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A Novel Approach for the Detection & Analysis of Brain

Monika Jain1, Shivanky Jaiswal2, Sandeep Maurya3, Mayank Yadav4
Professor- Dept. of Instrumentation & Control Engg1
B.Tech 4th year student, Dept. of Instrumentation & Control Engg2,3,4
Galgotias College of Engg. & Tech, Greater Noida, India
monikajain.bits@gmail.com1, jaiswalshivanky@gmail.com2, chindsmayank@gmail.com4

Abstract- Medical image processing is the most

challenging and emerging field now a days. In this field,
detection of brain tumor from MRI brain scan has become
one of the most challenging problems, due to complex
structure of brain. The quantitative analysis of MRI brain
tumor allows obtaining useful key indicators of disease
progression. A computer aided diagnostic system has been
proposed here for detecting the tumor texture in biological
study. This is an attempt made which describes the
proposed strategy for detection of tumor with the help of
segmentation techniques in MATLAB; which incorporates
preprocessing stages of noise removal, image enhancement
and edge detection.
Processing stages includes
segmentation like intensity and watershed based
segmentation, thresholding to extract the area of unwanted
cells from the whole image. Here algorithms are proposed
to calculate area and percentage of the tumor.
Keywords MRI, FCM, MKFCM, SVM, Otsu, threshold,
fudge factor


Based on statistics, tumors are the second cause of cancerrelated deaths in children (both males and females) who are
under the age of 20 and in males whose age from 20 to 39.
These facts increases the importance of the researches on the
tumor detection and this will present the opportunity for
doctors to help and save lives by detecting the disease
earlier, and perform necessary actions. Varieties of image
processing techniques are available to be applied on various
imaging modalities for tumor detection that will detect
certain features of the tumors such as the shape, border,
calcification and texture. These features will make the
detection processes more accurate and easier as there are
some standard characteristics of each feature for a specific
MATLAB is an important tool which can be as beneficial as
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in the field of bio
medical sciences. Image Processing Toolbox provides a
comprehensive set of reference-standard algorithms,
functions, and apps for image processing, analysis,
visualization, and algorithm development. Image analysis,
image segmentation, image enhancement, noise reduction,
geometric transformations, and image registration are the

various processes which can be performed through this.

Literature survey shows that image analysis can be improved
to much extent by using auto segmentation, semi auto
segmentation thresholding and morphological operations.
Methods of automatic detection of brain tumor
thresholding with Fuzzy Clustering Means (FCF),
Region growing, K-mean and Watershed
segmentation were also useful. Watershed
segmentation is suitable for tumor region that
have higher intensity values. Although much 3D works have not been proposed yet. However
normalized Gaussian Bayesian classification and a new 3-D
Fluid Vector Flow (FVF) algorithm, Gaussian Bayesian
Brain Map (GBBM) are made in use to initialize the 3-D
FVF algorithm, which segments the brain tumor. In 2-D
image analysis, mainly 3 types of operations
preprocessing, segmentation and morphological
operations. Apart from this, in this proposed
methodology, tumor area calculation is also
done. At the end tumor is mapped onto the
original gray scale image with 255 intensity to
make visible the tumor in the image. The
algorithm has been tested on a number of
patients MRI data of brain tumor images.



Different techniques and methodologies have been proposed

in past few years. A fully automatic algorithm detects brain
tumors by using digital image processing techniques; firstly
tumor is detected followed by segmentation, then calculation
of area. To reduce human computation, Speed Vector
Machine (SVM) classifiers were used [1]. SVM are
supervised learning models with associated learning models
that analyze data and recognize patterns. A multiple kernel
fuzzy c-means (MKFCM) algorithm was redefined in
MKFCM. Level set methods can be used for contour
evaluation and shape recovery [2]. This proposed algorithm
has been implemented on the brain MRI images to detect
tumors. Cellular Automata based seeded tumor segmentation
algorithm determines the Volume of Interest (VOI) and seed

selection [3], [8]. Decision making is performed in two

stages: feature extraction using Gray level Co-occurrence
Matrix & finding Grey Level Run Length.
Attempts were made to quantify changes in necrotic and
enhancing tumor tissue contents. Sometimes morphological
operation of erosion algorithm was applied to detect the
tumor [4], which incorporates image filtering, skull
stripping, and segmentation, calculation of the tumor area
and determination of the tumor location. After localization
of the tumor region whole brain tumor boundary was
extracted by the use of traditional level set method [5]. The
evaluation result with brain MRI, tumor obtained was more
precise and robust for brain tumor segmentation with the
help of morphological operations.
A semi-automatic
segmentation method for multimodal brain tumors provides
a region of interest (ROI) which was drawn roughly
surrounding the tumor on a single image followed by the
algorithm which combines the image analysis techniques of
region and edge-based active contours and level set using
mix files for core algorithms in MATLAB environment [7].
Region growing method was used for segmenting ROI, and
then by using edge detection for boundary segmentation
volume of tumor was calculated. A seed point is the starting
point for region growing and its selection is vital for the
segmentation result [9]. The level set approach used to
achieve exact edges of tumor boundary is useful in accurate
estimation of its volume.
A multi-stage segmentation method based on super pixel and
fuzzy clustering (MSFCM) achieves good brain MRI
segmentation results. MSFCM utilizes the super pixels as the
clustering objects instead of pixels, and increases the
clustering granularity to overcome the influence of noise and
bias effectively [10]. Atomic regions were used to replace
the regional grids that were segmented rigidly. Many super
pixel segmentation methods have been developed in recent
years, such as turbo pixel [11].
Re-initialization of the evolving level set function is
avoided. A threshold-based scheme uses level sets for 3-D
tumor segmentation (TLS). Hybrid speed function needed to
perform image segmentation within the level-set framework
[12]. The fluid vector flow (FVF) active contour
model addresses problems of insufficient
capture range and poor convergence. FVF
demonstrates improvements over techniques
like gradient vector flow, boundary vector flow,
and magneto static active contour [13].
Automatic segmentation of heterogeneous image data takes
a step towards bridging the gap between bottom-up affinitybased segmentation methods and top-down generative model
based approaches. The main contribution of this method was
a Bayesian formulation for incorporating of soft model
assignments into the calculation of affinities [14].
Traditionally, segmentation is performed in clinical
environment that is operator dependent and very tedious and
time consuming labor intensive work. However, automated
tumor segmentation in MRI images poses many challenges

with regard to the characteristics of image. There are several

methods by which tumor can be detected, but there are some
drawbacks of the existing methods. They all have their
related limitations which are described throughout the
literature survey. The accurate segmentation is crucial
otherwise the wrong identification of disease can lead to
several consequences.
The proposed brain tumor detection and localization
framework comprises following steps: image acquisition,
preprocessing, edge detection, morphological operations.
After thresholding operations, tumors appear as pure white
color on pure black backgrounds.
A. Procedural algorithm of the proposed work i
The algorithm has two stages, first is pre-processing of
given MRI image and after that segmentation is done. Steps
of algorithm are as following:

Image acquisition (gathering of MRI scanned

Images stored in MATLAB in form of 2-D matrix.
Preprocessing is done
Noise removal through linear filtering.
Edge detection through median filtering.
Image dilation.
Processing stage
It includes analysis on 2-D image through
MATLAB commands. In this stage, extraction of
tumor portion has been done with the help of
segmentation method.

Global image thresholding using

graythresh termed as Otsu method.
Regionprops returns the properties
associated with each component
Cat function gives the centroid of the
tumor region.
Area function is used to calculate the
area of tumor region.

frequency information. The kernel of the high pass filter is

designed to increase the brightness of the center pixel
relative to neighboring pixels. The kernel array usually
contains a single positive value at its center, which is
completely surrounded by negative values.
D. Edge Detection
Edge detection is the most vital part in tumor detection. It
is used to determine the boundaries of the object. In this
fudge factor is a scalar value by which to multiply the local
value to get the desired result.
Imdilate function is used for the dilation of the skull

E. Thresholding
Thresholding is one of the widely used methods for image

Fig. 1 Flow Chart of the Proposed Method

In first step of the proposed method, data (input images)

from various biological labs and hospitals of various
numbers of patients is acquired. Then images are scanned
and are stored in a 2-D matrix where pixels represent each
element of the matrix. Images are stored in MATLAB and
converted to be displayed as a gray scale image of size
256*256. The size is important to reduce processing time or
to be large enough to be considered for proper processing.
The values of the gray scale image would range from 0 to
255, where 0 represents total black color and 255 shows pure
white color. Anything in between shows a variety of values
representing the intensities of gray color.

Median Filter

In signal processing, it is often desirable to perform some

kind of noise reduction on an image or signal. The median
filter is a nonlinear digital filtering technique, often used to
remove noise. Such noise reduction is a typical preprocessing step to improve the results of later processing (for
example, edge detection on an image). Median filtering is
widely used in digital image processing because, under
certain conditions, it preserves edges while removing noise.
This filter enhances the quality of the MRI image.


segmentation. It is useful in discriminating foreground from

the background. By selecting an adequate threshold value T,
the gray level image can be converted to binary image. The
binary image should contain all the essential information
about the position and shape of the objects of interest
(foreground). The advantage of obtaining first by binary
images that it reduces the complexity of the data and
simplifies the process of recognition and
Fig. 3classification.
Input Brain Image
most common way to convert a gray- level image to a binary
image is to select a single threshold value (T). Then all the
gray level values below this T will be classified as black
(0), and those above T will be white (1).

High Pass Filter

A high pass filter is the basis for most sharpening

methods. An image is sharpened when contrast is enhanced
between adjoining areas with little variation in brightness or
darkness. A high pass filter tends to retain the high frequency
information within an image while reducing the low

After performing thresholding, in one variable, image

with tumor is stored and in another variable, the image
without tumor is stored. Then by using imsubtract
function, the image without tumor is subtracted from
the image with tumor to get the desired result in the
variable tumor.
After that all the associated properties of tumor is
stored in another variable with the help of
regionprops function and bounding box commands.
To get the centroid of the tumor cat function is used,
in other words it is the attribute of bounding box
Bwareaopen function removes all the connected
components (objects) from a binary image that have
fewer pixels than say P pixels, producing another
binary image. This operation is known as an area
opening. The default connectivity is 8 for two
dimensions, 26 for three dimensions.

Testing of
MATLAB Toolbox
Input MRI Images


Area of the Tumor calculated

Tumor region detected
Post processing Algor

Fig. 2 Block Diagram of Proposed Method

Preprocessing stage results are as shown
1) When the input image is loaded into the test
process, the process classifies the image into two
types: the brain image with tumor and the brain
image without tumor. The images are stored in 2
D matrix where pixels represent each element of
the matrix. The raw image is converted into a
grayscale image and then stored in MATLAB.
The size of image matters as it is necessary to
reduce the processing time. Fig- 3 depicts the
input brain

2) If the brain image has the tumor region, it needs to be

Fig. 5 Noise Removal through Filtering

4) In order to determine the boundaries of the object edge

detection technique has been used here as shown in fig.6.
Here canny edge filter is used since it is an optimal
edge detector, means good detection, good localization
and minimal response.

5) Thresholding is the simplest method of image

segmentation. Otsu method has been preferred here
over global thresholding method as shown in fig. 7

preprocessed. The median filter is applied to the input brain

image to remove the salt and pepper noise to get the
smoothed image. The resulted image of the preprocessing
step is shown in Fig. 4 which depicts the salt and pepper

Fig. 6 Canny edge Filtering Method

Fig. 4 Salt and Pepper Noise

3) Due to occurence of salt and pepper noise, averaging

filters such as median filter can be used to remove the
noise, since it is much sensitive than other filters. Result
is as shown in Fig.5.

6) Tumor region is extracted in this step using

thresholding. This helps in determining the shape of
the tumor in post processing operations. Area of the
extracted tumor has been calculated. It helps in
calculating the area percentage of the tumor region, in
the brain skull. Fig. 8 depicts the extracted tumor

Fig. 7 Detected tumor with Region of Interest


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Table. 1 Results taken on Various no. of Patients

Fig. 8 Extracted Tumor Region

In medical decision, the use of computer and computer

aided tools have been proved as a boon in the
diagnosis of critical diseases. MRI is a critical part in many
researches. So the MRI brain image is used to implement the
system. In this work, the brain image testing process has
been done. This method has given the reliable result. If the
brain image has the tumor region, the further processing
steps are needed to be done. Then the edge detection
operator technique will detect the size, shape and
boundary extraction. The proposed work provides a new
algorithm for brain tumor which is more efficient &

consumes lesser computational time than existing methods.

The accurate and precise detection is crucial otherwise the
wrong identification of disease can lead to several
consequences. As diagnosis of tumor is a complicated task;
therefore accuracy and reliability are always assigned much
importance. As shown in table no. 1, various MRI results
have been taken and tested, which shows the clear
understanding of accuracy and precise result.


Segmentation with Integrated Bayesian Model Classification,

IEEE Transactions, May,2008; Volume :27, Issue:5, pages: 629-640.