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Pantone The 20th Century in Color

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Pantone The 20th Century in Color

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Pantone The 20th Century in Color

Contents
Introduction
1990s
Edwardian Affairs
Arts and Crafts
Jewel Tones
The Charm of Iridescence
Firsts for Women
Poiret Revolution
The Fauves
1910s
Theatrics
Parrish Blues
Wiener Werksttte
Youthful Pastimes
Cubism
World War I
Coming Home
1920s
Art Deco
Tutmania
Cocktails and Laughter
Destinations
The Leyendecker Man
Bauhaus
Modern Pleasures
A Rose Is a Rose
1930s
Deco Architecture
Illusions
Fantastic Plastic
Diversions
Parks and Recreation
Roseville
The Wizard of Oz
The World of Tomorrow
1940s
Fantasia
Edward Hopper
World War II
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Carefree and Casual


The American Dream
Hit Parade
Film Noir
La Mode
1950s
Happy at Home
Teen Angels
Mid-Century Modernists
Movie Goddesses
Cosmetic Superstars
Coast-to-Coast Woolens
Fantasyland
Abstract Expressionists
1960s
Passage to India
A Different Space
Kensington and Carnaby
Black Is Beautiful
Psychedelia
Sesame Street
Warhol
PANTONE
1970s
Colors and Coordinates
Avocado and Harvest Gold
Feathers and Leathers
Provence
Land Art
The Day the World Turned Day-Glo
Night Life
Hotel California
1980s
Memphis, Michael, and Philippe
To the Manor Born
Urban Cowboys
Signs and Symbols
Miami Vice
Majorelle and Morocco
Santa Fe
Personal Colors
Japonais
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1990s
Grunge and Graffiti
Its a Good Thing
The Nature of Zen
Out of Africa
Latin Flavors
Chic over Geek
Anime
Conspicuous Consumption
Future Forecasts
Endnotes
Bibliography
Image Credits
Index
Acknowledgments
Copyright

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Introduction
We see color with everything we are. What starts as a signal passing along the optic nerve quickly
develops into an emotional, social, and spiritual phenomenon that carries many layers of vivid
meaning. Light with a wavelength of 650 nanometers or so is seen as red. But it is experienced as
warmth or danger, romance or revolution, heroism or evil, depending on the cultural and personal
matrix in which it appears. Crimson, scarlet, and cerise suggest nuances of feeling and reaction
that nanometers cannot quantify. And what red can express is different from the symbolic
potential of greens and blues. Or yellows and oranges. The resonance of any shade across the
spectrum shifts and develops according to the context in which it appears.
The context within which color unfurls its rainbow of symbolism and emotion is history itself.
Historians look back in time to explain the intricacies of people and their societies the forces
that make crimson an ancient color of authority and power, scarlet a badge of sin, and cerise the
essence of feminine seduction. And the forces that, over time, may well exchange these
associations for others. The evolution of color is fascinating to watch. PANTONE The 20th Century
in Color explores a hundred years of such evolution.
At more than a decades distance, we are now just far away enough to try to perceive the era
as a whole. We can look through the lens of history at both the first and last decades (and all the
decades in between) and discuss with some objectivity what best expressed the creative, cultural,
and social influences of the dayor in some cases what helped create them.
The last century was a remarkably significant time for color. Revolutionary changes occurred
in every visual discipline, with rules being broken and new ones set in their place at every turn.
New materials became available as new technologies transformed (or indeed invented) everything
from paints to plastics to powder coatings, and changed the nature of making with new
manufacturing processes. The near-alchemy of Louis Comfort Tiffanys iridescent glazes,
Bakelites emulation of expensive natural materials, and the Day-Glo fluorescents of the latter
part of the century all point to technologys role in propelling twentieth-century arts and design
into new creative territory.
For most of the century, technology simply supported the advancement of the creative
disciplines with new materials, but by the end of the century, technology had become so deeply
embedded in design that computers themselves became design objects and generators of color
palettes. Software written to help designers began to influence what was created, and once
impossible projects like Frank Gehrys Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao became realities. Apple
Computers 1998 iMac, which incorporated bright translucent plastics into its outer shell, was
another link between color and technology. In many ways, our book traces the centurys
continuum from handcraft to computer.
And finally, for those of us fascinated by colorwe who routinely try to name the colors
found in any given sunset or brilliant autumn leaf, every swatch of paint or complex fabrichow
could we not try to understand, in color terms, the century in which most of us were born and
acquired our own lexicon of color symbols? We can trace, with color, some of the most important
social changes of that century. For example, women started the twentieth century wearing the
pastels and earnest neutrals that outfitted them for a set of defined and constraining social roles.
By the 80s, they were looking for personal, bespoke colors that brought out their individual
potential.
Our changing feelings about war found expression in color, too. The chivalrous and patriotic
palette at the outbreak of World War I gave way to disillusionment with what war could achieve
and dismay at its aftermath. World War IIs more somber and dutiful mood often was leavened by
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a bit of lighthearted comedy, but the idealism of the late teens is absent and reflected in the
colors of the Forties.
The change across the century in aesthetics is also impressive. The seminal color influences of
Tiffany, Faberg, and Paul Poiret still linger as visual creatives revisit their work. But late-century
talents Robert Rauschenberg, Andy Warhol, Keith Haring, and Karim Rashid offer up new visions of
color, each of which captures something essential about the world in which they operated.
Because color is such a fundamental element in the human experience, a book about color
ends up being a book about human experience itself. Part textbook and part fairy tale, part
biography and part novel, our history of color is designed to start each reader on his or her
personal and creative exploration of color.
Even for two self-confessed color fanatics, looking at a hundred years of color presents some
important challenges, the greatest of which has to do with the inherently fugitive nature of color.
We have based our discussion on objects from each decade of the twentieth century whose colors
tell a story about the emotions and aspirations of their creators and their users, and the societies
they lived in. But since the color of nearly every object changes as it ages, arriving at an accurate
color specification is not easy.
When we describe the shade of red in an important Fauve painting as PANTONE Pompeian
Red, have we chosen the red of the paint on the painters palette? Or the red as it looked wet on
the canvas when the painting was finished? Or the red of the freshly cured paintings first day on
a gallery wall? Or the red as it appears in the paintings eventual museum home? As years pass,
materials mature into slightly different color values.
Since each gently different red was accurate at one time, which red do we choose in a
history of color? Lacking a time machine for convenient travel back to early twentieth-century
Paris, we generally chose color values as they appear today.
But even that has its challenges. In addition to the almost inevitable shifting over time of an
objects colors, shifts come from other sources, too. Lets again use our Fauve painting as an
example. At a certain point in the paintings career as a museum artifact, it will have been
photographed and catalogued so that a record of the museums collection is available to
administrators as well as art historians. Despite all the best efforts of the photographer, the
photograph will never exactly convey the colors of the actual painting. Something will shift. So
now there are two ways to perceive the painting, each with its own slightly different color values:
a viewing of the actual painting, and a viewing of the photograph of the painting.
Perhaps at some point, an art historian will want to include the painting in a book on the
Fauve movement. The museums photograph will be reproduced by the books printer and, once
again, no matter how carefully the process is managed, some color shifts will occur. So now there
will be three ways to perceive the paintingor even more if the colors shift subtly across the print
run of the book. Or infinitely more if images of the painting achieve an online presence, because
every computer screen will display a slightly different color matrix.
In doing our best to sift through the various pitfalls of specifying a color, we have referred to
actual paintings, products, textiles, and fashion wherever possible. Please be patient with any
discrepancies in color identification you might uncover as you explore the book: we did our best
to negotiate these dangerous territories.
Another challenge comes from the vast scope of the project. Because color evolves in a
unique way in every culture across the globe, tracing color across all cultures in the twentieth
century would be not a book project, but a lifetimes work. Perhaps even more than one lifetime
and one set of co-authors would be required! As a result, our account of color in the twentieth
century is admittedly U.S.centric. Both co-authors are American, and our cultural lens has
certainly shaped the focus of the book.
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However, other influences are an important part of our message, and readers from other
countries will certainly find interest in the book. Europes presence here is undeniable
particularly at the beginning, but also throughout the century. Asia, Africa, and Latin America also
play roles in the book, particularly in the second half of the century, when a hunger for new and
diverse cultural references infused many creative efforts.
Even after admitting that our choices are affected by our own cultural formation, the challenge
of breadth still remains. The single greatest challenge of putting the book together came from the
necessity to edit down a century of culture and creativity into, on the average, eight color palettes
per decade, each of which is captured in a handful of images and approximately eight colors.
Winnowing potential content into the final choices for each decade was many times downright
painful, particularly as we tried to balance popular cultures broad trends with the innovations of
individuals.
Who was left behind? Jack Lenor Larsen, whose brilliant career as a textile designer spanned
several decades and touched every corner of the globe. Also the elegant exuberance of Emilio
Pucci, Jamie Drake, and Tricia Guild, the chic shock of Missoni yarn colors, the intriguing
combinations of secondary and tertiary colors of Sherri Donghias textile work and a daunting
list of talented painters; fashion, industrial, graphic, and interior designers; architects; master
artisans; photographers, film directors, and the like. Please forgive us for the terribly tough
choices made out of necessity rather than lack of appreciation.
We hope that the book is useful to educators, designers, and visual artists of all kinds. The
eighty color palettes chosen to represent the twentieth century can serve anyone interested in
informing their work or their teaching with historical perspective. But the careful balance of values
makes each palette usable in its own right. For example, the interaction between the complex
colors of the Future Forecasts palette of the 1990s is still relevant today: the layered neutral Lark
vibrates gently against its green-inflected sister color Oasis, and takes structure from Midnight
Navy and Marron. Rust and Ketchup take the central values of the palette in one lively direction,
and Tourmaline and Lyons Blue in another more contemplative direction. Looking closely at earlier
palettes such as Illusions of the 1930s and Edwardian Affairs of the 1900s reveals similarly
intriguing color relationships, all ready to be adapted and tweaked by readers to suit their own
purposes.
We also invite readers to linger over the palettes and the imagery that supports them to draw
historic parallels. No color (or palette) ever disappears from the face of the earth forever, and it is
fascinating to see revivals and transformations unfold. Is the bling of the 1990s as described in
the Conspicuous Consumption palette related to the Faberg-inspired Jewel Tones palette from
the 1900s? We think so: the urge to declare ones status in precious (or at least precious-looking)
materials is a hallmark of the twentieth century. And what about the surprising affinities between
the 1910s palette Theatrics and 1980s Miami Vice ? What would the Ballets Russess genius
designer Leon Bakst have thought of Crockett and Tubbs? He might have enjoyed the similarities
between his colors of Mauvewood, Faded Rose, and Dazzling Blue with the more recent palette of
Radiant Orchid, Lantana, and Deep Ultramarine. Perhaps he would have rolled up the sleeves of his
jacket and donned a lavender T-shirt.
While it is something of a clich to say that history is a tool for understanding the future, the
idea represents an important way in which this book can be useful. Tracing color evolution from
decade to decade provides fascinating perspectives on what may be next in our own time. Take
the memorable Avocado green of the 1970s, for example. Avocado (and its kissing cousins
Harvest Gold and Burnt Orange) disappeared in the 1980s in a wave of Santa Fe mauves and
lavenders. Both were meant to embrace colors from the natural worldand thereby provide a
certain amount of psychic refuge from the goings-on of the unnatural world. But Avocado green
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was so overdone and overused that designers fled all the way across the color wheel to mauve for
fresh access to nature and the refuge it promises. The 1980s ubiquity of mauve, of course, also
became a problem, and alternatives had to be found in the 90s in the form of hushed Zen greens
and lively yellow-greens.
Observing such transitions invites us to look at the overindulgences of our own time, and
what may follow as a reaction. Just as most of our fellow color fanatics will enjoy seeing the past
in glorious color, we think readers of this book will also be intrigued by looking forward into the
future through a well-informed lens of color.

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1990s
The New Era
The year 1900 was, to some degree, also the last year of the nineteenth century. Pariss Universal
Exposition of that year can be described as a catalogue of the previous centurys most vibrant
thinking about art, craft, design, and technologyand as a glimpse of changes to come. Fifty
million visitors came to experience sumptuous Belle poque tastes (as well as more modern
offerings) as presented by seventy-six thousand exhibitors from forty-seven countries. The ideas
and colors they saw were as varied as the exhibits.
Official French committees stocked the fairs fine arts pavilions with tasteful still lifes and
refined statues, while independent exhibitors like Siegfried Bing pushed into the future with his
Maison de lArt Nouveau. Not content with academic tastes, Bing was a devotee first of Japonisme
and then, as the twentieth century drew closer, of Art Nouveau. He promoted French talents such
as painter Edouard Vuillard, glass artist mile Gall, and sculptor Camille Claudel, but he also
championed international innovators like Louis Comfort Tiffany. Tiffanys iridescent Favrile glass
blended gold hues with Art Nouveaus vivid take on natural inspirations to create one of the
outstanding palettes of the decade.
Established tastemakers of the day like fashion designer Jeanne Paquin chaired various
committees. As president of the Fashion Section of the Exhibition, she helped create an
atmosphere of luxury without excess, and invention without vulgarity. In a world where royal
families still sat at the top of well-defined social hierarchies in most Old World countries, a sense
of propriety was to be maintained in public places. Paquins elaborately draped creations of lace
and pleats were modest and correct, but as the pastel colors of Edwardian-era womens fashions
suggest, propriety was not without its gently seductive side.
The influence of Old World monarchies was not limited to propriety or parties. Then as now,
fashionable royals wielded considerable influence over public tastes. Tsar Nikolai IIs patronage of
Carl Faberg created a vogue for gifts and accessories crafted of fine metals and gems, and
finished with enamel. Ren Lalique offered a more innovative vocabulary of less expensive
materialsbut with just as much visual impact as his costlier rivals. With such creativity emanating
from the world of jewelry, the deep tones of precious materials emerged as an influential color
range.
Controversial ideas that would later blossom into powerful influences in the next century were
present, too. For example, women competed in the second Olympic Games, which were held as
part of the Exposition. This new development represented a step along the way towards full rights
for women in all aspects of life. Early sportswear developed to accommodate expanding freedoms
and embraced a palette that expressed an unfussy and more liberated approach to life.
While the Universal Exposition suggested that technology was on the rise, with its palaces
devoted to electricity and metallurgy and its showcasing of the first movies with sound and the
first escalator, application of modern technology in the visual realm was not yet broad. The
potential of industrial technology to transform the domestic environment had been explored by C.
F. A. Voysey, a proponent of Englands Arts and Crafts movement. But it took an American like
Gustav Stickley (in the years following the Exhibition) to make an empire out of streamlined Arts
and Crafts design combined with modern manufacturing techniques. As Stickley was busy
perfecting his business, two of his American contemporaries, brothers Charles and Henry Greene,
focused on perfecting a new, refined, modern vision for domestic life. Subsequent designers and
architects were highly influenced by both the accessibility offered by mass manufacturing and the
idea that residential life could be made more beautiful for a larger number of families. An Arts
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and Crafts palette emerges in the first decade of the twentieth century as a stable, earthy color
range that continues to be relevant today.
Other influential voices emerged in the decade after the Exposition, as well. A small group of
European painters briefly explored the wild use of saturated, unnatural colorand were labeled
beasts for their efforts. But history sees the Fauves, active as a group only from 1905 to 1907, as
the first art revolutionaries of the twentieth century. At about the same time, fashion designer
Paul Poiret was also exploring a departure from tradition. He freed women from the corset and
re-imagined fashion as the expression of individuality and fantasy rather than a straightjacket of
conformity. His inventive, flowing shapes and bold, Orientalist color palette capture a feeling just
as revolutionary as the Fauves.
In Poirets forms and the Fauves colors we see a departure from nineteenth-century forms
and ideas, and hints of the allencompassing changes to come.

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Edwardian Affairs
King Edward VII reigned over the United Kingdom. Nikolai II was emperor and autocrat of all the
Russias, and Wilhelm II was German emperor and king of Prussia. Frances Third Republic had
been declared, and the luxury of the Belle poque infused the arts and design of the Western
world. The politically stable, prosperous years prior to World War I have been called the last good
time of the upper classes.[1]
The life of the upper crusts long party was Edward VII himself. His easy charm and love of fun
fueled dozens of affairs with beautiful women before and after his marriage to Princess Alexandra
of Denmarkwho seemed to accept her husbands roving eye. Edward loved food, drink, foreign
travel, and a good late-night party. European society followed his example. As historian Virginia
Cowles puts it, Edwardian society modeled itself to suit the Kings personal demands. Everything
was larger than life size. There was an avalanche of balls and dinners and country house parties.
More money was spent on clothes, more food was consumed, more horses were raced, more
infidelities were committed, more birds were shot, more yachts were commissioned, more late
hours kept than ever before.[2]
Perhaps as a counterbalance to its excesses, appropriateness rather than ostentation was a
criterion for Edwardian style. Both Edward and Alexandra expertly coordinated their apparel and
emphasized finesse over extravagance. This was also the time when the English country house
was the epitome of fine living. The penchant of country house style for comfort and the grounded
pleasures of garden, hunt, and horses, kept tastes of the day from being too rarified.
White Swan, Gray Dawn, Jojoba, Deauville Mauve, and Wild Rose express the decorum required
by Edwardian standards, while Shale Green, Prune, and Faded Rose recall the pleasures of an
Edwardian party.

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Left: Queen Alexandras ostrich feather fan 1901


Right: Illustration A Summer Toilette for a pattern in Fashions for All 1909

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Left: Cinq Heures chez le Couturier Paquin 1906, Henri Gervex


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) White Swan 12-0000; Gray Dawn 14-4106; Jojoba 14-0935; Deauville Mauve 16-1707;
Wild Rose 16-1715; Shale Green 16-6116; Prune 19-2014; Faded Rose 18-1629

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Arts and Crafts


The Arts and Crafts movement arose in England in the 1880s, inspired by the designs of William
Morris and the writings of John Ruskin. Both advocated truth in materials and fine hand
craftsmanship, to which the Arts and Crafts movement added an anti-manufacturing philosophy
and economic populism. Aesthetically, Arts and Crafts offered a simplification of pattern and color
that represented a departure from Victorian ornamental excessesand by implication its
confining social code.
C. F. A. Voysey, a leading Arts and Crafts adherent, was known for the restrained colors and
pared-down patterns of his wallpapers, fabrics, and carpets. In his later career Voysey departed
from the handmade emphasis of Arts and Crafts and relied heavily on manufacturers to make and
sell his goods.
When Arts and Crafts reached the United States at the turn of the century, influential
designers followed Voyseys footsteps. Gustav Stickley built his signature slat-back furniture into
an empire of showrooms, catalogues, production facilities, and even a magazine called The
Craftsman. Without modern manufacturing, his success would have been impossible.
Stickleys example encouraged American designers to advocate the accessibility offered by
modern manufacturing. In the words of Frank Lloyd Wright, machine-made furnishings made it
possible for rich and poor alike to enjoy beautiful surface treatments of clean, strong forms.[3]
Arts and Crafts in American hands became an attempt to ennoble and improve domestic life in as
many homes as possible.
The palette of the Arts and Crafts movement of the first decade of the twentieth century
includes a range of complex, earthy tones, all of which support the idea of home as noble refuge.
The rich neutrals of Pine Bark, Beech, Antique White, and Cream Tan form a restful base for
residential interiors. Leather Brown, Autumn Leaf, Brittany Blue, and Loden Green refer directly to
naturethe Arts and Crafts movements most frequent source of inspiration.

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Left: Nature by Ralph Waldo Emerson bound 1905, binding by Frederick Kranz
Right: Linen press 1904, Byrdcliffe Arts and Crafts Colony

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Left: Chandelier 19071909, Greene and Greene, Pasadena, California


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Pine Bark 17-1410; Beech 19-1618; Antique White 11-0105; Cream Tan 13-1108;
Leather Brown 18-1142; Autumn Leaf 17-1347; Brittany Blue 18-5610; Loden Green 18-0422

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Jewel Tones
The years prior to World War I saw coronation ceremonies in Norway, England, Denmark, Spain,
Italy, Portugal, and Belgium not to mention the Russian and Dutch coronations just before the
century began. The grandest of these generated a wave of commissions to jewelers throughout
Europe. The Parisian firm of Cartier, for example, shot into international prominence after they
supplied tiaras for the coronation of Englands Edward VII.
More familiar with royal patronage were established firms like Carl Fabergs. His objects of
fantasy earned him the position of official jeweler to the courts of Russia, Sweden, and Norway.
Tsar Nikolai II commissioned forty-four eggs throughout his reign, not to mention opera glasses,
cigarette cases, and other sumptuous accessories and objects. Fabergs vivid colors were part of
his appeal, and lapis lazuli and nephrite jade were favorite materials.
Ren Lalique became prominent at nearly the same time as Faberg. His following was
attracted less by stately luxury and more by Laliques wildly inventive designs. He freely mixed
precious and semiprecious stones with blown glass, ivory, and other unexpected materials. His
use of enamel techniques like champlev and plique-a-jour gave Lalique a nearly unlimited color
palette, which he used to create shimmering Art Nouveau versions of peacocks, hummingbirds,
dragonflies, and more. Influential patrons collected his jewelry, including actress Sarah Bernhardt
and philanthropist Calouste Gulbenkian.
At the 1900 Universal Exposition, Lalique displayed over one hundred pieces laid out like a
meadow of wildflowers in vitrines decorated with bats flying overhead against a twilight sky and
backdrops of bronze butterfly women.[4] He was one of several designers (including Louis
Comfort Tiffany) hoping to establish an international reputation. He succeeded.
Rich Gold forms the gleaming foundation of the Jewel Tones palette. Victoria Blue, Viridis,
Cloisonn, Chinese Violet, and Chateau Rose hint at colored gemstones and the saturated,
shimmering colors of fine enamel.

Left: Pendant 1901, Ren Jules Lalique


Right: Group of Faberg eggs ca. 19001910

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Left: Peacock library lamp ca. 19001910, Tiffany Studios, New York
Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Rich Gold 16-0836; Victoria Blue 18-4148; Viridis 17-5734; Cloisonn 18-4440;
Chinese Violet 18-3418; Chateau Rose 17-2120

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The Charm of Iridescence


Painter Louis Comfort Tiffany became interested in glass in his late twenties. After apprenticing at
glass studios in Brooklyn, he founded the Tiffany Glass Company in 1885. His desire to capture
the beauty of plants and flowers drove Tiffany to develop an immense catalog of glass colors and
textures.
By 1900, Tiffany was known worldwide for his work in glass, metal, enamel, and other
materialswhich he called Favrile, after an Old English word for handmade. Tastemaker Siegfried
Bing wrote in praise of him, Never, perhaps, has any man carried to greater perfection the art of
faithfully rendering Nature in her most seductive aspects.[5] Of Tiffanys peacock feather
designs, he said, [T]his truly unique art is combined in these peacocks feathers with the charm
of iridescence which bathes the subtle and velvety ornamentation with an almost supernatural
light.[6]
Nature was Tiffanys inspiration, but his methods were scientific. Tiffany relied on laboratory
substances like silver nitrate, uranium, manganese, arsenic, and potash nitrate which, combined
in precise quantities with glass, made his signature gold luster. Other recipes created as many as
five thousand glass colors and textures. Unknown technicians worked behind the scenes, under
the direction of Arthur J. Nash and his son Leslie, to achieve the effects Tiffany needed.
Others, like Frederick Carder of Steuben Glassworks, also explored iridescence. He introduced
gold-toned Aurene glass in 1904 as an attempt to rival Tiffany. The allure of pearlescent,
iridescent, and reflective finishes remained part of the armory of the decorative arts for the rest of
the century.
Pale Gold and Antique Gold form the foundation of the iridescent palette. Juniper, Sepia, and
Deep Teal reference Art Nouveaus interest in nature. Lavender, Evening Sand, and Almost Mauve
capture the subtle and dreamy play of light across a Tiffany peacock vase.

Left: Blue peacock vase ca. 19001910, Tiffany Studios, New York
Right: Ornamental art glass print ca. 19021908, Meyers Konv

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Left: Eighteen-light pond lily decorative lamp ca. 19021915, Tiffany Studios, New York

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Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Pale Gold 15-1927; Antique Gold 16-0730; Juniper 18-6330; Sepia 18-1928; Deep
Teal 19-4914; Lavender 15-3817; Evening Sand 14-1311; Almost Mauve 12-2103

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Firsts for Women


Innovation at the Universal Exposition was not confined to fashion and the decorative arts:
attendees saw early signs of some of the revolutionary social changes that would characterize the
new century. For example, nineteen women competed for the first time at the second Olympic
Games, staged as part of the Exposition. Charlotte Cooper was the first female Olympic champion,
with a first in tennis.
Other sporty women furthered Coopers example. Baroness Raymonde de Laroche became the
first woman to earn a pilots license in 1910. Annie Taylor became the first person to go over
Niagara Falls in a barrel in 1902and afterward said of her adventure, Nobody ought to do that
again. Many women embraced sport as healthful for mind and bodyand as a way to express a
sense of personal freedom in public life.
The sporting life helped birth the ground-changing idea that the body was no longer
something to mold into predetermined shapes with corsets and rigid, structured garmentsbut
rather a vibrant force to be trained through sport and diet. For those who could afford the time
and expense, brisk walks and bike rides in the countryside were thought good for the posture.
French men and women swam together without scandal along the coast of Normandy on getaway
weekends and summer vacations. Alpine sports began to take hold, and skiing, skating, and
curling provided a new respite from the winter doldrums.
The colors of early twentieth-century sporting life are grounded in pragmatic, unfussy
neutrals from dark to light, with Anthracite and Brunette at the deep end of the scale and Rugby
Tan, Warm Sand, and Pristine at the lighter end. In a reflection of the new presence of women in
sport, Mirage Gray, Powder Pink, and Shale Green layer a breezy, feminine aspect into the palette.
American Beauty suggests a blush of new power for women in the young century.

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Left: Three women on bicycles ca. 19001910


Right: Hartford Tire magazine advertisement 1909

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Left: Ad for Kelloggs Toasted Corn Flakes 1907


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Anthracite 19-4007; Brunette 19-1235; Rugby Tan 15-1315; Warm Sand 15-1214;
Pristine 11-0606; Mirage Gray 15-4703; Powder Pink 14-1511; Shale Green16-6116; American Beauty 19-1759

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Poiret Revolution
In Paul Poirets hands, fashion became a luxurious vehicle for fantasy that encouraged movement
and ease rather than conformity, back pain, and fainting spells. He transformed Belle poque
dressmaking into twentieth-century couture with his emphasis on draping over tailoring. And he
presaged todays global lifestyle brands with his lines of furniture, dcor, and fragrance.
In 1903, shortly after establishing his own atelier, Poiret eliminated the petticoat from his
designs. The corset followed suit in 1906. He liberated women from the hourglass silhouette
imposed upon them by tradition and maintained by foundation garments so constricting that they
sometimes harmed their wearers. He explained the success of his clothes by saying, I am merely
the first to perceive womens secret desires and to fulfill them.[7]
His sense of what women wanted took him beyond the references that governed fashion at
the turn of his century. He found inspiration in the Hellenic chiton, the Japanese kimono, Middle
Eastern harem pants, and more. He invented new shapes with his comfortable cocoon coats,
which enveloped their wearer in sensuous fabrics, and in his famous chemise dresses which,
because they hung loosely from the shoulders, freed their wearers from any sense of clothing as
physical restraint. His frequent use of fur and other sumptuous materials heightened the pleasure
of wearing his clothes.
His palette was as interesting and revolutionary as everything else about him. He found his
competitors color choices to be dull to the point of tedium. But my sunburst of pastels has
brought a new dawn,[8] he proclaimedand his tones of Jaffa Orange, Yolk Yellow, and Cocoon,
combined with Cadmium Green, Chinese and Chalk Violet, and Crocus, justify his declaration.

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Left: Coat drawing from Bon Ton Gazette ca. 1900s, Paul Poiret
Right: Coats and cloaks from Les Robes de Paul Poiret 1908, Paul Iribe

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Left: Three dresses and a toad from Les Robes de Paul Poiret 1908, Paul Iribe
Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Jaffa Orange 16-1454; Yolk Yellow; Cocoon14-1025; Cadmium Green 18-5424;
Chinese Violet 18-3418; Chalk Violet 17-3615; Crocus 16-3115

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The Fauves
Fauves is French for beasts, because the artists of this movement the first art revolution of the
twentieth centurywere said to paint less like men than like animals. They sometimes squeezed
paint out of the tube and directly onto the canvas. And even when they used brushes, the marks
they made were aggressive daubs of unalloyed color rather than brushstrokes.
They made their mark at the 1905 Salon dAutomne in Paris. The rawness of their work
touched off a scandal comparable to that of the First Impressionist Exhibition of 1874. A pot of
colors flung in the face of the public was the assessment of one critic, Camille Mauclair.[9]
But history sees the Fauves in a much more positive way. They were the first to see painting in
a truly Modern lightas mere marks of pigment on canvas. They created in their works a visual
experience rather than a mirror held up to something else. They set painting free from the
academic conventions of realism, and even of the Impressionists need to capture the sensory
experience of a place or event.
Henri Matisse painted Calm, Luxe, et Volupt in 1904, which is generally recognized as a
successful articulation of the movements ideas. By 1907, most of the individualistic Fauves had
splintered away to other ideas and styles. But their exploration of painting as solely pigment and
surface became the basis for the increasingly abstract exploration of color and form that
characterizes Modern art of the twentieth century.
Jaffa Orange and Fusion Coral, Pink Lavender and Confetti, particularly when used to depict
landscape elements, trumpet the Fauves deliberate departure from realism. Strong Blue,
Pompeian Red, and Fluorite Green heighten a sense of assertive and unnatural beauty, while
Sycamore is frequently used like a pen stroke to instill some form into the colorful mayhem of the
Fauves.

Left:The Port of La Ciotat 1907, Georges Braque


Right:Tugboat on the Seine, Chatou 1906, Maurice de Vlaminck

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Left: Open Window, Collioure 1905, Henri Matisse


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Jaffa Orange 16-1454; Fusion Coral 16-1543; Pink Lavendar 14-3207; Confetti 161723; Strong Blue 18-4051; Pompeian Red 18-1658; Fluorite Green 17-0133; Sycamore 19-5917

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1910s
Changes and Challenges
Can a silly little doll capture the heart of a decade? If it is a Kewpie, yes. Illustrator Rose ONeills
guileless adaptation of the Cupid of classical mythology was a hit from the moment it appeared in
Ladies Home Journal in 1909. Three-dimensional Kewpie dolls later sold by the tens of
thousands, and cartoon versions ran in broadly circulated womens magazines for twenty-five
years.
What was it about the Kewpie that made so many fall in love? The sunny intentions behind the
Kewpie played a part in the craze. Kewpie philosophy takes the unwieldiness out of wisdom [and]
puts cheerio into charity ONeill said, ever the optimist.[10] Though successful financially,
ONeills life was not a happy one romantically, and the Kewpie was her sunny response to the
trials of Love, or indeed to the trials of anything. The resolute and steady colors of her Kewpie
world capture her stalwart cheeras well as something essential about the decade.
Other innocent toys, including Raggedy Ann and the Erector Set, also became toy empires,
which points to the nascent commercialism of the century.
More than one brand of optimism was in wide distribution in the United States. Another
entrepreneurial American artist, Maxfield Parrish, painted radiant landscapes populated mostly by
scantily clad nymphs and youths. Like ONeill, he sold millions of reproductions of his work and
became a part of the American imagination. His fans included Edith Wharton towards the
beginning of his life and Andy Warhol towards the end, both drawn to his accomplished painting
technique and perhaps also to his languorous sensuality. The intense blue of his skies came to be
called Parrish Blue, a color which was widely used in textiles, ceramics, and more. It is the center
point of a lush, romantic palette.
Across the Atlantic, the stylish Wiener Werksttte advocated another aesthetic ideal: a
completely designed existence, from coats to carpets and shoes to shades, all in refined shapes
and colors. Founded by visionaries Josef Hoffmann and Koloman Moser, the Werksttte movement
wanted to promote an ideal and purposeful order and simplicity in craftsmanship, at the same
time as it brought the sensibilities of the middle and upper classes of the Hapsburg Empire (and
elsewhere) into the young century.[11] The founders, along with a host of well-known
collaborators, rendered their designs in carefully curated tones. Their success took the Wiener
Werksttte into nearly every category of the decorative arts, in a prototype of todays international
mega-brand.
Artist and designer Leon Bakst, along with cultural impresario Sergei Diaghilev and his
choreographers and dancers, seduced the avant-garde of Paris into adulation with their work at
the Ballets Russes. Starting with Scheherazade in 1910, the company stunned its audiences with
downright sexy ballets that were a radical departure from the prim, high-society-approved ballets
of the established companies. Baksts costumes and sets, which adapted the patterns and textures
of the East in a bold, modern way, became a fashion craze. Clothing and interiors across Paris
brightened visibly in emulation of Baksts passionate language of color.
Optimism, idealism, and sensuality, however, were not the only influences in the air. The
Cubists captured something of the tensions of preWWI Europe with their studied reordering of
reality. In their attempt to portray the multiple perspectives of modern life, they captured the
fragmented view of the world that would emerge after the conflict. On first exposure to the work
of the Cubists, Teddy Roosevelt declared them the lunatic fringe. But their intellectual
endeavors, carried out in mostly somber urban colors, turned out to be more clairvoyant than
lunatic.
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At the onset, World War I inspired a burst of chivalrous patriotism and persuasive propaganda.
But the deadly, tedious trench warfare that dragged on for years soon replaced heroic rhetoric
with a more mournful view. Erich Maria Remarques All Quiet on the Western Front later emerged
as a realistic account of the war from a soldiers point of view. It suggested, too, the
disillusionment of society at large with the generation whose leadership provoked the war. The
colors of World War I express, of course, the influence of military uniforms and of flag-waving
patriotism. But the mournful aftermath is captured in the color of the corn poppy, an enduring
symbol of the many lives sacrificed around the world.
The years after World War I saw, particularly in the United States, a rushed return to normalcy
which went well beyond normal. Soldiers, who had experienced something of the world outside
their cities and towns, and their wives, many of whom had now worked outside the home, were
ready for new ideas. They embraced a wave of labor-saving home appliances, a new emphasis on
home hygiene and the domestic sciences, and the idea of home improvement promoted by new
magazines like the long-running House Beautiful. Rules for home design were rewritten in strong,
optimistic colors, which set the stage for the roaring decade to come.

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Theatrics
The Ballets Russes set the world on fire with a 1910 production of Scheherazade. With impresario
Sergei Diaghilev at the helm, and Michel Fokine as choreographer, Rimsky-Korsakovs lush 1888
evocation of the legendary storytelling queen of The Book of One Thousand and One Nights came
alive as a modern ballet. But it was Leon Baksts designs for costumes and sets that elevated the
production into the realm of modern theater. His subsequent designs for the Ballets Russes, with
which he was active through 1914, introduced a passionate and contemporary language of color
and pattern to avant-garde Parisians.
Russian-born Bakst brought a fascination with folk art and Eastern sensibilities into his work.
His patterns simplified Turkish, Persian, and Central Asian textiles into bold, modern geometry.
Suzani embroideries were simplified into cotton prints of concentric circles. References to
complicated ikat patterns were delivered in crisp appliqu or beading. Diaphanous, patterned
scarves swirled suggestively around womens costumes constructed with simple bras and hip
bands rather than a stiff corset. Occasionally, as in star dancer Vaslav Nijinskys performance in
Prlude laprs-midi dun faune, sexualized choreography combined with Baksts designs
challenged social mores of the day.
But his admirers were undaunted. His work elicited a fashion craze, which opened the way for
brightly colored clothing with Orientalist touches like plunging V-necks, turbans, and tribal
jewelry. His set designs were no less influential, and for many years to come, divans and floor
cushions were used to evoke a bit of Scheherazades enchantment.
Baksts exotic palette featured saturated contrasts between Russet Orange, Grenadine,
Dazzling Blue, Mauvewood, and Turkish Tile. Sensuous, smoky colors of Faded Rose, Amber
Brown, and Golden Haze supported Baksts Orientalist approach.

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Left: Costume design for a dancer in Diaghilevs production of the ballet Scheherazade 1910, Leon Bakst
Right (top): Modern dress, Dione 1910, Leon Bakst
Right (bottom):A Scheherazade Salon 1910, Leon Bakst

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Left: Costume design for The Great Eunuch in Diaghilevs production of the ballet Scheherazade 1910, Leon Bakst
Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Russet Orange 16-1255; Grenadine 17-1558; Dazzling Blue 18-3949; Mauvewood 171522; Turkish Tile 18-4432; Faded Rose 18-1629; Amber Brown 17-1147; Golden Haze 12-0826

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Parrish Blues
There seem to be magic days once in a while, with some rare quality of light, that hold a body
spellbound, wrote Maxfield Parrish.[12] For the first thirty years of the twentieth century,
Maxfield Parrish held thousands of viewers spellbound with his paintings.
He illustrated Edith Whartons well-received 1904 Italian Villas and their Gardens, which was
followed by equally successful illustrations for several childrens books, including The Arabian
Nights. He quickly became a sought-after painter of magazine covers, and entered an exclusive
contract with Colliers, for which he created sixty covers. After Colliers he worked with other titles
such as Ladies Home Journal and Harpers Weekly. His illustrations were reprinted commercially
and sold to homes, hotels, and offices as wall decorationwhich proved so wildly popular that
Parrish has been called the common mans Rembrandt.[13] A reproduction of his 1920 painting
Daybreak was owned by one in four American households.
In Parrishs idealized world, the sky occasionally featured a fluffy cloud or a handful of stars,
but was otherwise perfectly, gorgeously blue. Look closely at one of his skies. They start off at the
horizon as a pale white-blue with a hint of green and eventually soar into a celestial hue that
became known as Parrish Blue. The color proved so popular that it appeared in china, textiles,
stained glass, and more.
Parrish fell out of favor in midcentury, with critics like influential Clement Greenberg decrying
his hallucinatory highoctane realism. But in his final years artists like Andy Warhol embraced the
works combination of lyricism and androgynous sensuality.
Parrishs skies incorporate Marina, Celestial, and Turkish Sea. His lush, optimistic depictions
of nature are brightened with Ibis Rose, Mulberry, and Forest Green. And Dawn is part of Parrishs
depictions of early morning light and youthful skin.

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Left: Equity Lodge commemorative plate 1912


Right: Blue and pink tobacco flower design 19151920, Charles Rennie Mackintosh

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Left: Cleopatra 1918, Maxfield Frederick Parrish


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Marina 17-4041; Celestial 18-4530; Turkish Sea 19-4053; Mulberry 17-3014; Ibis Rose
17-2520; Forest Green 17-0230; Dawn 12-0811

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Wiener Werksttte
Designers Josef Hoffmann and Koloman Moser, along with industrialist Fritz Wrndorfer, founded
the Wiener Werksttte (Vienna Workshops) in the early 1900s to provide an alternative to the
overwrought designs of the past and to combat the heaviness of urban life.
Like the early British Arts and Crafts movement, the Wiener Werksttte eschewed modern
manufacturing. Unlike the Arts and Crafts movement, however, there was little or no compromise
with technology: the Werksttte remained throughout its almost thirty years devoted to arts, crafts,
and design conceived with human intellect, made with human hands, and intended to beautify
human environments. The ultimate dream of Hoffmann and Moser was to achieve a kind of
Gesamtkunstwerka total work of artin peoples homes and lifestyles.
Outfitting a home as a Gesamtkunstwerk was then (and now) an expensive proposition.
Expense aside, it may not have been entirely easy to be a Werksttte client. Hoffmann and Moser
wrote, Our middle class is as yet very far from having fulfilled its cultural task. Its turn has come
to do full and wholesale justice to its own evolution.[14] Part of fulfilling ones cultural task
required wearing clothes that would not clash with Werksttte interiors, and Hoffmann sparked the
Werkstttes entry into fashion with a 1911 gown designed for the Belgian owner of a lavish topto-bottom Werksttte house whose wardrobe must not have coordinated sufficiently with the
elegant wallpaper.
The Werksttte palette begins with the dramatic tones of Moonless Night and Red Mahogany,
without whose depth the Werkstttes graphic patterns would have fallen flat. Saxony Blue,
Dazzling Blue, Feldspar, and Cinnabar imbue the palette with luxurious references to semiprecious
stones used in Werksttte jewelry. Lavender Gray, Cream Gold, Shell, and Silver provide the ethereal
top-notes required by the Werkstttes idealistic agenda.

Left: Tea service 1905, Josef Hoffmann, Wiener Werksttte


Right: Brooch 1908, Josef Hoffmann

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Left: Leopard textile swatch 1912, Arch E. Wimmer, Wiener Werksttte


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom)Moonless Night 19-4203; Red Mahogany 19-1521; Saxony Blue 18-4225; Dazzling Blue
18-3949; Feldspar 16-5815; Cinnabar 18-1540; Lavender Gray 17-3910; Cream Gold 13-0739; Shell 13-1405; Silver 14-5002

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Youthful Pastimes
Neither childhood nor toys were invented in the twentieth century. But a new combination of
major magazines, mass manufacturing, and higher discretionary incomes came together to create
the business of childrens toys.
One of the centurys first toy crazes began in 1909, when illustrator Rose ONeill drew the
first Kewpie for Ladies Home Journal. Her happy creatures stayed in broad circulation for twentyfive years. In 1913, ONeill created her three-dimensional bisque Kewpies in two sizes. During a
factory visit, she found the smaller version to be poorly executed. She commented that since the
small dolls would be sold to the poorest children, it was essential that they equal the larger ones
in quality. This was implemented, and sales soared.
ONeill is said to have earned over a million dollars (twenty million in todays currency) in
Kewpie royaltiesbut money was not her goal. She seemed to want her innocent creatures to
buoy up anyone who met them. Do good deeds in a funny way. The world needs to laugh or at
least to smile more than it does, she wrote.[15] The Kewpie certainly brought smiles to many.
The Mysto Erector Structural Steel Builder appeared in 1913, backed by the first aggressive
promotional ad campaign for a toy. At once practical looking and a vehicle for fantasy, the Erector
Set fascinated sons and fathersand probably some daughters and mothers, too. Raggedy Ann
was introduced to the public in 1918 by illustrator Johnny Gruelle, with book and doll sold side by
side. The combination was very successful, and presages the multimedia approach of toy
marketing today.
The palette of early toys and their packaging begins with the earthy primaries of ochre-yellow
and deep red. Warm and cool neutrals are layered against the primary colors. The flesh tone of
celluloid Kewpies and wistful Raggedy Ann also comes into play.

Left: Group of Raggedy Ann dolls ca. 1910s


Center: Erector Set ad ca. 1910s
Right: Cover of Tip Top Weekly 1912

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Left: Cover of The Kewpies, Their Book 1913, Rose ONeill


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) 7556; 7621; 462; 7527; 7410

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Cubism
Cubism pushes art further into the twentieth century than the Fauves dared to go. The Fauves
broke with academic realism, and even with the Impressionists desire for a truthful-to-the-eye
visual experience. But the Cubists introduced a mobile perspective, which demands that the
viewer, presented with interconnected fragments and facets of an object, must reassemble the
pieces in order to arrive at the meaning, the underlying reality, of the thing being painted.[16]
The Cubists attempted to show how the reality of a thing can unfold across not just multiple
perspectives, but time, too. In Marcel Duchamps Nude Descending a Staircase, for example, the
many-faceted time-exposure of the painting covers not a single moment but rather a series of
them. The painting captures adjacent and relevant realities, whether physical or temporal, in order
to arrive at a richer version of coherence than offered by mere realism.
The serious, demanding intellectualism of the Cubist proposition was too important to be
rendered in the decorative colors of the Fauves. Picasso and Georges Braque delivered their
message in somber tones, along with bits of wrapping paper, wallpaper, newspaper, and even
sand, dirt, and house paint. Eventually, later Cubists like Robert Delaunay and Juan Gris
introduced more vivid colors in a desire to capture the vibrant urban reality of preWWI Paris.
Shale, Gray Ridge, Chestnut, Golden Brown, and Tan helped the Cubists deliver contour and
dimensionality without a sense of realism. Aurora Red, Ensign Blue, and Dark Green are used to
draw the eye into the surface of the painting, and to heighten a sense of visual drama.

Left: Nude Descending a Staircase (No. 2) 1912, Marcel Duchamp


Right: Artillery 1911, Roger Andr de La Fresnaye

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Left: Italian Still Life 1914, Lyubov Sergeevna Popova


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Shale 19-3903; Gray Ridge 18-3710; Chestnut 19-1118; Golden Brown 18-1940; Tan
16-1334; Aurora Red 18-1550; Ensign Blue19-4026; Dark Green 19-5513

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World War I
World War I began in the summer of 1914 and was only supposed to last until Christmas. It
started in a wave of patriotic fervor. Poems were written. Songs were sung. Propaganda posters
appeared far and wideenticing men into military service, women into thrift, and the general
public into a state of unity.
As the men went to war, women mostly held down the fort both at home and in the
workplace. In the United States, seven hundred thousand women were employed in munitions
factories alone. Many thousands served in the army and navy nursing corps. Still more conducted
buses, stood on manufacturing lines, and sat at desks, filling the spots left open by their
husbands and brothers.
But the war did not end by Christmas. It lasted four long years, during which time sixteen
million people died and twentyone million were wounded worldwide. The toll on Europe was
profound, particularly along the line of trenches that stretched from Belgium to the Swiss frontier.
What had begun with optimism ended with a sense of tragedy.
In the aftermath, national borders were redrawn, empires disassembled, and hierarchies
discredited. The awesome power of technology in the hands of warring states was nearly
impossible to contemplate. It was called the war to end all wars. Sadly, this did not turn out to
be true.
The colors of the day were sensible and functional. Vanity seemed inappropriate when nearly
every family had lost loved ones. It was a time for duty and modesty. Medal Bronze, Twill,
Trekking Green, and Dress Blues express the militarys omnipresence. Saxony Blue, Grenadine,
and Bright White, reminiscent of the colors of the U.S., British, and French flags, recall the
patriotism of the era.
Grenadine, when it stands alone, recalls the corn poppy, which became a symbol of
remembrance for those lost in the war.

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Left: U.S. Food Administration poster 1918, Paul Stahr


Right: Gee!! I wish I were a man, Id join the Navy Navy recruiting poster 1917, Howard Chandler Christy

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Cover from The Ladies Home Journal 1917, Howard Giles


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Medal Bronze 17; Twill 16-1108; Trekking Green 19-5411; Dress Blues 19-4024;
Saxony Blue 18-4225; Grenadine 17-1558; Bright White 11-0601

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Coming Home
Soldiers reuniting with their families brought with them a new openness to change. Young people
seemed eager to leave behind the ideas of their parents generation, which got them into the
Great Warand the ways in which they nested in their new homes revealed their willingness to
reinvent life as the decade came to a close.
Europes dominance in matters of fashion and home styles waned, and the New World exerted
more influence. The House Beautiful was founded in 1918 and became a bible of tasteful
decorating with a can-do attitude and emphasis on home improvement. Every bungalow could be
made perfect, if you just followed the directions of the new tastemakers.
Home improvement was more than an aesthetic pursuit. Labor-saving devices in the form of
home appliances entered the marketplace. Over two dozen home refrigerators were introduced by
General Electric, Frigidaire, and Kelvinator. Toasters, coffee percolators, and waffle irons
encouraged efficient homemakers to electrify their kitchens even further. Whirlpool and Maytag
introduced their first washing machines in 1911, greatly easing the Sisyphean work of laundry
day. Even the ordinary kitchen stove became a kitchen triumph with a fresh coat of blue enamel.
Refrigeration and more frequent clothes-washing were part of an interest in better home
hygienean idea made allimportant by the deadly flu epidemic of 1918. Even Armstrong, the
developer of linoleum, got in on the act with advertisements that proclaimed their new product to
be germ free, high performance, and aesthetically pleasing.
Cocoon suggests the familiar comforts of home, reinforced by Golden Cream, Cashew,
Lavender Lustre, and True Blue. Deep Lichen Green and Moonless Night provide strength and
structure.

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Left: Black Model T Ford Touring car 1915


Right: Pyrex ad 1918

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Left: Armstrong Flooring ad 1919

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Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Cocoon 14-1025; Golden Cream 13-0939; Cashew 17-1137; Lavender Lustre 16-3920;
True Blue 19-4057; Deep Lichen Green 18-0318; Moonless Night 19-4203

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1920s
Modern Ways
The 20s roared. Time-honored systems and old hierarchies had created a devastating (and some
thought pointless) war. In the wake of its devastation, an exuberant and very visible fringe of
young peoplecentered mostly in the major cities of the United States and Europeexperimented
with new ways of dressing and dancing, romancing and traveling. Parents everywhere were
shocked.
Throughout the decade, social mores were deeply challenged, and the hegemony of the white
male weakened a little. After a decades-long suffrage movement, women were granted the vote in
the United States in 1920. The Jazz Age brought African-inflected rhythms and African-American
performers into the limelight for the first time. Sessue Hayakawa, a Japanese actor, became one of
Hollywoods highest paid talents. Young womens skirts got shorter. Their hair got bobbed. And
many inhibitions faded into the background. Makeup, once the domain of actresses and
prostitutes, brightened many lips and cheeks. Prohibition and its unintended by-products,
speakeasies and moonshine, made breaking the law a game. Rebellion was in the air, perfumed
with cocktails and cigarettes, and it was expressed in a color palette anchored in intoxicating
Apricot Brandy and Winetasting.
Artist J. C. Leyendecker channeled the sensuality of the 20s into commercial illustrations that
tempted customers into buying not just clothing, but an image. His iconic Arrow Collar man made
a giant of the company he came to symbolize. Good looking, athletic, and sexy, he suggested that
wearing an Arrow shirt made you the same. Not surprisingly, Leyendeckers colors were at once
sensual and wholesome, a combination advertisers continue to pursue to this day. But even in the
relatively freewheeling atmosphere of the 20s, shirt buyers would have been surprised to learn
that the Arrow man was modeled after Charles Beach, the partner with whom Leyendecker lived
for almost fifty years.
The openness of the decade allowed idiosyncratic talents like Clarice Cliff to thrive. She took a
warehouseful of defective pottery and decorated it with bright enamel patterns for her line of
Bizarre Ware. Assisted by a small team of painters known as Bizarre Girls, she offered a burst of
happy and affordable color to many homes. Society hostess and artist Florine Stettheimer also
worked with sunny tones, but only for her own delightand that of the talented New Yorkers who
flocked to salon-style gatherings in her colorful home. Both Cliff and Stettheimer mixed bright
citrus colors with quirky doses of pink and purple.
Another unique talent, artist Raoul Dufy, was invited by fashion designer Paul Poiret to bring
his sensibilities to textile design. True to the bold spirit of his era, Dufy simplified form and color,
often at a very large scale, and in doing so had a profound impact on textile design. As
manufacturers near and far emulated his strategies, floral motifs became more modern in their
layering of geometry and simple painterly gestures. They also replaced Dufys preferred black and
white with a seductive palette of beautifully faded colors.
Speed was also seductive in this era. Over thirty million cars took to the roads over the course
of the decade, introducing new freedom to many. Luxury trains and ships lured passengers with
twin promises of style and speed. The notion of travel evolved from something only for the very
rich or the very daring into the idea of the pleasure trip accessible to the many. Exquisitely drawn
travel posters promised coppery suntans and glamorous palm-shaded watering holes.
A leisurely Nile cruise was among the favored destinations for European travelers. But interest
in Egypt went well beyond boat trips when Howard Carter discovered the tomb of King
Tutankhamen in 1922. Extensive news coverage gave the public detailed images of furniture and
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statues that had not seen sunlight in over three thousand years, and all things Egyptian became a
craze. Gold and the colors of inlaid stones made the Tutmania of the 20s glistenas a vogue for
Egyptian-inspired objects swept the globe.
Egyptian references were among the many influences to combine in the internationally
popular Art Deco style. What started as a rarified style of furniture and interiors for wealthy
interwar Europeansas conceived by legendary talents like mile-Jacques Ruhlmanngradually
became a more accessible and streamlined language of shapes and finishes. Eileen Grays
exploration of steel tubing and other industrial materials opened new avenues for Art Deco
designers.
Industrial materials were also explored, with intellectual rigor, by the highly influential
Bauhaus school in its pursuit of a union between art, craft, design, and technology. Instructor
Marcel Breuers tubular steel chairs are still icons of industrial design. What is less remembered is
the Bauhauss exploration of color and form, and the emotional and spiritual aspects of each.
Johannes Itten, Paul Klee, and Wassily Kandinsky each contributed to the Bauhaus approach to the
basics of design and human experience. While their ideas are perhaps too complex for icon
status, their contemplative color palette and the thinking behind it still influence creatives
everywhere.

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Art Deco
Art Deco got its name from the Exposition Internationale des Arts Dcoratifs et Industriels
Modernes, held in Paris in 1925 and attended by exhibitors from twenty countries and sixteen
million viewers.[17] The modern language of luxury promoted by the fair began, for the most
part, in the ateliers of the designers and craftsmen of France.
Designer and decorator mile-Jacques Ruhlmann epitomizes the Parisian genius behind Art
Deco. Using rare woods, complex marquetry, gilding, ivory, shagreen, and much more, he turned
diverse references to historical styles into costly and superfashionable furnishings and interiors.
He was not at all concerned by the immense prices he charged: Only the very rich can pay for
what is new and they alone can make it fashionable. And they did.
It took designers like Irish-born Eileen Gray to hone Art Deco into sleek simplicityand to
introduce less expensive materials. Fascinated by the luster of lacquer, she studied with Parisbased Japanese master Sugawara Seizo. She learned to craft gorgeous screens, small furniture,
and objects in black and red with silver details. Her lacquered interiors for an apartment on the
rue de Lota, completed in 1924, attracted much attention for their tasteful modernity. Her Transat
Chair also sprang from her fascination with sleek lacquer.
She experimented with less expensive materials, too. The chromed metal and glass E-1027
side table she designed for her own home is popular again today. Her 1925 steel-framed
Bibendum chair remains an exemplar of modern design. Grays work opened the way for Art Deco
to become an accessible and international movement.
Silver and Jet Black form the sleek contrast essential to the Art Deco aesthetic. Carnelian,
Champagne Beige, and Turtledove add warm nuance, while Lavender Violet beckons with a cool
allure.

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Left: Art Deco glass bottle and three glasses ca. 1920s
Right (top): Screen 1928, Eileen Gray
Right (bottom): Leather evening shoes 1925, Bob, Inc., New York

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Left: Dressing table and chair 19221926, design by mile-Jacques Ruhlmann, pochoir print from Interieurs en Couleurs by Leon
Deshairs, Albert Levy, ed.
Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Silver 14-5002; Jet Black 19-0303; Carnelian 16-1435; Champagne Beige 14-1012;
Turtledove 12-5202; Lavender Violet 17-3924

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Tutmania
The fifth Earl of Carnarvon was ready to throw in the towel: with his backing, archeologist Howard
Carter had disturbed a great deal of Egyptian sand with little to show for it. But Carter begged his
patron for one last season of digging in the autumn of 1922, convinced by slim evidence that he
knew the location of a lost tomb in the Valley of Kings. Carnarvon relented.
Four days into that last dig, Carter found a stone stairway descending to massive doors. When
Carnarvon arrived three weeks later from England, they opened the tomb together and Carter
crawled inside. When asked what he saw, his legendary reply was, Wonderful things!
Constant newsreel and newspaper coverage of King Tutankhamens trove of furniture, ritual
objects, statues, and pharaonic jewelry turned public appetite for all things Egyptian into an
international cultural phenomenon. The Tutankhamen Rag was played in the ballroom of Luxors
Winter Palace Hotel. Furniture, interior dcor, and fashion soon featured lotus motifs and ancient
symbols.[18] Biscuit tins and perfume bottles conveyed messages (about shelf life?) in
hieroglyphics. Cleopatra earrings, scarab rings, and sphinx shoulder clips abounded. Amazing
talents such as designer Pierre-mile Legrain modeled side chairs and dressing tables after
archeological specimens in ebony, vellum, shagreen, chromium-plated metal, zebra skin, and
lacquer.[19]
Like Napoleons France, which had experienced its own Egyptian revival a century earlier, the
Jazz Age found a place in its heart for an ancient, deeply religious culture.
Shimmering Rich Gold captures the awe-inspiring luxury of King Tuts burial goods. Burnt
Henna, Imperial Blue, and Aqua Haze are found in the semiprecious inlay of his jewelry and
statuary. Nile Green, Sahara Sun, and Desert Sage remind us of the frescoed walls of
Tutankhamens well-preserved tomb, and their promise of a sumptuous eternal life.

Left: Art Deco glass perfume bottles ca. 1920s


Right: Corsage ornament ca. 1923, Georges Fouquet

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Left: Funerary mask of Tutankhamen ca. 13321322 BC


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Rich Gold 16-1836; Burnt Henna 19-1540; Imperial Blue 19-4245; Aqua Haze 155209; Nile Green 14-0121; Sahara Sun 14-0936; Desert Sage 16-0110

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Cocktails and Laughter


American women were granted the right to vote in 1920, a major shift in public life. But change
did not stop there. Energized in part by disillusionment with established rules and norms
following World War I, heated up with sophisticated jazz, and set afire by the Eighteenth
Amendments prohibition of alcohol, the 1920s roared rebelliously.
Young women cut their hair short, slicked it down with brilliantine, and raised their hemlines.
They went to nightclubs with menin cars. They wore lipstick and rouge. They smoked and
danced and drank from their boyfriends hip flasks. Or from their own. Freewheeling flappers
thoroughly shocked their elders. As Dorothy Parker said in her poem The Flapper, Shes not
what Grandma used to be.[20]
Some blamed everything on jazz. Anne Shaw Faulkner, head of the music division of the
General Federation of Womens Clubs, published her essay Does Jazz Put the Sin in Syncopation?
in 1921.[21] To Faulkners ears, jazz was the music of the devil himself, and pulled innocent
youth headlong into moral decay. To young people dancing the Charleston, the Black Bottom, the
Fox Trot, the Cubanola Glide or the Tango Argentino, the devil never sounded so good.
The Jazz Age was also an international phenomenon. Across the Atlantic, East St. Louisborn
Josephine Baker stunned le Tout-Paris with her shimmy and her shimmer. She became a sexy,
intriguing emblem of interwar daring and style, even as she demonstrated a new freedom for
women to create lives completely of their own choosing.
Flapper colors express the pleasure-loving times with Winetasting and Apricot Brandy,
highlighted by the fleshy appeal of Dusty Pink and Desert Rose. Boa and Pale Gold bring luxury to
the never-ending party promised by Infinity.

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Left (top): Josephine Baker La Vie Parisienne ad ca. 1920


Left (bottom): Panne velvet wrap, detail ca. 1925
Right: Gold evening dress 19261927, Edward Molyneux

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Left: The Flapper cover of Life magazine 1922, F. X. Leyendecker


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Winetasting 19-2118; Apricot Brandy 17-1540; Dusty Pink 14-1316; Desert Rose 171927; Boa 17-0625; Pale Gold 15-0927; Infinity 17-4015

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Destinations
Though postWWI nationalism made international travel a little more complicated, improvements
in train and ship lines gave it a stylish sense of luxury and adventure. The forward march of
technology also made speed part of the thrill.
The most luxurious form of international travel was the ocean cruise. The le de France, for
example, made her maiden voyage from Paris to New York in 1927. She was equipped with all the
necessary luxuries: a two-story chapel with pipe organ, a sixhundred- seat dining room with a
gold and silver fountain, a tea room, and a Parisian sidewalk caf, all of which were designed with
thirty-six kinds of wood and a variety of lacquer and metalwork. The quality of the interiors was
not the only way ships distinguished themselves: they also competed to see who could travel
fastest, particularly across the Atlantic.
When it came to speed, the airplane trumped them all. Charles A. Lindbergh made his historic
solo flight across the Atlantic in 1927, and while the world celebrated his achievement, it also
seemed to become smaller. International travel, while still the province of the well-to-do, became
a bit more imaginable. Lindbergh used his fame to promote the commercial aviation industry to
make sure that it became achievable, as well.
Graphic designers did their part to build desire for cities like Paris and London with elegant
posters that glamorized both destinations and their inhabitantswho all seemed to wear the
latest fashions. Resorts like Nice and Vichy also benefitted from such marketing: resort towns that
relatively few had heard of became worldwide household names.
The color language found in travel posters of the day frequently employed the coppery tones
of suntans and the warm neutrals of sand and sunlight. Silvery greens gave elegant life to oceans
and rivers, and olives and browns to the landscape.

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Left: Travel ad for La Cte dAzur 1928, Roger Broders


Right: Le Mont Revard travel ad 1927, Roger Broders

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Left: Vichy travel ad 1928, Roger Soubie


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) 7410; 7407; 7566; 7499; 7580; 5783; 5763; 476

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The Leyendecker Man


The career of illustrator Joseph Christian Leyendecker was fueled by a booming market for
magazines that created an intense demand for illustrators. Over a forty-year period he created
more than three hundred covers for the Saturday Evening Post alone, where he is credited with
originating the rotund, rosy-cheeked Santa which still presides over the American Christmas
season, as well as sash-wearing Baby New Year.
As the number of printed pages grew, so did the number of advertisements needed to fund
themand the growing commercial market is a second force behind Leyendeckers career. He was
among the most influential commercial artists of his day, starting with years of work for Chicagobased menswear labels Kuppenheimer and Hart, Schaffner, and Marx.
Leyendeckers most enduring commercial creation, however, was the Arrow Collar Man.
Leyendecker himself approached Arrow with the idea of creating a signature masculine icon for
their company: Not simply a man, but a manly man, a handsome manan ideal American
man.[22] The fit, pensive, and undeniably handsome character created by Leyendecker came to
represent an ideal of masculine beauty still resonant today. The Arrow Collar Man also remains
one of advertisings great success stories: he helped Arrow eventually gain control of 96 percent
of the market for store-bought shirts.
What was the final force behind Leyendeckers success? Love. His life-partner of nearly fifty
years, Charles Beach, was the model for the Arrow campaign. They kept their personal life mostly
hidden, but their undercover attachment may explain the smoldering quality of Leyendeckers
colors and brushwork.
Toast, Rutabaga, and True Blue create a stable triad of sincerity and wholesomeness in
Leyendeckers palettewhich Peat, Nasturtium, and Prune bring alive with complex and
passionate color.

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Left: Motorcycle Cop and Kids cover of The Saturday Evening Post 1922, J. C. Leyendecker
Middle: Kuppenheimer ad 1920, J. C. Leyendecker
Right: Socks by Interwoven 1926, J. C. Leyendecker

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Arrow Dress Collars and Shirts 1920, J. C. Leyendecker


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Toast 16-1331; Rutabaga 12-0806; True Blue 19-4057; Peat 19-0508; Nasturtium 161451; Prune 19-2014

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Bauhaus
The Bauhaus was founded in 1919, and folded under Nazi pressure in 1933. Its ambitious goals
sought a synthesis of art, craft, design, and technology into functional objects and beautiful
environments for living and working. The schools embrace of machine production created an
enduring impact on twentiethcentury designand the Bauhaus aesthetic is most often
remembered in instructor Marcel Breuers chrome-plated tubular steel chairs and the rational
architecture of founder Walter Gropius.
But there is another side to Bauhaus thought, stemming from early collaborator Johannes
Itten. As the only founding faculty member with teaching experience, Itten designed the Bauhaus
introductory curriculum in 1919, which covered basic ideas about color, form, and material. Itten
emphasized self-discovery as the key to successful learning, and sought not to damage the
creative impulse of his students. Such tenderness put him at odds with the Bauhaus masterapprentice model of instruction. He was also revered by his students, which did not endear him to
Gropius.
Itten resigned in 1922, but fellow instructors Paul Klee and Wassily Kandinsky elaborated on
his ideas about the synchronicity of color and form. Yellow is sharp and triangular. Blue is spiritual
and circular. Red is square and associated with weight and matter. Secondary colors were
associated with hybrid forms and nuanced meanings. Kandinsky also discussed the possibility of
experiencing color as sound and texturesomething with which he, capable of synesthesia, was
familiar.
An interconnected universe of color, form, and emotion emerges from the work of these men.
The colors of the spiritual Bauhaus begin with mystical Moonless Night, Violet Storm, and
Lavender. Delft contributes a restful blue, while Oxblood and Burnt Ochre offer the gravity of red
without weighing down the palette. Yolk Yellow and Sunflower lend a lively energy without
disturbing the thoughtful violet end of the spectrum.

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Left: Tanz Festspiele (Dance Festival) poster 1928, Max Burchartz


Right (top): Club Chair B3 (Wassily) 1925, Marcel Breuer
Right (bottom): Ancient Harmony no. 236 1925, Paul Klee

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Left: Several Circles (Einige Kreise) 1926, Wassily Kandinsky


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Moonless Night 19-4203; Violet Storm 18-3944; Lavender 15-3817; Delft 19-4039;
Oxblood Red 19-1524; Burnt Ochre 18-1354; Yolk Yellow 14-0846; Sunflower 16-1054

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Modern Pleasures
Once the Fauves and Leon Bakst let the color-genie out of the bottle, it was impossible to contain
it. The 1920s embraced the color revolution of the preceding decades and added a new, cheerful
spin. Bright tones became vibrant rather than clashing, and whimsical rather than revolutionary.
As the Roaring 20s embraced a range of new pleasures, a capricious, energized palette emerged
in fashion, ceramics, upholstery textiles, paintings, and more.
One of the notable proponents of bright tones was ceramic designer Clarice Cliff. After
apprenticing as an enamel decorator and lithographer, she was hired by Englands Newport
Pottery as a pattern painter. Confronted with a warehouse full of defective goods that needed to
be sold, she covered their flawed surfaces with bright patterns of on-glaze enamel colors.[23]
Much to the surprise of the salesmen, her line, back-stamped Bizarre by Clarice Cliff, was
immensely successful. Cliffs colorful vision remained popular until World War II, when her
signature effervescence seemed altogether too happy.
Another eccentric vision for color emerged across the Atlantic. Florine Stettheimer, a wealthy,
unmarried New York hostess, painted with tones Clarice Cliff would have admired. After the only
exhibition of her work during her lifetime, in 1916, she painted solely for her own pleasure. Her
canvasses describe the doings of her social set, which included some of New York Citys most
creative residents, as well as a rich fantasy life. Her exuberant, idiosyncratic depictions of events
real and imaginary radiate pure color. In the words of a biographer, [S]he was not one for mixing
colors; what came straight out of the tube seemed to her quite good enough.[24]
Modern Pleasures blends Bright Lime Green, Buttercup, and Carrot in generous amounts.
Sachet Pink sweetens up their citrus mix, while Persian Jewel, African Violet, and Amethyst Orchid
add eccentricity and flirtatiousness.

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Left (top): Beauty Contest: To the Memory of P. T. Barnum 1924, Florine Stettheimer
Left (bottom): Appliqu bird-of-paradise charger 1930, Clarice Cliff
Right: Cloche hat 1925, Kilpin Ltd.

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Sheer silk flapper print ca. 1926, sourced by Patricia Nugent Design and Textiles

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Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Bright Lime Green 14-0244; Buttercup 12-0752 ; Carrot 16-1361; Sachet Pink 15-2216;
Persian Jewel 17-3934; African Violet 16-3520; Amethyst Orchid 17-3628

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A Rose Is a Rose
As a painter, Raoul Dufys work is often thought too decorative and sentimental to join the canon
of twentieth-century art. But as a textile designer, nothing could be further from the truth. His
pattern work pulled textile design expressively into the realm of art, and continues to inspire
designers today.
Fashion designer Paul Poiret, who advocated a free exchange of ideas between art, craft, and
design, commissioned Dufy to create textiles after seeing his woodcut illustrations for poet
Guillaume Apollinaires Le Bestiaire. Dufy had fashioned a splendid universe of fauna and flora in
black and white, and Poiret was intrigued.
The results were unusual. Arts and Crafts and Wiener Werksttte designers had begun to treat
flora in a graphic manner, but Dufy simplified references to nature even further. In his hands,
leaves and petals were rendered as large-scale masses of black with a single white detail. An early
black and white fabric for Poiret, La Perse, was made into a coat worn by Madame Poiret in 1911
and created a sensation. Later floral prints for Poiret reduced the rose, quintessential symbol of
romance, to a single white line on blackor to a silhouetted blossom surrounding a froth of white
brushstrokes. On the strength of his work with Poiret, preeminent silk mill Bianchini-Ferier
teamed with Dufy to make groundbreaking textiles through the late 1920s.
Dufys manner of handling floral motifs bridged the gap between traditionally feminine
patterns and a visual language appropriate for the more liberated women of the 1920s. His work
was emulated and adapted in Europe and the United States.
Rose patterns were often delivered in a subtle and seductive palette. Faded Rose and Honey
Peach lead the way, cooled by Acorn and Grape Jam. Aluminum and Mallard Blue provide a bit of
deep shade to this garden.

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Left: Abstract rose ca. 19251928, sourced by Patricia Nugent Design and Textiles
Right (top): Silver sweetmeat dish in the form of a rose 19251926, Omar Ramsden
Right (bottom): Styled rose with shards ca. 1928, sourced by Patricia Nugent Design and Textiles

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Left: Rose on graphic ground ca. 19201928, sourced by Patricia Nugent Design and Textiles
Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Faded Rose 18-1629; Honey Peach 13-1015; Acorn 18-1314; Grape Jam 18-3415;
Aluminium 16-1107; Mallard Blue 19-4318

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1930s
Resilience and Recovery
The 1930s began on October 29, 1929, also known as Black Tuesday. The rapid decline of the
New York Stock Exchange silenced the Roaring 20s, and threw the United States into the Great
Depression, which would endure until 1939. Other countries followed suit in a domino effect, and
the entire world suffered from the downturn. Unemployment exceeded 25 percent in the United
States, and went as high as 33 percent in some developed nations. Industries of all kinds were
devastated by lack of demandeven agriculture, with crop prices down as much as 60 percent.
The gloom was general, and thick.
Nonetheless, it took some time for the Great Depression to completely take hold. Projects
conceived in the late 20s, like the Chrysler and Empire State buildings, came to completion in the
30s in the Art Deco style, replete with gleaming silver and gold details and expensive red, black,
and green marble. But after that, with new construction slowing to a crawl, the splendors of Art
Deco mostly continued in the more modest form of consumer goods.
Manufacturers explored design as a tool for tempting customers into purchasing, and
products from radios to bathroom scales began to look as dynamic and stylish as the New York
skyline. Industrial design came into its own as the bridge linking new materials and technologies
to the consumers who might be enticed into adopting them in their daily lives. Bakelite, a durable
and inexpensive plastic, became an amazing resource for industrial designers in their pursuit of
affordable appliances and other products. Bakelite was also used extensively in costume jewelry. It
was made in colors resembling jade, jet, amber, and exotic woodsbut at a satisfying fraction of
their cost.
The movies were another affordable source of satisfaction, and distraction. In the form of
gangster films, horror flicks, madcap comedies, and teary dramas, movies helped people cast
aside their worries for a while, for just fifteen cents. Millions of moviegoers around the world were
thrilled with stories of pluck and persistenceand enthralled by images of beautiful actresses in
shimmering satin gowns. Living a life of luxury was still possible in the Depression, if you did it
vicariously. Costume designers (who were often noted fashion designers in their own right) set
the styles of the day in smoky, subtle colors which also had a practical side: such tones could be
worn and re-worn for a long time, which was a necessity in lean circumstances.
This simultaneously luxurious and practical palette of fashion entered the home in the
cosmopolitan hands of interior designers like Syrie Maugham, whose rooms brought movie
glamour to life.
Having fun at home was more economical than going out, and radio programs, board games,
and comic strips became wildly popular. Monopoly came into thousands and thousands of homes
in the mid-1930s, along with Chinese checkers and other amusements. Even the younger
members of a family could dream of becoming Wall Street titans with vivid plastic houses and
hotels spread around the cheerfully bright game board. Late 1930s superheroes like Superman
and Batman also inhabited worlds of forthright color, as they kept the forces of evil at bay.
President Franklin Delano Roosevelts Works Progress Administration kept the forces of
unemployment at bay for hundreds of thousands of people who had nowhere else to turn. The
WPA, FDRs far-reaching response to the Great Depression, created public buildings, roads,
bridges, tunnels, and a system of public parks that remain treasured national assets to this day. A
division of the WPA, the Federal Art Project, employed thousands of artists, some of them destined
to become leaders of the postWorld War II modern art scene. One of the FAPs accomplishments
was a series of posters publicizing the new parks, and the grounded but vital palette they used
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reveals something important about the resilience of Depression-era America.


The softer palette of Roseville Pottery, an important player in a 1930s vogue for American art
pottery, revealed a marked departure from brighter hues popular in the 1920s. Roseville became
most successful when it offered affordable goods in warm neutrals and earth tones, accented by
the colors of leaves and flowers. Nature, said to be the ultimate source of all good design ideas,
also proved to be a source of colorful comfort to homemakers across America.
As the 1930s came to a close, some hope appeared. Unemployment rates began to come
down. Tensions in Europe notwithstanding, people began to feel that there was light at the end of
the tunnel. When the New York Worlds Fair opened with its theme Building the World of
Tomorrow, its promise of a pristine, logical, orderly future seemed like a dream after the
nightmare of the Great Depression. The millions who attended the Fair were entranced by its
promises of one-hundredmiles- per-hour highways, super-efficient factories producing gorgeous
futuristic cars, air conditioners, and vacuums, and lives made easier by technology. Tomorrow
couldnt come fast enough if it looked as beautiful as the Fair itself, resplendent in the blues of
sky and outer space, and the white and yellow of sunshine.
Also in 1939, The Wizard of Oz movie debuted. Its celebration of humble American
determination was, like the Worlds Fair, a fitting end to the Depression. Dorothy Gales journey to
Oz gave Americans a glimpse of an unpredictable Technicolor world, and her efforts in the face of
the strange and unknown resonated profoundly with moviegoers. For a country on the brink of
recovery, Somewhere Over the Rainbow finally looked to be within reach.

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Deco Architecture
Art Deco cathedrals of commerce and entertainment radiated glamour into the economic gloom of
the 1930s. Two of the most enduring examples of Art Deco architecture were completed early in
the decadein spite of the Wall Street crash of 1929. The glorious Chrysler Building opened in
1930 thanks to automobile mogul Arthur P. Chryslers personal backing. Not coincidentally,
former General Motors vice president John Jakob Raskob headed the group of industry titans who
financed the construction of the Empire State Building in 1931. Both buildings were immensely
popular from the start and, even without the motivation of Motor City rivalries, Art Deco as an
idiom for modern architecture became a global phenomenon. From Shanghai all the way around
the world to San Francisco, sensuous machine-age curves blended with stylized references to
nature and historical styles with gorgeous results.
The ability to accommodate a vast range of influencesfrom ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia
to electricity or local flora encouraged both architects and designers alike to experiment with
Art Decos gleaming geometries. What was good for skyscrapers turned out to be just as good for
toasters and costume jewelry. Where Walter Chrysler spent lavishly on red Moroccan marble in his
buildings lobby, a clever designer substituted a bit of enameled brass on the housing of an
electric shaver. While John D. Rockefeller spent a bundle on costly bronze hardware at Rockefeller
Center, machined aluminum would do nicely at home. Art Deco worked at most price levels, and
helped nontraditional products and materials gain acceptance.
The Deco palette of the 1930s fulfilled its mission as an antidote to the Great Depression with
luscious tones. The silver of 1920s Deco remains, but the obvious luxury of gold becomes more
important. Precious metals are layered against smooth chocolate, misty jade, and satiny mauve.

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Left (top): Art Deco clock ca. 1920s1930s


Left (bottom): Schick razor ca. 1931, designed by Raymond Loewy
Right: The pinnacle or Vortex of the Chrysler Building in New York 19271930

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Left: Art Deco elevator door in the Chrysler Building in New York 19281930
Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Silver; 10366; 7533 ; 5635; 4725

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Illusions
Approximately 28 percent of Americans were without income in the early 1930s. The world
economy was dismal. The Dust Bowl, breadlines, and the tensions that would eventually escalate
into World War II, provided a stream of bad news. But fifteen cents entitled a moviegoer to a
comfortable seat, a newsreel, a short film, and a star-studded feature film with John Barrymore,
Barbara Stanwyck, or Carole Lombardor Clark Gable, Bette Davis, Katharine Hepburn, Humphrey
Bogart, or dozens of others. The movies provided an escape in a time that badly needed one, and
between sixty and seventy million Americans every week went to the movies.
Many films of the 1930s explored American ideals of individualism, classlessness, and
progress. Their happy endings represented the righting of wrongs, the rebalancing of social and
economic inequities, and the triumph of hard work and determination. Womens big screen roles,
particularly, highlighted the backbone and strength needed to get to the last scene and its
satisfying denouement. Katharine Hepburn, Joan Crawford, and Bette Davis became stars in the
1930s, and remained so long after, in part because their personalities were built with a
fundamental sense of grit. Nothing could quite get the best of them or dim their determination to
live their own lives.
Moral tales were not the movies only appeal. Beautiful people in beautiful clothes were part of
the attraction. Coco Chanel, Elsa Schiaparelli, Edward Molyneux, Madame Grs, Jean Patou, and
Jeanne Lanvin flocked from Paris to Hollywood to costume the stars. Americans Gilbert Adrian and
Edith Head designed for film too, and sometimes crossed over into retail success. Adrians
butterfly gown for Joan Crawfords Letty Lynton sold half a million copies at Macys in the depths
of the Depression.
Subtle, smoky colors characterize the time. Smoked Pearl and Pearled Ivory acknowledge the
glow of pearls and satin finishes. Shitake, Fennel Seed, and Jojoba bring quiet warmth into the
palette, while Green Milieu offers a seductive shadow.

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Right (top):Striated vintage buttons ca. 1933


Right (bottom): John Barrymore and Katharine Hepburn in a still from Bill of Divorcement 1932
Left: Evening ensemble 1929, Jean Patou, House of Patou

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Left: Syrie Maughams Drawing Room at 213 Kings Road, Chelsea, as featured in The Studio 1933
Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Smoked Pearl 18-0000; Pearled Ivory 11-0907; Shitake 18-1015; Fennel Seed 170929; Jojoba 14-0935; Green Milieu 16-5806

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Fantastic Plastic
After Belgian-born Leo Baekeland invented Velox photographic paper (which he sold to George
Eastman for a cool million dollars), he turned to synthetic resins. His laboratory experiments led
to the development of a phenol formaldehyde compound which could be hardened under heat and
pressure: glossy, durable Bakelite plastic. Starting in 1909, Baekeland sold black and brown
Bakelite primarily to the electrical industry.
When Baekelands patent expired in 1927, other companies got into the business. The
American Catalin Corporation, for example, quickly introduced a range of pretty new colors,
which took Bakelite beyond the technical world. The Bakelite Corporation and its competitors
convinced manufacturers of everything from telephones to toys and billiard balls to barware to try
hard plastics. Working with Bakelite was less labor intensive than metals and woods, and
manufacturers could offer plastic products at lower pricesa vital selling advantage during the
Great Depression. A plastic radio could be sold for ten dollars, while one with a wooden case
might retail for ten times that amount.
In fact, the radio was one of the products that carried Bakelite around the world. Radios with
elaborate grilles, etched dials, and cases of all shapes and sizes emerged in the United States,
Great Britain, France, Germany, Czechoslovakia, and even Australia. Bakelite jewelry became
another wonderful phenomenon, with carved cuff bracelets and smooth bangles ornamenting
many wrists. To women trying to economize in lean times, plastic jewelry was an appealing way to
keep up appearances.
The vivid palette of 1930s Bakelite often emulated precious materials, with Pirate Black as an
alternative to jet and Buff Yellow and Radiant Yellow to amber. Grenadine and Red Orange looked
like costly Japanese lacquer. Fairway resembled serpentine jade, and Friar Brown substituted for
dark tropical woods. Gloxinia lent its own eccentric appeal to this newly popular substance.

Left: Telephone ca. 1929


Right: Multicolored Bakelite necklace ca. 1937

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Top: Bakelite billiard balls ca. 1935


Bottom: Patriot radio 1939, designed by Norman Bel Geddes, manufactured by Emerson Radio and Phonograph Corp., New
York
Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom)Pirate Black 19-4305; Buff Yellow 14-0847; Radient Yellow 15-1058; Grenadine 171558; Red Orange 17-1464; Fairway 18-6320; Friar Brown 19-1230; Gloxinia 19-3022

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Diversions
In the midst of the Great Depression, most Americans were earning 40 percent less than in the
1920sif they earned anything at all. Luxuries were difficult (or impossible) to justify. Movies
were a great way to keep spirits up, but admission for the whole family was often impossible on
an annual salary of thirteen hundred dollars or so. Miniature golf became popular, but the
admission fee was an issue here too.
Board games emerged as a cheerful and affordable way to stay home. Monopoly was
introduced in 1934 by Charles Darrow, a salesman who had lost his job. Probably inspired by an
earlier creation called The Landlords Game, Darrow designed Monopoly nearly as we know it
today, with streets named after those in Atlantic City, a handful of game tokens, a pair of dice,
and piles of fake money.
Parker Brothers rejected Darrows Monopoly, citing fifty-two errors in the games design
including unclear rules for winning and a game time well over forty-five minutes. But with true
Depression-era spirit, Darrow persevered. He sold a self-produced version to Wanamakers
department store in Philadelphia in late 1934. Upon hearing of the deal, Parker Brothers
reconsidered and had Monopoly on the shelves in early 1935; they sold twenty thousand sets the
first week. The game has been in continuous production since, and can be played in over twentyfive languages.
Comics also provided affordable amusement, and older characters like Krazy Kat and Little
Orphan Annie were joined in the 1930s by Dick Tracy, Popeye, Flash Gordon, Lil Abner, and
Prince Valiant. Superman and Batman dashed onto the scene as the decade was ending.
Depression-era diversions were colored in unmistakably upbeat tones. Strong primary colors
were flanked by bright orange and dark teal. Peach and blue-gray completed the Monopoly board
and added a light touch to the comics.

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Top: Monopoly board game ca. 1935, Parker Brothers


Bottom: Tricorne pattern dishes ca. 1935, Salem China Company, designer Don Schreckengost

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Left: Toy Sale ca. 19361941, New York City, Federal Art Project
Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) 5473; 185; 7549; 1505; 661; 1565; 658

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Parks and Recreation


During Franklin D. Roosevelts first hundred days as President of the United States, he addressed
the Great Depression with New Deal programs. But the economy did not respond. After
congressional elections in 1934, the Second New Deal began. Social Security was establishedand
so was the WPA, the Works Progress Administration, which employed crowds of impoverished
workers to construct public buildings, roads, parks, and more. Roosevelt backed jobs instead of
handouts, which he feared would risk the spiritual and moral disintegration of the national
fiber.[25]
A branch of the WPA, the Federal Art Project (FAP), employed 5,300 artists, who collectively
created 225,000 works of art. Murals were installed in hospitals and post offices. Paintings were
placed in libraries and schools. Sculptures were raised in public parks. A 22,000-plate Index of
American Design was created to catalog American folk culture. Paradoxically, public resources
were enhanced during the worst economic situation in U.S. history. Something was made where
much might have been destroyed.
The FAP was born of the conviction that culture is an essential thread in the tapestry of
American lifeone that must survive. The American nation and its culture benefitted greatly from
the FAPs support for a generation of artists who might otherwise have been silenced. Mark
Rothko and Jackson Pollock went on to mammoth careers. Painters Ivan Albright, Paul Cadmus,
Childe Hassam, and Jacob Laurence also took part, as did sculptor Isamu Noguchi, printmaker
Rockwell Kent, and others.
Among its many accomplishments, the FAP produced a series of posters celebrating the new
WPA park system. Noble but grounded colors pay tribute to the transforming work of these New
Deal programs. Landscapes of olive, pea green, and amber unfold against deep azure skies. Black,
lavender, and mauve underscore the dignity of the American response to adversity.

Left: Poster for Federal Art Project exhibition 1938, Stanley Thomas Clough
Center: Poster for United States Travel Bureau NYC Art Project, Work Projects Administration, 19361940, Harry Herzog
Right: Poster for National Park Service NYC Art Project, Work Projects Administration, 19361940, Frank S. Nicholson

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Left: Poster for the United States Travel Bureau Federal Art Project, Works Progress Administration 19361938, Richard Halls
Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Silver; 10366; 7533 ; 5635; 4725

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Roseville
Soft colors and clean lines made Roseville vases attractive. But it was the carefully molded flower
and leaf patterns that elegantly stretch across their shoulders and waists that made them a
sought-after collectible in the 1930s and beyond.
Roseville Pottery was founded in 1890 in Ohio, whose clay beds and favorable position on
railroad networks made it a good place for commercial potters. Their first success came with the
Rozane pattern of 1900which also represented their first foray into high quality goods. By the
1920s Roseville had ventured into an asymmetrical, Deco-inspired line called Futura, but
subsequent Depression-era tastes required more soothing colors and comforting shapes. The
1930s gave rise to the classic Roseville look, and memorable patterns such as Blackberry, Cherry
Blossom, Laurel, Tourmaline, and Baneda.
Roseville introduced Wisteria in 1933, a successful, earthy combination of purple, green, and
warm neutrals. Building on Wisterias simple shapes and comforting colors, Pinecone was
introduced in 1935, and proved to be the companys most successful lineoffered in dozens of
shapes and a variety of glazes. Ixia, Bushberry, and many other classics followed until the
companys closure in 1954.
Roseville was sold at accessible prices in midrange department stores and boutiques, and
ladies across the country were inspired to populate mantels, tables, and windowsills with their
collections. Rivals McCoy, Newcomb, Van Briggle, Weller, and Rookwood competed for attention,
each with their own distinct shapes, colors, and patterns. A significant collector base still exists
today for the wares of many American art pottery producers.
The classic Roseville palette is grounded in gentle Aspen Green and Blue Yonder, and the
nourishing neutrals of Biscuit and Jojoba. The blossom-colors of Dusty Pink, Heather Rose,
Lupine, and Chinese Violet give Roseville its feminine charm.

Left: Wisteria pattern ca. 1933, Roseville Pottery, Zanesville, Ohio


Center: Wisteria pattern ca. 1933, Roseville Pottery, Zanesville, Ohio

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Right: Baneda pattern ca. 1932, Roseville Pottery, Zanesville, Ohio

Left: Ixia pattern ca. 1937, Roseville Pottery, Zanesville, Ohio


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Aspen Green 17-0215; Blue Yonder 18-3937; Biscuit 16-1336; Jojoba 14-1935; Dusty
Pink 14-1316; Heather Rose 17-1608; Lupine 16-3521; Chinese Violet 18-3418

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The Wizard of Oz
The year 1939 was a remarkable year for American movies. Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, Of
Mice and Men, and Gone With the Wind vied with Goodbye, Mr. Chips, Ninotchka, Stagecoach, and
Wuthering Heights for the Academy Award for Best Picture.
Decades later, however, we can confidently state that The Wizard of Oz, called by the Library
of Congress the most watched film in history, eclipses them all. The Wizard of Oz gives us the
first all-American fairy tale, in which a small town girl faces her demons to develop an
appreciation for her humble home. Its a bildungsroman for the Heartland, and an homage to the
plucky underdog. Arlen and Harburgs unforgettable soundtrack, and the clever surprise of
Technicolor in Munchkinland, complete the picture.
But the film is more popular now than when it was new to the big screen. In part, this is
thanks to the small screen. It was broadcast annually on television for almost thirty years,
bringing scores of new fans. It was also the first home video released by MGM in 1980bringing
yet another generation to Emerald City.
Critics have tried to explain the films enduring power with Buddhist or feminist points of
view, populist or Christian analyses, or New Age philosophy. But there is nothing that comes close
to explaining the appeal of Dorothy, her friends, and her enemies. They are part of us, and thats
explanation enough.
Dorothys innocence is embodied by her Blue Bell gingham. The ruby slippers as well as the
perilous field of poppies were Poppy Red. Silver, Straw, and Lion stand for the Tin Man, the
Scarecrow, and the Cowardly Lion. Vibrant Green recalls both the Emerald City and the Wicked
Witch of the West. And Spectra Yellow beckons us down the Yellow Brick Road.

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Left: Dorothys ruby slippers from The Wizard of Oz 1939


Right (top): The Wicked Witch of the West from The Wizard of Oz 1939
Right (bottom): The Scarecrow, the Tin Man, Dorothy, Toto, and the Cowardly Lion from The Wizard of Oz 1939

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Left: The Yellow Brick Road from The Wizard of Oz 1939


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Blue Bell 14-4121; Poppy Red 17-1664; Silver 14-5002; Straw 13-0922; Lion 17-1330;
Vibrant Green 16-6339; Spectra Yellow 14-0957

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The World of Tomorrow


The 1939 Worlds Fair was designed to lift New York City out of the Great Depression. Financially
speaking, it did not: its parent body lost $19 million and declared bankruptcy in 1940. The fairs
Streamline Modern World of Tomorrow did, however, entrance fifty-one million viewers with a
clean, efficient, well-designed vision of the futurepopulated with new cars, new houses, new
appliances, and new gadgets produced by the manufacturers who sponsored many of the
exhibits.
General Motors contributed the Futurama, the most popular attraction. From a row of moving
armchairs, visitors circled a thirty-six-thousand-square-foot scale model of the futuristic
America of 1960. Ribbons of high-speed highways, punctuated with exquisite cloverleaf
intersections, traveled across hill and valley into model cities and towns. Farms along the road
from immaculate home to efficient office encouraged trees to bear more fruit with individual
greenhouse canopies. Bridges, dams, and tunnels yoked nature into collaboration with man for
the betterment of both. To a country struggling with the Great Depression, this kind of future
looked marvelous.
Design of the Fair was governed by a committee which included four of the greats of
American industrial design: Norman Bel Geddes, Raymond Loewy, Henry Dreyfuss, and Walter
Dorwin Teague. They had risen to prominence in the 1930s as manufacturers sought to optimize
the appeal of their wares with dynamic design, the latest technology, and the promise of everimproved performance. The white spire and sphere at the center of the Fair, and the consumer
goods at the heart of the exhibits, made a powerful argument for design as an element essential
to a decent future.
Deep Blue, True Blue, Bright White, and Sunlight capture the Fairs pristine hopes for 1960.
Phantom and Silver are integral to the modern technologies the Fair described as central to
progress.

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Left: Diesel powered Zephyr train logo ca. 1933, photo by Eric Futran
Center: Waring Blendor ca. 1937, photo by Eric Futran
Right: Juice-O-Mat ca. 1937, manufactured by Rival Co., photo by Eric Futran

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Left: Poster for New York Worlds Fair 1939, Joseph Binder

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Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Deep Blue 19-3847; True Blue 19-4057; Bright White 11-0601; Sunlight 13-00822;
Phantom 19-4205; Silver 14-5002

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1940s
War, Peace, and Prosperity
As the 30s turned into the 40s, a world gripped by the Great Depression quickly turned into a
world at war. Fighting between Japan and China started in 1937. France and Britain declared war
on Germany in 1939. The United States and Russia, reluctant to get involved, finally joined the
Allies in 1941. Millions of troops were deployed as countries from every continent became
involved. Memories of World War I were still painfully fresh for many, and the colors that came to
epitomize this war were a more serious blend of dutiful khakis and tans and navies, with slim
rations of patriotic red and blue to keep spirits up.
Though massive tooling-up for the war brought unemployment rates in the United States
nearly to zero, the aggression in the air was another trauma to add to the lingering wound of the
Depression. An entire generation had come of age in a time when it felt like their brightest ideas
and sharpest skills were unlikely ever to be rewarded. The painter Edward Hopper captured the
bleakness of lost, fragile people going through the motions of modern life but taking little
satisfaction from it. Some of the trenchant quality of Hoppers work comes from his enigmatic use
of rich, promising colors to depict silence and isolation.
Film noir picked up on the same misgivings about modern life that informed Hoppers work,
though with a delicious flair for the melodramatic. Nothing was exactly as it seemed in film noir.
Its sonatas of deception were played out by treacherous beauties and flawed heroes. Seduction
went hand in hand with betrayal. Danger lurked around every corner. Film noir shimmered with
shadow and smoke, and bristled with passion and badness. The silvery grays and absolute blacks
flashing across the screen were joined in film noir posters by exclamations of dark red.
At the same time that Hopper and film noir contemplated the dark side of the American
dream, Walt Disney brought a lively, animated vision to the silver screen. His first featurelength
hit, 1937s Snow White, showed how a cartoon could cover the range of human experience from
dark drama to a sunny happy ending. In 1940s Fantasia, he pushed animation even further,
hoping to create something like the Gesamtkunstwerk sought by the Weiner Wersksttte and the
Bauhaus. Set against masterpieces of classical music conducted by music titan Leopold Stokowski,
the sometimes serious, sometimes funny sequences of Fantasia opened new avenues for
animationand questioned whether the intellectual elite had exclusive ownership of high culture.
Embedded in the mystical and mysterious colors of Fantasia are hints of what was happening in
the world. In The Sorcerers Apprentice, Mickey Mouse must deal with the unexpected force of the
machinery he has set in motion.
By 1945, the fighting had stopped. Years of pent-up creativity and joy could finally blossom,
in spite of postwar rationing in Europe and the global aftermath of the war. On some level,
postwar fads for toys and newfangled consumer products like Silly Putty and Tupperware,
Frisbees, and Slinkies were an essential and welcome relief from thoughts of atomic bombs and
wartime atrocities. The Hawaiian shirt also became popular across America after the war, with its
life-giving greens and blues, and touches of tropical brights. A world at war turned into a world at
play.
The music industry also provided an affordable and thrilling respite from the everyday. As the
decade went on, Big Band sounds gave way to solo artists like Bing Crosby, Dinah Shore, and the
inimitable Frank Sinatra, whose center-stage crooning delighted screaming bobby-soxers
everywhere. Behind the scenes, graphic designer Alex Steinweiss fueled music sales with evocative
record coverssomething he introduced in 1940. Their primary colors and Kandinsky-esque
compositions served as a visual representation of the sounds inside.
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Steinweiss helped people decide what to spin on their turntables, but William Levitt put a roof
over their heads. Levitt streamlined home construction with assembly-line techniques and helped
returning World War II vets settle down with new brides and new families into new homes. Modern
suburbia was born. Homeowners were encouraged to color their modern nests with scientific
precision. The right glowing color choice brought the right wavelength of light into a room and
made it peaceful or lively, energizing or good for the digestion, according to the discerning home
decorators desire.
But the most stunning architect of 1940s desire was fashion designer Christian Dior. Out of
the gloom of postwar Europe, Diors Corolle collection of 1947, dubbed The New Look by the
press, burst onto the scene. His intention, he said, was to design for flower women, a marked
departure from the practical garb of the Depression and the war. Exaggerated peplums and full,
full skirts recalled Belle poque dressmaking, but they were also modern in their message of
confidence and seduction and their fast-moving sense of authority. Diors hushed, shimmering
palette was a paean to classical definitions of beauty with a distinctly twentieth-century feel and
a complete farewell to two decades of trouble and woe.

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Fantasia
Walt Disneys animated Silly Symphonies, alongside his half-pint protg Mickey Mouse, made
him famous. These seventy-five shorts, released between 1929 and 1939, were Disneys
apprenticeship for feature films: he honed scripts, mastered a growing range of color, and
explored the use of music so integral to his later films. Snow White, his triumph of 1937, showed
Disneys wondrous vision for animation.
But fairy tales and talking animals were not enough. Disneys 1940 Fantasia explored the
relationship between classical music and the visual arts. Its foray onto highbrow turf provoked a
rumble with the reigning intellectual and cultural elite.
The passage featuring Bach was largely respectful of the abstract beauty of orchestral music
originating with German artist Oskar Fischingers Kandinsky-influenced sketches. The mid-film
introduction of the science of sound and musical instruments prefigured Leonard Bernsteins
Young Peoples Concerts of two decades later. So far, so good.
But The Dance of the Hours, with its tutu-ed ostriches and toedancing hippos had a satirical
edge. And Night on Bald Mountain descended into a sort of demonic kitsch. The elite were not
pleased, conductor Leopold Stokowskis support notwithstanding.
The masses were not entirely pleased either. Fantasia lost money. Nonetheless, the film is
often cited as Disneys magnum opushis chance to show everything that animation could do.
Fantasias most popular segment, The Sorcerers Apprentice, shows Mickey Mouse grappling
with magic. His robe telegraphs youthful exuberance (and danger) with Bittersweet red. Out-ofcontrol brooms defy him with Golden Cream. The sorcerers den is imbued with magic and
mystery (like the rest of the film) through complex, ambiguous Deep Lichen Green, Oil Blue,
Alaskan Blue, and Turkish Seaenlivened by Rapture Rose and Raspberry Radiance. Total Eclipse
gives outline and shadow to the characters onscreen, but it also recalls the enthralling darkness of
classic movie houses.

Left: The Pegasus family flying down for a landing on Elysian lake from Fantasia 1940, Walt Disney Studios

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Right: The Frost Fairies from Fantasia 1940, Walt Disney Studios

Top (right): The Arabian Dance fish from Fantasia 1940, Walt Disney Studios
Top (left): The Greek cupola on the lake from The Pastoral Symphony from Fantasia 1940, Walt Disney Studios
Bottom (left): Mickey Mouse and the animated broom carrying buckets from Fantasia 1940, Walt Disney Studios
Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Bittersweet 17-1663; Golden Cream 13-0939; Deep Lichen Green 18-0312; Oil Blue
17-5111; Alaskan Blue 15-4225; Turkish Sea 19-4053; Rapture Rose 17-1929; Raspberry Radiance 19-2432; Total Elclipse 194010

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Edward Hopper
Edward Hopper was thirty-one before he sold his first painting and forty-one before his career
actually took flight. A handful of watercolors in a 1923 Brooklyn Museum show received
enthusiastic notices, which helped Hopper sell every piece in a subsequent solo show. He bought
a car with the money and finally quit the illustration work that he so loathed to focus on his
painting.
An accomplished technical artist, Hopper handled landscape, portraiture, and architecture
with equal aplomb. What intrigues viewers, however, is not his technique, but the undeniable
sense of loneliness Hopper creates with it. There is cold silence in his breezy New England
landscapes, and mournfulness even in portraits of his vivacious and beloved wife, the artist
Josephine Nivison. His paintings are peopled with souls unable to bridge the distance between
them to make a connection.
Does the emotion come from resentment at the isolation of long years of unnoticed work or
from a tendency toward melancholy, observed by his colleagues? Either way, his dark sensibilities
helped him give expression to the bewildered and discouraged feelings of Depression-era
Americans.
Many of his best-known works were painted in the early 1940s, when the country had finally
emerged from the worst of it. Office at Night (1940) depicts a shapely secretary and her
indifferent manager alone after dark; not a trace of the sexual tension you might expect is in
evidence. Gas (1940) shows the futile radiance of a country gas station attempting to keep at bay
the darkness of the surrounding woods. The four figures of Hoppers Nighthawks (1942) avoid
each others glances in a scene infused with the anomie of city life. His dispirited vision of the
modern world shows little hope for happiness.
Hoppers disquieting emptiness is rendered in paradoxically full-bodied tones of teal and
emerald, ruby and amber, and an earthy brown.

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Office at Night 1940, Edward Hopper

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Nighthawks 1942, Edward Hopper

Left: Gas 1940, Edward Hopper


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) 7477; 7728; 7597; 131; 724

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World War II
World War I began with a thunderclap and thoughts of chivalry. World War II, however, started
after years of frustrating attempts to contain the Axis powers. Once the fighting finally started,
first in Europe and then in the Pacific, the reluctant Allies approached it mostly with an unromantic
sense of duty.
General Dwight D. Eisenhowers laconic and businesslike approach seemed just right. His nononsense jacket became an international fashion icon, perhaps because it conveyed a sense of
wartime purpose. And purpose was needed to get through the war and the unprecedented
retooling of the manufacturing sector to make the equipment needed to fight in it.
In order to get through communal ordeals like rationing and blackouts, people generally tried
to put a good face on things. Norman Rockwells cover for the Saturday Evening Post conveys, with
humor, the wave of public support for Allied efforts. It also shows the efficient use of fabric
common to clothing of the day.
England instituted some of the strictest rationing on textile use. Utility clothing was
designed by some of the best London talents, like royal dressmaker Norman Hartnell. All frills
were eliminated and every adult was rationed the equivalent of only one outfit a year. Make Do
and Mend was the pragmatic slogan for wartime minimalism. In the United States, Claire
McCardell and others offered practical styles like her denim Popover Dress, and the American
Look began to take form.
Rationing ended in 1946 in the United States, but not until 1954 in England. For most people,
practicality continued to govern consumption long after the war had ended.
Uniforms and functional clothing alike made use of Tan and Olive Gray, as well as Dress Blues,
Major Brown, and Desert Palm. Paprika spiced things up wherever possible, and Blithe tried to
keep spirits high.

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Left: Eisenhower wool army jacket 1944


Right: Recruiting poster 19411943, Robert Muchley, Federal Art Project, Pennsylvania

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Left: Willie Gillis at the USO 1942, Norman Rockwell, Cover of The Saturday Evening Post, February 7, 1942
Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Tan 16-1334; Olive Gray 16-1110; Dress Blues 19-4024; Major Brown 19-0810; Desert
Palm 19-0815; Paprika 17-1553; Blithe 17-4336

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Carefree and Casual


World War II ended in Europe in May of 1945, and in the Pacific in August. Initial jubilation was
followed by a sigh of relief. The world suddenly allowed itself to be, at least emotionally, at
ease.
After years of men in military uniforms and women in sturdy factory duds, comfortable casual
wear burst onto the scene. The no-fuss practicality of uniforms and work wear continued to
influence everyday fashion. But the Big Kahuna of casual wear was the Hawaiian shirt, thanks in
part to thousands of Pacific
Theater veterans who returned home with a short-sleeve tropical shirt that designated its
wearer as carefree and casual. The Hawaiian shirt sprang from Hawaiis unique cultural mix.
Scraps of patterned kimono cloths from Japan were often hand-made into mens shirts. Filipinos
brought their own patterned barong Tagalog into the mixas did the Chinese their intricate
embroideries. Native Hawaiians had block-printed loincloths and sarongs. In some form or other,
these influences came together in the Hawaiian shirt in the early twentieth century. Ethel Chun
Lum and her brother Ellery Chun are often cited as the refiners and popularizers of the concept,
and offered the classic one-pocket button-front version by the mids-1930s.
Locals and Waikiki surfers adopted the look, which spread to the mainland (particularly
California and Florida) in the late 1940s. Men from President Harry Truman to actor John Wayne
were photographed in them. Soon, even classic English retailer Jaeger offered the Hawaiian shirt
shape (without the typical patterns) in its stores.
The Carefree and Casual palette captures the lush island home of the Hawaiian shirt with the
leafy greens of Fir and Greenbriar. Clear-sky tones of Air Blue and Purple Impression are dotted
with fluffy clouds of Marshmallow. Maize and Molten Lava raise the temperature to tropical levels.

Iconic Jantzen Diving Girl image 1948

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Left: Page from an Aldens clothing catalog 1947


Right: Jaeger Clothing advertisement 1945

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Left: Hawaiian shirt ca. 1940s


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Fir 18-5621; Greenbriar 16-6127; Air Blue 15-4319; Purple Impression 17-3919;
Marshmallow 11-4300; Maize 13-0746; Molten Lava 18-1555

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The American Dream


The GI bill of 1944 helped 2.25 million World War II veterans with college tuition. Millions more
got job training, and home, business, and farm loans.[26] New GI benefits helped spark a housing
boom, a rush to the altar, and a baby boom, as a young, educated, affluent middle class raced
toward the American dream.
Integral to that dream was the increasingly affordable singlefamily home. Long Island builder
William J. Levitts 1947 Levittown homes were made using assembly linestyle planning. He could
finish thirty homes a day, each equipped with refrigerator, washing machine, and television.
Mortgage payments were as low as fifty-seven dollars, a bargain even in 1947 terms. Other
builders emulated his efficient example and new suburbs popped up across the country. The
bedroom community changed the landscape not only with homes but with rail links and
commuter highways.
The new presence of mass manufacturing in home building led to a phenomenon writer
Timothy Mennel calls the miracle house,[27] a place of technological wonders containing every
labor-saving device known to modern science and every new idea in planning, in building
materials and in air conditioning.[28]
Color was also discussed in the language of science. A 1946 Pittsburgh Paints brochure titled
Color Dynamics promotes interior paints based on the principles of energy in color. Customers
were told that color can be employed with scientific accuracy to enhance the beauty of the home,
inside and out. Dining rooms would encourage good digestion if painted with the right color
frequencies. If you chose the right bedroom colors, you would never get up on the wrong side of
the bed. The problematic design features of any home could be masked with camouflage
techniques, and safety maintained with proper use of contrasting colors.
The right color frequencies were often in upbeat tones of Apricot Wash and Apricot Sherbet.
Meadow and Russet Brown were used for dynamic contrast, and Vanilla and Rose Smoke for
quieter effects.

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Left: Interior page from Color Dynamics consumer education booklet ca. 1946, Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company
Center: Interior page from Color Dynamics consumer education booklet ca. 1946, Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company
Right: Back cover from Color Dynamics consumer education booklet ca. 1946, Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company

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Left: Interior page from Color Dynamics consumer education booklet ca. 1946, Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company
Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Apricot Wash 14-1230; Apricot Sherbet 13-1031; Meadow 14-6319; Russet Brown 191338; Vanilla 12-0712; Rose Smoke 14-1506

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Hit Parade
Records were once sold in plain brown wrappers like lamb chops from the butcher. Young graphic
designer Alex Steinweiss changed all that in 1940 with the first album coverfor Smash Song Hits
by Rogers and Hart.
The design was simple: letters on a Broadway marquee spelled out the important information,
and an eye-catching red cloth spine grabbed attention. Columbia Records liked the results, and
the album cover was born. So was Steinweisss career, which unfolded across three decades, every
major music category, and most major record companies.
Steinweiss adapted the bold graphic sense of Piet Mondrian and the dreamlike movement of
Wassily Kandinsky into resonant commercial work. Rather than focusing on static photographs of
recording artists, his imagery conveyed the mood and emotional appeal of the music inside the
cover. The black and white hands on the cover of Boogie Woogie said something about the
exciting exchange between the black and white artists on the playlist, while John Kirbys
eponymous album promises a nighttime urban joy ride.
Album covers helped music sales recover from the Depression, as did the rise of solo vocalists
like Frank Sinatra. His first charttopping song was the 1940 Ill Never Smile Again, recorded with
Tommy Dorsey. In 1941, he was named Billboard Magazine s top male singer. In 1944, thirty-five
thousand fans rioted outside New Yorks Paramount Theater because Sinatras concert there was
sold out. In the late 1940s he became a screen star, too.
The world responded warmly to Sinatras heat, just as it did to Steinweisss bold graphics. The
sounds of the forties were presented in appealing blues and golds, and the absolutes of black and
white. A sense of snazzy sophistication comes through in lush menswear browns.

Left (top): John Kirby album cover 1941, Alex Steinweiss


Left (bottom): Teddy Wilson - Billy Holiday album cover 1941, Alex Steinweiss
Right: Boogie Woogie album cover 1942, Alex Steinweiss

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Left: Frank Sinatra: The Best of the Columbia Years album cover photo ca. 19431948
Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Bittersweet 17-1663; Golden Cream 13-0939; Deep Lichen Green 18-0312; Oil Blue
17-5111; Alaskan Blue 15-4225; Turkish Sea 19-4053; Rapture Rose 17-1929; Raspberry Radiance 19-2432; Total Elclipse 194010

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Film Noir
Dark Hollywood movies of deception and betrayal of the 1940s and 1950s were first classified as
film noir by French critic Nino Frank in 1946, but the term did not come into broad use until the
1970s, when critical assessment of the American Dream went mainstream.
The cinematic exploration of the dark side of the American spirit may not have been
deliberate, but film noir murder mysteries, tales of underworld crime, and stories of romantic
betrayal were nonetheless deeply resonant to moviegoers. The films of the genre embody the
undercurrent of political paranoia that erupted in the Communist witch hunts of the McCarthy era,
give voice to discomfort with changing gender roles and the deadening alienation of urban life,
and even suggest that not everyone was sure that the nuclear family wouldnt eventually explode.
Film noir continues to resonate because of its dark psychology, but also because of its
incredible style. A beam of light splintered by Venetian blinds reveals the duplicity of beautiful
and treacherous women. The looming shadows between streetlamps turn cities from centers of
culture and commerce into pits of despair. A black telephone ringsnot with quotidian chitchat
but in ominous warning of death on the doorstep. Camera angles, chiaroscuro lighting effects,
costume design, and haunting music infuse everyday reality with spine-tingling risk. Not to
mention the bewitching faces of leading ladies like Barbara Stanwyck and Veronica Lake, and the
pained mugs of Humphrey Bogart and Fred MacMurray.
From the Maltese Falcon of 1941 through the Sunset Boulevard of 1950, and beyond, film noir
played up the drama inherent in every non-color from black to white. White Sand and Ash were
the colors of cigarette smoke and crime-concealing mist. Gull Gray clothed heroes and heels
alike. Raven and High Risk Red were the colors of temptresses everywhere.

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Left: Burt Lancaster and Ava Gardner in a still from The Killers 1946
Right: Joan Crawford in a still from Mildred Pierce 1945

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Left: Marquee poster for Shadow of a Doubt 1943


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) White Sand 13-0002; Ash 16-3802; Gull Gray 16-3803; Raven 19-0000; High Risk Red
18-1763

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La Mode
Nearly two years after the fighting stopped, French haute couture began to rise like a phoenix
from the ashes of the war. Before the conflict, as many as a hundred thousand people had worked
in Frances influential fashion industries, and many were eager to re-establish Paris as the center
of fashion. With the backing of textile baron Marcel Boussac, Christian Dior launched his couture
house in February 1947 to instant acclaim.
He shrugged off careworn decades of depression and war, and encouraged women to blossom
again as they had during the Belle poque. Monumentally broad hats, sometimes trimmed in dyed
feathers, created alluring shadows. Jackets flared from tiny waists into hip-accentuating peplums.
Skirts bloomed wide with petticoats. Jewelry reappeared. The yards and yards of French fabrics
Dior used anticipated the end of rationing, at least in fashion terms. Wealthy clients, and even the
not so wealthy, adored the collection. Dior was soon to represent half of French couture exports.
He called his collection Corolle, after the ring of petals around a flower. But it was Carmel
Snow of Harpers Bazaar who named the collection for posterity. Its quite a revelation, dear
Christian. Your dresses have such a new look, she said.[29] The New Look stuck.
Diors elegance inspired not just the press, but fashion illustrators too. His friend Christian
Brard rendered the sloped shoulders and jutting hips of Diors influential Bar day ensemble in an
iconic image. Ren Gruau captured the sex appeal of Diors bare-shouldered gowns. Their work
seemed to show women how to move in the new world of the New Look.
Diors elegance was not confined to shape and form. Caviar, Bijou Blue, Lavender Gray, Parfait
Pink, and Moonlight extend his vision into exquisite color as well. Cloud Dancer and Alabaster
Gleam lend shimmering highlights to Diors unveiling of post-war luxury.

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Left: Fashion plate for Christian Dior in Vogue 1947, Christian Brard
Right: Advertisement for Bally Shoes in Femina magazine 1947, Ren Gruau

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Left: Christian Dior fashion in Femina magazine 1949, Ren Gruau


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Caviar 19-4006; Bijou Blue 18-3921; Lavender Gray 17-3910; Parfait Pink 13-2804;
Moonlight 15-1309; Cloud Dancer 11-4201; Alabaster Gleam 12-0812

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1950s
Pastels and Primaries
In the 1950s, much of the world moved from rationing and recovery to optimism and abundance.
A rosy economic outlook combined with a manufacturing boom gave rise to modern consumer
culture, replete with broad choices in many product categories, frequent introduction of new
products, celebrity endorsements, and new colors for a new era. Colors shifted dramatically from
the largely practical and dutiful mood of the 1940s to an overall feeling of exuberance and
confidence.
Even the pastels of the 1950s were poised and self-assured. Advances in color technology at
the movies served up new, subtle tones onscreenyielding the range of icy pastels frequently
used to highlight the cool elegance of the most beautiful stars. Shimmering aquamarine and pale
pink, especially, made their way from screen to real life.
But not everything stayed calm, cool, and collected. Cosmetics giants like Revlon, Max Factor,
and Elizabeth Arden promoted a much warmer sort of beauty. Vivid lipstick colors made every
womans lips look kissable. The contrast between pearly skin and fiery lips and nails was
downright sexyand very Hollywood.
Even sensible American brands like Hockanum Woolens took a cue from the cosmetics world
to explore a dramatically saturated palette. Their 1955 color card, called Coast-to-Coast
Woolens, offered sexy and sumptuous reds and purples alongside safer grays and beiges.
American Beauty red and Dahlia purple were an extension of the vivid cosmetics of the 50s.
Hollywood was not the only influence on color and design, of course. The modernist
philosophies of the Bauhaus found their way around the world in the work of mid-century
Modernistsarchitects and designers who explored the relationship between form and function in
increasingly humanistic ways. Designers such as Ray and Charles Eames and George Nelson
softened the angular lines of early Modernism with ergonomic curves. Whimsically contrasting
colors made their work inviting and intellectual at the same time.
The concept of the teenager rose to prominence in the 1950s, when a whole generation was
expected to attend high school and collegethus prolonging their carefree youth. Between
allowances and afterschool jobs, they had some pocket money and the freedom to spend it
which quickly made teenagers a new market. Many of them bought themselves a poodle skirt or a
leather jacket. But the luckiest ones found their way behind the wheel of a sublime turquoise or
warm-red Studebakerpart of a joyful color palette which satisfied a group that took its lighthearted pleasures seriously.
The home front enjoyed its fair share of color, too. The best-selling dinnerware in America,
Homer Laughlins Fiesta, introduced happy new colors for the homeas did Formica, Rubbermaid,
and scores of consumer goods companies. Their glowing shades balance the relaxed Father
Knows Best vision of family life with the brisk efficiency expected of the modern homemaker.
Even the ideal family needed a vacation now and then, and the perfect venue appeared in Walt
Disneys 1955 creation, Disneyland. You could travel around the worldand even through time
without leaving Disneys legendary playground, which is still the most visited theme park in the
world. Play was also explored by Ray and Charles Eames, whose conceptual toys were designed to
instill a sense of creativity into young and old alike. Whether in the form of Disneys magical
escape or the Eameses intellectual exercises, playfulness was communicated in a tempting
palette of firework colors, balanced with the light and shadow of black and white.
Even the fabulousness of the 50s couldnt quite conceal looming issues, however. President
Harry S. Truman approved production of the H-bomb in 1950, and the fear of nuclear disaster
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entered classrooms and homes alike. Senator Joseph McCarthys Red Scare wreaked havoc on civil
liberties.
The Abstract Expressionists, centered on a small group of iconoclastic New York City painters,
telegraphed the tension in the air with an agitated style of mark making called action painting.
Their nervous, personal, vehement work attracted international attention and the center of the art
world moved from Paris to New York. They painted the darker side of the era in boldly contrasting
colors, often shrouded with black and gray. The crackling interior monologue they shared with
their audience hinted at the energy that would fuel the 1960s.

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Happy at Home
As the world regained a sense of normalcy after World War II, Rosie the Riveter returned home to
organize domestic life for her Baby Boom kids and GI Bill husband. The structure of work outside
the home stayed with many homemakers, however, and cleaning and cooking took on a brisk
efficiency. New and improved brands like Tide set the standard for everything brought into the
home: products had to deliver convenience and ever better results via the latest technologies
available.
The 1950s sitcom Father Knows Best typified this new idealized American family. The
Andersons kitchen was surely kitted out with Formica countertops and Fiestaware in bright, but
not too bright colors. By the 1950s, Formicas heat-set sandwich of paper or fabric and synthetic
compounds was offered in two durable finishesstandard or cigarette-proof. Industrial designer
Raymond Loewy updated Formicas visual range in 1953. He re-colored the best old patterns, and
added new geometrics and faux-marbles. New solids were smash-hitswith refined turquoise
and faded pink leading the pack.
Homer Laughlin also updated its popular Fiesta line in the 1950s with a new and popular
range of rose, chartreuse, grey, and forest green to complement long-running yellow and
turquoise options. Fiestas pretty colors reflected the countrys optimism, and the brands mixand-match strategy gave homemakers control over the colors on their tables. The combination
made Fiesta the best-selling dinnerware line in U.S. history.
Lemon Drop and Pastel Turquoise shine with 1950s cheerfulness, and Lunar Rock looks
skyward. Linden Green, Leaf Green, and Silver Pine provide hopeful nourishmentand Faded Rose
gives a blush of warmth.

Top (left): Lazy Susan ca. 1950, photograph by Victoria Kasuba Matranga
Top (right): Fiesta advertisement ca. 1952
Bottom (left): Pebblecloth ca. 1950s
Bottom (right): Fiesta dinnerware ca. 1952

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Left: Ad for Gibson 600 Electric Range ca. 1950s, Gibson Electrics
Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Lemon Drop 12-0736; Pastel Turquoise 13-5309; Lunar Rock 14-4201; Linden Green
15-0533; Leaf Green 15-0332; Silver Pine 18-5410; Faded Rose 18-1629

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Teen Angels
The Teenager was born in the 1950s. The decade gave rise to the expectation of universal high
school education, and even a college degree for the ambitiouslengthening the intermediate
stage between childhood and adulthood. This prolonged period without full adult responsibilities
was not spent merely pursuing an education, however: having fun became a uniquely teenage
preoccupation.
Rock n roll music blared on the radio. Sock hops kept teens out late. Diners and drive-ins
catered to young drivers escaping the prying eyes at home. Giddy girls screamed for Elvis or Ricky
Nelson. James Deans T-shirt-and-jeans-wearing rebel became an icon.
The U.S. teen scene divided itself predominantly between preppy and greaser categories.
Wardrobe choices were distinctly different: snug sweaters worn with wide felt poodle skirts in
cheerful pinks on one side, and tight jeans on the other. Preppy boys wore varsity sweaters and
greasers wore leather jackets.
But both sides of the sartorial divide agreed on one thing: a car for cruisin was an absolute
necessity. The cars of the 1950s were offered in colors that had never been seen before. The
Studebaker was especially hotin bright colors as well as a variety of shiny metallic finishes.
Technology developed by DuPont Coatings helped to foster these teen-baiting innovations.
In both clothing and automobiles, teenagers flocked to an optimistic color range. Turquoise
and warm red were jubilantly bright, with celadon providing a modulated option. Metallic finishes
came in bronze, peach, and other delectable colors.

Left: Poodle skirt ca. 1951, designed by Juli Lynne Charlot


Right: 1952 Studebaker Commander

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Left: James Dean in Rebel Without a Cause 1955


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) 7471; 7625; 7606; 559; 10350; 10156; 10191; 10264

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Mid-Century Modernists
Mid-Century Modern is the name given to modernist interior, architectural, and product design
between 1933 and 1965. Like the Bauhaus before them, Mid-Century Modernists saw the
successful interaction between their products and end users (human beings) as all-important to
the relationship between form and function. As a result, Mid-Century design often addresses
human needs for comfort, accessibility, and performance.
In the hands of Ray and Charles Eames, two notable American Mid-Century Modernists,
humor became part of modern design. Their prolific partnership was built on Charless
architectural mindset and Rays innate sense of color and artistry. In their early years, they created
often exuberant and always innovative furniture designs that attracted an international reputation.
In subsequent years they collaborated on exhibitions, films, toys, graphics, and textile designs.
Together with Eero Saarinen, the son of Eamess mentor Eliel Saarinen, the Eameses explored
molded plywood as a material for furniture. They submitted an attention-getting entry in Organic
Design in Home Furnishings, a competition staged by MoMA, and won first prize. The Eameses
and Saarinen went on to design numerous classics, some of which are still in production.
Another Eames colleage, George Nelson, was a legendary design director of American
furnishings innovator Herman Miller. Among a host of iconic Nelson products, his clocks stand out
for their consistent blend of functionality and light hearted beauty.
The Mid-Century palette expresses the optimism of designers working toward new solutions
for living with Mimosa, Muskmelon, and Dark Citron. Whisper White, Steel Gray, and Forest Night
add strength and structure. Aqua Hazes complexity hints that there is serious intellect at work.

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Top: Wall Clock ca. 1952, designed by George Nelson and made by Howard Miller Clock Company
Bottom: Wire chairs with bird sculpture 1952, by Charles and Ray Eames

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Left: Tulip Armchair (model 150) 19551956, Eero Saarinen


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Mimosa 14-0848; Muskmelon 15-1242; Dark Cirton 16-0435; Whisper White 11-0701;
Steel Gray 18-4005; Forest Night 19-0414; Aqua Haze 15-5209

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Movie Goddesses
The Technicolor process brought smashing (and exaggerated) hues to the screen in the 1930s,
but it was expensive and unwieldy. When Eastman Kodak introduced 35mm color film developed
with affordable and improved methods in 1952, audiences saw the change. Colors were pearlier
and even languidpaving the way for cool beauties like Grace Kelly and Audrey Hepburn.
Kelly grew up wealthy in Philadelphia. Against her parents wishes, she pursued acting after
being refused college admission for poor math scores. Her upward trajectory was the stuff of fairy
tales. In six short years, she made eleven films, stunned the world with her effortless elegance,
and married Prince Rainier of Monaco in 1956. Her breakthrough year was 1954, with Green Fire,
The Country Girl, Rear Window, Dial M for Murder, and The Bridges at Toko-Ri released back to
back. At the 1955 Academy Awards, she wore an aquamarine silk dress designed by movie
costumer Helen Rose, who had also put her in a pale green suit in Rear Window. Kelly shared the
title of best dressed woman with couture-wearing Babe Paley that year, which delighted many,
because Kellys off-screen wardrobe consisted mostly of sensible skirts and sweater sets.
Audrey Hepburns beauty was more gamine than Grace Kellys, particularly in her
breakthrough role in 1953s Roman Holiday. But by the time Funny Face came along in 1957,
couturier Hubert de Givenchy had designed much of her personal and professional wardrobe, and
Hepburn had established her lifelong reputation for streamlined elegance.
Kelly and Hepburn embraced the new subtleties of color at the movies in all the milky tones
found in moonstones and opals: delicate lavender, seductive aquamarine and azure, and fresh,
pale apricots and yellows. Hepburns Funny Face co-star Kay Thompson sang Think Pink in the
movie, and pale pink is this palettes crowning color.

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Right: Anne Aubrey in a Lux brand soap ad 1959


Left: Audrey Hepburn in a publicity photo for Funny Face 1957

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Left: Grace Kelly posing for Life magazine 1954


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) 9286; 9483; 9140; 9402; 9200; 9340

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Cosmetic Superstars
Advertising campaigns like Fire and Ice and Cherries in the Snow explained that 1950s
glamour centered on the striking contrast between vivid lips and perfect skin. Think of redhot
Elizabeth Taylor in Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, or sultry Marilyn Monroe in The Seven Year Itch.
You didnt have to be born with movie star looks to resemble one, however. Cosmetic
innovators helped everyone look more like movie stars. Max Factors 1914 introduction of PanCake powder simplified movie makeup by eliminating the need for both base and powder. His
formulas were eventually offered to the public to huge success. In 1940, Factors son introduced
smearproof Tru-Color lipstick in six shades of red. Elizabeth Arden kept clear skin and red lips in
vogue even in wartime with her Venetian Cream Amoretta skin products and Montezuma Red
lipsticka shade which paired well, she said, with military uniforms.
By 1950, the vogue for pale skin and red lips was pushed to new levels by Charles Revson,
founder of Revlon. He hired photographer Richard Avedon to shoot the worlds first supermodel,
Dorian Leigh, for his Fire and Ice campaign. His passionate red and pink lipstick shades were
offered in nail polish, too. Revlon drove home the message of his saturated tones with names like
Paint the Town Pink and Fifth Avenue Red.
The 1950s passion for reds also found its way into fashion and costume jewelry, with
designers like Claire McCardell introducing relatively affordable movie star glamour into
department stores nationwide.
Powder Puff, Powder Pink, and Blush capture the flawless skin of 1950s movie stars. The
ardent, kissable lips that completed the look were Claret Red, Rouge Red, and Lipstick Red.

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Top (left): Vintage costume jewelry ca. 1954, designed by Halbe


Top (right): Evening dress 1950, designed by Claire Cardell, manufactured by Townley Frocks
Bottom (left:) English advertisement for Elizabeth Arden lipstick ca. 1950s
Bottom (right): Ad for My Love perfume by Elizabeth Arden 1950

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Left: Revlons first Fire and Ice advertisement featuring Dorian Leigh 1952
Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Powder Puff 11-1404; Powder Pink 14-1511; Blush 15-1614; Claret Red 17-1740;
Rouge Red 18-1755; Lipstick Red 19-1764

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Coast-to-Coast Woolens
Machine-woven woolens have a long history in the United States, dating back to the early
nineteenth century, when pioneering American industrialists tried to copy British machinery for
spinning yarns and weaving fabric. Eventually men with illustrious surnames like Cabot and Lowell
created businesses that turned New England from a region of farmers and fisherman into an
industrial powerhouse.
Hockanum Woolens played a part in that development. Founded in 1848 in the Rockville
district of Vernon, Connecticut, it made woolen goods for Civil War uniforms, and later fine
materials for mens and womens clothing. Hockanum stayed in operation in good times and bad,
until owner J. P. Stevens, who had purchased it in 1934, shut it down in 1951. At that point it
became part of another historic movement: the flight of industries from the North, where wages
had become high and unions prevalent, to the South, where business owners sought cheaper
wages.
By 1955, the year that Hockanum offered an incredibly stylish collection called Coast-toCoast Woolens, the company was not a mill per se, but a brand of fabrics offered by corporate
giant J. P. Stevens. But Stevens had become a textile giant for a reason: it understood how to
move with the market to offer colors and textures that would be desired by customers. Under
Stevens, Hockanum Woolens ascended into high fashion, with weave structures designed to hold
the architectural shapes of Diorinfluenced suits for women. They were also embraced by the
stylish French-born Lilly Dach, who was for many years the last word in American millinery.
Coast-to-Coast Woolens were made in luscious, saturated tones of American Beauty, Ginger,
Dahlia, Purple Opulence, and Epsom. Charcoal Gray, Blue Heaven, and Beige supported the bolder
end of the palette.

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Top: Cover, Hockanum Coast-to-Coast Woolens 1955


Bottom: Interior spread, Hockanum Coast-to-Coast Woolens 1955

Left: Selection of images from Hockanum Coast-to-Coast Woolens 1955


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) American Beauty 19-1759; Ginger 17-1444; Dahlia 18-3324; Purple Opulence 18-3840;
Epsome 17-0324; Charcoal Gray 18-0601; Blue Heaven 17-4023; Beige 14-1118

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Fantasyland
In 1950, Cinderella explained that a dream is a wish your heart makes. But Walt Disneys wishes
were not completely satisfied by silent audiences in darkened theaters. Just like Pinocchio, Disney
wanted his dreams to become real.
Disneyland was his ultimate wish fulfillmenta $17 million park of eight themed areas,
dozens of shops and restaurants, and thrilling rides and exhibits. The park opened in 1955, and
was regularly filled with parents and children eager to visit the happiest place on earth.
What makes Disneyland so popular? It packages traditional fairy tales alongside American
myths, international destinations, and futuristic visions in quick, accessible bites perfect for the
Media Age. Disneys television alliance certainly helped elevate the park in the public imagination,
too. The Wonderful World of Disney aired weekly in some form for fifty-four yearsenshrining the
fireworks over Cinderellas castle as an icon for generations of kids.
Ray and Charles Eamess popular 1952 House of Cards is an icon of a different sort. It
celebrates the imagination by encouraging individual creativity. House of Cards challenges kids
(and parents) to create diverse structures out of its thirty-two interlocking pieces. The Eameses
chose scenes from everyday life as well as their international travels to pattern each card. The
contrasting designs enhance the sense of play so important to the Eameses which also found
expression in The Toy of 1951, the Hang-It-All of 1953, and the solar-powered Do-Nothing
Machine of 1958.
Fantasy and play are colored in spellbinding pinks and purples, and dashes of piercing blue
and magical olive green. Black and white add dramatic contrast.

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Left: House of Cards (giant size) 1954, Charles Eames


Right: House of Cards 1952, Charles and Ray Eames

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Left: Fireworks over Disneyland, opening day 1955


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) 211; 7655; 285; 7768; Black 6; White

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Abstract Expressionists
The general optimism of the 1950s did not completely overshadow the old wounds of waror
new fears of nuclear bombs, the Cold War, and shape-shifting modern existence. Abstract
Expressionism, with its twitching, slithering bursts of color, gave voice to the darker thoughts of
the age.
The Abstract Expressionist movement was led mostly by the New York Schoola handful of
painters including Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning, Mark Rothko, and Hans Hofmann. Their
styles vary, but the intensity of their work unifies them.
Jackson Pollock thrilled the art world with his departure from the norms of easel painting. He
put his canvas on the floor, and used sticks, knives, and his hands to throw paint onto the canvas
from every direction. Perhaps surprisingly, a sense of coherence emerges from his chaos of
spattered paint.
Much of Willem de Koonings work depicts human figures. The intense exaggeration of his
portraits, particularly his voracious women, describes deep sexual tension. Even his abstract work
seems to give inchoate fears discernible form.
The force of Abstract Expressionism shifted the center of the art world from Paris to New
York. Frank Lloyd Wright was hired to design a home for Solomon R. Guggenheims vast collection
of modern art. He departed from the squared-off norms of Manhattan architecture with a curling
ribbon of a museum. The Guggenheim was Wrights last major work, and he called it a temple of
spirit. Not universally popular with artists or viewers, it has also been called other names. But
when its central core holds a red Calder mobile, temple of spirit seems accurate.
The Abstract Expressionists created dark meaning through the juxtaposition of bright colors.
Orange vibrates against teal. Yolk yellow battles with azure blue. Somber tones of gray, black, and
lavender shroud these conflicting tones with a moody mist.

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Left: Red Lily Pads (Nnuphars rouges) 1956, Alexander Calder


Right: The Guggenheim Museum, New York 1958, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright
Bottom: Ocean Greyness 1953, Jackson Pollock

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Left: Composition 1955, Willem de Kooning


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) 7579; 632; 129; 2718; Warm Gray 1; Black 7; 7654

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1960s
Saturated 60s
Paul Kantner, lead man of the rock group Jefferson Airplane, once quipped, If you can remember
anything about the 60s, you werent really there. Theres an aspect of truth in Kantners words:
this turbulent decade is hard to pin down. Was it idealistic or rebellious? Shaggy or stylish? Coarse
or composed? Kantner implied that hallucinogens were the obstacle to clear recollection. The
more likely culprit, though, was change. The 1960s stand between the generally positive outlook
of 1950s and the scramble for self-satisfaction of the 1970s. In ten watershed years, everything
transformed.
John F. Kennedy was elected thirty-fifth President of the United States in 1960, and with his
victory came a national wave of optimism. His energetic call to repair some of the ills of U.S.
society made many anticipate ever better times for America. His stylish First Lady, Jacqueline
Bouvier Kennedy, brought her keen eye to the White Housefelt primarily in her efforts to restore
the presidential residence, but also in her personal style. When she represented the United States
on a state visit to India in 1962, the youthful, rosy palette of her wardrobe, combined with the
vivid glamour of India, was influential in later fashion and dcor.
But the Kennedys Camelot was short-lived. JFKs murder in 1963 wounded the American
psyche deeply, and for a long time. Artists Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns explored the
post-assassination mood in mournful grays interrupted by siren-loud brights.
Another artist, Andy Warhol, took the social temperature with different results. Rather than
dwelling on the loss of nobility represented by Kennedys death, Warhol seemed to revel in the
rudderless, classless, media-fueled society that was left. Celebrities and soup cans received equal,
jarringly colorful treatment in his work: both were American icons promoted ceaselessly in old
and new media. Their ubiquity bleached them of meaningbut, oddly, gave them significance at
the same time.
While Warhol was busy blurring the lines between pop and high cultures, 60s flower children
were pretty blurry themselves. The media mostly trumpeted druggy love-ins as the end of
civilization, but hippies saw them as a new freedom from old rules. Pot and LSD figured largely in
the hippie scene, giving birth to a dizzying psychedelic color palette, new graphic styles, tie-dye
wardrobes, and ideas that were at once wildly hedonistic and dreamily idealistic.
The kaleidoscope of Swinging London went well beyond psychedelic tie-dyes. British fashion
designers like Mary Quant, inventor of the miniskirt, exploded with youthful energy in the 1960s.
Their designs were strictly for young, skinny Twiggylike people. Their shops were often
theatrical, rock-drenched affairs where even thirty-year-olds would have felt overripe. But the
dreamy clothes, colored in moody, smoky tones, were made up of equal parts Art Nouveau and
the Middle East, Art Deco and India, Rolling Stones and Robin Hood. British fashion of this time is
still a touchstone for contemporary designers.
The freedom in the air was not limited to music, drugs, and fashion, however. The Civil Rights
and Black Power movements combined with Africas steps out of colonialism and into
independencerepresented great advances for people of color everywhere. Black was suddenly
beautiful, politically, physically, and in a design context, too. Sleek black furnishings and clothing
began to proliferate.
Innovative childrens educational series Sesame Street featured a handful of human instructors
of various skin colors. But all colors were represented by the shows Muppet cast, including green,
blue, and orange. Big Bird led this glorious rainbow coalition, which forty years later still brings
vital learning into homes in 140 countries.
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Another colorful force came of age in the 1960s, as well. Lawrence Herbert changed the
printing industry with his PANTONE Matching System. When one of PANTINE's colors was chosen
for a job, the printer used PANTONEs inks and formulas to recreate that same color every time.
The clarity and simplicity of the system were a huge successand PANTONE eventually became
the language of color for creative people across many industries.
The 60s were full of colors, and PANTONE assigned a number and a formula to each and
every one of them.

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A Different Space
John F. Kennedys time as President of the United States began with optimism. His youth and
charisma signaled the possibility of changeborne out by Kennedys space race, his support for
civil rights, and his handling of the 1962 Cuban missile crisis. His First Lady, Jacqueline Bouvier
Kennedy, brought beauty and style to a White House that had lacked both for decades. Their
personal popularity resembled that of movie stars rather than politicians.
Kennedys assassination in November 1963 snuffed out the bright light that had attracted so
much attention and inspired so much hope. It inflicted a wound on the American psyche that took
decades to heal. In fact, nostalgia for Kennedys Camelot still lingers. The 1968 assassinations of
Martin Luther King, Jr., and
Robert F. Kennedy also left huge holes in Americas perception of itself. The innocence of the
50s had morphed into something frightening and complex. Robert Rauschenbergs 1964
Retroactive combines silkscreened news images with expressive, painterly color. A dark cloud
hovers over the late Presidents head. The apples to his left are upside down. An astronaut is
falling from the sky. An atmosphere of gloom and decline prevails. The symbolic green of renewal
is threatened by the welling-up blood red of danger.
Jasper Johns use of grays in many of his works raises equally intriguing questionswhat
happened to the red, white, and blue? We see the color names, but not the actual hues. Darkness,
instead, prevails. In Flags of 1965, Johns offers an American flag of color-wheel opposites:
orange, green, and very dark blueas if to say that nothing is what it proclaims itself to be.
Rauschenberg and Johns posed their questions about the world in black and blue and a host
of grim grayspunctuated with blood red, jarring green, and foreboding orange.

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Left: Passage 1962, Jasper Johns


Right: Flags 1968, Jasper Johns

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Left: Retroactive I 1964, Robert Rauschenberg


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Black; 2747; 405; Cool Gray 8; 1797; 7740; 715

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Kensington and Carnaby


A wave of eccentric, modern style swept the world from Londons Kensington and Carnaby Streets
in the 1960s. Young Brits, tired of the boring, matronly goods on offer, were searching for
youthful, modern stylesand a group of young designers stepped up to meet their needs.
Mary Quant introduced the miniskirt in 1964, joined later by her smock dresses and snug
ribbed sweaters. The legendary store Biba (brainchild of Barbara Hulanicki) popularized the mini
and also made it a bit shorter season after season until it achieved micro-mini status. Zandra
Rhodes crafted lush hooded caftans. Ossie Clark created hot pants and gypsy dresses. John Bates
invented catsuits and string dresses. John Stephen suggested flared velvet pants for men.
All of it was designed for svelte young people. Most of it was affordable. Some of it was sold
in theatrical stores like Biba, where the Art Nouveau and Art Deco signage and displays were just
as interesting as the clothes. Loud pop music blared nonstop on selling floors, and some stores
served drinks to keep customers (and their wallets) loose.
Daytime shopping around Carnaby Street was populated with thick-lashed girls, shaggy men,
and their smashing outfits but it paled in comparison to the nightlife. Clubs around Carnaby
Street booked young acts like the Rolling Stones, the Beatles, and the Who, and Swinging London
really came alive after dark.
The colors of Kensington and Carnaby blend Blue Yonder with dark Java, smoky Cordovan, and
moody Mineral Red. Bright Violet and Jaffa Orange shed a Mod light on things, and Sheepskin and
Pale Gold serve as neutrals.

Left: Biba logo, British magazine ad ca. 1960s, Barbara Hulanicki


Center: Jerkin ca. 1968, Mirandi
Right: Skirt and Jumper 1965, Mary Quant

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Left: Suit 1960, Cifonelli


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Blue Yonder 18-3937; Java 19-1016; Cordovan 19-1726; Mineral Red 17-1537; Bright
Violet 19-3438; Jaffa Orange 16-1454; Sheepskin 14-1122; Pale Gold 15-0927

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Black Is Beautiful
The Civil Rights Acts of 1964 and 1968 ended decades of legalized racial segregation in the
United States. Great Society legislation of 1965 addressed some of the ills caused by racial
discrimination. The Black Power movement of the mid-1960s brought pride and personal action
into the mix, establishing a political voice for American blacks, bringing young leaders into the
picture, and redefining long-held notions of physical beauty. Africas liberation from colonial
powers also resonated around the world, and gave an international dimension to the movement in
North America.
Black was no longer in the shadows. Black was proud. Black was powerful. Black was
beautiful.
Martin Luther King, Jr.s speeches soared over the airwaves as did the songs of Diana Ross
and the Supremes, Aretha Franklin, and many more Motown recording artists. Sydney Poitier
became the first black actor to win the Academy Award for Best Actor. Diahann Carroll starred in
the 1968 television series Julia. Naomi Sims was the first black model to appear on the cover of
Life magazine, in 1969.
Black also became an essential color in fashion and design representing everything that was
hip, cool, and modern. Verner Pantons sleek molded plastic chair made an impressionas did
heavy black eye makeup and Op Arts pulsating graphics. The Beatniks fondness for black berets
and somber clothing morphed into sophisticated, sexy black fashion, often worn with red or olive
accents.
Chestnut, a lush representation of African skin tones, shares the spotlight with Jet Set in this
palette. Silver Cloud and Cloud Dancer bring crispness and contrast. Fiesta and Ecru Olive add a
stylish dimension to the absolutes of black and white.

Left: Martini date unknown

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Right: Panton classic chair 19591960, designed by Verner Panton, manufactured by Vitra

Left: Black Models Take Center Stage, cover of Life magazine 1969
Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Chestnut 19-1118; Jet Set 19-5708; Silver Cloud 15-4502; Cloud Dancer 11-4201;
Fiesta 17-1564; Ecru Olive 17-0836

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Psychedelia
Turn on, tune in, drop out was Timothy Learys 1966 admonition to anyone who would listen.
LSD had propelled him into selfexploration, enlightenment, and (of course) intense pleasure, and
he was eager to share what hed learned.
Tie-dye-wearing flower children around the world followed his instructions, and a
psychedelic era of vibrating colors and optical effects bloomed. References to acid trips laced
many hit songs, including the Beatles Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds, the Doors People Are
Strange, and Jefferson Airplanes White Rabbit, all released in 1967. That same year, Peter
Fonda starred in a film written by Jack Nicholson called The Trip, about a firsttimers LSD
experience.
Album covers and concert posters frequently emulated the LSD experience with frenetic
collages, undulating type, and hallucinogenic color. Graphic designer Wes Wilson created a
sensation with his delirious work for San Franciscos Fillmore Auditorium, a mecca for rock fans
everywhere. Peter Maxs pulsating style leavened the madness with a little charm. Even
photographer Richard Avedon contributed to the craze with a beautiful quartet of manipulated
portraits of John, Paul, George, and Ringo.
Psychedelic drugs were integral to San Franciscos legendary Summer of Love, as well. Young
people flocked to the Haight- Ashbury neighborhood to experiment with communal living and
free love, to wear what they pleased and stay high as long as they wanted. After the legendary
Woodstock Music Festival of 1969, the hippie movement had a hangover, and psychedelia started
its descent into the headshops and counterculture cafs of big cities.
Whether used as a tool for heightened self-awareness or just a plain old good time, LSDs
visual effects were loaded with saturated color. Aubergine, violet, and fuchsia competed for
attention in dilated pupils. Peridot green and sunshine yellow were naturally unnatural. Indigo,
blue, and orange were the unstable foundation of the psychedelic experience.

Left: Tie-dyed T-shirt swatch ca. 1960s


Right: Still from the Beatles movie Yellow Submarine 1968

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Left: Untitled (Bob Dylan) 1967, Peter Max

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Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) 7649; 265; 246; 383; 7548; 2735; 1505; 2995

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Sesame Street
In 1969, American kids received a great big gift from Joan Ganz Cooneys Childrens Television
Workshop: Sesame Street. A sevenfoot yellow canary named Big Bird appeared onscreen to teach
children their numbers and letters. From his garbage can, scruffy Oscar the Grouch recited
parables on proper behavior, while Cookie Monster offered advice on impulse control. Roommates
Bert and Ernie worked through every problem with good will. And Grovers Hello,
Everybodeeeeee! made us all feel welcome.
Sesame Street was designed to meet the needs of children of all shapes, colors, sizes, and
situationshence the whimsical diversity of its Muppet cast.
Cooney assembled a remarkable team to develop her universally appealing teaching tool. The
now legendary Jim Henson made the enchanting menagerie of characters. Joe Raposo wrote many
of the shows songs (some of which went on to become mainstream hits) including [Its Not Easy]
Bein Green, Sing, and Blue. And the Carnegie Corporation funded it all. Public television
stations broadcast Sesame Street as many as eighteen times a week, and kids and their parents
adored it.
Adults appreciated them so much, in fact, that the Muppets had their own acclaimed
primetime television show from 1976 to 1981, as well as six feature films and several television
specials.
The show is alive more than four decades later, and some version of the Sesame Street
concept airs in 140 countries today.
Oscar the Grouch made the most out of being Spinach Green. Big Bird ignited little minds in
Vibrant Yellow with a taste of Cherry Tomato. Ernie cheered up stuffy old Bert with his Sun Orange
face. The Cookie Monster snacked in Dazzling Blue. Huggable Grover reached through the
television screen with Blithe blue fur and a Shocking Pink nose.

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Top (left): Grover 1969, Sesame Workshop


Top (center): Oscar the Grouch 1969, Sesame Workshop
Top (right): Cookie Monster 1969, Sesame Workshop
Bottom: Big Bird 1969, Sesame Workshop

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Left: Bert & Ernie 1969, Sesame Workshop


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Spinach Green 16-0439; Vibrant Yellow 13-0858; Cherry Tomato 17-1563; Sun
Orange 16-1257; Dazzling Blue 18-3949; Blithe 17-4336; Shocking Pink 17-2127

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Warhol
Andy Warhol staged his first solo shows in Los Angeles and New York in 1962, filling the galleries
with portraits of Marilyn Monroe, and multiple cans of Campbells Soup, bottles of Coca Cola, and
dollar bills. Was the work kitschy and monotonous? Or were the slight variations in silkscreened
color and texture fascinating and ironic? Whichever interpretation you choose (and Andy didnt
really care either way), the work took Warhol to the center of the American Pop Art scene.
Other Pop artists grappled with imagery from the worlds of advertising and mass media, but
no one contemplated celebrity as thoroughly as Warhol. His intensely colored multiple-portraits of
Elvis Presley and Elizabeth Taylor celebrated their overwhelming fameeven as it packaged them
up like canned goods. Warhols later portraits of relatively unknown collectors and wealthy patrons
employed the same techniques as his more famous subjects spotlighting precisely their lack of
fame in the process.
Warhol himself became a Pop Art artifact. Across the span of his career, he assumed multiple
identities as corporate executive, avant-garde artist, society portrait-painter, author, filmmaker,
television host, nightclub owner, record producer, band manager, theatrical producer, magazine
publisher, film actor, fashion maven, and occasional model.[31] He demanded attention as a
celebrity, and played with and profited from this status even as he derided modern fame as
meaningless and ephemeral. There seemed to be no facet of media-fueled modern identity he
couldnt celebrate and criticize in the same breath.
Warhol depicted the famous and the infamous, the unique and the ubiquitous, in lurid values
of burnt red, orange, teal, emerald, turquoise, pink, and violet. The freshness and humor of lime
and taxicab yellow stop the palette from descending into sheer cynicismbecause, after all,
Warhol only criticized what he admired.

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Left: Marilyn 1967, Andy Warhol


Right: Campbells Soup Can 1965, Andy Warhol

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Left: Self-Portrait 1966, Andy Warhol


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom)7621; 158; 7713; 340; 318; 516; 7662; 7744; 1235

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PANTONE
Lawrence Herbert (LH to his friends) started off as a printer: he skillfully matched the colors
brought to him by clients and their designers. After a particularly rough day of clients insisting on
press that LH wasnt giving them the colors they wanted, he had a thunderclap of inspiration:
what the printers needed was a palette of tried and true formulas so that designers and clients
could choose the colors they wanted, and printers could apply the formulas to every job. The final
printed colors would meet the clients specifications every time.
In 1963, LH approached twenty-one ink manufacturers with his proposed PANTONE
MATCHING SYSTEM (PMS). If they agreed to be official suppliers of the systems ten component
colors, LH would provide them with the PMS color formulas and a whole new way for printers,
designers, and clients to communicate about color. All but one signed LHs agreement in less than
two weeks, and PANTONEs journey toward worldwide use began.
In 1964, LH developed the PANTONE Color Specifier for the design market. The first PANTONE
MATCHING SYSTEM for artists materials appeared in 1965. In subsequent years, PANTONE added
color matching systems for powder coatings and paints, plastics, on-screen technologies, textiles,
and moreand became the language of color used by designers, artists, and manufacturers
around the world.
The colors of PANTONEs first PMS fan deck reflect the 1960s taste for vibrant tones. Rubine
Red, Rhodamine Red, Purple, and Reflex Blue glimmer seductively at the center of the palette.
Yellow and Warm Reds hot notes balance out the deliciously cool shades of Process Blue and
Green.

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Left: Yellow PANTONE Color chips ca. 1960s


Right (top):Lipcolor Plus advertisement 1961
Right (middle): Marshalls photo-oil colors and pencils advertisement ca. 1960s
Right (bottom): Cover of PANTONE MATCHING SYSTEM ca. 1960s

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Left: Paper mini-dress with faces 1960s


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Rubine Red; Rhodamine Red; Purple; Reflex Blue; Yellow; Warm Red; Process Blue;
Green

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1970s
Earthy and Eclectic
What happens after the psychedelic 1960s? A time of acute disagreement about U.S. foreign and
environmental policies, an oil crisis, a poor global economy, Watergate, and much more. If the
60s were a party, the 70s were a heavy therapy session, putting the worlds major issues under a
microscope.
Four young people were killed and nine wounded in the Kent State massacre, a confrontation
between police and university students protesting the war in Southeast Asia, in May 1970. As a
result, flower children got serious as activists, and closed down more than 450 schools with a
strike involving over four million students. Environmental protests achieved quicker success than
the anti-war movement, and the early 1970s saw the first Earth Day, as well as significant legal
progress against pollution. The desire for integrity within both protest movements sparked an
affinity for earth tones and natural materials. Hippies abandoned psychedelia and donned feathers
and leathers and earth tones in order to feel grounded and sincere.
The new focus on Earth as a living entity in need of protection attracted artists as well as
hippies. Land art became a new genre, with visionaries like Robert Smithson and James Turrell
turning earth and rocks into contemplations on our terrestrial home, and our presence in it. Land
art added an ethereal, contemplative palette to popular earth tones.
A by-product of the movement resulted in a memorable moment where white was simply no
longer sufficient for kitchen appliances. Avocado and Harvest Gold (and their close associate Burnt
Orange) took over the kitchen-dining areas of mod, open-plan houses. The palette was designed
to satisfy the back to nature urge of the 70s. From the distance of a few decades, its artificiality
makes that idea seem odd, but the palette was very influential for a short time.
The punk movement rejected hypocrisy and anything inauthentic, perhaps as a result of
spending time in Moms Avocado green kitchen. In the United States, the Ramones developed the
harsh wall of sound and the disparaging lyrics typical of punk music. In London, the Sex Pistols
perfected the look: spiky Mohawk hair in DayGlo colors and a ripped and safetypinned wardrobe
of black clothes, often emblazoned with foul-mouthed mottos. Their aesthetic was as anti as
their lyrics. Oddly, reading punk lyrics on a page reveals a point of view as Romantic in many ways
as Byron and Shelley. Boys still met girls, and everyone still got upset when it didnt work out.
At the thousands of discos that bloomed in the 70s, romance abounded. Well, at least sex
did. Dance floor gyrations under brilliantly colored light shows (and a snow shower of mirror-ball
reflections) frequently led to temporary relationships. Saturday Night Fever inspired many to don a
white suit and hoof their way into the Sexual Revolution. At world-famous Studio 54, Manhattans
disco par excellence, the freedom to touch became a form of social mobility, with glittering
celebrities and good-looking nobodies sharing their love of nightlife.
Home decorators longing for romance in their living environments explored French Country
style as an escape from the flap and fury of the 70s. Grounded in the sweet and vivid colors of
Provence, and replete with handmade textures and antique furniture, French Country was (and for
many still is) a sweet way to make home the refuge it often needs to be.
Some consumers, though, needed help settling on a color palette for their homeand their
wardrobes and vanity tables, too. The 60s profusion of color needed to be harnessed into
appealing choicesand color science became a topic of broad interest in the 70s. Bauhaus
theorist Johannes Itten, and even the U.S. government, helped with textbook instruction in color
theory. But artist and designer Vera Neumann (the Vera of printed scarf and tunic fame) seemed
to have been born with an understanding of color, and her bright work did much to help
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Americans embrace new color choices.


During the tumult of the 70s, many people moved to California for sun, surf, and scenery, for
the counterculture remnants of the Summer of Love, or in search of success in music, television,
or film. The beauty of California was easy to enjoy. Success in the industry was not. The Eagles
1977 hit Hotel California invited a moments consideration of the dark side of the 70s, with its
hints of addiction and selfdestruction. An overlay of shadow obscured the brights of the 60s, and
the need for a more structured approach to life was on the horizon.

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Colors and Coordinates


The 1960s color explosion propelled many people into wild experimentation in fashion and decor.
But just as many were intimidated by the vast choices available to them, and several resources
emerged in the 1970s to train designers and consumers to navigate the modern rainbow.
An inexpensive re-issue of Johannes Ittens 1961 The Elements of Color appeared in 1970.
His blend of Bauhaus color philosophy and graphic application has been called ethico-aesthetics
a discipline with elements of behavioral psychology, sociology, and psychiatry.[32] In practice, he
invited artists and designers to master the ways in which color affects others. The 1970 edition is
a textbook classic still used in universities over forty years later.
Even the U.S. government saw an opportunity to help consumers understand their choices in
fashion, cosmetics, and home furnishings. Color in Our Daily Lives was published in 1975 and
distributed to classrooms across the country, as well as to the general public. Like Ittens work, it
explores the relationship between families of color, and explains concepts like lightness and hue,
contrast and harmony. Its stated goal was to help you to sense color and feel color relationships
so that you will know more clearly what colors are right for you.[33]
Designer and artist Vera Neumann didnt seem to need any help understanding color
interaction, or the way color creates a mood. Neumanns effortless drawing style and effervescent
palette were enormously popular in the 1970s. She turned everything from garden flowers to
ancient Incan motifs into scarves and dresses, home textiles and posters. Her customers trusted
Vera to manage the rainbow for them, and as a result, they were often some of the most
confidently colorful ladies around.
Harmony and contrast were frequently explored in complex shades of mustard and apricot,
aqua and periwinkle, lemon and pink, vermillion and sky blue.

Left: Cover from Color in Our Daily Lives: A Consumer Guide educational booklet 1975, produced by the U.S. Department of
Commerce, National Bureau of Standards
Center: Poster for Veras first art exhibition at the Emile Walter Galleries, New York 1970

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Right: Interior page from Color in Our Daily Lives: A Consumer Guide educational booklet 1975, produced by the U.S.
Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards

Left: The Foucault Pendulum poster 1972, Vera Neumann


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) 7752; 157; 7465; 2718; 121; 211; 7416; 644

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Avocado and Harvest Gold


The hippies of the 1970s were not the only people interested in feeling closer to nature. By the
end of the 60s consumers of all stripes flocked to earth tones in clothing, cosmetics, and dcor.
At the top of the list was Avocado, a smoky green that may or may not actually exist in nature
but was seen in the 70s as sincere and healthful, as well as stylish and up to date. The strain of
satisfying all of those adjectives at once was bound to show, and 1970s kitchens stocked with
Avocado appliances, pots and pans, contact paper, and synthetic floor coverings looked a bit
heavy-handed at times, even when lightened up a bit with Golden Olive and Cream Gold.
Harvest Gold, Burnt Orange, and Tortoise Shell were also key kitchen and appliance colors
just when residential architecture was advocating open-plan kitchen-dining rooms, where
families could spend lots of quality time together. Larger rooms meant more wall and counter
space, which were often populated with macram hangings shaped like owls, mushroom-motif
canisters, and daisy tea towels.
Wallpapers and shag carpets in this palettes colors were bestsellers in the 70s, as were
durable synthetic Herculon upholstery fabrics, often in big plaids, which covered sofas and chairs.
These mod materials made their way beyond the kitchen and into dens, bedrooms, and living
rooms. They also hit the road in elaborately decorated mobile homes, which acquired a fan base
for a while.
The concept of color matching attracted a strong following, too. Hostess gowns blended with
the hostesss dcor, her childrens outfits with her dress. Sometimes even the hors doeuvres
coordinated, too.
The rigor of maintaining an all Avocado and Harvest Gold home was perhaps too much for
mainstream consumers, and the palette fell out of favor by the end of the decade.

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Left: Shag carpet ca. 1970s


Right: JC Penney instructional classroom pamphlet ca. 1968

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Right: Plantation wallpaper pattern ca. 19701975, sourced by Patricia Nugent Design and Textiles
Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Avocado 18-0430; Golden Olive 16-0639; Cream Gold 13-0739; Harvest Gold 16-0948;
Burnt Orange 16-1448; Tortoise Shell 19-1241

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Feathers and Leathers


Rachel Carsons 1962 book Silent Spring brought the cumulative effects of pesticide use into the
public consciousness. The threat of a birdless, mortally wounded ecology alarmed many, and the
book resonated across the Sixties as a rallying cry for an increasingly powerful environmental
movement. The first Earth Day occurred in 1970. The Clean Air Act was signed that same year,
followed in 1972 by the Clean Water and Pesticide Control Acts. Ten years after Carsons
publication, her nemesis, DDT, had finally been banned.
The nonprofit organization Keep America Beautiful launched a public service campaign on
Earth Day in 1971 that became a symbol of the environmental movement. It portrayed an
American Indian rowing his canoe downstream through ever more polluted waterways until he
reaches a big industrial city, where a bag of rancid trash is thrown at his feet. At the end of the
spot, he turns to look at the camera and a single tear runs down his weathered face. The message
was clear: it was time to care for the environment before it was lost. Ad Age magazine named it
one of the top one hundred advertising campaigns of the twentieth century.
A natural palette, along with references to Native American culture, sprouted from the intense
interest in environmental issuesas well as the newly militant American Indian Movement.
Feathers, fringed suede, and worn leathers telegraphed a lack of pretension, and sometimes even
an advanced sense of spirituality. Other natural materials like cork were popular, too. References
to historical patchworks and Western top-stitching reinforced the message of earthy sincerity, and
touches of do-it-yourself macram and crochet granted their wearers major hippie cred.
Corsair and Gray Green capture the clean water of lakes and streams. Tan, Mustang, Cinnabar,
and Pheasant recall frontier buckskin, well-worn boots, and the fringed vests of the 1970s.

Top: Eight-foot tobacco leather and chrome sofa early 1970s


Bottom: Brown leather cork-effect rubber platforms 1970s

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Left: Feather and suede neckpiece ca. 1971, designed by EMBE


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Corsair 19-4329; Gray Green 16-0518; Tan 16-1334; Mustang 19-1217; Cinnabar 181540; Pheasant 16-1332

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Provence
The 70s were not always dreamy: think of stagflation, Watergate, and Vietnam. But just as van
Gogh had escaped some of his woes in Provence in the late 1880s, French Country style soothed
the stresses and strains of home decorating in the 1970s.
Decorators and antiquaires Pierre Le Vec and Pierre Moulin opened their Greenwich Village
shop, Pierre Deux, in 1967. The combination of washed fruitwood furniture, rustic ceramic and
glass accessories, and French block-printed fabrics by Souleiado was a hit. By 1973 the Pierres
had expanded across the street with a separate fabric store, capitalizing on the success of readymade pillows and linens, but also on fabric by the yard for custom drapes.
By 1977, Terence Conrans Habitat shop and catalogue were filled with stripped woods and
cheery cottons. Laura Ashleys eighty-five-shop retail empire also went French Country at about
that time. The look appealed not to hippies, but to ladies with nice houses that needed some
charm, and summer wardrobes that wanted some romance.
The nostalgic quality of the style was not overly sentimental, due to its grounding in the real
colors of Provences sky and land, flowers and trees. And the joie de vivre of French Country
accommodated handmade wares from many countries, which could be blended into interiors to
suit individual tastes. The look has proved durable, and Pierre Deux, now led by Madame
Hedwidge Cointreau de Bouteville, continues to explore Le Vecs and Moulins original vision.
The French Country style of the 70s was colored in Provence and Vivid Blue to match the
gorgeous Mediterranean sky. Artichoke Green, Deep Claret, and Phlox Pink recall the regions lush
fruits and flowers, and Deep Lavender and Lavender remind us of Provences fragrant herb.

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Top: Cachepot ca. 1975


Bottom: Alpes de Haute, Provence date unknown, photograph by Brian Lawrence

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Left: Paisley cotton ca. 1976, sourced by Patricia Nugent Design and Textiles
Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Provence 16-4032; Vivid Blue 17-4432; Artichoke Green 18-0125; Deep Claret 191840; Plox Pink 17-2627; Deep Lavender 18-3633; Lavender 15-3817

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Land Art
NASA gave us a new way of seeing Earth. In images from outer space, dirt and rocks
dematerialize, and an ethereal blue orb appears, dotted with green and veiled in wisps of cloud.
Earth looks tender and fragileand in need of protection.
The budding environmental movement underscored the idea of Earths fragility: far from
being an endless source of raw materials and a bottomless receptacle for waste, the planet came
to be seen as a living, breathing entity in its own right. Earth was now something to cherishnot
merely to profit from.
Land artists like Robert Smithson explored ideas of terrestrial beauty and fragility in earthbased worknotably in Smithsons 1970 Spiral Jetty, a 150-foot long curl of black basalt rock
and earth jutting into Utahs Great Salt Lake. The jetty disappears and reappears in the lakes
changing depths, sometimes coated with salt, sometimes black and graphic. Spiral Jetty captures
something about the permanence and vulnerability of nature, and mankinds influence on both.
In 1979, artist James Turrell embarked on an even more ambitious land art project. He
purchased the four-hundred-thousandyear- old crater of an extinct volcano near Flagstaff,
Arizona, and began a series of tunnels, chambers and viewing platforms that transform the land
into a meditation on light and mass, and on the act of observation. Like Stonehenge, Turrells
interventions frame the winter and summer equinoxes, and catch the motion of planets and stars.
But the Roden Crater Project is less a celebration of seasons and much more an invitation to look
at looking to watch your mind in the act of perception.
The deep blue of outer space and the grays of ancient ash convey the Roden Crater Projects
cosmic message. But the shifting tones of morning, noon, and evening sky are land artists main
palette.

Satellite view of James Turrells Roden Crater 2007, USGS image

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Top: Construction photo, West Portal, James Turrells Roden Crater 1979
Bottom: Spiral Jetty 1970, Robert Smithson, Great Salt Lake, Utah
Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) 284; 454; 7612; 406; 7674; 408; 267

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The Day the World Turned Day-Glo


The Ramones, a bunch of Queens kids in a garage band, performed at legendary Manhattan night
haunt CBGBs seventy-four times in 1974. They wore black leather jackets and dirty jeans and
assaulted audiences with a hard, ear-splitting sound in bitter two-minute doses. Their short lyrics
were not mind-expanding flower-child idylls, but rather rebellious rants that savaged anything
sentimental, fake, or conventional. The Ramones are usually credited as inventing punk music.
In London, the Sex Pistols took up the punk banner of sullen rebellion. Under the
management of jack-of-all-artsy-trades Malcolm McLaren, Johnny Rotten and Sid Vicious became
worldwide antiheroes for their skill at spotlighting the hypocrisy of establishment figures (up to
and including the Queen of England). They were just as famous for their green hair, profane Tshirt slogans, and drug habits. The Sex Pistols can be considered as perfectors of punk style.
Vicious and Rotten emulators abounded. Girls wore combat boots, tutus, and artfully ripped
T-shirts held together with safety pins. Wraith-thin boys wore bondage pants under jackets with
so many metal studs they resembled armor. Both sexes dyed their spiked hair in Day-Glo colors,
pierced their ears, noses, eyebrows, and everything else.
The Day-Glo colors of punk hair and druggie black light posters were celebrated in 1978 with
the X Ray Spex song The Day the World Turned Day-Glo, with lead singer Poly Styrene rejecting
the overabundance of synthetic materials in modern life: polystyrene, nylon, perspex, acrylic,
polypropylene, and latex.
The punks color of choice was nihilistic black, a perfect backdrop for a mind-blowing
spectrum of neon dyed hair and paintspattered T-shirts.

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Left: Rainbow neon lights date unknown


Center: Lost Horizon blacklight poster 1970
Right: PANTONE MATCHING SYSTEM color strip ca. 1970

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Left: Punk girl with mohawk 1970, London


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Process Blue; 7488; Yellow 012; 1575; Orange 021; 213; Rhodamine Red; Black 6

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Night Life
A thumping four-on-the-floor beat, flashing light shows, spinning mirror balls, poppers and
Quaaludes: discos were the pleasure palaces of the Sexual Revolution. Young studs in snug pants
and lithe beauties in wrap dresses bribed bouncers and doormen everywhere for the privilege of
seducing each other on the dance floor and sometimes consummating their passion in shadowed
corners.
In its early days, disco was an urban phenomenon, with black and gay followings. But 1977s
Saturday Night Fever took disco mainstream. Deney Terrio, host of TVs Disco Fever, taught John
Travolta how to dance. Costumer Patrizia von Brandenstein sewed him into a tight white suit. The
Bee Gees wailed tales of struggle and romance. Travoltas suave and sexy moves inspired a nation
to do the Hustle, and the film helped fill an estimated ten thousand discos in the United States
alone.
At discos like New Yorks renowned Studio 54, beautiful nobodies rubbed shoulders (and
sometimes more) with celebrities like Liza Minnelli, Halston, Mick Jagger, and even Truman
Capote. Politicians and old-money patricians visited the club right alongside well-styled
waitresses and coiffed garage mechanics. Donna Summer performed there, as did other disco
greats like the Village People and Gloria Gaynor. People who frequented it in its heyday remember
the scene at Studio 54 fondly, and with a wicked twinkle in their eyes.
Travoltas white suit, the louche darkness of nightclubs, and the silver of mirror balls are the
starting point for the Night Life palette. Radiant pink and orange, pulsating against yellow and
cobalt, recall the passionate wonderland of the dance floor.

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Left (top); Night club mirrored disco ball ca. 1970s


Left (bottom): Colored disco lights in a nightclub ca. 1970s
Right: Donna Summer ca. 1970s

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Left: John Travolta in a still from Saturday Night Fever 1977

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Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) White; 10103; 212; Warm Red; 129; 301; Black 3

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Hotel California
The 1963 Beach Boys hit Surfin USA celebrated Californias rugged beaches, cool waves, and
laid-back lifestyle. People around the world got the message, and Californias population roughly
doubled between 1960 and 1980.
Some new Californians were indeed attracted by surfing. A subculture grew up around
chasing waves, perfecting the moves, relaxing afterward, and always looking cool. The surf board
became a canvas for artists like Rick Griffin, whose distinctive cartoons were filled with hazy popculture references to nature, science fiction, Latino culture, and Native American mythology. At
the other end of the design spectrum, minimal stripes were just as interesting. Surfboard art
became so rich that it inspired the spinoff subculture of skateboarding.
But sand and surf were not Californias only attractions. The film, television, and movie
industries promised fame and fortune to many star-struck young people. Only a very few had
their prayers answered, like the Midwestern musicians of the Eagles, a band whose albums
became 1970s best-sellers.
Whether you made it to the top or not, the entertainment industry tempted with more than
celebrity and money: its culture of excess and self-destruction proved to be the dark underbelly
of Californian life. Hotel California, the 1977 Eagles song from the album of the same name,
sketches out the seductive, potentially disastrous side of the Los Angeles star-making machine.
The attention, the luxury, the intoxication of success were dazzling, but they were also a trap:
once hooked, where do you go? As the song says, We are all just prisoners here, of our own
device.
Even paradise has its drawbacks.
Californias natural appeals were rendered in vivid ocean blue, alongside the lively greens of
plants that never see winter. Her dangerous temptations come in sunset colors of blush and
burgundy, which eventually fade to black.

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Left: 1970s Soul Surfers scale model surfboard collection 2005, Malcolm Wilson
Right (top): Poster for Pacific Vibrations 1970, film by John Severson, art by Rick Griffin
Right (bottom): Clyde Aikau, Waimea, Smirnoff 1974, Photograph by Jeff Divine

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Left: Studio portrait of the Eagles 19741975


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) 3005; 293; 555; 77765; 156; 7622; 539

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1980s
Adventures in Affluence
The 1980s was the era of Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher, deregulation and laissez-faire
economics, a global economic boom, and the end of the Cold War. It was a time of big ideas
implemented through big policies. Cable television started its twenty-four-hour news coverage,
with the successful 1987 rescue of Baby Jessica from the bottom of a well seeming to get as much
bluster and airtime as the 1986 Space Shuttle disaster.
Multinational corporations and government deficits expanded exponentially across the decade
as lower taxes delighted big business but stressed national budgets.
The New York Stock Exchange also grew dramatically until 1987s Black Monday market crash.
In the same year, Oliver Stones Wall Street character Gordon Gekko declared that Greed is
goodwhich seemed to be enough encouragement for stocks to finish upward not just in 1987
but in 88 and 89, too.
The exaggeration of the era expressed itself in power suits with big shoulder pads for men
and women. Aerobic workouts promised both sexes that feeling the burn would result in buns of
steel. Hairdos and biceps ballooned to enormous sizes. Expensive Rolex watches were must-have
accessories. An average episode of Dallas, one of the most popular television series of the decade,
would display these and other 1980s splendors along with Stetson hats, cowboy boots, and blue
jeans. The latter, whether sexy Calvin Kleins or roughed-up Lees, were also a key style statement:
in the 80s you could wear them anywhere, in many shades of indigo.
Another popular television show, Miami Vice, made sherbetcolored T-shirts and pastel
neckwear, along with hair gel and designer jackets with rolled-up sleeves, look completely
masculine. The shows main characters, Crockett and Tubbs, were early metrosexuals, and many
men followed their lead.
Lady Diana Spencers fresh-faced and innocent beauty captivated the world. Her wardrobe as
a bride-to-be was laced with corduroys and Wellington boots and other accoutrements well
outside the realm of high fashion she would later inhabit. But her down-to-earth preppy look
(known as Sloane Ranger style in the U.K.) was enormously influential all the same. The bestselling Official Preppy Handbook humorously explained upper-crust habits to mainstream
Americans. Empire-building designer Ralph Lauren encouraged everyone to dress like an
aristocrat, too.
Learning how to dress was a topic of considerable interest in the self-improving 80s.
Thoughtful color analysts divided individual complexions and colorings into seasons or times of
day in an attempt to explain which clothes and cosmetics would optimize a persons natural gifts.
Having your colors done became an international sensation, and set many women on the road to
wearing what was right for them as individuals rather than blindly obeying the dictates of faraway
fashion editors.
Painter Georgia OKeeffe felt most at home when far, far away from fashion editors, in the
hills of her beloved northern New Mexico. She studied the landscape and the colors around her,
and reveled in their mauve-inflected beauty. The colors of New Mexico, and the Southwest style,
reached out far and wide to make mauve the defining color of the decade.
Northern Africa, seen through the eyes of design powerhouse Yves Saint Laurent, was also a
style influence. His Marrakech retreat, Majorelle, brought vivid Palace Blue into fashion and home
dcor, along with radiant colors borrowed from Moroccan mosaics, pottery, and glass.
International influence also emanated from Japan, with a group of talented designers like Rei
Kawakubo, Yohji Yamamoto, and the amazing Issey Miyake embracing somber colors in an
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intellectual re- examination of what was beautiful and stylish.


The Milan-based Memphis studio took a critical look at what decades of Modern aesthetics
had declared beautiful and decided to shake the design world up. It paired marble with plastic
laminate, expensive wood and glass with confetti patterns, and introduced elements of whimsy
and play into the contemporary creative process. Its colors were as seriously playful as Memphis
founder Ettore Sottsass himself.
Artist Keith Harings early work was also playful, and also about shaking things up. He
painted, in simple cartoon style and sweet colors, the antics of the Sexual Revolutions gay
partisans. His color sensibility helped to make his optimistic message of unity and joy widely
palatablea technique employed by other designers, as well.
The AIDS crisis of the 1980s claimed Haring as one of its many victims. The creative
community was among the hardest hit groups and the struggle to address AIDS, as well as the
strength to mourn the lives cut short by it, were among the factors that would define the
aesthetics and colors of the 80s.

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Memphis, Michael, and Philippe


Was the ber-influential 1980s design collective Memphis named after a Bob Dylan song, the
capital of ancient Egypt, or the birthplace of Elvis Presley? The first answer is correct, but Memphis
founder Ettore Sottsass would have loved the question: Memphis was a deliberate mash-up of
high- and low-culture references, expensive and cheap materials, functionality and playfulness.
Sottsass was in his sixties when he gathered a bunch of European twenty-somethings to
launch Memphis during the 1981 Milan Furniture Fair. Their provocative, zany offerings, including
Sottsasss Carlton Cabinet, attracted immediate media endorsement, and Memphis was star
material right off the bat.
Each Memphis design seemed to ask whether sleek, rectilinear International Style Modernism
could really be considered modern in the face of the blinking, beeping, banging cacophony of
contemporary life. Though responses to Memphis were not universally favorable, the
overwhelming, confusing, and uncontrollable superabundance of the collective struck a chord
with critics and consumers, who answered no.[34] Avant-garde collectors and daring decorators
embraced it, too.
American postmodernist Michael Graves joined Memphis for a time, adding his brand of
whimsy to the mix. Even after his departure, Gravess product designs continued Memphiss
quirkiness. The success of his whistling-bird teakettle for Alessi (which sold over a half-million
copies) heralded the democratization of design that would rumble through successive decades.
The enduring influence of Memphis can be seen in the groundbreaking work of French
designer Philippe Starck. His prescient 1984 Caf Costes interior combines futurism and nostalgia
a mix which resonates in subsequent projects like the 1988 Royalton Hotel in New York, and
the long-legged lemon juicer he designed in 1990.
Memphiss irreverence was colored in contrasting Deep Blue, Ribbon Red, Piquant Green,
Anthracite, and Flax. Sandstorm and Allure provided a resting place in the Memphis playground.

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Left: Miss Milch chair 1988, designed by Philippe Starck


Right: Alessi teakettle ca. 1985, designed by Michael Graves

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Left: Carlton Room Divider 1981, designed by Ettore Sottsass, manufactured by Memphis Milano
Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Deep Blue 19-3847; Ribbon Red 19-1663; Piquant Green 17-0235; Anthracite 194007; Flax 13-0935; Sandstorm 16-1235; Allure 16-4021

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To the Manor Born


Designers and celebrities largely promulgated and popularized the trends of twentieth-century
fashion, with a scant handful of notable aristocratic exceptions, including young Lady Diana
Spencer, who became instantly and forever famous when she married Prince Charles, heir to the
British throne.
Lady Diana was in her teens when her engagement was announced, and her status as high
fashion icon was still years ahead. Early paparazzi photographs placed her squarely in the ranks
of the Sloane Rangers, a class of wealthy, countrified young Brits fond of horseback riding,
Labrador Retrievers, and country weekends. Girls wore Fair Isle sweaters and long print skirts.
Boys sported rep ties, their fathers overcoats, and good shirts proudly worn until threadbare.
Both sexes frequently donned wellies and corduroys. The wildly popular 1982 Sloane Ranger
Handbook described it all in detail.
The American version of the Sloane Ranger was, of course, the Preppy. The habits of
privileged preppies were outlined with tongue-in-cheek humor in the 1980 Official Preppy
Handbook, which fueled a craze for khakis, Lacoste shirts, and button-downs.
Bronx-born Ralph Lauren amassed a fashion and fragrance empire throughout the 1970s and
1980s by skillfully referencing the habits of old-money WASPS. In his hands, the short-sleeved
cotton knit tennis shirt became the enormously successful Polo shirt, offered in a host of colors.
His tweed suits and oxford shirts became first a menswear juggernaut and then a force in
womens wear. In the 1980s, Lauren entered the home arena as well, licensing everything from
sheets and towels to dinnerware and furniture. Much of the appeal of Ralph Laurens brands lies in
his promise that any discerning consumer can become aristocratic with the right purchases.
Deep Forest, Evergreen, Breen, and Crimson are at once ancient and heraldic, and down-toearth. Rich Gold lends a little nouveau glitter to the otherwise privileged palette.

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Left: Repp tie ca. 1983


Right: Polo by Ralph Lauren perfume ad ca. 1980s

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Left: Lady Diana Spencer with her fianc, Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, at Balmoral, Scotland 1981, photo by Anwar

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Hussein
Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Deep Forrest 19-6110; Evergreen 19-5420; Breen 19-1034; Crimson 19-1762; Rich
Gold 16-0836

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Urban Cowboys
John Travolta wore a manly pair of jeans onscreen as Bud Davis in 1980s Urban Cowboy. At the
same time, in TV ads for Calvin Klein jeans, fifteen-year-old Brooke Shields was undeniably (and
controversially) feminine. Nothing, she assured us, came between her and her Calvins. From
smooth designer jeans worn with a Chanel jacket to rugged 501s and flannel, denim was suddenly
everywhereand universally acceptable.
Top-ranking nighttime soap opera Dallas did its part to boost denim and other Southwestern
gear. Millions watched the shenanigans of scheming J. R., faithless Sue Ellen, pretty Pam, putupon
Bobby, and long-suffering Miss Ellie. The Ewings Stetsons and boots were no longer only for
ranch and range: fans took them into cities, too. Dallas also brought adultery, alcoholism, family
turmoil, dishonest dealings, and nail-biting cliffhangers into television mainstream. The urge to
discover who shot J. R. made Dallas s fourth season opener the most watched television show of
the day. Many subsequent series adapted Dallas s frothy denim-wearing mix.
The marketing of jeans and the medias exploration of sex and sexuality bloomed in tandem.
Photographer Bruce Webers subliminal (and sometimes not so subliminal) homoerotic work for
global fashion brands brought a hint of things not normally discussed into the mainstream.
Richard Avedon featured an only slightly older Brooke Shields again in a 1984 Calvin Klein TV spot
where she warned that if her jeans could talk she would be ruined. Sex was in the air, and it was
usually wearing jeans.
Even so, the popularity of jeans encouraged designers and merchants to search for new ways
to entice customers. Dark Denim remained the standard for jeans. But stone-washing softened
them into Faded Denim and acid finishes made rural denim look urban and technological in Gull
Gray and Bleached Denim. Leather Brown and Bison recall the colors of boots and belts.

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Left: Larry Hagman as J.R. Ewing on Dallas ca. 1980s


Right: Ad for Frye boots ca. 1980

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Left: Calvin Klein jeans ad featuring Brooke Shields 1980


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Dark Denim 19-4118; Faded Denim 17-4021; Gull Gray 16-3803; Bleached Denim 183930; Leather Brown 18-1142; Bison 18-1027

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Signs and Symbols


The 1984 Olympic Games took place in sprawling Los Angeles. Planners and residents alike
worried about how to direct numerous visitors from around the world through the complex city
and into their seats at appointed timeswithout ruining Californias casual ambience. Skillful use
of color turned out to be the spoonful of sugar that sweetened up a disciplined crowd control
program.
Signage for the Olympics was created by Deborah Sussman, an environmental graphic
designer. Her flexible modular system delivered the Games logo package, venue identification,
directional and service information (and more) with a colorful, insouciant postmodern vocabulary.
She said of her color choices: The palette consists of unexpected, stimulating juxtapositions that
instantly separate the Olympic pageantry from the everyday environment, the drabness of
permanent institutions, industries, streetshot magenta, vermilion, and chrome yellow, set off by
aqua.[35]
Sussmans colors resembled celebrity-charged publications like Interview, a probably
accidental but fitting reference to the regions entertainment industrydriven culture.
Artist Keith Haring also embraced a separation from the drabness of permanent institutions
through visual means. His vivid colors and expressive graphics spoke about social unity and the
joy of being alive. Much of Harings early work depicts the pre-AIDS gay sexual revolution.
Harings style managed to capture the sensuality and the politics of the time without falling into
the adversarial category of protest art.
When Haring was diagnosed with AIDS in 1987 the subject matter of his work became
sometimes grimmer, but it remained accessible and appealing until his death of an AIDS-related
illness in 1990.
Like Sussman, Haring succeeded in conveying a strong message with considerable joy through
adroit use of lime and emerald greens, aqua and orange, purple and magenta, and black.

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Top: Entry to the stadium for the Los Angeles Olympics 1984, designed by Sussman/Prejza & Co.
Bottom: Untitled 1985, Keith Haring

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Left: Interview magazine cover 1981


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) 583; 7480; 299; 170; 267; 191; Black

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Miami Vice
From 1984 to 1989, a mildly cynical and deeply slick cop show held sway on broadcast television:
Miami Vice. Detectives Sonny Crockett and Ricardo Tubbs (played by Don Johnson and Philip
Michael Thomas) fought drug dealers and neer-do-wells for primacy on the streets of thenseedy South Beach and other neighborhoods around Biscayne Bay. Crockett and Tubbs won their
hour-long battles, but somehow always seemed in danger of losing the war against crime.
One foe definitively vanquished by Crockett and Tubbs, however, was the sartorial modesty of
the American male. Sonny Crockett made it quite clear that real men did wear lavender. And linen
pants. And Italian loafers without socks. Tubbs wardrobe choices suggested that pink neckties
were possible, tooat least if your personal firearm was in good working order. Or if you had a
sleek black Ferrari at your disposal. Eternal five oclock shadow, lots of hair gel, and blazers with
rolled-up sleeves were also de rigueur. These TV crime fighters were less hawk than peacock, and
their metrosexual look took America by surprise avant la lettre.
Hugo Boss and Gianni Versace menswear collections benefitted greatly from all the fuss, but
so did Miami itself. Many credit the success of the show with drawing attention to the need to
renew the citys Art Deco heritage. Miamis pastels and tropical accents were cleaned up and
repainted in a boom of development and restoration after the show left the airwaves, and South
Beach is now a global tourist destination where vanity and flirtation are generally the most serious
vices on offer.
Pink Mist, Lavendula, Radiant Orchid, and Lantana are the hot notes of the Miami Vice
wardrobe. Gray Violet and Deep Ultramarine recall Miamis sky and sea, and Moonless Night
provides a little cover for an indiscretion or two.

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Top: Downtown Miami at night date unknown, photo by Elvis Santana


Bottom: Ferrari logo ca. 1980s

Left: Sonny Crockett (Don Johnson) and Rico Tubbs (Philip Michael Thomas) in Miami Vice ca. 1980s
Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Pink Mist 13-2805; Lavendula 15-3620; Radiant Orchid 18-3224; Lavanta 16-1624;
Gray Violet 14-4103; Deep Ultramarine 19-3950; Moonless Night 19-4203

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Majorelle and Morocco


At seventeen years old, Algerian-born Yves Saint Laurent won third place in a fashion
competition. At the awards ceremony in Paris, the editor of French Vogue, Michel de Brunhoff,
encouraged him to cultivate his talents. When Saint Laurent won the competition a year later, de
Brunhoff arranged a meeting with Christian Dior. Dior hired him as an assistant on the spot, and
in a short time spoke of him as heir apparent at the House of Dior.
Upon Diors sudden death in 1957, Saint Laurent led the Dior empire for a few years before
founding his own fashion house in 1961. Saint Laurents clothes quickly captured the new power
and autonomy (and sexiness) explored by women of the Sixties and Seventies. Safari jackets,
references to African and Asian cultures, womens evening wear patterned after mens tuxedos,
pantsuits, and color-blocked Mondrian dresses were among Saint Laurents most influential
introductions.
But Saint Laurents monumental success came at a price. The pressure of designing two
couture and two ready-to-wear collections a year, along with other factors, pushed him into drug
and alcohol addiction. By 1980, he needed a refuge.
With his partner, Pierre Berg, he purchased the Marrakech house and gardens of painter
Jacques Majorelle. The estates vivid Palace Blue walls and exotic plantings had fallen into
disrepair since the painters death in 1962. Saint Laurent applied his exquisite eye to their
restoration, and fashioned a luscious, multicolored fantasy from Majorelles initial design. Saint
Laurent added walls and walkways of subdued Pink Sand and Desert Sand. Massive pots were
glazed and painted in Saffron and Arabesque. Tinted glass lanterns of Rose Violet and Byzantium
purple added exotic mystery.
Saint Laurents haven provided a window into North African culture that influenced fashion
and home design of the 80s.

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Left: Majorelle Gardens, Marrakesh, Morocco ca. 1980s


Right: Moroccan dyebaths ca. 1983, photograph by Herb Eiseman

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Left: Lamps in the Marrakesh market, Morocco ca. 1980s, photograph by Paul Plebinga
Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Palace Blue18-4043; Pink Sand 15-1318; Desert Sand 17-1524; Saffron 14-1064;
Arabesque 16-1441; Rose Violet 17-2624; Byzantium 19-3138

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Santa Fe
Wisconsin-born Georgia OKeeffe found her artistic home in 1917 during her first visit to New
Mexico. By the 1930s, OKeeffe spent as much time as possible in the hills between Santa Fe and
Taos, painting red and black escarpments, the undulating mauve terrain, the silvery sage of high
desert plants, and bones bleached by the sun. Even when her paintings depicted the wide-open
nature of the Southwest, they also described the human minds internal passage between desire
and contemplation, intimacy and distance, inspiration and trepidation.
A 1987 National Gallery exhibit of OKeeffes work was mounted shortly after her death at
ninety-eight. Enormously popular, it traveled across the United States, drawing attention not just
to her work, but also to the land that inspired it.
OKeeffe was not alone in her love for the Southwests evocative mlange of Old West
individualism and adventure, ancient Native American and Spanish cultures, and a frisson of New
Age spirituality. Sun Belt population grew enormously in the 1980s as the Rust Belt decayed and
lost its vibrancy. New Sun Belt homes explored desert color schemes, artisan-made fabrics, pine
furniture, and Talavera pottery, and frequently adapted time-tested adobe techniques to
contemporary needs.
The look caught on, and Southwest style was embraced across the country as a new casual
decorating strategy for both home and office: the mauve-inflected tones of desert earth, adobe,
and high Sierra sunsets were suddenly everywhere. Just as America went Avocado green in the
70s, it turned mauve in the 80s. Everything from pillows to paints, fabrics, and wall-to-wall
carpeting explored this twilight color.
The Southwest look centers, of course, on earthy mauve. Other landscape-derived tones of
rich brown, pink sandstone, adobe red, and sage green are essential, too. Dreamy lavenders lend
a sense of historical and spiritual depth.

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Top: Flame stitch-style upholstery fabric Santa Fe style ca. 1984


Bottom: Purple Hills Ghost Ranch 2/Purple Hills No. II 1934, Georgia OKeefe

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Bear Lake (Desert Abstraction) 1931, Georgia OKeefe


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) 4735; 7629; 7606; 7618; 7536; 5145; 5155

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Personal Colors
Writer Tom Wolfe called the 70s the Me Decade because of its rampant obsession with self. In
the 80s, self-improvement became the rage. Television series like Lifestyles of the Rich and
Famous and Dynasty promoted outsized combinations of outfits, hair, body, and big bucksand
lives of exaggerated glamour. The bigger, better, reinvented American dream of the 80s required
strenuous pursuit of all kinds of transformation.
Aerobics remade the body, thanks to Jane Fonda and others. The perfect rsum remade
careers. Men and women learned to dress for success in big-shouldered power suits with big hair
to match. Hair coloring was no longer a deep, dark secret as both men and women found the
fountain of youth in Grecian Formula or similar potions.
Department stores such as Saks Fifth Avenue and Bloomingdales enlarged their cosmetics
areas. Drugstores expanded their personal product aisles with popular cosmetics and hair care
brands. Celebrity makeup artists like Jeff Angell and Way Bandy shared professional makeover
secrets. Magazines were filled with before and after stories. Infomercials were born, and
frequently peddled opportunities for personal transformation in the looks department.
Color analysis became a hot topichow to choose the right colors to enhance personal
coloring as well as developing the confidence to make the right choices. Suzanne Caygill
developed a color theory that categorized people into one of four seasonal typeswhich
appeared in book form in 1980s The Essence of You. Leatrice Eiseman (co-author of this book)
developed the Color Clock, which offered Sunrise, Sunlight, or Sunset palettes, and allowed for
natural crossover colors suitable for everyone on both emotional and aesthetic levels. Her 1983
Alive With Color, recently updated as More Alive With Color, outlined the concept.
Among the more flattering personal colors were Cappuccino, Byzantium, Pampas, Earth Red,
Feldspar, Celestial, Muted Clay, and Bellini.

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Left: Miss Clairol color matching chart ca. 1980


Right: Suit Giorgio Armani, 1982

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Top: Before and after color analysis ca. 1984


Bottom: Color Clock. fanguide: More Alive With Color concept ca. 1983
Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Cappuccino 19-1220; Byzantium 19-3138; Earth Red 18-1631; Feldspar 16-5815;
Celestial 18-4530; Muted Clay 16-1330; Bellini 13-1114

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Japonais
In the 1980s, years of strong growth had given Japan the worlds second highest gross national
productjust behind the United States. Well-off Japanese consumers formed a strong base for
Toyota, Sony, and others, and Japanese companies became increasingly global.
Japanese fashion also blossomed in the 1980s. Issey Miyake, after working with Hubert de
Givenchy and Geoffrey Beene, had opened his own fashion company in 1970. His clothes managed
to marry Eastern and Western styles by being both relentlessly simple and extremely noticeable. In
the late 1980s, his revolutionary heat-pleating process ennobled synthetic fabrics in memorable
ways, and his often stark color sensibility strengthened the status of black and gray in fashion.
Fellow designer Rei Kawakubos Comme des Garons line also created a sensation in the
1980s. Her frayed fabrics, unraveling seams, and strategic rips, made a fashionably anti-fashion
statement. No style rebellion has ever been quite so somber or so expensive. Yohji Yamamotos
asymmetrical austerity also gained an important following among fashion intellectuals.
The gravitas of Japanese design influenced many Western talents, as well. Graphic designer
Patrick Nagles work adapted the strong outlines of Japanese woodblock prints, filled in with bold,
dense color. His album cover for rock group Duran Durans biggest hit, Rio, became one of his
best-known images.
Italian-born architect Massimo Vignelli believed that an architect should be able to design
everything from the spoon to the city. He proved his point with projects in furniture, tabletop,
branding, clothing, lighting, signage, consumer products, interiors, and more. His clean, concise
approach echoed Japanese simplicity and seriousness.
The minimalist colors of Stretch Limo and Mineral Gray are the foundation of the Japanese
palette. Small amounts of Rhododendron, Cress Green, and Amethyst Orchid add contrast, while
Dusk suggests the palettes intellectual impetus.

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Left: Sasaki Colorstone dinnerware 1985, designed by Vignelli Associates with David Law
Right: Black wool jersey dress 1983, by Rei Kawakubo for Comme des Garons

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Left: Rio/Texas 1982, Patrick Nagel


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom)Stretch Limo 19-4005; Mineral Gray 15-5704; Rhododendron 19-2024; Cress Green 150643; Amethyst Orchid 17-3628; Dusk 17-3812

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1990s
Nuanced 90s
The 90s were the best of times, with a generally optimistic mood opening the way for rich colors
from other cultures, as well as brighter floral tones from our own. After a brief recession, the U.S.
economy blossomed, household incomes grew markedly, and a healthy stock market encouraged
both large and small investors to participate. At the end of the decade, the U.S. government
reported budget surpluses for the first time in decades. Smoking was no longer allowed in
airplanes. Dolly the Sheep duplicated herself. Harry Potter introduced himself. South Africa
reformed itself. Princess Diana glittered. Viagra astounded.
But the 90s were the worst of times, tooand the bad news created a need for a range of
softer, thoughtful colors which offered comfort and sustenance. The Soviet Union collapsed,
leaving millions in dire straits. Tragedies in Rwanda and Bosnia introduced the phrase ethnic
cleansing into our lexicon. Iraq invaded Kuwait and the first Gulf War resulted. The breadth and
complexity of AIDS as a global phenomenon became ever clearer. The Rodney King riots and the
controversy around the O. J. Simpson murder trial showed that old wounds were far from healed.
The first World Trade Center bombing shocked the world. So did the Columbine shootings, the
murder of Matthew Shepard, the Oklahoma City bombing, the Lewinsky affair, and Princess
Dianas death. And thats not even the half of it.
Did more happen to the world in the 1990s, or did we just talk more about it? The number of
television and radio channels continued to grow, filling every second of the day with chatter. The
Internet was born, and attracted at least three hundred million users by the end of the decade
transmitting not just the news, but details of life, at its best and its worst, to and from every point
on the globe. Village gossip could become headline newsand vice versa. Thanks to computers,
events, commerce, and culture became internationalized to an unprecedented degree.
Computers also exerted influence in the field of design. Apples 1998 iMac launch added
computers to fashion and the arts as sources of color inspiration. Japanese animes techno look
reinforced that message with its energetic, rule-breaking color combinations.
But the need to escape technology and the turbulence of current events was a current running
through many of the prevailing trends of the time. Creatives of all kinds looked to other cultures
for inspiration. Zen-influenced design clearly offered sanctuary with its simultaneously earthy and
ethereal mix of natural colors and textures. African influences also infused a grounded, authentic
feeling into fashion and dcor. And Latino culture brought a much needed warmth into the
cultural milieu through not only color and design but also cooking and music.
Some sought solace and validation not through cultural exploration but through the golden
logos of European designers: bling became both a common sight on city streets as well as an
often-used expression.
Still others, like Martha Stewart, had no use for bling. She offered a popular alternative to
logos in her refinements on traditional American domestic habits. She strongly advised that
improved gardens, crafts, living rooms, kitchens, laundry rooms, labeling systems, dinner menus,
and picnic baskets made life worth living. All you had to do was read Martha Stewart Living for
guidance.
Many young people were unsure about the course their lives would take, and Grunges
nihilistic point of view appealed to them. Especially when sung to a background of wailing guitars
by a charismatic frontman. The Seattle-inspired antimaterialistic embrace of thrift shop duds
impressed fashion cognoscentibut Grunges used-flannel look did not translate well to
department store shelves. Similarly, famous Grunge rockers did not have an easy time reconciling
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their success with their rebellious origins.


Millennial anxiety contributed to Grunges emotional appealand also made it difficult for
many others to look toward the future. Dire predictions clashed with dreams of a better world for
the children and grandchildren of present generations. The discipline of Futurism offered some
guidance, with trend forecasters helping designers, retailers, and consumers to define what the
twenty-first century might bring.
No one could know for sure what challenges and opportunities would appearbut that didnt
stop them from dreaming.

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Grunge and Graffiti


The get it and spend it 80s ended with the brief economic downturn of the early 90s, which got
Bill Clinton elected as the forty-second president of the United States, and turned many young
people into thrift shopping anti-materialists. Their fraying flannels, ancient sweaters, dirty jeans,
cracked leather jackets and heavy-soled Doc Martens were not newquite the opposite. But when
paired with the distorted guitars and anguished lyrics of indy Seattle bands, the Grunge aesthetic
was born.
Was Grunge hardy individualism or drug-fueled nihilism? Was it a refreshing rebellion against
overly branded American consumerism, or just a youthful retreat from responsible adulthood?
Grunge disciples didnt care. They found resonance in Pearl Jams Black and Nirvanas Smells
Like Teen Spirit. Eddie Vedder and Kurt Cobain put their generations angst into cathartic words
and music, and became rich and famous in the process.
Paradoxically, they and their bands arguably became as commercial as the culture they
criticized. The dissonance between rebellion and runaway success proved too much for Cobain,
who committed suicide in 1994.
Grunge went mainstream when Marc Jacobs and other designers brought it to the runway in
1992, with mixed results: fashion customers were reluctant to pay top dollar for thrift store looks.
Embraced by the art world in the 1970s and seemingly everywhere in large cities in the 1980s,
graffiti continued its dual role as defacer of property and declaration of youthful anger. More
allied with Hip-Hop than Grunge, the anger and frustration graffiti expressed was shared by both.
Purple Haze and Coffee Bean refer to the birthplace of Grunge, and Faded Denim, Earth Red,
and Gull to its thrift shop duds. Dark Shadow, of course, captures something about Grunges
mental state.

Top: Graffiti in Los Angeles ca. 1990, photo by Eric Olage

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Bottom: Doc Marten boots ca. 1990s, photo by Peter G. Balazsy

Left: Kurt Cobain 1998, photo by Mary Evans

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Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Purple Haze 18-3718; Coffee Bean 19-0915; Faded Denim 17-4021; Earth Red 181631; Gull 17-3802; Dark Shadow 19-3906

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Its a Good Thing


Martha Stewarts first cookbook, the popular 1982 Entertaining, was followed by a spate of books
on cooking and weddings, frequent television appearances, newspaper pieces, and more. In 1990,
this late-twentieth-century goddess of domesticity channeled both knowledge and name
recognition into her successful periodical, Martha Stewart Living.
Living was not, of course, the first magazine to address house and garden, but its point of
view transformed homeoriented publishingand millions of homes. Under the art direction of
longtime Stewart collaborator Gael Towey, it blended nineteenth-century photography styles,
twentieth-century type and graphics, and a timelessly feminine palette. Diverse influences
notwithstanding, the simplicity and clarity of the magazine remained deliciously consistent
whether showing readers the intricacies of hand-cut foil oak leaf garlands for holiday mantels,
cataloging heirloom cherries or carnations, or describing a labeling scheme for canning closets.
Within a few years of the magazines launch, Stewart became a television starwhich fueled
her licensed product sales and readership of her newspaper column. When her corporation,
Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia, went public in 1999 she became one of the worlds top
businesswomen.
Stewarts ideas set high expectations for making and keeping a home where family meals are
lovingly made, and both dcor and garden are conceived with a connoisseurs vision and
maintained with old-fashioned diligence. But for those who take her advice in the right doses,
Stewart has revived craft, defined a tasteful vision for interiors, and encouraged her audience to
enjoy things they have made with their own hands. As she has often said, Its a good thing.
Martha Stewart Livings gardening issues are among its most popular, giving prominence to
floral colors like Hollyhock, Spring Crocus, Pink Carnation, Raspberry Rose, Jacaranda, Foliage
Green, and Linden Green.

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Left: White hydrangea ca. 1998, photo by Herb Eiseman


Top (center): White/pink variegated hydrangea ca. 1998, photo by Herb Eiseman
Top (right):Purple coneflower with birdbath ca. 1998, photo by Andrew Drake
Center: Purple hydrangea ca. 1998, photo by Herb Eiseman
Bottom: Martha Stewart Everyday Seed Packets ca. 1999, design by Stephen Doyle, photo by Lisa Hubbard

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Left: Martha Stewart Living cover 1999


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Holyhock 19-2924; Spring Crocus 17-3020; Pink Carnation 16-2124; Raspberry Rose
18-2333; Jacaranda 17-3930; Foliage Green 18-6018; Linden Green 15-0533; Snow White 11-0602

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The Nature of Zen


The urge to retreat from an increasingly urbanized world found expression in the 1990s in a
nature-based vocabulary of textures and colors thought to express the values of Zen Buddhism.
While the literal meaning of Zen refers to meditation and the state one reaches while meditating,
Zen-inspired design of the 90s didnt involve actual meditation. It often succeeded, though, in
producing spaces and objects with a soothing sense of calm and a tranquil, carefully edited visual
experience. At its best, 90s Zen design linked man to nature in an unobtrusive, contemplative
waylike a traditional Japanese haiku.
An important manifestation of 90s Zen appeared in spas around the world. The number of
spas doubled between 1994 and 1999, and masques, massages, and manicures became a $5
billion industry.[36] A refuge from busy schedules took the form of selfpampering ritualsand
the best spa services were often found in the best-designed (and most Zen) spa spaces.
Swiss architect Peter Zumthor designed the 1996 Therme Vals spa in a pure Modern style
brought subtly and excitingly to life with the textures and earthy colors of locally quarried stones
and other natural materials. The refinement of Zumthors work makes the spa seem ancient and
totally of the eartheven as it satisfies all the requirements of an up-to-date twentieth-century
luxury destination.
Zumthor may not have been overtly pursuing Zen design, but his honed granite surfaces
achieved it nonetheless. Other designers chose even more natural-looking, eroded surfaces that
emphasized the passage of time. But the effects were similar.
Grounded in meditative use of natural materials, Zen design embraced a color palette that
speaks to clean air, unpolluted water, and preservation of a pristine environment. Soft Shadow
Green, Shale Green, and Moss Gray were contemplations of earths beauty. Ether, Lichen, and
Water Lily brought an ethereal quality to the palette.

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Top: Beach lichen ca. 1998, photograph by Maureen Welton


Bottom (left): Tafoni reflected in water ca. 1998, photograph by Maureen Welton
Bottom (right): Ornamental urn ca. 1998, urn and photograph by Maureen Welton

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Left: Tafoni cliff ca. 1998, photograph by Maureen Welton


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Shadow Green 14-0627; Shale Green 16-6116; Moss Gray 15-6410; Ether 14-4506;
Lichen 15-5812; Water Lily 11-0304

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Out of Africa
Nelson Mandelas anti-apartheid activism landed him in South African jails for twenty-seven
years. He was finally released in February of 1990 and a few months later began a thirteencountry tour to promote representative democracy in his homeland. He brought a persuasive, truly
African voice into the global media, and the world listened. He won the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize
and became president of South Africa in 1994 after the countrys first election open to all citizens.
The progress unfolding in Africa brought new attention to the continent, and the worlds of
publishing and design embraced what they saw. Margaret Courtney Clarke published two
gorgeous accounts of African people and their homes, African Canvas (1990) and Ndebele: The
Art of an African Tribe (1993). Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher, a prolific team of Africanists,
produced African Ark in 1990and are still exploring African cultures today.
The earthy arts and crafts captured by these and other 1990s publications depict deeply
cultural colors, designs, and textures which at the same time feel essentially modern. Ralph
Lauren went beautifully African in his widely acclaimed October 1996 runway shows. Many other
fashion and home professionals were also inspired by Africa, including Irish-born interior
designer Clodagh and American furniture innovator Tucker Robbins. Their use of hand-hewn
wood, hand-woven fibers, and graffito textures delivered a sensation of authenticity and sincerity.
The grounded optimism of Mandelas progressive movement was captured in Red Clay,
Cactus, and Dazzling Blue. Egret, Raw Sienna, Golden Straw, Cub, and Dark Earth bring references
to ancient handmade ways into the mix.

Left: Hand carved wooden spider tables from Cameroon ca. mid-1990s, designed by Tucker Robbins

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Right (top): South African pottery ca. 1995


Right (bottom): Lidded basket ca. 1990, Beauty Nxgongo (Zulu peoples)

Left: Hand woven Ghanian Kente cloth ca. mid-1990s


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom)

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Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Red Clay 18-1454; Cactus 18-0130; Dazzling Blue 18-3949; Egret 11-0103; Raw
Sienna 17-1436; Golden Straw 12-0921; Cub 18-1016; Dark Earth 19-1020

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Latin Flavors
U.S. sales of spicy Mexican salsa outranked classic ketchup (in dollar terms) in the early 90s.
What did this surprising omen portend? The arrival of Latino culture into the American
mainstream. Its fitting that food provided the beachhead moment: after years of burger-andfries chains blanding out Americas palette, a little spicing up was needed. A handful of curious
chefs went beyond salsa to cacao, pitahaya, and zapote for deep Latin flavor.
The music world also showed how much Americans savored the heat and color of Latin
culture. Salsa music and dancing gained popularity throughout the 90s. Wim Wenders 1999
documentary The Buena Vista Social Club sparked huge interest in el son Cubano, making Ibrahim
Ferrer and Omara Portuondo recording stars well into their golden years. Ricky Martins Livin La
Vida Loca was red-hot in 1999, as well. So were Marc Anthonys crossover hit I Need to Know
and Jennifer Lopezs number one song If You Had My Love.
But top music honors that year went to longtime musical genius Carlos Santana. At the 2000
Grammy Awards he won eight trophies for his number-one 1999 record Supernatural, including
best album. After over thirty years of blending Latin, rock, jazz, and African influences, these were
a fitting tribute to his musical achievements.
As many Latinos point out, Spanish was spoken in North America well before English. The
oldest U.S. state capital, Santa Fe, was an established town ten years before the Pilgrims even set
foot on the shores of Massachusetts Bay. It was only a matter of time before the United States
acknowledged the ancient and vibrant Latin part of its national identityand expressed it in spicy
reds, hot pinks, and bright oranges juxtaposed with jalapeo, earthy sienna, and passionate
purple.

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Top (left): Squash blossoms ca. 1999, photo by Sheri Giblin


Top (right): Dried chili peppers ca. 1999, photo by Sheri Giblin
Bottom (left): Pitahaya fruit ca. 1999, photo by Bobbie Hawkes
Bottom (right): Sliced mango in a wine glass ca. 1999, photo by Sheri Giblin

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Left: Margarita ca. 1999, photo by Sheri Giblin


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) 136;; 370; 7592; 184; 1795; 527

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Chic over Geek


What did certain 1990s personal computers, tissues boxes, and waste cans have in common?
Nothing except a palpable sense of style. And hugely successful launches.
Apple Computer, losing ground in its battle with techno behemoth Microsoft, found new hope
in the August 1998 launch of the iMac. Apple threw out the beige-box straightjacket of computer
design and introduced their new product in an eye-popping array of translucent plastics. The
colors underscored the message promoted by a massive media campaign: Macs were for
adventurous thinkers rather than computer geeks. First weekend sales of the iMac were a
whopping $25 million, and by the end of the year Apple was in the black by over $300
million.[37]
Apples success inspired a host of imitators. Suddenly, staplers (and everything else) could be
electric blue or orange. Or cherry, grape, lime, or curaao. Apples brave design team created the
first color palette derived not from fashion or the arts, but from computers.
Kleenex also used design to differentiate itself from the competition. Kimberly Clark, the
makers of Kleenex, introduced sophisticated, vibrant colors onto supermarket shelves in the mid90soften with dazzling foil and film overlays on standard packaging materials. There was no
need to hide these fashionable cubes from view. Consumers were dazzled, and Kleenex flew out
of the stores.
Once consumers showed that style could influence their tissue choices, it was inevitable that a
waste can would come along to tempt them as well. Industrial design wunderkind Karim Rashid
stepped in with his sexy and successful little poubelle, Garbo. The New York Times called it the
garbage can that got glamour, and its pretty plastic curves came in classic neutrals.[38]
Rashids self-professed doctrine of sensuous minimalism, like the iMac and innovative
Kleenex boxes, paved the way for a design boom that would transform once utilitarian consumer
goods into a chic category.

Left: Fresnel Lens Kleenex boxes ca. 1999


Right: Garbino trash can by Karim Rashid for Umbra ca. 1990s

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Left: iMac Circle ad 1999


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) 1505; 1935; 2597; 361; 285; Black 3

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Anime
Though Japanese animation and cartoons date back at least to 1917, artist Osamu Tezuka (aka
The God of Comics) is generally credited with elevating early efforts at both into the art forms of
anime (animated moving pictures) and manga (graphic novels). His 1947 book-length New
Treasure Island introduced the stylized, big-eyed creatures still evolving today. Tezukas early60s television cartoon Kimba the White Lion was animes first international hitfollowed by an
anime version of Tatsuo Yoshidas manga classic, Speed Racer.
Anime and manga, though consistently an important part of Japanese visual culture since
Tezuka, exploded into a truly global phenomenon in the 1990s. Pokmon appeared in Japan in
1996, and in the United States shortly after. Created by Nintendo, Pokmon made the creatures of
anime accessible to audiences everywhereparticularly teen and pre-teen boys. A Pokmon
television cartoon was the top rated-kids program in America in the late 90swhich helped fuel
the sales of millions of Pokmon Game Boys and trading cards, and more.
The anime aesthetic strongly influenced fashion and product design. Female characters with
huge eyes, stylized choppy hair, and techno-tough clothes found their way onto the streets as
fans imitated the look. Anime male physiques were generally muscular and overdeveloped, and
therefore harder for boys to emulate, but many oddly shaped, blobby little creatures sprang out
of the cartoons and into popular toys and gadgetryincluding Hello Kitty.
One of the most notable aspects of anime was its irreverent use of color. Vibrant pinks, blues,
and greens radiated against each other with the sudden interruption of a strong red, yellow, or
purple. Rule-bound notions about color were abandoned, giving more freedom and inspiration to
graphic designers and animators internationally.

Right: Anime girl with camera 1990s, Steve & Ghy Sampson
Left: Cute anime monsters 1990s, Bulent Gultek

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Left: Cover of I.D. magazine ca. 1999


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) 230; 231; 318; 293; 361; 382; 1675; 107; 528

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Conspicuous Consumption
Once upon a time, companies like Chanel or Louis Vuitton catered to the very rich with clothing
and accessories which, by virtue of expensive materials and painstaking craftsmanship, carried
huge price tags. If you couldnt afford it, you couldnt have it.
The mass media profusion of the 1990s, however, changed luxury marketing. Celebrityfueled magazines, television, and Internet gossip showed what the rich and famous were wearing
every time they left the houseand millions of star-watchers wanted what they saw. If Jennifer
Lopez was wearing Gucci, every woman needed it. If Vuitton goods were hot enough for Kanye
West to sing about, they became a must have at retail.
Huge luxury corporations like LVMH Louis Vuitton Mot Hennessey saw an opportunity to
grow, and they took it. For example, Rose Marie Bravo, CEO of Britains Burberry from 1997 to
2005, promised luxury for everyone.[39] She delivered accessibly priced Burberry plaids right
alongside luxury fashion goods, and Burberry sales soared worldwide.
New purchasers of luxury brands found that it wasnt enough just to own a bit of designer
glamour, however. Friends, neighbors, colleaguesand innocent passersbyhad to know you
owned it. As a result, logos grew to enormous sizes. What was once a fine leather handbag
became a billboard: the bigger the logo, the better. A new word was coined to describe all of the
branded ostentation: bling.
Artist Jeff Koons somehow presaged the bling phenomenon. His late-80s gilded porcelain
statue of Michael Jackson and his pet chimp sold at auction for an unprecedented $5.6 million in
1991 and spoke to the unintended consequences of the machinery of fame: commoditization of
style and the loss of individuality.
Precious tones of Silver, Pale Gold, and Champagne Beige were bling essentials. Their appeal
was accentuated by dark French Roast and classic Stretch Limo.

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Left: Madonna on her Blonde Ambition tour 1990, photo by Sean Kardon
Center (top): Sean Puff Daddy Coombs 1999, photo by Reed Saxon
Center (middle): Lizard skin bag ca. 1990s, Chanel
Center (bottom): Cuff bracelet ca. 1990s, Chanel
Right: Donatella Versace and actress Jennifer Lopez partying at Limelight in New York ca. 1990s, Photo by Rose Hartman

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Right: Michael Jackson and Bubbles 1988, Jeff Koons


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Silver 14-5002; Pale Gold 15-0927; Champagne Beige 14-1012; French Roast 191012; Stretch Limo 19-4005; Blanc de Blanc 11-4800

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Future Forecasts
As the twenty-first century approached, millennial anticipation injected a nervous energy into the
zeitgeist. Dark visions of the future usually included fears of the Y2K bug wiping out the worlds
computers, the deepening of political and social conflict, and the declining health of the planet.
Hopeful dreamers instead sometimes saw technology as humanitys savior, and imagined the
constant betterment of people and planet.
Endless and opinion-laden media discussion of what the next century would bring did not
help most people settle comfortably into a vision for the futureand the search for coherence in
the data blizzard of the Information Age lingered.
Futurists, philosophers-cum-style-setters who blend trendwatching and sociopolitical
observation to predict the look and feel of humankinds future, stepped in to meet the need for
perspective. Alvin Toffler and Faith Popcorn, for example, anticipated the effects of increasing
technology on our personal lives, and to some degree assured us that we would survive into the
next century. Others focused more on how the future would look, and defined colors, patterns,
and shapes that would suit our future needs.
View Color Planner, an international trend forecast published by Amsterdam-based View
Publications, predicted two very strong color influences for the fall and winter of 19992000,
centered on contrasting pessimistic and optimistic visions of the future. The dichotomy of feeling
was reflected in diverse palettes that spoke of the wonders and mysteries of the galaxy in deeper
tones, while lighter, more diaphanous hues were expressed as a source of fragile and vaporous
weightlessness.
Users of these forecastsdesigners and retailers worldwide were invited to shore up their
customers for the road ahead with Rust, Garnet, Marron, Vineyard Wine, Midnight Navy and Shale
or to invent hopeful fashion and dcor for happy-ever-afters in Ketchup, Lyons Blue, Deep
Wisteria, Oasis, Tourmaline, and Lark.

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Top: Page spread from View Color Planner 19992000, David Shah
Bottom: Image from View Color Planner 19992000, David Shah

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Images from View Color Planner 19992000, David Shah


Right: Pantone Swatches (top to bottom) Garnet 19-1655; Shale 19-3903; Vinyard Wine 19-1623; Rust 18-1248; Marron 181415; Midnight Navy 19-4110; Ketchup 18-1449; Lyons Blue 19-4340; Deep Wisteria 19-3842; Oasis 16-0540; Tourmaline 164411; Lark 16-1324

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Endnotes
[1]James Laver, Costume & Fashion: A Concise History (New York: Thames & Hudson, 1995), 213
221.
[2]Virginia Cowles, Edward VII and His Circle (London: Hamilton, 1956).
[3]Frank Lloyd Wrights speech The Art and Craft of the Machine, 1901, quoted in Bruce Brooks
Pfeiffer, The Essential Frank Lloyd Wright: Critical Writings on Architecture (Princeton, N.J.:
Princeton University Press, 2008).
[4]William Warmus, The Essential Rne Lalique (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2003), 41.
[5]Siegfried Bing, Tiffany exhibition catalog, Grafton Galleries, London, 1899. Cited at
http://www.sothebys.com/app/live/lot/LotDetail.jsp?lot_id=159509699.
[6]Ibid.
[7]Michael and Ariane Batterberry, Fashion: The Mirror of History (New York: Greenwich House,
1982), 268272.
[8]Ibid.
[9]Camille Mauclair, Trois crises de lart actuel (Paris: E. Fasquelle, 1906), quoted in Jean Leymaire,
Fauves and Fauvism (Lausanne: Rizzoli, 1987), 7.
[10]http://kewpiedoll.org/rose-cecil-oneill-and-her-kewpie-dolls-2/.
[11]Gillian Naylor, review of Wiener Werksttte: Design in Vienna 19031932, by Werner J.
Schweiger, Journal of Design History 4, no. 4 (1991): 26164.
[12]Letter to F. W. Weber (1950), published in New York-Pennsylvania Collector, August 8, 1991.
[13]Bruce Watson, Beyond the Blue: The Art of Maxfield Parrish, Smithsonian Magazine, July
1999.
[14]Josef Hoffmann and Koloman Moser, Working Program, 1905, quoted in Gillian Naylor,
review of Wiener Werksttte: Design in Vienna 19031932, by Werner J. Schweiger, Journal of
Design History 4, no. 4(1991): 261264.
[15]Jean Metzinger, Note sur la peinture, Pan, October-November 1910: 64951.
[16]www.roseoneill.org
[17]But the name didnt catch on until a 1965 museum show at the Muse des Arts Dcoratifs in
Paris and a 1968 book by Bevis Hillier, Art Deco of the 20s and 30s (London: Studio
Vista/New York: Dutton, 1968).
[18]Christopher Frayling, Egyptomania in Art Deco 19101930 (London: V&A Publications,
2003).
[19]James Stevens Curl, Egyptomania The Egyptian Revival: A Recurring Theme in the History of
Taste (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1994).
[20]Stuart Y. Silverstein, ed., Not Much Fun: The Lost Poems of Dorothy Parker (New York: Simon
and Schuster, 2009), 113114.
[21] Ladies Home Journal, August 1921: 1634.
[22]Lawrence Cutler and Judy Goffman Cutler, J. C. Leyendecker: American Imagist (New York:
Abrams, 2008).
[23]Leonard Griffin, Clarice Cliff: The Art of the Bizarre (London: Pavilion Books, 1999).
[24]Parker Tyler, Florine Stettheimer: A Life in Art (New York: Farrar, Straus, and Company, 1963).
[25]Annual Message to Congress, January 4, 1935, quoted in Ronald Edsforth, The New Deal:
Americas Response to the Great Depression (Blackwell, 2000).
[26]Louise I. Gerdes, ed., The 1940s (San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2000).
[27]Timothy Mennel, Miracle House Hoop-La: Corporate Rhetoric and the Construction of the
Postwar American House, Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 64, no. 3
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(September 2005): 340361.


[28]Joseph Hudnut, The Post-Modern House, Architectural Record (May 1945): 70. Quoted in
Mennel.
[29]www.designmuseum.org
[30]The Beats in India: A Symposium sponsored by the Asia Society (June 14, 2008), seen on
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3MmnDqiVU2o.
[31]Dave Hickey, Andy and the Dreams That Stuff Is Made Of in Andy Warhol Giant Size (New
York: Phaidon, 2006).
[32]Arthur Karp, review of The Elements of Color, by Johannes Itten, Leonardo 5, no. 2 (Spring
1972): 180181.
[33]U.S. Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards, Color in Our Daily Lives
(Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1975).
[34]Richard Horn, Memphis: Objects, Furniture, and Patterns (Philadelphia: Running Press, 1985).
[35]Wolf Von Eckardt, Design: A Festive Moment, Not an Epic, Time Magazine, August 6, 1984.
[36]Christina Valhouli, Travel Feature: Spa Industry Tones Up, Forbes Magazine, July 11, 2002.
[37]iMac Campaign, Marketing Campaign Case Studies, http://marketing-casestudies.blogspot.com/2008/02/imac-campaign.html.
[38]Phil Patton, Public Eye: The Little Can That Could, New York Times, September 3, 1998.
[39]Dana Thomas, How Luxury Lost Its Luster (New York: Penguin Group, 2007), 261.

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Film Noir
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Teen Angels
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Movie Goddesses
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Cosmetic Superstars
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Coast-to-Coast Woolens
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Fantasyland
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1960s
Passage to India
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A Different Space
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Kensington and Carnaby
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Mendes, Valerie, and Amy de la Haye. 20th Century Fashion. London: Thames & Hudson, 1999.
Black Is Beautiful
Mendes, Valerie, and Amy de la Haye. 20th Century Fashion. London: Thames & Hudson, 1999.
Patton, Sharon F. African-American Art. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Powell, Richard J. Black Art and Culture in the 20th Century. London: Thames & Hudson, 1997.
Wilson, Eric. Naomi Sims, 61, Pioneering Cover Girl, Is Dead. New York Times, August 4, 2009.
Psychedelia
Drucker, Johanna, and Emily McVarish. Graphic Design History: A Critical Guide. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007.
Garner, Philippe. Sixties Design. Cologne: Taschen, 1996.
Powell, Polly, and Lucy Peel. 50s & 60s Style. Secaucus, N.J.: Chartwell Books, 1988.
Sesame Street
Davis, Michael. Street Gang: The Complete History of Sesame Street. New York: Viking, 2008.
Schneider, Cy. Childrens Television. Chicago: NTC Business Books, 1989.
Warhol
Hickey, Dave. Andy and the Dreams That Stuff Is Made Of. In Andy Warhol Giant Size, edited by the Editors of Phaidon Press. New York: Phaidon, 2006.
Rodgers, David. Warhol, Andy in The Oxford Companion to Western Art, edited by Hugh Brigstocke. London: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Siegel, Katy. Pop Art: An Overview in Encyclopedia of Aesthetics, edited by Michael Kelly. London: Oxford University Press, 1998.
PANTONE
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Pantone The 20th Century in Color

Pantone Inc. International Directory of Company Histories 53. St. James Press, 2003. Reproduced in Business and Company Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale Group,
2010.
1970s
Colors and Coordinates
Gude, Olivia. Color Coding. Art Journal 58, no. 1 (Spring 1999): 2126.
Karp, Arthur. Review of The Elements of Color, by Johannes Itten. Leonardo 5, no. 2 (Spring 1972): 180181.
Leight, Walter G., and W. Reeves Tilley. Consumer Information Series. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Virtual Library.
http://nvl.nist.gov/pub/nistpubs/sp958-lide/html/174-177.html.
Welters, L. The Natural Look: American Style in the 1970s. Fashion Theory 12, no. 4 (December 2008): 489510.
Wikipedia contributors. ISCC-NBS system. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISCC-NBS_system.
Avocado Green and Harvest Gold
Goldberg, Michael J. The Collectible 70s. Iola, Wis.: Krause Publications, 2001.
Heathcote, David. Seventiestyle: Home Decoration and Furnishings from the 1970s. London: Middlesex University Press, 2006.
Welters, L. The Natural Look: American Style in the 1970s. Fashion Theory 12, no. 4 (December 2008): 489510.
Feathers and Leathers
Marlee, Richards. America in the 70s. Minneapolis: Twenty-first Century Books, 2010.
Sagert, Kelly Boyer. The 1970s. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2007.
Welters, L. The Natural Look: American Style in the 1970s. Fashion Theory 12, no. 4 (December 2008): 489510.
Provence
Country Things, New York Times, Sept. 30, 1973.
Lutyens, Dominic, and Kirsty Hislop. 70s Style & Design. New York: Thames & Hudson, 2009.
Moulin, Pierre, Pierre Le Vec, and Linda Dannenberg. Pierre Deuxs French Country. New York: Clarkson N. Potter, Inc., 1984.
Land Art
Boettger, Suzaan. Earthworks: Art and the Landscape of the Sixties. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.
Malpas, William. Land Art: A Complete Guide to Landscape, Enviromental Earthworks, Nature, Sculpture and Installation Art, Kent, UK: Crescent Moon Publishing, 2004.
Turner, Jane (ed.) The Dictionary of Art, London: Macmillan, 1996.
The Day the World Turned Day-Glo
Drucker, Johanna, and Emily McVarish. Graphic Design History: A Critical Guide. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2009.
Mendes, Valerie, and Amy de la Haye. 20th Century Fashion. London: Thames & Hudson, 1999.
Walters, H. Punks Not Dead. Review of Punk Graphic Design in Britain exhibit. Creative Review 18 (February 1998): 3638.
Night Life
Lutyens, Dominic, and Kirsty Hislop. 70s Style & Design. New York: Thames & Hudson, 2009.
Mendes, Valerie, and Amy de la Haye. 20th Century Fashion. London: Thames & Hudson, 1999.
Sagert, Kelly Boyer. The 1970s. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2007.
Hotel California
Editors of Rolling Stone. The RS 500 Greatest Songs of All Time. Rolling Stone, December 9, 2004.
Lauria, Jo, and Suzanne Baizerman. Designing the California Lifestyle in California Design, by Jo Lauria and Suzanne Baizerman. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 2005.
Palmer, Robert. Pop: Sold-Out Eagles. New York Times, March 17, 1977.
Ross, Penelope. Dark Songs by Californias Eagles. New York Times, Jan. 9, 1977.
Stecyk, C. R. Introduction. Surf Culture: The Art History of Surfing. Laguna Beach, Calif.: Laguna Art Museum, 2002.
1980s
Memphis, Michael, and Philippe
Byars, Mel. The Design Encyclopedia. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2004.
Horn, Richard. Memphis: Objects, Furniture, and Patterns. Philadelphia: Running Press, 1985.
Ketterer Kunst. Philippe Starck. Ketterer Kunst. http://www.kettererkunst.com/bio/philippe-starck-1949.shtml.
To the Manor Born
Brown, Erica. On the Trail of Londons Sloane Rangers. New York Times, March 25, 1984.
Koepp, Stephen. Selling a Dream of Elegance and the Good Life. Time Magazine, September 1, 1986.
Mendes, Valerie, and Amy de la Haye. 20th Century Fashion. London: Thames & Hudson, 1999.
Urban Cowboys
Breward, Christopher. Oxford History of Art: Fashion. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Sischy, Ingrid. Calvin to the Core. Vanity Fair, April, 2008.
Thompson, Graham. American Culture in the 1980s. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2007.
Signs and Symbols
Drucker, Johanna, and Emily McVarish. Graphic Design History: A Critical Guide. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007.
Editors of Time Magazine. Design: Best of the Decade. Time Magazine, Jan. 1, 1990.
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Hayt, E. Keith Haring. Review of Whitney Museum of American Art exhibit. Art/Text, No. 59 (November 1997/January 1998):8687.
Lasky, J. Review of Keith Haring, by Elisabeth Sussman; and The Warhol Look, edited by Mark Francis, Margery King, and Hilton Als. Print 52, no. 5 (September/October 1998).
Von Eckardt, Wolf. Design: A Festive Moment, Not an Epic. Time Magazine, August 6, 1984.
Miami Vice
NBC Vintage Shows. Miami Vice. NBC. http://www.nbc.com/Vintage_Shows/Miami_ Vice/about/index.shtml.
Schmalz, Jeffrey. Miami Journal; Sun Sets on Show That Redefined a City. New York Times, May 18, 1989.
Trebay, Guy. Roll Up Your Sleeves and Indulge in a Miami Vice. New York Times, July 20, 2006.
Zoglin, Richard. Cool Cops, Hot Show. Time Magazine, September 16, 1985.
Majorelle and Morocco
Berg, Pierre. Yves Saint Laurent Style. New York: Abrams, 2008.
Murphy, Robert. The Private World of Yves St. Laurent and Pierre Berg. New York: Vendome Press, 2009.
Reiter, Christiane. Icons: Morocco Style. Kln, Los Angeles: Taschen, 2004.
Santa Fe
Asbury, Edith Evans. Georgia OKeeffe Dead at 98; Shaper of Modern Art in U.S., New York Times, March 7, 1986.
Eiseman, Leatrice. The Color Answer Book: From the Worlds Leading Color Expert. Washington, D.C.: Capital Books, 2005.
Georgia OKeeffe Museum. Her Art. Georgia OKeeffe Museum. http://www.okeeffemuseum.org/her-art/new-mexico.aspx.
Mather, Christine, and Sharon Woods. Santa Fe Style. New York: Rizzoli, 1986.
Oppenheimer, J. An Artists Awakening. American Cinematographer 90, no. 10 (October 2009): 24, 26, 289.
Personal Colors
Doonan, Simon. Bring Back Nancy Red! New York Observer, January 8, 2001.
Hirsch, Rochelle. Suzanne Caygill (1911 1994). http://www.rochelehirsch.com/coloredgesuzannestheory.htm.
Welters, L. The Natural Look: American Style in the 1970s. Fashion Theory 12, no. 4 (December 2008): 489510.
Wikipedia contributors. Color Analysis. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Color_analysis.
Japonais
Brown, David R., Wylie Davis, and Rose DeNeve, eds. AIGA Graphic Design 4. New York: AIGA, 1983.
Mendes, Valerie, and Amy de la Haye. 20th Century Fashion. London: Thames & Hudson, 1999.
Millie, Elena G., ed. Nagel: The Art of Patrick Nagel. New York: Alfred van der Marck, 1987.
1990s
Grunge and Graffiti
Blashill, Pat. Anthems of Alternative Music. In The 1990s, edited by Stuart A. Kallen. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2000.
Marin, Rick. Grunge: A Success Story. New York Times, November 15, 1992.
Mendes, Valerie, and Amy de la Haye. 20th Century Fashion, London: Thames & Hudson, 1999.
Its a Good Thing
AIGA. Corporate Leadership Award: Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia. AIGA. http://www.aiga.org/content.cfm/cla-martha-stewart-living-omnimedia.
Brown, Patricia Leigh. Design Notebook: The How-Tos Versus the Too-Muches. New York Times, September 12, 1991.
Lippert, Barbara. Our Martha, Ourselves. New York Magazine, May 15, 1995.
Vienne, Veronique, Martha Stewart: When Good Things Come to an End. Voice: AIGA Journal of Design, May 17, 2004.
The Nature of Zen
Lee, Vinny. Zen Interiors. New York: Stewart, Tabori, and Chang, 1999.
Lenclos, Jean Philippe and Dominique Lenclos. Colors of the World: The Geography of Color. New York: Norton, 2004.
Rothenberg, Randall. The East Village Becomes Japan West. New York Times, May 31, 1991.
Sparke, Penny. Japanese Design. London: Swallow Publishing, 1987.
Out of Africa
Lenclos, Jean Philippe, and Dominique Lenclos. Colors of the World: the Geography of Color. New York: Norton, 2004.
Marriot, Michel. With Heart, African Design Melts Into the Mainstream. New York Times, September 12, 1996.
Nelan, Bruce W., Julie Johnson, and Scott MacLeod. Nelson Mandela: The Burden of Being a Superstar. Time Magazine, June 25, 1990.
Spindler, Amy M. Evocative Lauren And Jet-Set Kors. New York Times, October 31, 1996.
White, Constance C. R. Review/Fashion: Time Travels Rewards and Perils. New York Times, March 14, 1998.
Latin Flavors
Collins, Glenn Campbell Soup Takes the Big Plunge into Salsa. New York Times, November 29, 1994.
Pareles, Jon. Melancholy Babies: Angst Is In Again. New York Times, September 12, 1999.
Strauss, Neil. Santana Dominates Grammy Awards. New York Times, February 24, 2000.
Thigpen, David E., and Autumn De Leon. Spicing the Mix: Latin Pop Prepares to Take On America. Time Magazine, March 15, 1999.
Waxer, Lise. En Conga, Bonga y Campana: The Rise of Colombian Salsa. Latin American Music Review / Revista de Msica Latinoamericana 21, no. 2 (Autumn-Winter 2000):
118168.
Chic over Geek
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Bartolucci, Marisa. Karim Rashid. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 2004.


Interpack. Kleenex: A History of the Cellulose Tissue. Interpack Magazine.
http://www.interpack.com/cipp/md_interpack/custom/pub/content,lang,2/oid,12170/ticket,g_u_e_s_t/local_lang,2/~/%22Kleenex%22_A_History_of_the_Cellulose_Tissue.html.
Jackson, David S. Apples New Crop. Time Magazine, May 18, 1998.
Knight, Dan. The iMac Legacy: The G3 Era. Low End Mac. http://lowendmac.com/musings/08mm/imac-g3-legacy.html.
Luscombe, Belinda. Design: The Poet of Plastic. Time Magazine, July 2, 2001.
McDermott, Catherine. 20th Century Design. New York: Overlook Press, 2000.
PR Newswire. Kleenex Launches Expressions Facial Tissue. PR Newswire, September 25, 1995.
Anime
Beck, Jerry, ed. Animation Art: From Pencil to Pixel, the History of Cartoon, Anime, and CGI. New York: Harper Collins, 2004.
Corliss, Richard, Georgia Harbison, and Jeffery Ressner. Amazing Anime. Time Magazine, November 22, 1999.
Orecklin, Michele. Pokmon: The Cutest Obsession. Time Magazine, May 10, 1999.
Conspicuous Consumption
Berger, Warren. Advertising Today. New York: Phaidon, 2001.
Danto, Arthur C. Jeff KoonsRetrospective. Oslo: Astrup Fearnley Museum of Modern Art, 2004.
Rutherford, Paul. The World Made Sexy: Freud to Madonna. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2007.
Turner, Jane, ed. The Dictionary of Art. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Future Forecasts
Colatrella, Carol. Science Fiction in the Information Age. American Literary History 11, no. 3 (Autumn 1999): 554565.
Corliss, Richard. The Invasion Has Begun! Time Magazine, July 8, 1996.
Lacayo, Richard Future Schlock. Time Magazine, October 15, 1992.
. The End of the World As We Know It? Time Magazine, January 18, 1999.
Muller, Henry. From the Managing Editor. Time Magazine, October 15, 1992.
Murray, Chris. The Marketing Gurus: Lessons from the Best Marketing Books of All Time. New York: Penguin, 2006.
Toffler, Alvin. The Third Wave in Business: The Ultimate Resource. London: A&C Black, 2009.

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Pantone The 20th Century in Color

Image Credits
1900s
Edwardian Affairs
Cinq Heures chez le Couturier Paquin : House of Worth, London, UK / The Bridgeman Art Library
International
Queen Alexandras ostrich feather fan: The Royal Collection 2011 Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth
II
A Summer Toilette Illustration: Chromolithograph. The Stapleton Collection / The Bridgeman Art
Library International
Arts and Crafts
Chandelier: Mahogany, ebony, and leaded glass; 28 1/ 2 in. 25 in. (72.4 cm 64.8 cm); Image
copyright The Metropolitan Museum of Art / Art Resource, NY
Linen Press: Oak, tulip poplar, brass, 55 41 18 3/ 4 in. (139.7 104.1 47.6 cm); Image
copyright The Metropolitan Museum of Art / Art Resource, NY
The Essay on Nature by Ralph Waldo Emerson: From the Collection of George & Karin Look
Jewel Tones
Pendant: Gold, enamel, opal, pearl, diamonds; 3 2 3/ 8 in. (7.6 6.0 cm); 2011 Artists Rights
Society (ARS), New York / ADAGP, Paris; Image copyright The Metropolitan Museum of Art / Art
Resource, NY
Group of Faberg eggs: Photograph by Alexander Makarov; Image courtesy www.123rf.com
Peacock library lamp: Courtesy of the Neustadt Collection of Tiffany Glass
The Charm of Iridescence
Blue peacock vase: Haworth Art Gallery, Accrington, Lancashire, UK / The Bridgeman Art Library
International
Glaskunstindustrie III: Courtesy of Leatrice Eiseman
Eighteen-light pond lily decorative lamp: Courtesy of the Neustadt Collection of Tiffany Glass
Firsts for Women
Hartford Tire ad: Image courtesy of The Advertising Archives
Three women on bicycles: The Stapleton Collection / The Bridgeman Art Library International
Excuse me ad: Image courtesy of the Kellogg Company
Poiret Revolution
Coat drawing: Photo by Mary Evans/Everett Collection (10133158)
Coats and cloaks from Les Robes de Paul Poiret: The Art Archive / V&A Images
Three dresses and a toad: The Stapleton Collection / The Bridgeman Art Library International
The Fauves
The Port of La Ciotat : Image courtesy of National Gallery of Art, Washington
Tugboat on the Seine: Image courtesy of National Gallery of Art, Washington
Open Window, Collioure: Image courtesy of National Gallery of Art, Washington
1910s
Theatrics
Costume design for Scheherazade: Fitzwilliam Museum, University of Cambridge, UK / The
Bridgeman Art Library International
Modern Dress for Dione: Pencil and watercolor; The Fine Art Society, London, UK / The Bridgeman
Art Library International
A Scheherazade Salon: Private Collection / The Bridgeman Art Library International
Costume design for The Great Eunuch: Watercolor and paper; Musee des Beaux- Arts, Strasbourg,
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Pantone The 20th Century in Color

France / Giraudon / The Bridgeman Art Library International


Parrish Blues
Commemorative plate: Courtesy of Herb and Leatrice Eiseman
Blue and pink tobacco flower design: Photo The Fine Art Society, London, UK / The Bridgeman
Art Library International
Cleopatra: American Illustrators Gallery, NYC / www.asapworldwide.com / DACS / The
Bridgeman Art Library International; Art Maxfield Parrish Family Trust/Licensed by VAGA, New
York, NY
Wiener Werksttte
Tea service: Lucie Rie, London, UK / The Bridgeman Art Library International
Brooch: Gold, silver, agate, amethyst, bloodstone, jasper, coral, lapis lazuli, moonstone, opal,
tourmaline, and other semi-precious stones; 2 1/ 8 2 1/ 8 in. (5.4 5.4 cm); Private Collection,
Courtesy Neue Galerie New York
Leopard textile swatch: Courtesy of the FIDM Museum at the Fashion Institute of Design &
Merchandising, Los Angeles, CA
Youthful Pastimes
Hello Boys Erector Set ad: Image courtesy of The Advertising Archives
Group of Raggedy Ann Dolls: Image courtesy of Ben Ear wicker/Garrison Photography LLC
Cover of Tip Top Weekly: Courtesy of Special Collections, Stanford University Library
Cover of The Kewpies, Their Book : Courtesy of the Bonnybrook Museum
Cubism
Nude Descending a Staircase (No. 2): Oil on canvas, 57 7/ 8 35 1/ 8 in. (147 89.2 cm); 2011
Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York / ADAGP, Paris / Succession Marcel Duchamp; Image
courtesy of the Philadelphia Museum of Art/Art Resource, NY
Artillery : Oil on canvas, 51 1/ 4 62 3/ 4 in. (130.2 159.4 cm.); Image copyright The
Metropolitan Museum of Art / Art Resource, NY
Italian Still Life: Oil, gypsum and paper on canvas; Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow, Russia / The
Bridgeman Art Library International
World War I
Be patriotic U.S. Food Administration poster: Image by Paul Stahr/Library of Congress
Navy recruiting poster: Image by Howard Chandler Christy/Library of Congress
Cover from The Ladies Home Journal: Image courtesy of The Advertising Archives
Coming Home
Black Model T Ford Touring car: Ron Kimball/ KimballStock
Pyrex Glass ad: Image courtesy of The Advertising Archives
Armstrong Flooring ad: Used by permission of Armstrong World Industries, Inc.
1920s
Art Deco
Art deco glass bottle and three glasses: Photo courtesy of Angelo Hornak/Angelo Hornak Photo
Library
Evening shoes: Leather. Length: 11 in. (27.9 cm). Gift of Mrs. R. C. Jacobsen, 1954
(C.I.54.14.2a,b); Image copyright The Metropolitan Museum of Art / Art Resource, NY
Screen: Wood with red and black lacquer, silver leaf, and composite decoration, brass hinges;
Victoria & Albert Museum, London / Art Resource, NY
Jacques-Emil Ruhlmann dressing table and chair: Private Collection / The Stapleton Collection /
The Bridgeman Art Library International
Tutmania
Art Deco glass perfume bottles: Photo by Angelo Hornak/Angelo Hornak Photo Library
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Corsage Ornament: Jade, onyx, diamonds, enamel, and platinum, 8 7/ 8 3 3/ 4 in. (22.5 9.5 cm).
Gift of Eva and Michael Chow, 2001 (2001.723a, b); Image copyright The Metropolitan Museum
of Art / Art Resource, NY
Funerary mask of Tutankhamen: The Art Archive / Egyptian Museum Cairo / Gianni Dagli Orti
Cocktails and Laughter
Josephine Baker La Vie Parisienne ad: Courtesy of the Advertising Archives
Panne velvet wrap detail: Courtesy of Leatrice Eiseman
Gold dress: Silk, length at CB: 30 in. (76.2 cm). Gift of Mrs. Adam Gimbel, 1942 (C.I.42.33.3). The
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY, U.S.A.; Image copyright The Metropolitan Museum
of Art / Art Resource, NY
The Flapper cover of Life magazine: Courtesy of the Advertising Archives
Destinations
All images: Courtesy of the Advertising Archives
The Leyendecker Man
Cover of The Saturday Evening Post: Courtesy of Curtis Publishing
Good Clothes Kuppenheimer ad: Courtesy of the Advertising Archives
Socks by Interwoven: Courtesy of the Advertising Archives
Arrow Dress Collars and Shirts: Courtesy of the Advertising Archives
Bauhaus
Tanz Festpiele poster: Printer: Graphische Anstalt F.W. Rohden, Essen, Germany. 1928.
Photolithograph, 35 1/ 2 33 1/ 4 in. (90.2 84.5 cm). Purchase Fund, Jan Tschichold Collection.
2011 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York / VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn; Image copyright The
Museum of Modern Art/Licensed by SCALA / Art Resource, NY
Club Chair B3 (Wassily): Bent steel tube frame, chromed; The Bridgeman Art Library International
Ancient Harmony: Kunstmuseum, Basel, Switzerland / Gift of Richard Doetsch- Benziger, 1960 /
The Bridgeman Art Library International; 2011 Paul Klee Estate / Artists Rights Society (ARS),
New York / VG BILDKUNST, Bonn.
Several Circles: Oil on canvas, 55 1/ 4 55 3/ 8 in. (140.3 140.7 cm). Solomon R. Guggenheim
Museum, New York, Solomon R. Guggenheim Founding Collection, By gift, 41.283. 2011 Artists
Rights Society (ARS), New York / ADAGP, Paris
Modern Pleasures
Beauty Contest: Oil on canvas, 50 60 1/ 2 in. Gift of Ettie Stettheimer, 1947.242, Wadsworth
Atheneum Museum of Art, Hartford, Connecticut; Image courtesy of Wadsworth Atheneum
Museum of Art / Art Resource, NY
Appliqu bird-of-paradise charger: Photo Bonhams, London, UK / The Bridgeman Art Library
International
Sheer silk flapper print: Image courtesy of Patricia Nugent Design and Textiles
Mannequin head: Victoria & Albert Musem, London; Image Copyright V&A ImagesAll rights
reserved.
A Rose Is a Rose
Silver sweetmeat dish: Manufactured in London, England; Copyright V&A Images
Abstract rose: Image courtesy of Patricia Nugent Design and Textiles
Styled rose with shards: Image courtesy of Patricia Nugent Design and Textiles
Rose on graphic ground: Image courtesy of Patricia Nugent Design and Textiles
1930s
Deco Architecture
Schick razor: Image courtesy of Victoria Kasuba Matranga; From the book America At Home: A
Celebration of Twentieth-Century Housewares by Victoria Kasuba Matranga, National Housewares
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Manufacturers Association
Art Deco clock: Photo courtesy of Angelo Hornak/Angelo Hornak Photo Library
Vortex of the Chrysler Building: The Bridgeman Art Library International
Art Deco elevator door in the Chrysler Building: Photo courtesy of Angelo Hornak/Angelo Hornak
Photo Library
Illusions
Vintage button collection: Courtesy of Leatrice and Herb Eiseman
Syrie Maughams Drawing Room: The Stapleton Collection / The Bridgeman Art Library
International
Evening ensemble: silk, no dimensions available. Gift of Madame Lilliana Teruzzi, 1972
(1972.30.17a, b); Image copyright The Metropolitan Museum of Art / Art Resource, NY
Still from Bill of Divorcement: RKO / The Kobal Collection
Fantastic Plastic
Bakelite necklace: Courtesy of Leatrice Eiseman
Bakelite billiard balls: Courtesy of Leatrice Eiseman
Telephone: Neue Galerie New York / Art Resource, NY
Patriot radio: Catalin, H. 8, W. 11, D. 5 1/ 2 in. (20.3 27.9 14 cm). John C. Waddell Collection,
Gift of John C. Waddell, 2001 (2001.722.11); Image copyright The Metropolitan Museum of Art
/ Art Resource, NY
Diversions
Monopoly board: Courtesy of Bill and Bobbie Hawkes
Tricorne pattern dishes: Image courtesy of Victoria Kasuba Matranga; From the book America At
Home: A Celebration of Twentieth-Century Housewares by Victoria Kasuba Matranga, National
Housewares Manufacturers Association
Toy Sale: Image courtesy of the Library of Congress
Parks and Recreation
All poster images: courtesy of the Library of Congress
Roseville
All Roseville pottery images: courtesy of Herb and Leatrice Eiseman
The Wizard of Oz
All images: The Wizard of Oz, MGM / The Kobal Collection
The World of Tomorrow
Zephyr, Waring Blendor, and Juice-O-Mat: Images courtesy of Victoria Kasuba Matranga; From the
book America At Home: A Celebration of Twentieth-Century Housewares by Victoria Kasuba
Matranga, National Housewares Manufacturers Association
The World of Tomorrow, Poster: Image courtesy of the Library of Congress
1940s
Fantasia
All images Disney
Edward Hopper
Office at Night : Oil on canvas, 22 3/ 16 25 1/ 8 in. (57.2 cm 63.8 cm); Collection Walker Art
Center, Minneapolis; Gift of the T. B. Walker Foundation, Gilbert M. Walker Fund, 1948
Nighthawks: Oil on canvas, 33 1/ 8 60 in. (84.1 152.4 cm); Friends of American Art Collection,
1942.51, The Art Institute of Chicago; Photography The Art Institute of Chicago
Gas: Oil on canvas, 26 1/ 4 40 1/ 4 in. (66.7 102.2 cm). Mrs. Simon Guggenheim Fund, The
Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY, U.S.A.; Digital Image The Museum of Modern Art /
Licensed by SCALA / Art Resource, NY
World War II

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Pantone The 20th Century in Color

Eisenhower wool army jacket: Division of Military History and Diplomacy, Smithsonian Institution,
National Museum of American History
Poster for Federal Art Project in Pennsylvania: Image courtesy of the Library of Congress
Cover for The Saturday Evening Post: Image SEPS 1942, used by gracious permission of the
Rockefeller Family Trust
Carefree and Casual
Iconic Jantzen Diving Girl image: Courtesy of Jantzen/Perry Communications
Page from an Aldens clothing catalog: Aldens Clothing Company, Spring and Summer 1947
catalog
Jaeger Clothing advertisement: Image courtesy of The Advertising Archives
Hawaiian shirt: DAJ/Getty Images
The American Dream
All images: Courtesy Gena McGregor; From Pittsburgh Color Dynamics consumer education
booklet, Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company
Hit Parade
Frank Sinatra: The Best of the Columbia Years album cover: Used with permission of Columbia
Records
Boogie Woogie, John Kirby, and Teddy Wilson - Billy Holiday album covers: Images provided by
Alex Steinweiss, courtesy of Leslie Steinweiss, used with permission of Columbia Records.
Film Noir
Still from The Killers: Universal / The Kobal Collection
Still from Mildred Pierce : Warner Brothers / The Kobal Collection
Marquee poster for Shadow of a Doubt: Universal / The Kobal Collection
La Mode
Fashion plate for Christian Dior: Color engraving; Bibliotheque des Arts Decoratifs, Paris, France /
DACS / Archives Charmet / The Bridgeman Art Library International; 2011 Artists Rights
Society (ARS), New York / ADAGP, Paris
Advertisement for Bally Shoes: Color lithograph; Archives Charmet / The Bridgeman Art Library
International
Christian Dior fashion in Femina IV : Watercolor on paper; Archives Charmet / The Bridgeman Art
Library International
1950s
Happy at Home
Lazy Susan: Collection of Victoria Kasuba Matranga; Courtesy of Victoria Kasuba Matranga
Fiesta dinnerware ad: Collection of Fred Mutchler; Photograph by Fred Mutchler
Homer Laughlin Fiesta dinnerware: Image courtesy of Fred Mutchler
Pebblecloth: From the book Fabulous Fabrics of the 50s (And Other Terrific Textiles of the 20s,
30s, and 40s, by Gideon Bosker, Michele Mancini, and John Gramstad, 92. San Francisco: Chronicle
Books, 1992.
Gibson Electric Range ad: Image courtesy of The Advertising Archives
Teen Angels
Poodle skirt: Courtesy of Leatrice Eiseman
James Dean in Rebel Without a Cause: Photo by Michael Ochs Archives/Getty Images
Studebaker Commander: Ron Kimball/ KimballStock
Mid-Century Modernists
Wall Clock: Image courtesy of Richard Wright
Wire chairs with bird sculpture: Photo courtesy of the Library of Congress
Tulip Armchair (model 150): Fiberglassreinforced polyester and cast aluminum, 31 1/ 2 25 1/ 4
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Pantone The 20th Century in Color

23 1/ 2 in. (80 64.1 59.7 cm). Manufactured by Knoll Associates, New York, NY. Gift of the
manufacturer, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY, U.S.A; Digital Image The Museum of
Modern Art/Licensed by SCALA / Art Resource, NY
Movie Goddesses
Anne Aubrey in a Lux brand soap ad: Image courtesy of The Advertising Archives
Audrey Hepburn in a still from Funny Face: Paramount, The Kobal Collection
Grace Kelly posing for Life magazine: Philippe Halsman/Magnum Photos
Cosmetic Superstars
Ruby brooch and two ruby earrings: Courtesy of Leatrice Eiseman
Evening dress: Silk, plastic, (a) L. at center back 64 in. (162 cm); (b) L. 140 in. (355 cm). Gift of
Irving Drought Harris, in memory of Claire McCardell Harris, 1958 (C.I.58.49.4a, b). The
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY, U.S.A; Image copyright The Metropolitan Museum
of Art / Art Resource, NY
Advertisement for Elizabeth Arden lipstick: Photo by Apic/Getty Images
Ad for My Love perfume by Elizabeth Arden: Copyright Apic, Hulton Archive, Getty Images
Fire and Ice advertisement featuring Dorian Leigh: Image courtesy of The Advertising Archives
Coast-to-Coast Woolens
Images from Hockanum Coast-to-Coast Woolens: courtesy of Keith Recker; J.P. Stevens & Co., Inc,
Los Angeles
Fantasyland
House of Cards, 1952: Photo Bonhams, London, UK / The Bridgeman Art Library International
Disneyland Park: Photo by Ralph Crane/Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images
Abstract Expressionists
Red Lily Pads (Nnuphars rouges): Painted sheet metal, metal rods, and wire, 54 201 101 in.
(106.7 510.5 276.9 cm); Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, 65.1737; 2011
Calder Foundation, New York/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York; Photo by David Heald The
Guggenheim Museum: Photo copyright Grant Faint/The Image Bank/Getty
Ocean Greyness: Oil on canvas, 57 3/ 4 90 1/ 8 in. (146.7 229 cm); Solomon R. Guggenheim
Museum, New York, 54.1408; 2011 The Pollock-Krasner Foundation/Artists Rights Society
(ARS), New York
Composition: Oil, enamel, and charcoal on canvas, 79 1/ 8 69 1/ 8 in. (201 175.6 cm); 2011
The Willem de Kooning Foundation /Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York; Photo courtesy of the
Guggenheim Museum, New York
1960s
Passage to India
Pair of 18 karat yellow gold, coral, chrysoprase and diamond earrings: Courtesy of Camilla Dietz
Bergeron, Ltd
First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy: Photo by Art Rickerby//Time Life Pictures/Getty Images
Veronica Hamel in McCalls : Reprinted with permission from Meredith Corporation. Meredith
Corporation. All Rights Reserved.
A Different Space
Passage: Oil and mixed media on canvas, DACS / Giraudon / The Bridgeman Art Library
International, Art Jasper Johns / Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY
Flags: Lithograph, composition (irreg.): 34 5/ 8 25 7/ 8 in. (87.9 65.7 cm); sheet (irreg.): 34?
25 7/ 8 in. (87.9 65.7 cm). Publisher and printer: Universal Limited Art Editions, West Islip, New
York. Edition: 43. Gift of the Celeste and Armand Bartos Foundation; Art Jasper Johns/Licensed
by VAGA, New York, NY. Photo courtesy of Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art / Art Resource,
NY
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Pantone The 20th Century in Color

Retroactive I: Oil and silkscreen ink on canvas. 84 60 in. (213 152 cm); Gift of Susan Morse
Hilles. 1964.30; Art Estate of Robert Rauschenberg/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY; image
courtesy of Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art / Art Resource, NY
Kensington and Carnaby
Jerkin: Courtesy of the Victoria & Albert Museum, London
Biba logo: Image courtesy of the Advertising Archives
Skirt and jumper: Natural hessian and synthetic fibres; Courtesy of the Victoria & Albert Museum,
London
Cifonelli Suit: Multicolor wool; The Museum at Fashion Institute of Technology
Black Is Beautiful
Martini: Photo by Andrew Unangst / Photographers Choice / Getty Images
Panton classic chair: Available through DWR; Vitra (www.vitra.com); photo courtesy of Hans
Hansen.
Black Models Take Center Stage cover of Life magazine: Photo by Yale Joel/Time & Life
Pictures/Getty Images
Psychedelia
Tie-dyed T-shirt swatch: Photo by Erin Calaway-Mackay (http://www.kali.me.uk)
Yellow Submarine still: Image courtesy of the Everett Collection
Untitled (Bob Dylan): Printer: Security Printing Co., New York. 1967. Offset lithograph, 36 24 in.
(91.4 60.9 cm). Used by permission of Peter Max; Digital Image Photo credit: The Museum of
Modern Art/Licensed by SCALA / Art Resource, NY
Sesame Street
All images: Sesame Workshop , Sesame Street , and associated characters, trademarks, and
design elements are owned and licensed by Sesame Workshop. 2011 Sesame Workshop. All
Rights Reserved.
Warhol
Marilyn: Silkscreen; Photo by Bonhams, London, UK / The Bridgeman Art Library
Campbells Soup Can: Silkscreen ink on synthetic polymer paint on canvas, 36 1/ 8 24 in. (91.5
61 cm); 2011 Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New
York; Photo: The Andy Warhol Foundation, Inc. / Art Resource, NY
Self-Portrait: Silkscreen ink on synthetic polymer paint on 9 canvases, 67 5/ 8 67 5/ 8 in. (171.7
171.7 cm); 2011 Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New
York; Digital Image The Museum of Modern Art/Licensed by SCALA / Art Resource, NY
PANTONE
Marshalls paint tubes, Lipcolor Plus, Pantone paint chips, and Pantone Matching System images:
Courtesy of Pantone
Paper mini-dress with faces: Used by permission of the Kyoto Costume Institute
1970s
Colors and Coordinates
Color in Our Daily Lives cover: Courtesy of Leatrice Eiseman
Poster for Veras first art exhibition: 2011 The Vera Company; used with permission
Color in Our Daily Lives interior: Courtesy of Leatrice Eiseman
The Foucault Pendulum poster: 2011 The Vera Company, Used with Permission
Avocado and Harvest Gold
Shag carpet: Noel Hendrickson/Photodisc/ Getty Images
Avocado JC Penneys brochure: Courtesy of Leatrice Eiseman
Plantation wallpaper pattern: Courtesy of Patricia Nugent Textiles
Feathers and Leathers

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Pantone The 20th Century in Color

Sofa: Photo courtesy of Nicky Hedayatzadeh (www.iheartmint.com)


Brown leather cork-effect rubber platforms: Photo courtesy of Jennifer Karpin-Hobbs/ Morning
Glorious Vintage
Feather and suede neckpiece: Courtesy of Leatrice Eiseman
Provence
Cachepot: Photograph courtesy of Herb Eiseman
Blue and purple paisley fabric swatch: Courtesy of Pat Nugent Textiles
Alpes de Haute, Provence: Brian Lawrence/ Photographers Choice / Getty Images
Land Art
Satellite view of James Turrells Roden Crater: Photo courtesy of USGS
Construction Photo: Copyright James Turrell; photo by Steve Shoffner; used by permission of
James Turrell and Steve Shoffner
Spiral Jetty : Great Salt Lake, Utah; Photo by Gianfranco Gorgoni; Art Estate of Robert
Smithson/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY
The Day the World Turned Day-Glo
Lost Horizon blacklight poster: Courtesy of Matching System color strip, ca. 1970
Rainbow neon lights: Photo courtesy of Jenny G. (http://photos.datasage.com)
London: Photo courtesy agefotostock
Night Life
Colored disco lights: Photo courtesy of Alessandro Paiva (www.alessandropaiva.com)
Night club mirrored disco ball: Photo courtesy of Paulo Meira (www.unltdesign.com)
Donna Summer: Photo by Dagmar, Dagmarfoto.com
Still from Saturday Night Fever : Paramount / The Kobal Collection / Holly Bower
Hotel California
Scale model surfboard collection: From the private collection of Spencer Croul. Photo by James
Cassimus. Used by permission of Malcolm Wilson
Clyde Aikau: image courtesy of Jeff Divine
Studio portrait of the Eagles: Courtesy Redferns/Getty Images
Poster for Pacific Vibrations: John Severson SurferArt.com; used by permission of John
Severson
1980s
Memphis, Michael, and Philippe
Alessi teakettle: Courtesy of Herb and Leatrice Eiseman
Miss Milch chair: Courtesy of Philippe Starck
Carlton Room Divider: Wood, plastic laminate. H. 76 3/ 4, W. 74 3/ 4, D. 15 3/ 4 in. (194.9 189.9
40 cm). The Metropolitan Museum of Art, John C. Waddell Collection, Gift of John C. Waddell,
1997 (1997.460.1a-d); Image copyright The Metropolitan Museum of Art / Art Resource, NY
To the Manor Born
Polo by Ralph Lauren perfume ad: Image courtesy of the Advertising Archives
Repp Tie: Image courtesy of Eric Meltzer
Lady Diana Spencer and fianc Prince Charles: Photo by Anwar Hussein/WireImage/Getty Images
Urban Cowboys
Ad for Frye boots: Image courtesy of the Advertising Archives
Larry Hagman as J.R. Ewing on Dallas : Lorimar / The Kobal Collection
Calvin Klein jeans ad featuring Brooke Shields: Image courtesy of the Advertising Archives
Signs and Symbols
Untitled: Keith Haring Foundation; used by permission
Entry to the stadium for the 1984 Olympics: Used with permission of Sussman/Prejza & Co.
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Pantone The 20th Century in Color

Interview magazine cover: Image courtesy of the Advertising Archives


Miami Vice
Downtown Miami at night: Photo courtesy of Elvis Santana
Ferrari logo: Mark Leo Lacey / Alamy
Sonny Crockett (Don Johnson) and Rico Tubbs (Philip Michael Thomas): Universal TV / The Kobal
Collection
Majorelle and Morocco
Majorelle Gardens: Panoramic Images/Getty Images
Moroccan dyebaths: Photograph by Herb Eiseman
Lamps in the Marrakesh market: Paul Plebinga / Photodisc / Getty Images
Santa Fe
Purple Hills Ghost Ranch-2: Oil on canvas affixed to masonite. 16 1/ 4 30 1/ 4 in. 1997.06.20. Gift
of the Burnett Foundation. The Georgia OKeeffe Museum, Santa Fe, New Mexico, U.S.A.. 2011
Georgia OKeeffe Museum/ Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York; Photo Credit: Malcolm Varon,
2001/Georgia OKeeffe Museum, Santa Fe / Art Resource, NY
Flame stitch-style upholstery fabric Santa Fe style: Courtesy of Herb and Leatrice Eiseman
Bear Lake: Oil on canvas, 16 36 in. (41.9 92.7 cm). On long term loan to the New Mexico
Museum of Art from the Museum of New Mexico Foundation (1984.336); 2011 Georgia
OKeeffe Museum/ Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Photo courtesy of the New Mexico
Museum of Art
Personal Colors
Miss Clairol Red or Black shades: The Procter & Gamble Company
Armani Suit: The Museum at Fashion Institute of Technology
Before and after: Photograph courtesy of Herb Eiseman
Color Clock fanguide: Courtesy of Eiseman & Japonais Associates
Japonais
Black wool jersey dress: Length at CB: 46 in. (117.5 cm). The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gift of
Muriel Kallis Newman, 2003 (2003.79.21); Image copyright The Metropolitan Museum of Art /
Art Resource, NY.
Sasaki Colorstone dinnerware: Courtesy of Vignelli Associates
Rio/Texas: Used by kind permission of the Nagel Estate Collection
1990s
Grunge and Graffiti
Graffiti in Los Angeles: Photo by Eric Olage
Kurt Cobain: Photo by Mary Evans/Strength LTD/Ronald Grant/Everett Collection
Doc Marten boots: Photographer: Peter G. Balazsy/agefotostock.
Its a Good Thing
Purple hydrangea, White hydrangea, White/ pink variegated hydrangea images: Courtesy of Herb
Eiseman
Purple coneflower with birdbath: Image courtesy of Andrew Drake, Seattle Home & Lifestyle,
October 2009
Martha Stewart Everyday Seed Packets; Courtesy of Stephen Doyle, photography by Lisa Hubbard
Martha Stewart Living cover: Reprinted with permission, 1999 Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia,
Inc
The Nature of Zen
All images courtesy of Maureen Welton, President and Creative Director, 18Karat
Out of Africa
Hand carved wooden spider tables: Courtesy of Tucker Robbins
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Pantone The 20th Century in Color

South African pottery: Image courtesy of Anne Roselt, Design & Style Director, Plascon Paints, SA
Lidded basket: Ilala palm fiber; H. 13 , W. 21 in., Rogers Fund, 2000 (2000.441a, b). Image
copyright The Metropolitan Museum of Art /
Art Resource, NY
Kente cloth: Photo by Keith Recker
Latin Flavors
Squash blossoms: Photo by Sheri L. Giblin
Dried chile peppers: Photo by Sheri L. Giblin; photo courtesy StockFood
Pitahaya fruit: Photo by Bobbie Hawkes
Sliced mango in a wineglass: Photo by Sheri L. Giblin/Foodpix/Getty Images
Margarita: Photo by Sheri L. Giblin
Chic over Geek
Fresnel Lens Kleenex boxes: Courtesy of Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.
Garbino trash can: Photo courtesy of Umbra
iMac Circle: Image courtesy of the Advertising Archives
Anime
Anime girl with camera: Steve & Ghy Sampson/ Getty Images
Anime monsters: Bulent Gultek/Getty Images
Anime Style : Image courtesy ID Magazine
Conspicuous Consumption
Madonna on her Blonde Ambition tour: AP-Photo/Sean Kardon
Sean Puff Daddy Coombs: AP Photo/Reed Saxon
Michael Jackson and Bubbles: Jeff Koons
Donatella Versace and Jennifer Lopez: Photo by Rose Hartman / Getty Images
Lizard skin bag: 8 7 2.5 (20.3 17.8 6.4 cm); Image courtesy of Jennifer Kobrin
Cuff bracelet: Image courtesy of Carole Tanenbaum Vintage Collection
Future Forecasts
All images: Courtesy of David Shah; From View Color Planner, 19992000, Metropolitan Publishing
BV

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Pantone The 20th Century in Color

Index
A
Abstract Expressionism, (MORE)
Adrian, Gilbert
Africa
Albright, Ivan
Alexandra of Denmark (queen of the United Kingdom), (MORE)
American Catalin Corporation
American Indian Movement
Angell, Jeff
Anime, (MORE)
Anthony, Marc
Apollinaire, Guillaume
Apple Computer, (MORE), (MORE)
Appliance colors, (MORE)
Architecture, (MORE), (MORE)
Arden, Elizabeth, (MORE)
Armani, Giorgio
Armstrong Flooring
Art Deco, (MORE), (MORE), (MORE), (MORE), (MORE)
Art Nouveau, (MORE)
Arts and Crafts movement, (MORE), (MORE), (MORE)
Ashley, Laura
Aubrey, Anne
Avedon, Richard, (MORE), (MORE)

B
Baekeland, Leo
Bakelite, (MORE), (MORE)
Baker, Josephine
Bakst, Leon, (MORE), (MORE), (MORE)
Ballets Russes, (MORE), (MORE)
Bandy, Way
Barrymore, John
Bauhaus, (MORE), (MORE), (MORE), (MORE), (MORE)
Beach, Charles, (MORE)
The Beach Boys
The Beatles, (MORE)
Beckwith, Carol
The Bee Gees
Beene, Geoffrey
Bel Geddes, Norman, (MORE)
Brard, Christian
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Pantone The 20th Century in Color

Berg, Pierre
Bernhardt, Sarah
Bernstein, Leonard
Bianchini-Ferier
Binder, Joseph
Bing, Siegfried, (MORE)
Black
Bogart, Humphrey, (MORE)
Boss, Hugo
Boussac, Marcel
Brandt, Edgar
Braque, Georges, (MORE)
Bravo, Rose Marie
Breuer, Marcel, (MORE)
Broders, Roger
Burchartz, Max

C
Cadmus, Paul
Calder, Alexander
California, (MORE)
Campbell, Naomi
Capote, Truman
Carder, Frederick
Cardin, Pierre
Carroll, Diahann
Carson, Rachel
Carter, Howard, (MORE)
Cartier
Caygill, Suzanne
Chanel, Coco
Charles (prince of Wales), (MORE)
Charlot, Juli Lynne
Christy, Howard Chandler
Chrysler, Arthur P.
Chrysler, Walter
Chrysler Building, (MORE)
Chun, Ellery
Clarke, Margaret Courtney
Claudel, Camille
Cliff, Clarice, (MORE)
Clodagh
Clough, Stanley Thomas
Coast-to-Coast Woolens, (MORE)
Cobain, Kurt
Conran, Terence
Consumption, conspicuous
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Pantone The 20th Century in Color

Coombs, Sean Puff Daddy,


Cooney, Joan Ganz
Cooper, Charlotte
Cosmetics, (MORE), (MORE)
Cowles, Virginia
Crawford, Joan, (MORE)
Crosby, Bing
Cubism, (MORE)

D
Dach, Lilly
Dallas (television show), (MORE), (MORE)
Darrow, Charles
Davis, Bette
Dean, James
De Brunhoff, Michel
De Kooning, Willem
De Laroche, Raymonde
Delaunay, Robert
De Vlaminck, Maurice
Diaghilev, Sergei, (MORE)
Diana (princess of Wales), (MORE), (MORE), (MORE)
Dior, Christian, (MORE), (MORE)
Disco, (MORE)
Disney, Walt, (MORE), (MORE), (MORE)
Disneyland, (MORE)
Donghia, Sherri
The Doors
Dorsey, Tommy
Drake, Jamie
Dreyfuss, Henry
Duchamp, Marcel
Dufy, Raoul, (MORE)
DuPont Coatings
Dylan, Bob, (MORE)

E
The Eagles, (MORE)
Eames, Ray and Charles, (MORE), (MORE)
Eastman Kodak
Edward VII (king of the United Kingdom), (MORE), (MORE)
Egypt, (MORE)
Eiseman, Leatrice
Eisenhower, Dwight D.
Emerson, Ralph Waldo
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Pantone The 20th Century in Color

Empire State Building, (MORE)


Environmental movement, (MORE)
Erector Set, (MORE)

F
Faberg, Carl, (MORE), (MORE), (MORE)
Factor, Max, (MORE)
Fantasia (movie), (MORE), (MORE)
Fashion, (MORE), (MORE), (MORE), (MORE), (MORE), (MORE), (MORE), (MORE), (MORE), (MORE),
(MORE), (MORE), (MORE), (MORE)
Faulkner, Anne Shaw
Fauves, (MORE), (MORE), (MORE)
Federal Art Project (FAP), (MORE), (MORE), (MORE), (MORE)
Ferrer, Ibrahim
Fiestaware, (MORE)
Film noir, (MORE)
Fischinger, Oskar
Fisher, Angela
Fokine, Michel
Fonda, Jane
Fonda, Peter
Formica, (MORE)
Fouquet, Georges
Frank, Nino
Franklin, Aretha
French Country style, (MORE)

G
Gable, Clark
Gall, mile
Gardner, Ava
Gaynor, Gloria
Gehry, Frank
General Motors, (MORE)
Gervex, Henri
Giles, Howard
Ginsberg, Allen
Givenchy, Hubert de, (MORE)
Graves, Michael
Gray, Eileen, (MORE)
Great Depression, (MORE), (MORE), (MORE), (MORE), (MORE), (MORE)
Greenberg, Clement
Greene, Charles and Henry
Gref, Wil
Grs, Madame
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Pantone The 20th Century in Color

Griffin, Rick
Gris, Juan
Gropius, Walter
Gruau, Rene
Gruelle, Johnny
Grunge, (MORE)
Guggenheim Museum, (MORE)
Guild, Tricia
Gulbenkian, Calouste

H
Hagman, Larry
Halls, Richard
Halston
Hamel, Veronica
Haring, Keith, (MORE), (MORE)
Harrison, George
Hartnell, Norman
Hassam, Childe
Hawaiian shirts, (MORE)
Hayakawa, Sessue
Head, Edith
Henson, Jim
Hepburn, Audrey
Hepburn, Katharine
Herbert, Lawrence, (MORE)
Herzog, Harry
Hockanum Woolens, (MORE)
Hoffmann, Josef, (MORE)
Hofmann, Hans
Hopper, Edward, (MORE)
Hulanicki, Barbara

I
India
Iribe, Paul
Itten, Johannes, (MORE), (MORE), (MORE)

J
Jackson, Michael
Jacobs, Marc
Jagger, Mick
Japan, (MORE), (MORE)
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Pantone The 20th Century in Color

Jazz Age
Jefferson Airplane
Johns, Jasper, (MORE)
Johnson, Don

K
Kandinsky, Wassily, (MORE)
Kantner, Paul
Kawakubo, Rei, (MORE)
Kelly, Grace
Kennedy, Jacqueline Bouvier, (MORE), (MORE)
Kennedy, John F., (MORE)
Kennedy, Robert F.
Kent, Rockwell
Kent State massacre
Kewpie dolls, (MORE)
Kimberly Clark
King, Martin Luther, Jr., (MORE)
Kirby, John
Klee, Paul, (MORE)
Klein, Calvin
Koons, Jeff
Kranz, Frederick

L
La Fresnaye, Roger Andre de
Lagerfeld, Karl
Lake, Veronica
Lalique, Ren, (MORE)
Lancaster, Burt
Land art, (MORE)
Lanvin, Jeanne
Larsen, Jack Lenor
Latino culture
Laughlin, Homer, (MORE)
Lauren, Ralph, (MORE), (MORE)
Laurence, Jacob
Leary, Timothy
Legrain, Pierre-mile
Leigh, Dorian
Lennon, John
Le Vec, Pierre
Levitt, William, (MORE)
Levy, Albert
Leyendecker, Joseph Christian, (MORE)
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Pantone The 20th Century in Color

Lindbergh, Charles A.
Loewy, Raymond, (MORE), (MORE)
Lombard, Carole
Lopez, Jennifer, (MORE)
Lum, Ethel Chun

M
Mackintosh, Charles Rennie
MacMurray, Fred
Madonna
Maharishi Mahesh Yogi
Majorelle, Jacques
Makarov, Alexander
Mandela, Nelson
Martin, Ricky
Matisse, Henri
Mauclair, Camille
Maugham, Syrie, (MORE)
Max, Peter
Mayotte, Peter
McCardell, Claire, (MORE)
McCarthy, Joseph
McCartney, Paul
McLaren, Malcolm
McMenamy, Kristen
Memphis, (MORE)
Mennel, Timothy
Miami Vice (television show), (MORE), (MORE)
Mid-Century Modern
Minnelli, Liza
Miyake, Issey, (MORE)
Molyneux, Edward
Monopoly board game, (MORE)
Monroe, Marilyn, (MORE)
Morris, William
Moser, Koloman, (MORE)
Moulin, Pierre
Movies, (MORE), (MORE), (MORE), (MORE), (MORE)
Muchley, Robert
Music, (MORE), (MORE), (MORE), (MORE), (MORE), (MORE), (MORE), (MORE), (MORE)

N
Nagel, Patrick
Nash, Arthur and Leslie
Nelson, George, (MORE)
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Pantone The 20th Century in Color

Neumann, Vera, (MORE)


New York Worlds Fair, (MORE)
Nicholson, Frank S.
Nicholson, Jack
Nijinsky, Vaslav
Nikolai II (emperor of Russia), (MORE), (MORE), (MORE)
Nirvana
Noguchi, Isamu
Nugent, Patricia, (MORE)

O
OKeeffe, Georgia, (MORE)
Olympic Games, (MORE)
ONeill, Rose, (MORE)

P
Paley, Babe
Panton, Vernor
PANTONE, (MORE)
Paquin, Jeanne
Parker, Dorothy
Parrish, Maxfield, (MORE)
Patou, Jean
Pearl Jam
Picasso, Pablo
Pierre Deux
Pittsburgh Paints
Poiret, Paul, (MORE), (MORE), (MORE), (MORE)
Poitier, Sydney
Pokmon
Pollock, Jackson, (MORE)
Pop Art
Popcorn, Faith
Popova, Lyubov Sergeevna
Portuondo, Omara
Presley, Elvis
Psychedelia
Pucci, Emilio
Punk movement, (MORE)

Q
Quant, Mary, (MORE)

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Pantone The 20th Century in Color

R
Radziwill, Lee
Raggedy Ann dolls, (MORE)
The Ramones, (MORE)
Raposo, Joe
Rashid, Karim, (MORE)
Raskob, John Jakob
Rauschenberg, Robert, (MORE), (MORE)
Reagan, Ronald
Remarque, Erich Maria
Revlon, (MORE)
Revson, Charles
Rhodes, Zandra
Robbins, Tucker
Rockefeller, John D.
Rockefeller Center
Rockwell, Norman
Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, (MORE)
Roosevelt, Teddy
Rose, Helen
Roseville Pottery, (MORE)
Ross, Diana
Rothko, Mark, (MORE)
Rotten, Johnny
Rubbermaid, (MORE)
Ruhlmann, mile-Jacques, (MORE)
Ruskin, John

S
Saarinen, Eero
Saint Laurent, Yves, (MORE)
Santana, Carlos
Schiaparelli, Elsa
Schreckengost, Don
Seizo, Sugawara
Sesame Street (television show), (MORE), (MORE)
Severson, John
The Sex Pistols, (MORE)
Shah, David
Shankar, Ravi
Shields, Brooke
Shore, Dinah
Sims, Naomi
Sinatra, Frank, (MORE)
Smithson, Robert, (MORE)
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Pantone The 20th Century in Color

Snow, Carmel
Snow White (movie), (MORE), (MORE)
Sottsass, Ettore, (MORE)
Soubie, Roger
Southwest style
Stahr, Paul
Stanwyck, Barbara, (MORE)
Starck, Philippe
Starr, Ringo
Steinweiss, Alex, (MORE)
Stettheimer, Florine, (MORE)
Steuben Glassworks
J. P. Stevens
Stewart, Martha, (MORE)
Stickley, Gustav, (MORE)
Stokowski, Leopold, (MORE)
Stone, Oliver
Studebaker, (MORE)
Studio , (MORE), (MORE)
Styrene, Poly
Summer, Donna
Surfing
Sussman, Deborah

T
Taylor, Annie
Taylor, Elizabeth, (MORE)
Teague, Walter Dorwin
Technicolor
Teenagers, (MORE)
Television, (MORE), (MORE), (MORE), (MORE), (MORE)
Terrio, Deney
Tezuka, Osamu
Thatcher, Margaret
Thomas, Philip Michael
Thompson, Kay
Tiffany, Louis Comfort, (MORE), (MORE), (MORE), (MORE)
Toffler, Alvin
Towey, Gael
Travolta, John, (MORE)
Truman, Harry, (MORE)
Turrell, James, (MORE)
Tutankhamen, King, (MORE)

U
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Pantone The 20th Century in Color

Universal Exposition (Paris), (MORE), (MORE), (MORE)

V
Vedder, Eddie
Versace, Gianni
Vicious, Sid
View Color Planner,
Vignelli, Massimo
The Village People
Von Brandenstein, Patrizia
Voysey, C. F. A., (MORE)
Vreeland, Diana
Vuillard, Edouard
Vuitton, Louis

W
Warhol, Andy, (MORE), (MORE), (MORE), (MORE)
Wrndorfer, Fritz
Wayne, John
Weber, Bruce
Wenders, Wim
West, Kanye
Wharton, Edith, (MORE)
Wiener Werksttte, (MORE), (MORE), (MORE)
Wilson, Malcolm
Wilson, Wes
Wimmer, Arch E.
The Wizard of Oz (movie), (MORE), (MORE)
Wolfe, Tom
Woodstock Music Festival
World War I, (MORE), (MORE)
World War II, (MORE), (MORE), (MORE), (MORE)
WPA (Works Progress Administration/Work Projects Administration), (MORE), (MORE)
Wright, Frank Lloyd, (MORE)

X
X Ray Spex

Y
Yamamoto, Yohji, (MORE)
Yoshida, Tatsuo

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Pantone The 20th Century in Color

Z
Zeisel, Eva
Zen design
Zumthor, Peter

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Pantone The 20th Century in Color

Acknowledgments
The authors would like to thank the following people for their invaluable help with PANTONE The
20th Century in Color:
Kris Ashley
Dan Benton
Dean Burrell
Yolanda Cazares
Clodagh
Becca Cohen
Fraser Conlon
Stephen Doyle
John Edelman
Ben Eiseman
Herb Eiseman
Stefan Freed
Susan M. Giangiulio
Elyse Goldberg
Bobbie Hawkes
Lisa Herbert
Brooke Johnson
Caitlin Kirkpatrick
Nina Kneff
Jennifer Kobrin
Susanne Lucas
Gary Lynch
Victoria Kasuba Matranga
Christine Mau
Gena McGregor
Eric Meltzer
Katie Miller
Fred Mutchler
Judi Noble
Pat Nugent
Cecile Panzieri
Bridget Watson Payne
Penny Pilkington
Avinash Rajagopal
Tucker Robbins
Matt Robinson
Susan Seid
Shane Stone
Carole Tenenbaum
Gael Towey
Elizabeth Vitiello
Maureen Welton
Sofia Whitcombe
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Pantone The 20th Century in Color

Richard Wright

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Pantone The 20th Century in Color

Text copyright 2011 by Pantone LLC.


All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form without written permission from the publisher.
The image credits constitute a continuation of the copyright page.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data available
eISBN: 978-1-4521-1313-5
PANTONE Color identification is solely for artistic purposes and not intended to be used for specification. Refer to
current PANTONE Color publications for accurate color. PANTONE and the Pantone Chip Designs are trademarks of
Pantone LLC in the United States and/or other countries. Pantone LLC, 2011. All rights reserved. This is an authorized
PANTONE UNIVERSE product manufactured under license by Chronicle Books LLC.
Chronicle Books LLC
680 Second Street
San Francisco, California 94107
www.chroniclebooks.com

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