. Clement St. Francis Stags' Leap Steele Stella Sterling Sterling Vineyards Sticks Stonehaven Stoneleigh Stonestreet Stuart Sutter Home Swanson Tablas Creek Talbott Taltarni Talus Tamas Estates Terrabianca Terrazas The Foundry Tim Adams Tiziano Toro Torres Trapiche Trefethen Trevor Jones Trimbach Trinchero Trinity Oaks

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Trumpeter Twin Oaks Two Brothers Two Hands Valentin Bianchi Valley of the Moon Vampire Van Duzer Vasse Felix Vega Sindoa Vendange Veramonte Verite Veuve Clicquot Vietti Villa Maria Villa Mt. Eden Vina Penalolen Vincent Van Gogh Vinum Cellars Voga Volpaia Walnut Crest WATERBROOK Waterford Waterstone Wayborn Wente Wenzel Whitehall Wild Horse Willamette Wish Bone Wolf Blass Yalumba Yangarra Park Yarden Yellow Tail Zenato

Interesting Tables
Top ten wine exporting countries in 2009
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Italy France Spain Australia Chile United States Germany Argentina Portugal South Africa World


1000 tonnes
1,793 1,462 1,337 762 472 369 316 302 286 272 8,353

2009 export market share
Market share (% of value in US$)
34.9% 18.0% 9.3% 8.7% 4.3% 3.6% 3.5% 3.0% 2.4% 1.8%



1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

France Italy Australia Spain Chile United States Germany Portugal South Africa New Zealand

Indian Wines
Indian wine is wine made in the Asian country of India. Viticulture in India has a long history dating back to the time of the Indus Valley civilization when grapevines were believed to have been introduced fromPersia. Winemaking has existed throughout most of India's history but was particularly encouraged during the time of the Portuguese and British colonization of the subcontinent. The end of the 19th century saw thephylloxera louse take its toll on the Indian wine industry followed by religious and public opinion moving towards the prohibition of alcohol. Following the country's independence from the British Empire, theConstitution of India declared that one of the government's aims was the total prohibition of alcohol. Several states went dry and the government encouraged vineyards to convert to table grape and raisin production. In the 1980s and 1990s, a revival in the Indian wine industry took place as international influences and the growing middle class increased started increasing demand for the beverage. By the turn of the 21st century, demand was increasing at a rate of 20-30% a year.

History – Viticulture was believed to have been introduced to India by Persian traders sometime in the 4th millennia BC. Historians believe that these early plantings were used mostly for table grapes or grape juice rather than the production of an alcoholic beverage. During the Vedic period of the 2nd and 1st millennia, the Aryans tribes of the region were known for their indulgence of intoxicating drink and it seems probable that wine was a present beverage. The religious text of the Vedas mentions at least one alcoholic drink that may have been wine related-sura which seems to have been a type of rice wine that was fermented with honey. The first known mentioning of grape-based wines was in the late 4th century BC writings of Chanakya who was the chief minister of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya. In his writings, Chanakya condemns the use of alcohol while chronicling the emperor and his court's frequent indulgence of a style of grape wine known as Madhu.[1] In the centuries that would follow, wine became the privileged drink of the Kshatriya or noble class while the lowercaste typically drank alcohol made from wheat, barley and millet. Under the rule of the Muslim Mughal Empire, alcohol was prohibited in accordance to Islamic dietary laws. However there are written reports about

at least one Mughal ruler, Jahangir, who was fond of brandy wine. In the 16th century, Portuguese colonists at Goa introduced port-style wine and the production of fortified wines soon spread to other regions. Under British rule during the Victorian era, viticulture and winemaking was strongly encouraged as a domestic source for the British colonists. Vineyards were planted extensively through the Baramati, Kashmir and Surat regions. In 1883 at the Calcutta International Exhibition, Indian wines were showcased to a favorable reception. The Indian wine industry was reaching a peak by the time the phylloxera epidemic made its way to country and devastated its vineyards.[1] It was a long road for the Indian wine industry to recover from the devastation at the end of the 19th century. Unfavorable religious and public opinion on alcohol developed and culminated in the 1950s when many of India's states prohibited alcohol. Vineyards were either uprooted or encouraged to convert to table grape and raisin production. Some areas, like Goa, continued to produce wine but the product was normally verysweet and highly alcoholic. The turning part of the modern Indian wine industry occurred in early 1980s with the founding of Chateau Indage in the state of Maharashtra. With the assistance of French winemakers, Chateau Indage began to import Vitis vinifera grape varieties likeCabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Pinot blanc, Pinot noir and Ugni blanc and started making still and sparkling wines. Other wineries soon followed as the emergence of India's growing middle class fueled the growth and development of the Indian wine industry.

Climate & Geography – While a large portion of the Indian subcontinent is not ideal for viticulture, the large diversity of climate and geology does cover some areas with suitable terroir for winemaking to thrive. The summer growing season in India tends to be very hot and prone to monsoons. Many of India's wine regions also fall within the tropical climate band. Vineyards are then planted at higheraltitudes along slopes and hillsides to benefit from cooler air and some protection from wind. The altitude of India's vineyards typically range from around 660 ft (200 m) in Karnataka, 984 ft (300 m) in Maharashtra, 2,600 ft (800 m) along the slopes of the Sahyadri to 3,300 ft (1000 m) in Kashmir. Summertime temperature can get as hot as 113 °F (45 °C) and wintertime lows can fall to 46°F (8°C). During the peak growing season between June and August, rainfall averages 25-60 inches (625-1,500 mm)

Wine Regions – Vineyards in India range from the more temperate climate of the northwestern state of Punjabdown to the southern state of Tamil Nadu. Some of India's larger wine producing areas are located in Maharashtra, Karnataka near Bangalore and Andhra Pradesh near Hyderabad. Within the Maharashtra region, vineyards are found on the Deccan Plateau and around Baramati, Nashik, Pune, Sangli and Solapur. The high heat and humidity of the far eastern half of the country limits viticultural activity.

Viticulture & Wine – The heat and humidity of India's wine region dictates many of the viticultural choices that are made in the vineyards. Vines are often trained onbamboo and wire in a pergola to increase canopy cover and to get the grapes off the ground where they would be more prone to fungal diseases. The canopy protects the grapes against sunburn and rows are spaced wide to help with aeration between the vines. Irrigation is essential in many of India's wine regions and since the 1980s, drip irrigation has been widely used. The tropical conditions often promote highyields which requires frequent pruning throughout the year. Harvest normally takes place in September and is usually done by hand. In the very warm wine regions of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, grapevines can produce a crop twice a year.[1] India is home to several indigenous table grape varieties that can also be used in wine production with Anabeshahi, Arkavati and Arkashyambeing the most common. Popular non-native grapes include the Bangalore Blue (Isabella) and Gulabi (Black Muscat). The Turkish grapeSultana is the most widely planted grape in India, cover more than half of the 148,000 acres (60,000 ha) planted in the country. In addition to the imported French varieties that Chateau Indage planted, Sauvignon blanc, Zinfandel, Chenin blanc and Clairette have started to establish a presence in the Indian wine industry.

Food & Wine Harmony

Wine is a social drink which should be enjoyed in the company of friends The right combination between food and wine is a source of ultimate bliss for every connoisseur. Both wine and food can benefit from the right pairing. The right wine can accentuate unexpected gastronomical aspects of food and vice versa, wine can shine in a new light when accompanied by the right dish. In order to savor the splendor of such combinations, one does not need to frequent expensive restaurants and buy overpriced wines. Rather, when combining food and wine it is one's intuition and curiosity that are of paramount importance. Most rules for agreeable food - wine combinations date back to the 19th century and are made by French cooks who travel around Europe showing other nations the French savoir-vivre. It is since then that we know that champagne goes well with oysters, white wine - with seafood, and red wine - with game and red meats. Those rules, however, have been broken many times throughout the years because the nature of certain dishes and the rich wine variety available allow for a much freer interpretation. For example, some red meats could be made more enjoyable by stronger white wines. A more practical approach for combining wine with food is to avoid any possible dissonance between them. For example, an exceptional wine stands out much better when accompanied by a not so sophisticated dish that will bring out the wine's superb qualities instead of fighting with it. Certain wines and foods have "found" each other over the years and represent especially suitable combinations. Generally those are the regional wines and foods. Almost all local dishes go best with the wines from their regions.

Some tips for making good food - wine choices:
Try to balance the weight of both, i.e. heavy dishes and those with a strong taste, such as game and red meat should be enjoyed with an equally heavy wine. In most cases those are red wines but some full-bodied whites could be an equally suitable alternative. Dry wines could develop a very unpleasant sour or even bitter taste if served with desserts. Generally deserts are served with wines that are at least comparably sweet, if not sweeter. Wines with high acidity go best with heavy, rich in fat dishes. This is because the high fat content negates the impact of the acid. High-tannin wines should be combined with foods rich in proteins. The proteins combine with the tannins, thus diminishing the tannin taste. Wines made from grape varieties that contain a lot of tannins, such as Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah are an excellent match for red meats and other protein-rich foods. On the other hand, high-tannin wines acquire an unpleasant metallic taste if combined with fish and other seafood. Or they could have an extremely bitter taste when combined with salty dishes. So finally. which wine? You could have in mind the rules above when making your selection but don't be blinded by them and never take things for granted. Even when you are convinced that you have

found the perfect wine for a certain dish, a small change, such as a bad yield, a change in the production technology, or other, could disappoint you. So have an open mind and be ready to experiment. Needless to say, a lot of times the results would be a bit strange but that's what will make the whole experience interesting..!! The first thing to remember about matching food and wine is to forget the rules.Forget about the do's and the dont's. Forget about complicated systems and processes for selecting the right wine to enhance the food on your table. This is not astrophysics, It's simply common sense. follow your instincts and you can't go wrong....well most of the time anyway. Some of today's food-and-wine connoisseurs suggest that mediocre wines can be improved by serving them with the right food.The flaw in that reasoning,however, is that you will probably drink most of the wine without the benefit of food-either before the food is served or after you've finished your meal. If the match does not quite work as well as you hope, you're stuck with a mediocre wine. So don't try to get too fancy. First pick a good wine. This is where common sense comes in. The old rule about white wine with fish and white meats and red wine with red meat made perfect sense in the days when white wines were light and fruity and red wines were tannic and weighty. But today, when most California Chardonnays are heavier and fuller-bodied than most California Pinot Noirs and even some Cabernets,this traditional colour coding does not always work. Red wines as a category are distinct from whites in two main ways : tannins--many red wines have them, few white wines do--and flavors. White and red wines share many common flavors; both can be spicy, earthy or floral. But the apple, pear, and citrus flavors in many white wines seldom show up in reds, and the currant, cherry flavors of red grapes usually do not appear in whites. To match wines with food, it's useful to know where they fit in a spectrum, with the lightest wines at one end and fuller-bodied wines toward the other end. A Spectrum of Wines To help put the world of wines into perspective, here is a list, which arranges many of the most commonly encountered wines into hierarchy based on the above, from lightest to weightiest. If you balance the wine with the food by choosing one that will seem about the same weight as the food, you stand a much better chance that the match will succeed.

Selected dry and off-dry White Wines :
Soave Off-dry Riesling Dry Riesling Muscadet Champagne and other dry sparkling wines French Chablis and other unsoaked Chardonnays Sauvignon Blanc White Bordeaux White Burgundy Gewurztraminer Barrel-fermented or barrel-aged Chardonnay (United States, Australia)

Selected Red Wines :
Valpolicella Beaujolais Rioja California Pinot Noir Burgundy Chianti Classico Barolo Bordeaux Merlot (United States) Zinfandel Cabernet Sauvignon (United States, Australia) Rhone, Syrah, Shiraz

More common sense:Hearty food needs a hearty wine,because it will make a lighter wine taste insipid. With lighter food, you have more scope to play.Lighter wines will balance nicely, of course, but heartier wines will still show you all they have These are the secrets behind some of the classic wine-and-food matches. Muscadet washes down a plate of oysters because it's just weighty enough to match the delicacy of a raw mollusc. cabernet complements lamb chops or roast lamb because they're equally heavy or weighty. Pinot Noir or Burgundy makes a better match with roast beef because the richness of texture is the same in both. At this point, let us interject a few words about sweetness. Some wine drinkers recoil at the very thought of drinking an off-dry wine with dinner, insisting that any hint of sweetness in a wine destroys its ability to complement food. (also a lot of people feel that if they do order a sweet wine their colleagues will think them to be less educated about the worldly ways of wine !!!)In practice, nothing can be further from the truth. How many people drink sweetened iced tea with a meal? Lemonade? Or a Cola? Why should wine be different? The secret is balance. So long as a wine balances its sugar with enough natural acidity, a match an work. This opens plenty of avenues for fans of Geman Rieslings and White Zinfandel. One of the classic wine-and-food matches is Sauternes, a sweet dessert wine, with foie gras--which blows the sugarphobes' theory completely. The match works because the wine builds richness upon richness. The moral of the story is not to let some arbitrary rules spoil your fun. If you like a wine, drink it with food you enjoy and you're bound to be satisfied. In the end, if all this was a bit confusing...Go back to tradition White wines with White Meats Red Wines with Red Meats

Classification of wine

By vinification methods
Dark purple wine grapes on the vine Wines may be classified by vinification methods. These include classifications such as sparkling, still, fortified, rosé, and blush. The colour of wine is not determined by the juice of the grape, which is almost always clear, but rather by the presence or absence of the grape skin during fermentation. Grapes with colored juice are known as teinturiers, such as alicante bouchet. Red wine is made from red (or black) grapes, but its red colour is bestowed by the skin being left in contact with the juice during fermentation. White wine can be made from any colour of grape as the skin is separated from the juice during fermentation. A white wine made from a very dark grape may appear pink or 'blush'. Rosé wines are a compromise between reds and whites: a small amount of red wine is blended with a white wine. In sparkling wines, a form of Rosé is called Blanc de Noir where the juice of red grapes are allowed contact with the skins for a very short time (usually only a couple of hours). Sparkling wines, such as champagne, are those with carbon dioxide, either from fermentation or added later. They vary from just a slight bubbliness to the classic Champagne. To have this effect, the wine is fermented twice, once in an open container to allow the carbon dioxide to escape into the air, and a second time in a sealed container, where the gas is caught and remains in the wine. Sparkling wines that gain their carbonation from the traditional method of bottle fermentation are calledMéthode Traditionnelle or 'Methode Champanoise'. Other international denominations of sparkling wine include Sekt or Schaumwein (Germany), Cava (Spain), Spumante or Prosecco (Italy). In most countries except the United States, champagne is legally defined as sparkling wine originating from a region in France. Fortified wines are often sweeter, always more alcoholic wines that have had their fermentation process stopped by the addition of a spirit, such as brandy. Brandy is a distilled wine. Grappa is a dry colorless brandy, distilled from fermented grape pomace, the pulpy residue of grapes, stems and seeds that were pressed for the winemaking process.

By Taste –
Wines may be also classified by their primary impression on the drinker's palate. They are made up of chemical compounds which are similar to those in fruits, vegetables, and spices. Different grape varieties are associated with the aromas and tastes of different compounds. Wines may be described as 'dry' (meaning they are without obvious sugar), off-dry, fruity, or sweet, for example. The sugar content of grapes can be measured in brix, at harvest, and this determines the combined level of alcohol and residual sugar (in the absence of chaptalisation). Sweetness is in actuality determined by the amount of residual sugar in the wine after fermentation, relative to the acidity present in the wine. Dry wine, for example, has only a tiny amount of residual sugar. Specific flavors may also be sensed, at least by an experienced taster, due to the highly complex mix of organic molecules, such as esters, that a fully vinted wine contains.

Red grapes
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Cabernet Franc: tobacco, green bell pepper, raspberry, new-mown grass. Cabernet Sauvignon: blackcurrants, chocolate, mint, tobacco. Gamay: banana, bubble-gum, red fruits. Grenache: smoky, pepper, raspberry. Merlot: black cherry, plums, pepper, coffee. Mourvèdre: thyme, clove, cinnamon, black pepper, violet, blackberry. Nebbiolo: leather, tar, stewed prunes, chocolate, liquorice, roses. Norton: red fruit, elderberries. Petite Sirah (Durif): earthy, black pepper, dark fruits. Pinot Noir: raspberry, cherry, violets, "farmyard" (with age), truffles. Pinotage: banana, bramble fruits. Sangiovese: herbs, black cherry, leathery, earthy. Syrah (Shiraz): tobacco, black pepper, blackberry, smoke. Tempranillo: vanilla, strawberry, tobacco. Teroldego: spices, chocolate, red Fruits Zinfandel: black cherry, pepper, mixed spices, mint.

White grapes
• • • • • • • • •

Chardonnay: butter, melon, apple, pineapple, vanilla (if oaked, i.e. vinified in new oak aging barrels) Chenin Blanc: wet wood, beeswax, honey, apple, almond. Gewürztraminer: rose petals, lychee, spice. Grüner Veltliner: green apples, citrus Marsanne: almond, honeysuckle, marzipan. Riesling: citrus fruits, peach, honey. Sauvignon Blanc: gooseberry, lime, asparagus, cut grass, bell pepper. Sémillon: honey, orange, lime. Viognier: peach, pear, nutmeg, apricot.

By vintage
Wines may be classified by the year in which the grapes are harvested, known as the "vintage". "Vintage wines" are made from grapes of a single year's harvest, and are accordingly dated. These wines often improve in flavor as they age, and wine enthusiasts will occasionally save bottles of a favorite vintage wine for future consumption. For most types of wine, the best-quality grapes and the most care in wine-making are employed on vintage wines. They are therefore more expensive than non-vintage wines. Whilst vintage wines are generally made in a single batch so that each and every bottle will have a similar taste, climatic factors can have a dramatic impact on the character of a wine to the extent that different vintages from the same vineyard can vary dramatically in flavor and quality. Superior vintages, from reputable producers and regions, will often fetch much higher prices than their average vintages. Some vintage wines are only made in better-thanaverage years. Conversely, wines such as White Zinfandel, which don't age well, are made to be drunk immediately and may not be labeled with a vintage year. There are exceptions though. French Champagne is often non-vintage, but still expensive. It can sometimes profit from aging 2-3 years and some Prestige Cuvées even much longer.

By wine style Red wines
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Amarone: Italy Barbaresco: Italy Barolo: Italy Brancellao: Spain Brunello di Montalcino: Italy Beaujolais: France Bobal: Spain Bordeaux: France Burgundy: France Cabernet Sauvignon: France, Australia, California, Romania, Moldova, New Zealand, South Africa, Chile, Venezuela Cannonau: Italy Carmenere: Chile Cencibel: Spain Chianti: Italy Dimyat: Bulgaria Feteasca Neagra: Romania Feteasca Regala: Romania Garnacha aka Grenache aka Cannonau: France, Spain, South America, Australia, and California. Gumza: Bulgaria Kagor: Moldova Mavrodafni: Greece Mavrud: Bulgaria Mazuela: Spain Malbec: Argentina, France Melnik: Bulgaria Merlot: France, California, Chile, Italy, Romania, Moldova, South Africa, Washington, Venezuela, Australia Mirodia Red: Moldova Monastrell: Spain Nosiola: Norton: Eastern and Midwestern United States Pamid: Bulgaria Petite Syrah: California Pinot meunier: Pinot Noir: France, California, New Zealand, Oregon, Romania, Moldova, South Africa, Australia Pinotage: South Africa, Zimbabwe, New Zealand Rioja: Spain

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Syrah/Shiraz: France (N.Rhône), Australia, California, South Africa, Venezuela Tempranillo: Spain, Venezuela Timorasso: Trollinger: Germany Valpolicella: Italy Zinfandel: California

Sparkling red wines
• • •

Syrah/Shiraz: Australia Cabernet Sauvignon: Australia Lambrusco: Italy

Soleras wines
• • • • •

Marsala: Italy Moscatel: Portugal Palomino (grape used in Sherry): Spain Pedro Ximénez: Spain Porto: Portugal, South Africa ("port style", EU regulations forbid "port(o)" on labels)

White wines
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Airén: Spain Albillo: Spain Aleasa Dulce: Moldova Chardonnay: France, California, Germany, Australia, Romania, Moldova, New Zealand, South Africa Chablis: France Chenin Blanc: France, South Africa, Venezuela Doña Blanca: Spain Feteasca Alba: Romania, Moldova Frascati: Italy Gewürztraminer: France (Alsace), Romania, Germany, New Zealand, South Africa, Australia Goldmuskateller: Grasa de Cotnari: Romania Kerner: Macabeo: Spain Malvasía: Italy Meursault: France Mirodia White: Moldova Misket: Bulgaria Moscatel: Spain, Venezuela Müller-Thurgau: Germany, Northern Italy, England Muscat: Romania, Moldova, Australia, South Africa Orvieto: Italy

• • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Retsina: Greece Pinot Gris/Pinot Grigio/Grauburgunder: France, Romania, Italy, Germany, Oregon Pedro Ximénez: Spain Pouilly-Fuissé: France Riesling: France (Alsace), Romania, Germany, New Zealand, Australia Sauvignon Blanc: France, California, New Zealand, Romania, Moldova, South Africa, Venezuela, Australia Semillon: France, Australia, South Africa, Venezuela Silvaner: Germany Soave: Italy Tamaioasa Romaneasca: Romania Tokaji: Hungary, Part of Slovakia Torrontés: Spain, Argentina Traminer: Romania, Moldova, Australia Verdicchio dei castelli di Jesi: Italy

Sparkling white wines
• • • • • • • •

Champagne: France Vin Spumos (Zarea):Romania Asti spumante: Italy Franciacorta: Italy Prosecco: Italy Cava: Spain Txacolí: Spain Sekt: Germany

Pink wines
• • •

Rosé: Australia, France, Portugal, Spain, United States, South Africa Busuioaca de Bohotin: Romania

By quality
Gold lettering on collectible Sydney Opera House wine At the highest end, rare, super-premium wines are amongst the most expensive of all foodstuffs, and outstanding vintages from the best vineyards may sell for thousands of dollars per bottle. Red wines, at least partly because of their ability to form more complex subtleties, are typically more expensive. Some of the most expensive come from Bordeaux and Burgundy. However, some white dessert wines like German trockenbeerenauslese or French Sauternes for example, cost hundreds of dollars for a half bottle. Such premium wines are often at their best years or even decades after bottling. On the other hand, they may spoil after such long storage periods, unbeknownst to the drinker about to open the bottle. Part of the expense associated with high-end wine comes from the number of bottles which must be discarded in order to produce a drinkable wine. Restaurants will often charge between two and five times the price of what a wine merchant may ask for an exceptional vintage. This is for a reason: diners will often return wines that have spoilt and not bear the expense. For restaurateurs, serving old vintages is a risk that is compensated through elevated prices. Some high-end wines are Veblen goods (for conspicuous consumption). Exclusive wines come from all the best winemaking regions of the world. Secondary markets for these wines have consequently developed, as well as specialised facilities for post-purchase storage for people who either collect or "invest" in wine. The most common wines purchased for investment are Bordeaux and Port. The importance of the secondary wine market has led the rise of so-called "supercritics", most notably Robert M. Parker, Jr. The shift towards a perceived single-scale of wine analysis (the 100-point scale, or similar) has caused some traditionalists to claim that this process encourages a reduction in variety, as winemakers world-wide try to produce the allegedly single style of wine that will find favour with Mr. Parker and the many consumers who are influenced by his evaluations. The rise, in the late 90's, of wines produced by the garagistes in Bourdeaux, and the heavily tannic, highly fruit-driven wines of the New World, especially in California, Australia and New Zealand, all selling for prices above that of the First Growths appear to reflect the influence of Parker and changing wine tastes. (The First Growths were classified by the French government in 1855 as the four best wines in Bordeaux. A fifth was added in 1973.)

Investment in fine wine has attracted a number of fraudsters who play on fine wine's exclusive image and their clients' ignorance of this sector of the wine market. Wine fraud scams often work by charging excessively high prices for the wine, while representing that it is a sound investment unaffected by economic cycles. Like any investment, proper research is essential before investing. False labeling is another dishonest practice commonly used. Some wines, produced to mark significant events in a country or region, can also become collectible because of labelling design. An example is the Mildara Rhine Riesling produced in 1973 to mark the opening of the Sydney Opera House. Instead of labels, the bottles (red, as well as white) had printing in gold on them, as seen in the illustration.

Medical implications
Wine yearly consumption, per capita: less than 1 litre. from 1 to 7 litres. from 7 to 15 litres. from 15 to 30 litres. More than 30 litres. The health effects of wine (and alcohol in general) are the subject of considerable ongoing debate and study. In the USA, a boom in red wine consumption was touched off in the 1990s by '60 Minutes', and other news reports on the French paradox. It now seems clear that regular consumption of up to 1-2 drinks a day (1 standard drink is approximately equal to 5 oz, or 125 ml, of 13% wine) does reduce mortality, due to 10%– 40% lower risk of coronary heart disease, for those over the age of 35 or so (see Alcohol consumption and health). Originally, the effect was observed with red wine. Compounds, known as polyphenols, are found in larger amounts in red wine, and there is some evidence that these are especially beneficial. One particularly interesting polyphenol found in red wine is resveratrol, to which numerous beneficial effects have been attributed. Red wine also contains a significant amount of flavonoids and red anthocyanin pigments that act as antioxidants. With excessive consumption, however, any health benefits are offset by the increased rate of various alcohol-related diseases, primarily cancers of mouth, upper respiratory tract, and ultimately, cirrhosis of liver. Other studies have shown that similar beneficial effects on the heart can be obtained from drinking beer, and distilled spirits. However, recent studies show that only red wine reduces the risk of contracting several types of cancer where beer and other alcoholic beverages show no change. Dr. Sinclair of Harvard University and others claim that resveratrol is the active molecule responsible for the significant difference in lowering cancer risks and that the required amounts are only found in red wine. Trace amounts of resveratrol exist in grapes, white and red wine and peanuts. Sulfites (or sulphites) are chemicals that occur naturally in grapes and also are added to wine as a preservative. They can trigger a severe and life-threatening allergic reaction in a small percentage of consumers, primarily asthmatics. In the USA nearly all commercially produced wine, including that with no added sulfites, is required to state on the label "contains sulfites." In other countries they do not have to be declared on the label, leading to a common mistaken belief that only wine from the USA contains sulfites. Many consumers who have adverse reactions to wine, such as headaches or hangovers, blame added sulfites but are probably reacting instead to naturally-occurring biogenic amines such as histamine. The quantity of sulfites in a glass of wine is the same as in a serving of dried apricots.

Uses of wine

Wine is a popular and important beverage that accompanies and enhances a wide range of European and Mediterranean-style cuisines, from the simple and traditional to the most sophisticated and complex. Red, white and sparkling wines are the most popular, and are also known as light wines, because they only contain approximately 10-14% alcohol. The apéritif and dessert wines contain 14-20% alcohol, and are fortified to make them richer and sweeter than the light wines. Although there are many classes of dinner wines, they can be categorized under six specific classes as follows:

• •

Apéritif (or better known as "appetizer wines"): include dry sherry, Madeira, Vermouth, and other flavored wines, made to be consumed before eating a meal. Red dinner wines: These wines are usually dry and go extremely well with such main-course dishes as red meats, spaghetti, and highly-seasoned foods. They should be served at a cool room temperature to bring out their aroma. The most popular red dinner wines are claret, Burgundy, Chianti, and Cabernet Sauvignon. Pink dinner wines (also called "rose wines"), a special class of red wines, can be served with almost any dish, but are considered best with cold meats, pork, and curries. White dinner wines: Can be very dry to rather sweet, these wines should be served chilled, and go well with white meats, seafood, and fowl. They include Sauvignon Blanc, Pinot Grigio, Chardonnay and Riesling. Sparkling wines: Usually served at any meal with any course, these wines are most frequently served at banquets, formal dinners and weddings. Sparkling wines can be white, pink (rose), or red. The best known sparkling wines come from the Champagne region in France. Sparkling wines from Spain are called Cava, and in Germany they are called Sekt. Although often served throughout a meal, sparkling wines do not generally pair well with main meals, and should be served as an apèrtif or with certain entreès. Table wine: Table wine is not bubbly, although some have a very slight carbonation, the amount of which is not enough to disqualify them as table wines. According to U.S. standards of identity, table wines may have an alcohol content that is no higher than 14%. In Europe, light wine must be within 8.5% and 14% alcohol by volume. As such, unless a wine has more than 14% alcohol, or it has bubbles, it is a table wine or a light wine. In reality, in those regions where grapes ripen fully, such as Califonia's hot Central Valley, a large portion of new-world red wines have between 14 and 15.5% alcohol, yet are still certainly 'table wines' in the practical sense. Dessert wines: Ranging from medium-sweet to very sweet, these wines are classified under dessert wines only because they are sometimes served with desserts. Among these are port wine, sweet sherry, Tokay, Sauternes and muscatel. Cooking wines: Typically containing a significant quantity of salt, cooking wine is wine of such poor quality that it is unpalatable and intended for use only in cooking. (Note, however, that most cooking authorities advise against cooking with any wine one would find unacceptable to drink.)

The labels on certain bottles of wine suggest that they need to be set aside for an hour before drinking (ie. to "breathe"), while other wines are recommended to be drunk as soon as they are opened. 'Breathing' means allowing a wine to aerate before drinking. Generally, younger wines benefit from some aeration, while older wines do not. The word, "younger", refers to the first one third of a wine’s life, which varies from wine type to wine type and from wine to wine. For most white wines, "younger" means up to one to two years, while for red wines, they could mean as little as a few months, for a Beaujolais Nouveau, up to ten years for a hearty Barossa Shiraz. "Older", on the other hand, refers to the last one third of their lives. During aeration, the exposure of younger wines to air often "relaxes" the flavours and makes them taste smoother and better integrated in aroma, texture, and flavor. Wines that are older generally fade (lose their character and flavor intensity) with extended aeration. Breathing, however, does not benefit all wines, and should not therefore be taken to the extreme. In general, wine should be tasted as soon as it is opened to determine how long it may be aerated, if at all. It should then be tasted every 15 minutes until the wine is, according to individual preference, ready to drink. As a general rule, younger white wines normally require no more than 15-30 minutes of aeration while younger red wines should be no more than 30-60 minutes. If in doubt, it is better to err on the side of too little aeration than too much. Note that 'aerating' a wine involves more than removal of the cork. For aeration to provide any benefit whatsoever, the wine must be decanted. Wine based drinks
• • • • • • • •

Brandy: A general term for distilled wine which has been aged for at least 2 years. Calimocho: A cheap alcoholic drink, comprising 50% red wine and 50% cola drink. Mulled wine (known in Scandinavia as Glögg and in Germany as Glühwein): A red wine, combined with spices, and usually served hot. Sangria: A wine punch, comprising red wine, chopped fruits, sugar, and a small amount of brandy or other spirits. Spritzer: A tall, chilled drink, usually made of white wine and soda water. Wine cooler: An alcoholic beverage made from wine and fruit juice, often in combination with a carbonated beverage and sugar. Zurracapote: A popular Spanish alcoholic drink comprised mainly of red wine, spirit, fruit juice, sugar and cinnamon. Rebujito: A mixture of manzanilla wine, mixed with a soft drink like Sprite or 7 Up.

Serving Temperature Of Wines

Red Wines



Aglianico wines from Southern Italy

62 to 67


60 to 65

Barbera US and Italian

57 to 62


48 to 53


62 to 67


50 to 55

Bordeaux most vintages

58 to 63

Bordeaux the best vintages

62 to 67

Brunello di Montalcino

62 to 67

Burgundy from the better vintages

58 to 63

Burgundy most Cote de Beaune

55 to 60

Burgundy most Cote de Nuits

58 to 63

Cabernet Sauvignon US

62 to 67

Chianti Classico

57 to 62

Chianti Classico Reserva

60 to 65

Cotes du Rhone

53 to 58

Dolcetto US and Italian

53 to 58

German Red wines

52 to 57


48 to 53

Merlot US

59 to 64

Nouveau style French and US

48 to 53

Pinot Noir US

58 to 63


62 to 67


57 to 62

Rioja Reserva

60 to 65

Shiraz, Australian

59 to 64

Syrah US

59 to 64

Valpolicello Amarone style

55 to 60

Valpolicella except Amarone style

52 to 57

Zinfandel light

57 to 62

Zinfandel heavy

62 to 67

Fortified Wines


55 to 60

Muscat de Beaumes de Venise

42 to 47

Port, Ruby

57 to 62

Port, Tawny older

55 to 60

Port, Tawny younger

50 to 55

Port, Vintage

62 to 67

Port, white

45 to 50

Sherry, amontillados

60 to 65

Sherry, most finos

45 to 50

Sherry, olorosos

60 to 65

Rose and Blush Wines



Almost all Rose and Blush Wines

40 to 45

High-quality dry rose

43 to 48

White Wines (Dry and off-dry)


45 to 50

Burgundy medium quality

45 to 50

Burgundy premium quality

50 to 55

Chardonnay medium quality

45 to 50

Chardonnay premium quality

50 to 55

Chenin Blanc U.S.

43 to 48

German, high-quality

48 to 53


45 to 50


45 to 50

Melon de Bourgogne

43 to 48


43 to 48

Pinot Blanc

45 to 50

Pinot Gris

45 to 50


43 to 48

Rhone northern

48 to 53

Rhone southern

45 to 50


43 to 48

Sauvignon Blanc

43 to 48


43 to 48

Sweet and Semisweet White Wines

Dessert Wines (younger)

45 to 50

German semisweet wines

45 to 50

German sweet wines (older)

50 to 55

Sauternes (older)

50 to 55


43 to 48

Champagne and Sparkling Wines


Inexpensive versions

42 to 44

Better non-vintage

42 to 47

The best vintage

45 to 50

Wine serving basics

The wine owner needs a few tools and gadgets for his greater comfort and better security of his treasure. First of all a decent corkscrew. The narrow gimlet corkscrew (left on the image below), though suitable for the smaller beer cork, is not safe to use for wine. It may easily pull away, bringing the core of a perished cork with it.

The corkscrew on the right, drawn to the same scale as the one on the left, is to be recommended. The section of the screw is flattened and edged, thus giving a better bite on the cork. N.B. The brush should be used to brush away fragments of dust, wax, or cork after carefully removing the sealing-wax, but before drawing the cork. After the cork is drawn, the brush is more apt to push the particles into the bottle than to remove them.

In the case of an obstinate cork nothing is better than the double-lever extractor:

but care must be taken at the beginning of the stroke to see that the cork is coming and that the screw is not merely pulling through. The tongs (see image below) should be at hand to save the wine if any such accident should happen to the cork. They are heated to a cherry-red; the neck is gripped just under the flange-when the glow has passed away (from half-a-minute to a minute).

Remove the tongs, and, dipping a feather or piece of rag into cold water, apply it to the neck where the tongs have held it. It will come off easily and cleanly. The Crown cork-opener (see below), for aerated water-bottles, is now an indispensable accessory for the cellar.

Hand-guards. When drawing a cork a guard should always be used. A cloth at least, or a leather guard which is slipped over the neck (see below). One can never be sure there is not a flaw in the bottle, and a dangerous cut to hand or thigh is not worth risking.

There exists a device with elevating gear like a turret-gun (but something smaller) for

steady pouring of a fine old crusted Port. This seems to me overdoing it a little. Still, to do justice to a really old wine, 'twere best if the host and anyway, this is an impressive piece of 'business,' as they say in the theatrego down to his cellar and bring up the treasure in his own hands. No deputizing can be adequate. The basket (see below), except in restaurants where the bottle and cork are produced as evidence of good faith, also seems to me something of a superstition. There is obviously, except with the most tender handling, apt to be

a `back swish' as the basket is set down. Better decant at once and eliminate the basket; or (in the restaurant) decant from the basket and dismiss it with its bottle, and enjoy the pleasure of the look of a fine wine in the decanter The eye helps the palate in all drinking of good wine. I cannot quite agree with Dr. Mathieu's case against decanting, though distressed to find myself with, I imagine, most of my fellow wine merchants in opposition to such an authority. Dr. Mathieu asserts quite truly that the wine in process of being decanted takes up oxygen, which changes the taste and perfume of the wine. Agreed. But the wine, anyway, must reach the oxygen before being drunk, unless we are to drink it at one draught from the bottle; and there is surely more likelihood of the back swish of the bottle, whether poured from basket or hand, disturbing the sediment than really careful decanting. But the connoisseur-scientist's somewhat ecstatic description of how

wine should be served and drunk seems to me so valuable that I add it as a footnote to this chapter.

The decanting funnel (see above) is recommended for decanting good wine. It should always be perfectly clean boiled, in fact, before use and should be warmed to the temperature of the wine which is being decanted. The turned end of the funnel directs the wine down the side of the decanter and prevents 'frothing.'

The little hard wood `swizzler' (see above) is much in vogue with folk who do not care for highly-aerated waters or extra fizzy drinks. If 'sizzled' round in a glass of champagne it effectually releases the gases and reduces the effervescence. For 'cups,' a double glass vessel (see below) is indispensable. The inner container holds the ice and is removed just before serving. The ice should not be put directly in the wine,

because it may not always be perfectly clean, and because it dilutes and often 'clouds' the wine.

Decanting should always be done carefully. All wines throw some deposit; the deposit, in a sound wine, indicating improvement. This deposit is not required for consumption, and should be left in the original bottle when decanting. Its presence in the decanter spoils not only the appearance but the flavour of the wine. When decanting very old wines, such as Port, it is best, if possible, to remove the neck of the bottle below the cork with the tongs as above described. When opening Champagne, remove all wire and foil before releasing the cork. Many a bottle of good wine has been spoiled by allowing the contents to run over mouldy string and rusty wire. Do not put ice into Champagne, but only around the bottle. Wine drunk too cold loses much of its fine flavour. It is not, by the way, safe to decant two bottles of wine into the same decanter, not merely in case there should be anything wrong with one of them, but because a supreme accidental character of one specially-favoured bottle may well be lost. Respect each bottle of your fine wine as having temperament, individuality. Having your good wine to decant, into what sort of vessel are you to decant it ? In general terms one answers: Into a vessel which shall show off to best advantage the colour of the wine, which means certainly first of all into a

vessel of pure white glass. Custom has decided that Port and Sherry shall be poured from solid, heavy, broad-based, or onion-bellied decanters (A). But let all other wines be decanted into caraffes of the more delicate-stemmed shape here illustrated (B and C).

This allows the light to shine through, and the connoisseur will probably add that the simpler the form and the less embellishment in the way of cutting there is the better, as few things are more beautiful on the well-set table than the way the lights are reflected from the simply-curved surfaces of fine glass.

Religious uses
Ancient religions
The use of wine in religious ceremonies is common to many cultures and regions. Libations often included wine, and the religious mysteries of Dionysus used wine as a sacramental entheogen to induce a mind-altering state.

Wine is an integral part of Jewish laws and traditions. The Kiddush is a blessing recited over wine or grape juice to sanctify the Shabbat or aJewish holiday. On Pesach (Passover) during the Seder, it is a Rabbinic obligation of men and women to drink four cups of wine. In theTabernacle and in the Temple in Jerusalem, the libation of wine was part of the sacrificial service.Note that this does not mean that wine is a symbol of blood, a common misconception which contributes to the myth of the blood libel. A blessing over wine said before indulging in the drink is: "Baruch atah Hashem (Adonai) elokeinu melech ha-olam, boray p’ree hagafen"—"Praised be the Eternal, Ruler of the universe, who makes the fruit of the vine."

In Christianity, wine is used in a sacred rite called the Eucharist, which originates in Gospel accounts of theLast Supper in which Jesus shared bread and wine with his disciples and commanded his followers to "do this in remembrance of me" (Gospel of Luke 22:19). Beliefs about the nature of the Eucharist vary amongdenominations (see Eucharistic theologies contrasted). While most Christians consider the use of wine from the grape as essential for validity of the sacrament, many Protestants also allow (or require) unfermented, pasteurized grape juice as a substitute. Wine was used in Eucharistic rites by all Protestant groups until an alternative arose in the late 1800s. Methodistdentist and prohibitionist Thomas Bramwell Welch applied new pasteurization techniques to stop the natural fermentation process

of grape juice. Some Christians who were part of the growing temperance movement pressed for a switch from wine to grape juice, and the substitution spread quickly over much of the United States and to other countries to a lesser degree.There remains an ongoing debate between some American Protestant denominations as to whether wine can and should be used for the Eucharist or allowed as an ordinary beverage.

All alcohol is strictly forbidden under Islamic law. It is only permitted for medicinal reasons. Iran and Afghanistan used to have a thriving wine industry that disappeared after the Islamic Revolution in 1979 and earlier in Afghanistan. However, people of Nuristan in Afghanistan have produced wine since ancient times and still do so. In Greater Persia , Mei (Persian wine) has been a central theme of poetry for more than a thousand years.

Wine dictionary
Age, Ageing - The characteristics of age in time are: first, progressive softening up to a point (mainly due to deposition of tartar,hence tartar is so often found on the insides of casks); and, secondly, the development of bouquet of a secondary nature (due, it is thought, to the action of micro-organisms). Beeswing - A light, filmy, floating ` crust ' in some old Ports, supposed to be something like an insect's wing in appearance. Beverage Wines - Opposed to vintage wines. Wines of average quality and strength (and price) suitable for drinking in large quantities and regularly. Body - That quality in a wine which gives it the appearance of consistency and vinous strength. Merchants speak of a 'full' wine or wine with body, as opposed to a light, cold, or thin wine. Bond - Wines or spirits, etc., were kept 'in bond,' and in the State-controlled warehouses till the duty is paid on them. Bouquet - The odour or perfume of fine wine appreciated by the sense of smell as opposed to seve, which is aroma appreciated by the sense of taste. Brut. Of Champagne - with no added sugar or liqueur. `Nature' means the same. Butt - Large cask for Sherry or Malaga or Ale, i08-I40 gallons. Chateau-Bottled - Special wines bottled at the Chateau where grown, instead of by the wine merchant. Similarly, 'estate- bottled.'

Chateau-Bottling - Descriptive of wines bottled at the cellars of the Chateaux (generally classified wines) where the wines were grown. At most Chateaux the privilege of Chateau-bottling is only granted in good vintage years. At the Chateau Lafite, Chateau -bottling was not allowed from 1885 to 1905 (1915 also excepted) ; at Chateau Mouton Rothschild it was not allowed from 1883 to I906 (1915 also excepted), and similar remarks apply to several other of the high-classed growths. Chateau-bottling has never been accorded at all at : Chateau Leoville Barton Chateau Langoa Barton Chateau Giscours Chateau Beychevelle Chateau Pontet Canet whilst at Chateau Yquem (white wine) it was suppressed in 1910 and 1915. Cordial - A lighter kind of liqueur made by infusion of alcohol and sugar with fruit juices. The term is not very explicit. Corked - Wine that is corked tastes mouldy; it also smells bad. Corked wine is rare, and wine-drinkers in a restaurant should be careful before they make the charge. No restaurateur would refuse to replace a corked bottle or would make a mistake about the condition. A few particles of cork-dust falling into the wine do not constitute 'corked' wine as has been occasionally thought by innocents. Sometimes the corks of the bottles are too porous or of inferior quality, and give the wine a bad taste, this taste the French term 'gout de bouchon.' Cru. Growth - A particular growth is described as 'Premier cru,' ` grand cru,' etc. Crust. A deposit in old wines, especially Port, Burgundies, and red wines generally. Rest after bringing up from the cellar, and careful decanting, are necessary to prevent the crust 'slipping.' It should remain in the bottle, and not be allowed to pass into the decanter or glass. Ports are always marked with a white splash on the upper side of the punt-end of the bottle, and this mark should be kept upwards when re-binning or decanting.

Cuvee - Contents of a cellar; also the different products of pressure of one vine which fill many vats; more particularly applied to Champagne, but sometimes to Burgundy. Dry - Opposed to sweet with no excess of sugar. Ethers - Certain, at present unanalysable, components found in old wines, whiskies, etc., giving character to the bouquet. The presence of ethers in still or sparkling wines, or in spirits, show maturity. Fine Champagne - 'Grande' or 'Fine' Champagne is the official description given to finest quality Brandies from the Grande or Fine Champagne district. (Not to be confused with wines of the Champagne district). Fiery - Applied to raw spirits or raw wine;. meaning is obvious. Fining - The process of clarification of a wine by introduction of albumen, e.g. white of egg or other suitable medium. Fliers. Light, whitish, fluffy particles that float in white wines or rest at the bottom, looking like a light sand. An effect apparently of transportation to colder countries than the country of origin. They do, not affect the taste of the wine. The cure is to rest the bottles in a warm temperature, say about 70� Fahr. Fortifying - By the addition of wine-spirit, e.g., to Port and Sherry in the making. Frappe - Of sparkling wine, iced sufficiently for the table. Green - Of young, immature wine. Grande Champagne. See 'Fine' Champagne. Hard, Harsh. Obvious terms applied to taste of wines, generally those with excess of tannin. Hogshead Of Port, 57 gallons; of Brandy, 60 gallons; of Beer and Cider, 54 gallons; of Claret, etc., 46-q.8 gallons.

Jeroboam Magnum - Bottles for Clarets and Champagnes. Magnum, double bottle, 4 reputed pints; Jeroboam, double magnum. Must - The grape juice before it becomes wine by fermentation. Nature - Same as 'Brut' (dry). Oeil de perdrix - Of Champagne, used by the French; of White Burgundies and Champagnes which exhibit unexplained phenomenon of a slight pinkish tinge. That of Meursault (Cote d'Or) is considered the type of this quality. Oidium - A mildew disease of the vine. Phylloxera - Phylloxera vastatrix : an insect pest destroying the vine. Appeared in France 1865, and was at its worst 1868- 1873. Pipe - Cask for Port and Tarragona wines, 56 dozen bottles or 115 gallons. Proof - A standard to estimate alcoholic strength of a spirit. In the United Kingdom proof spirit at 6o� Fahr. contains 57.04% of absolute alcohol by volume, 49.24% per by weight. Puncheon - Large cask for Brandy, 120 gallons; Rum, 114 gallons. Racking - Separating the bright wine from the deposit, as Claret from its lees. Re-corking - After many years in bottle the corks of some wines became rotten; it is necessary to draw the old corks and replace with new, and to label the wine 're-corked' (e.g.) '7/2/21.' Thus, a Madeira say after twenty to twenty-five years would be recorked.

Ruby - Term to describe a Port midway between Tawny and Full of a reddish tinge. Seve - This word is generally employed to indicate the vinous strength and the aromatic savour which develops at the time of tasting, embalming the mouth and continuing to make itself felt after the passage of the wine through the mouth. It is composed of alcohol and aromatic particles, which are dilated and evaporate immediately the wine is warmed by heat of the, mouth, etc. The seve differs from the bouquet in that the latter disengages itself or becomes apparent the instant the wine comes into contact with the air, and that it does not indicate the presence of any spirit, and flatters the smell rather than the taste. Solera - Of Sherry: double butts of stock wines used for maintaining the standard of shipped Sherries. Stalky - A harshness due to final pressure of the pulp. Tawny - Refers to colour and character of Port; of wines that have matured in wood (contrast with Ruby and Vintage). Tun - Large cask Of 252 gallons; is now rarely seen; generally means, in quotations, its equivalent of four hogsheads. Ullage An ullaged cask or bottle is one, some of the contents of which have leaked, evaporated, or been extracted. Vin Ordinaire. Used of wines of poorer quality in comparison with the finer wines of same district. Vintage Wines - Of wines of high character. Used principally of Ports, Clarets, Burgundies, and Sauternes; shipped under their respective years. Well-succeeded - (Fr. Tres re'ussi): a term to express the fact that a given wine displays the best characteristics of its particular growth, and has fulfilled the expectation., formed of it.

Woody - A wine may become tainted from a defective or rotten stave in the cask. If discovered early enough the wine may be saved by racking of into a clean, well-sulphured cask. Worn (or tired) - Of Brandy: from being too long in cask. Also of Clarets, etc., that have been left too long in battle.

Wine additives
A list of additives permitted for use in the production of wine under EU law.

Type or purpose of addition Acidification

Permitted additives tartaric acid calcium alginate potassium alginate potassium caseinate casein isinglass silicon dioxide edible gelatine acacia (gum arabic) milk/lactalbumin proteins of plant origin ovalbumin (egg white) alumino silicates ferrous sulfate polyvinyl-polypyr-rolidone (PVPP) activated charcoal lactic bacteria neutral potassium tartrate potassium bicarbonate calcium carbonate copper sulfate oak chips metatartaric acid water concentrated grape must rectified concentrated grape must saccharose tannin oxygen betaglucanase pectolytics urease fresh lees ammonium bisulphite thiamine hydrochloride yeast cell walls yeasts for wine production diammonium phosphate ammonium sulphate ammonium sulphite fresh lees potassium ferrocyanide calcium phytate citric acid calcium tartrate potassium bitartrate yeast mannoproteins sorbic acid



Deacidification Deodorant Elaboration






Wine : Advantages and Disadvantages

1. Good for your heart in reasonable amounts (one to two 5oz glasses each day) 2. Tastes great with food, especially when properly matched 3. Makes food taste better when properly matched 4. Helps your body metabolize glucose and use it more effectively when consumed with carbs (relatively new discovery for diabetics) 5. Aids in digestion 6. Red wines contain flavonoids that are natural healers for your immune system 7. Lowers your blood pressure a bit during consumption and for a few hours thereafter

1. Cost (although there are some very tasty wines available for $5 a bottle or less) 2. Risk of overconsumption 3. Risk of dependency/addiction/abuse especially if alcoholism/drug addiction/mental illness runs in family

30 Interesting Wine Facts

1. There are 20 million acres are planted to grapes worldwide. 2. Among the world's fruit crops, wine grapes rank number one in the amount of acres planted. 3. 164 countries import California wines. 4. Prunes were the primary fruit crop in Napa Valley during the 1940's. 5. 30 million gallons of wine were lost in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. 6. On August 19, 1873, phylloxera was first discovered in California. 7. 10,450 acres of Napa County vineyards have been replanted in the last 15 years because of phylloxera. 8. 4,450 more acres of Napa County vineyards will need replacement. 9. It takes 4 to 5 years to harvest a commercial crop from newly replanted grape vines? 10. 10,000 varieties of wine grapes exist worldwide. 11. It costs around $1 per bottle to age wine in a French oak barrel. 12. It costs around $3 per bottle to age wine in only new French oak barrels. 13. When was the first known reference to a specific wine vintage? Answer: Roman Historian Pliny the Elder rated 121 B.C. as a vintage “of the highest excellence.” 14. How old was the wine being “reviewed”? Answer: 200 years old! Pliny the Elder wrote the history of the Roman Empire around 70 A.D. 15. A bottle of opened wine stored in the refrigerator lasts about 6 to 16 times longer than it would if stored at room temp. 16. There are 400 oak species. 17. 20 of them are used in making oak barrels. 18. 5% percent of an oak tree is suitable for making high grade wine barrels.

19. The 1996 grape crop in Napa Valley was down 20% - 25% from normal.

20. California, New York and Florida are the top three U.S. states in terms of wine consumption. 21. 58% percentage of legal-aged Americans contacted in a Nielson phone survey drink wine. 22. 55 percentage of restaurant wine sales are red wines. 23. $2.64 is the average cost of the grapes used to produce a $20 bottle of wine? 24. Dom Perignon (1638-1715), the Benedictine Abbey (at Hautvillers) cellar master who is generally credited with “inventing” the Champagne making process, was blind. 25. Thomas Jefferson helped stock the wine cellars of the first five U.S. presidents and was very partial to fine Bordeaux and Madeira. 26. To prevent a sparkling wine from foaming out of the glass, pour an ounce, which will settle quickly. Pouring the remainder of the serving into this starter will not foam as much. 27. Old wine almost never turns to vinegar. It spoils by oxidation. 28. In King Tut’s Egypt (around 1300 BC), the commoners drank beer and the upper class drank wine. 29. It is the VERY slow interaction of oxygen and wine that produces the changes noticed in aging wine. It is believed that wine ages more slowly in larger bottles, since there is less oxygen per volume of wine in larger bottles. Rapid oxidation, as with a leaky cork, spoils wine. 30. Before harvest, the canopy of leaves at the top of the vine is often cut away to increase exposure to the sun and speed ripening.

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