American History II Comp Review Sheet for 2007 – 2008 Imperialism, Foreign Policy to World War One 1.

19th Century Era of Imperialism A. Economic Factors – most important. a. Raw Materials for Industry. b. Market to sell goods. c. Cheap labor d. Sources of investment for the wealthy B. Pride/Patriotism – to keep up with European colonization C. National Security – create buffer zone to protect mainland. Ex. Pearl Harbor attacked instead of L.A. or San Francisco. D. Religious/Social a. Americans believed in “White Man’s Burden” to give our culture to the rest of the world. E. Adventure Seeking a. Human nature to seek adventure b. Events shape national character, not philosophy. Alfred T. Mahan - the development of a new steel navy also focused attention overseas in America at the end of the 19th century. Capt. Alfred Thayer Mahan’s book of 1890, The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783, argued that control of the sea was key to world dominance. It was read by English, Germans, Japanese, and fellow Americans. He helped stimulate the naval race among the great powers that gained momentum around the turn of century. Americans joined in the demands for an American built isthmian canal between the Atlantic and Pacific. American base at Guantanamo Bay – (See #13, Platt Amendment) American casualties in the Spanish-American War - 5,000 American deaths, only 400 are battlecaused. About 4600 Americans die unnecessarily from disease, heat, and malnutrition. Battle of Manila Bay – The first battle of the Spanish-American war, it was led by Commodore George Dewey whose squadron defeated the Spanish in mere hours. Not a single life was lost on the American side due to Spanish fire. The attack was launched by Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt, who sent Dewey a telegram while John D. Long, the Secretary of the Navy, was away. While the Spanish fleet was destroyed, Dewey did not capture Manila itself until several weeks after when he was assisted by the insurgent Emilio Aguinaldo. Big Stick Diplomacy – The slogan describing Teddy Roosevelt's corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, which claimed that the U.S. had the right not only to oppose European intervention in the Western Hemisphere, but also the right to intervene in the domestic affairs of its neighbors if they were unable to provide order on their own. Another name for this was “preventive intervention”. The idea led to the expansion of the U.S. Navy and greater involvement in world affairs. This in turn led to the Dollar Diplomacy in the following Taft administration. Examples of its use include the creation of Panama after Colombia refused to build the Panama Canal, when the Dominican Republic's debt crisis raised speculation of European involvement, and American occupation of Cuba. Canal sites in 1900 – The Clayton-Bulwer treaty says U.S. must jointly own a canal with the British, Hay-Pauncefote (1901) is passed to allow U.S.-only ownership. U.S. wants Nicaragua but the French Canal Co. wanted to make money after its own failed attempt in Panama and sold the area to the U.S. on the cheap. (Dropped price from $109m to $40m). Congress approves this in 1902, but the Columbian gov't is unwilling to let the U.S. build a canal. U.S. offers $10m plus $¼ m/year for canal rights in perpetuity, but Columbia says no. TR is furious, Bunau-Varilla buys Columbian troops for $100k and starts a revolution. U.S. Navy blockades parts of Columbia, twisting an interpretation of an old treaty, and allows rebels to overthrow Columbian gov't and create Panama. Bunau-Varilla is made Panamanian minister to the U.S., approves the deal while enlarging the canal zone from 6 to 10 miles. Work begins immediately after U.S. recognizes the Republic of Panama and construction is finished in 1914 under direction of Col. G.W. Goethals. Col. W.C.

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Gorgas exterminates yellow fever. 8. Dollar Diplomacy – A concept of Taft's administration, it suggested using foreign policy to protect Wall Street capital invested abroad and then using that money to uphold U.S. foreign policy. The best example is the Manchurian Railroad Scheme. It tried to head off a russian monopoly of chinese railroads, which could have hurt the Open Door Policy in China and U.S. business interests. U.S. Secretary of State Philander C. Knox proposed that the U.S. would buy the railroads and turn it over to China so that Japan and Russia would not be able to become more powerful. Japan and Russia obviously did not want to lose power and rejected the offer. 9. Drago Doctrine - ????? 10. Election of 1900 – McKinley's renomination by the Republicans was guaranteed. TR was pushed into the vice-presidential slot by political mob bosses in New York, the state where he was governor. William Jennings Bryan was the Democrat's nominee. It was another “front porch” campaign for McKinley and Bryan, though TR got up and toured the nation, cutting support from Bryan by gaining appeal with Midwesterners. The issues were republican imperialism and “enslavement” of the Philippines. The Republican victory did not mandate continued imperialism – in fact, many just voted for McKinley because they dislike Bryan's silver currency ideas and liked McKinley's gold currency. The mandate was instead for prosperity and protection. 11. McKinley's running mate in 1900 – (see #10, Election of 1900) 12. Open Door Policy – Coined by Secretary of State John Hay in his Open Door Notes, he urged the world to stop the vivisection of China and the exploitation and monopolization of Chinese workers and markets. This policy stated that nations would honor certain Chinese rights and the ideal of fair competition. After the Boxer Rebellion, the Open Door Policy was rewritten to embrace the territorial integrity of China as well (in addition to commercial integrity). 13. Platt Amendment - The Americans, hands tied by their own Teller Amendment, could not just give Cubans complete freedom for fear of the aggressive Germans. The Cubans were therefore forced to write into their own constitution of 1901 the so-called Platt Amendment. The hated restriction severely curtailed Cuban independence. They bound themselves not to impair their independence by treaty or by contracting a debt beyond their resources. They further agreed that the US might intervene with troops to restore order and to provide mutual protection. Finally, the Cubans promised to sell or lease needed coaling or naval stations, ultimately two and then only one (Guantanamo). This Amendment was approved over the Teller Amendment, which proposed giving Cuba full independence. 14. Portsmouth, New Hampshire - One of two international conferences that Roosevelt arranged and helped to earn him the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize. Russia was messing around in Manchuria, particularly Port Arthur. The Japanese suddenly began war in 1904 with a devastating surprise attack on the aggressive Russian fleet at Port Arthur. As the war dragged on, the Japanese ran out of men, and Tokyo officials therefore approached Roosevelt in the deepest secrecy and asked him to help sponsor peace negotiations. Roosevelt agreed and shepherded the delegates of the two sides together at Portsmouth, NH in 1905. The Japanese presented stern demands for a huge indemnity and the entire strategic island of Sakhalin, while the Russians stubbornly refused to concede the depths of their defeat. Roosevelt forced through an accord in which the Japanese received no indemnity and only the Southern half of Sakhalin. 15. Results of the Spanish-American War - Treaty of Paris, 1898 – Cuba was freed from the Spanish and the US picked up Guam, which was easily taken over because they didn’t know a war was on, also the US picked up Puerto Rico, and America paid Spain $20 million for the Philippine Islands. Concluded the Spanish-American war in favor of America. The declaration of war was caused by American sentiment for cuban sugar farmers under spanish oppression; Yellow Journalism (William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer) of USS Maine explosion (2/15/1898) and the published letter of Spanish Ambassador Dupuy de Lome that called McKinley an idiot; McKinley's fear that Spain would not honor its promise about Cuban independence and democracy. 16. Roosevelt Corollary – (See #6, Big Stick Diplomacy) 17. Root-Takaira Agreement - diplomatic agreement in 1908 between U.S. and Japan that they would respect each other’s possessions in the Pacific and maintain and the open door in China. 18. Russo-Japanese War – (See #14, Portsmouth, New Hampshire)

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19. Our Country by Josiah Strong, 1895 - intensely racist and prejudiced declaration that the U.S. was
best country in the world, God was on our side, and that we should attempt to colonize the world and be an imperialist power. 20. TR supports Panama's independence, 1903 - “We will take the canal zone!” (See #7, Canal sites in 1900) 21. US Annexation of the Philippines, 1898 – Benevolent assimilation in Philippines – program of McKinley’s that spent millions of American dollars to improve roads, sanitation, and public health, as well as develop economic ties with the sugar industry, and set up a very good school system in the Philippines. However, the Filipinos still wanted liberty over Americanization. (Also see #15, Results of the Spanish American War) 22. Watchful waiting - ????? 23. Extra Info - Leonard Wood was leader of the Rough Riders.

Progressivism 24. “Triple wall of privilege" - Wilson’s progressive plan for reform included fixing:
A. Banking and Finance – as it existed it benefited the wealthy. Reformed through Pujo Committee and creating Federal Reserve System to make the currency elastic. B. High Tariffs – Wilson directly addressed Congress and the People to support Underwood Tariff, to lower it from 38.5% to 27%. C. Trusts and monopolies – Wilson passes Clayton-Anti-trust Act and outlawing “interlocking directorates.” 25. "Cease and desist" orders - ????? 26. 18th Amendment - Prohibition 27. 19th Amendment – Suffrage 28. Clayton Anti-Trust Act - The knot of monopoly was further cut by the Clayton Anti-Trust Act of 1914. It lengthened the shopworn Sherman Act’s list of business practices that were deemed objectionable, including price discrimination and interlocking directorates. The Clayton Act also conferred long-overdue benefits on labor. The Clayton Act therefore sought to exempt labor and agricultural organizations from antitrust prosecution while explicitly legalizing strikes and peaceful picketing. 29. Contribution of the muckrakers - Enterprising editors financed extensive research and encouraged pugnacious writing by their bright young reporters, whom President Roosevelt branded as “muckrakers” in 1906. Annoyed by their excess of zeal, he compared the mudslinging magazine dirt-diggers to the figure in Bunyan’s Pilgrim Progress who was so intent on raking manure that he could not see the celestial crowndangling overhead. Despite presidential scolding, these muckrakers boomed circulation, and some of their most scandalous exposures were published as best-selling books. 30. Desert Land Act - Even before the end of the nineteenth century, far-visioned leaders saw that such a squandering of the nation’s birthright would have to be halted or America would sink from resource richness to despoiled squalor. A first feeble step toward conservation had been taken with the Desert Land Act of 1877, under which the federal government sold arid land cheaply on the condition that the purchaser irrigate the thirsty soil within three years.

31. Election of 1912 and TR A. Parties – 1. Republicans – Split between Old Guard (Taft) and Progressives (Roosevelt and LaFollette, who launched the Bull Moose Party) 2. Democrats – Woodrow Wilson, governor of NJ and C. Clarke, Speaker of the House go through 46 ballots until WJ Bryan tells Clarke to lead Congress and Wilson to lead White House. 3. Socialists – Debs runs again. B. Campaign – Focuses on philosophies 1. New Nationalism – Roosevelt’s policy created by Herbert Croly. Progressive theory to balance government and big business. a variety of Progressivism that separated the two candidates of the

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election of 1912. Herbert Croly and TR both favored continued consolidation of trusts and labor unions, paralleled by the growth of powerful regulatory agencies in Washington. Roosevelt and his “bull moosers” also campaigned for woman suffrage and a broad program of social welfare, including minimum wage laws and socialistic social insurance. 2. New Freedom – Wilson’s idea created by Louis Brandeis, wants to eliminate large wasteful trusts. Wilson’s New Freedom favored small enterprise, entrepreneurship, and the free functioning of unregulated and unmonopolized markets. The Democrats shunned social welfare proposals and pinned their economic faith on competition. The keynote of Wilson’s campaign was not regulation but fragmentation of the big industrial combines, chiefly by means of vigorous enforcement of antitrust laws. C. Results 1. In essence, this election was a choice between Progressive candidates, because with TR's popularity, Taft didn't stand a chance. However, with Taft and Roosevelt both garnering Republican votes, the Democrat's win was set in stone. 2. Debs gets 0 EV and .9 million pop votes. 3. Democrats win both Houses, victory for Progressivism 4. Roosevelt breaks tradition, running more than two times 32. Eugene V. Debs - Socialist candidate in the election of 1908, amassed nearly half a million votes. He is the hero of the pullman strike of 1894. In the election of 1912, he garnered nearly a million votes. In 1920 he matched that number. 33. Federal Reserve Act of 1913 - Federal Reserve System A. The most important piece of economic legislation between the Civil War and the New Deal, signed into action by Wilson. B. Powers and Structure 1. Established a Federal Reserve Board whose members were appointed by the president. 2. Oversaw a nationwide system of 12 districts, each with its own central bank. 3. These district banks were actually banker's banks, owned by member institutions, lending money out to banks that the common man interacted with. 4. The Federal Reserve Board had final say, granting a substantial measure of public control. 5. Empowered to issue paper money - “Federal Reserve Notes,” allowing the amount of currency in the U.S. to be swiftly increased or decreased. 34. Federal Reserve System – (See #33, Federal Reserve Act of 1913) 35. Federal Trade Commission Act, 1914 - Wilson passed this law in 1914. The new law empowered a presidential appointed commission to turn a searchlight on industries engaged in interstate commerce, such as the meat packers. The commissioners were expected to crush monopoly at the source by rooting out unfair trade practices, including unlawful competition, false advertising, mislabeling, adulteration, and bribery. 36. Frances Willard - ????? 37. Goals pursued by Progressives - Progressive Movement A. Beliefs, Goals, and Objectives 1. Activism – social evils will not fix themselves. People should be motivated to work for social reform. 2. Optimism – dominant tone of confidence. Anything can be overcome by energy and intelligence of citizens. “New Democracy” “New Freedom” “New Nationalism” 3. Revive Democracy – Voting power with Recall, Initiative, and Referendum. 4. Expose Evil – Muckrakers to anger people. 5. Flourished during Period of prosperity People became aware as consumers. Largely a creation of new, younger politicians. 6. Influenced by Social Christianity – Catholics and Protestants preached against social evils. Increasing role of women. 7. Began in cities, spread to state and Federal levels. B. Successes - party primary, recall, referendum, initiative; city manager system; settlement houses; conservation; elkins and Hepburn acts (railroads); women’s suffrage; 3 strong presidents in TR, Taft, and

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Wilson C. Failures - panic of 1907; no women’s suffrage amendment; did not fix segregation of blacks; no child labor laws D. Decline - began with the election of Wilson in 1912 and the Democrats taking over, ended with Roosevelt’s refusal to run in the election of 1916 38. Gospel of Wealth - ????? 39. Ida Tarbell - a pioneering woman journalist who published a devastating but factual exposé of the Standard Oil Company. (Her father had been ruined by the oil interests.) Fearing legal reprisals, the muckraking magazines went to great pains and expense to check their material – paying as much as three thousand dollars to verify a single article.

40. Initiative, Recall, Referendum A. Initiative – Progressive policy of citizens introducing legislation (Not on a federal level) B. Recall – Progressive policy of the right of the people to remove elected officials
C. Referendum – Progressive policy of the right of the people to vote up or down on proposed legislation (not on a federal level). 41. Insurgent Revolt, 1910 - ????? 42. Interstate Commerce Commission - Although the ICC was created in 1887, railroad barons were still able to have high shipping rates because of their ability to appeal the commission's decisions on high rates to the federal courts. In 1903, Congress passed the Elkins Act, which allowed for heavy fines to be placed on railroads that gave rebates and on the shippers that accepted them. Congress passed the Hepburn Act of 1906, which restricted free passes and expanded the ICC to extend to include express companies, sleeping-car companies, and pipelines. 43. Meat Inspection Act, 1906 - Backed by a nauseated public, Roosevelt induced Congress to pass the Meat Inspection Act of 1906. It decreed that the preparation of meat shipped over state lines would be subject to federal inspection from corral to can. Although the largest packers resisted certain features of the act, they grudgingly accepted it as an opportunity to drive their smaller, fly-by-night competitors out of business. At the same time, they could not receive the government’s seal of approval on their exports. 44. Northern Securities case - TR attacked this railroad holding company, organized by J.P. Morgan and J. Hill in 1902. The company had achieved a virtual monopoly of Railroads in the Northwest. The Supreme Court upheld TR's antitrust suit when the Railroads appealed and ordered the company to be dissolved, giving businesses on Wall Street a scare. 45. Old Guard – Section of conservative Republicans that shied away from the progressive tendencies of Roosevelt. They felt business should be king and social reforms were unnecessary, and that the government should stay out of the markets. Led by “Uncle Joe” Cannon 46. Plessy v. Ferguson – Landmark supreme court decision in 1896 in which “separate but equal” facilities were ruled to be constitutional under the “equal protection” clause of the 14th Amendment. 47. Pure Food and Drug Act - As a companion to the Meat Inspection Act, the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 was designed to prevent the adulteration and mislabeling of foods and pharmaceuticals. 48. Report of the Pujo Committee, 1913 - Senate Committee headed by Arsene Pujo, revealed the trouble with the concentration of America’s money. They found that a “money trust” controlled about $22 billion of American assets. J.P. Morgan and Co. was the greatest in this interwoven system of directorships. Created fears about “inelastic currency,” though this was fixed by Wilson's New Freedom plan. 49. Robert La Follette - “Fightin' Bob”. Progressive Governor of of Wisconsin. Fought monopolies, lumber and railroad interests, and wrestled considerable control from crooked corporations and returned it to the people. He perfected a scheme for regulating public utilities and became Roosevelt's running mate in the Election of 1912. 50. Samuel Gompers - Union Leader of the American Federation of Labor who accepted American capitalism and tried to work within its framework to help the common man. The A.F.L. was an association of selfgoverning nation unions. Each union was independent but the A.F.L. unified their strategies. Gompers shunned politics as a means for achieving his economic goals. His chief weapons were walkouts and boycotts. The A.F.L. fell short of representing all workers, in the end only representing those that were

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skilled. He hailed the Clayton Anti-Trust Act because it legally lifted the ordinary worker out of mediocrity. 51. Social Gospel - The movement applied Christian principles to social problems, especially poverty, inequality, and the dangers of war.

52. Square Deal - Roosevelt's domestic reform program that attempted to provide the greatest benefit to the largest number of people through the 3-C Program. 53. TR's 3-C's A. Part of the Square Deal B. Conservation – resources were limited, preserve for future generations. C. Consumer Protection – Business was obligated to produce a quality product. Consumers can demand better quality. Leads to Meat Inspection Act, Pure Food and Drug Act, and the writings of Upton Sinclair. D. Control (Regulation) of Corporations – Antitrust laws 54. The Jungle by Upton Sinclair - intended to focus on the plight of the workers in the big canning factories, but instead appalled the public with his description of disgustingly unsanitary food products of Chicago's slaughterhouses. He “aimed for the nation’s heart, but hit its stomach.” 55. Wilson's New Freedom – (See #31, The Election of 1912 and TR)

World War One 56. “He kept us out of War" - President Wilson’s slogan during his campaign for the Election of 1916. This
was the main issue in the Election of 1916 and later came back to bite Wilson because he urged the U.S. to go to war in 1917. 57. "A war to end all wars" - Causes of US Entry into WWI – A. German violations of International Law B. British propaganda - depicted the German Kaiser as a dictator and a bad person. The British were also more closely related to the Americans in regards to language and traditions. C. German mistakes – A German spy was found in America, meaning that the Germans had already infiltrated the country. Germans also invaded non-combatant Belgium, executed British nurse Edith Cavell who aided British soldiers behind German lines, and sank neutral ships D. The sinking of the Lusitania – In exchange for the British halting U.S. trade to Germany, the Germans declared a submarine war area around the British Isles. German officials declared that their subs would not purposefully sink a neutral ship, but warned that mistakes might occur. One of these mistakes was the Lusitania, and on May 7th, 1915, it was sunk off the coast of Ireland. It was carrying 4,200 smallarms ammunition, which was what Germans used to justify the sinking, but Americans were taken over by this action of “mass murder”. They conveniently forgot that German newspapers had been warning of such an attack for months in advance, and the German embassy even took out a full-page ad in the New York Times. E. The German's next attack was on the Arabic and then the Sussex. Infuriated, Wilson informed the Germans that if another neutral American ship was torpedoed he would break diplomatic relations with Germany, an almost-certain preclude to war. F. Unrestricted Submarine Warfare - An “armed neutrality” period occurred after the Sussex Pledge, during which the U.S. armed its merchant ships with hidden guns and cannons. These ships regularly sank UBoats that came in to check the contents of the ships. The Germans eventually got tired of risking their lives and called off the Sussex pledge in 1917 and resumed unrestricted submarine warfare. G. Zimmerman telegraph is intercepted, which tells Mexico that Germany will help them get US land if Mexico declares war on the US. Wilson then declares war, saying it is “A War to End All Wars.” H. Revised modern views about the causes of U.S. entry 1. Balance of power – the U.S. didn't want Europe dominated by the Germans 2. U.S. already had bad relations with Germany and ties with Britain. 3. Idealistic considerations – U.S. wanted to make world “safe for democracy” and Germany stood in

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the way of that goal. This was later used as a pretense for many future occupations of foreign countries on behalf of America. 4. Outbreak of the Russian revolution which allowed the Germans to focus their troops towards Europe. 58. "Big Four" of World War I – President Wilson of the U.S., Premier Vittorio Orlando of Italy, Prime Minister David Lloyd George of Britain, and Premier Georges “The Tiger” Clemenceau of France. 59. 1917 German resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare – (See #57, “A war to end all wars”) 60. A war to make the world safe for democracy – (See #57, “A war to end all wars”) 61. American military expedition, Mexico, 1916-17 – American mining engineers were ruthlessly hauled off of a train traveling through northern Mexico in January 1916 by Pancho Villa and killed. Another 19 Americans were killed by Villa's men by the border of Columbus, New Mexico in hopes of provoking a war between Wilson and Mexican President Carranza. Congress voted to send General John J. “Black Jack” Pershing down to Mexico to end the violence. His crack team of 6,000 men quickly took down Villa's forces but missed capturing Pancho Villa himself. Pershing's troops were recalled in January 1917 as war with Germany loomed larger. 62. Bolshevik Russian Revolution of 1917 – (See #57, “A war to end all wars”) 63. Causes of US entry into WW I - (See #57, “A war to end all wars”) 64. Committee on Public Information - George Creel was in charge of the Committee on Public Information that was created to mobilize the mind for war in America. He was a youngish journalist who, though outspoken and tactless, was gifted with zeal and imagination. His job was to sell America on the war and sell the world on Wilsonian war aims. Creel's overzealousness ended up hurting Wilson when people became uncomfortable with the realities of war and the resulting disillusionment at home and abroad spelled disaster for Wilson later on. 65. Ferdinand Foch – he dreaded German drive on the western front exploded in the spring of 1918, and the Allied Nations for the first time united under a supreme commander, the quiet French Marshal Foch, whose axiom was, “to make war is to attack.” Until then the Allies had been fighting imperfectly coordinated actions. He led a counteroffensive in the Second Battle of the Marne that marked the beginning of a German withdrawal. 66. General Huerta - Mexican general and president (1913-14). He was made commander of the federal forces. In 1913 he overthrew the president. Huerta established a military dictatorship, notable for political corruption and rule by imprisonment and assassination. Numerous counterrevolutions broke out; the most important insurgent leaders were Venustiano Carranza , Francisco Villa , and Emiliano Zapata . U.S. President Woodrow Wilson was openly hostile to Huerta, and unpleasant international incidents occurred at Tampico and Veracruz. Steady insurgent military pressure forced Huerta to resign in July, 1914. He fled to Europe and returned to the United States, where he was subsequently arrested for revolutionary activities. 67. George Creel – (See #64, Committee on Public Information)

68. Henri Petain – A brilliant soldier during World War One, he was known as the Savior of Verdun for his exploits against the Germans. After the failed Nivelle Offensive, he was promoted to the rank of Commander-In-Chief of French forces. After major German offenses in 1918 in which his subordinates disobeyed his, he was demoted to the rank of Marshall of France. 69. John J. Pershing, Expedition – (See #61, American military expedition, Mexico, 1916-17) 70. League of Nations - The capstone point, number fourteen, foreshadowed the League of Nations – an
international organization that Wilson hoped would provide a system of collective security. Wilson earnestly prayed that this new scheme would effectively guarantee the political independence and territorial integrity of all countries, whether large or small. 71. Lodge Reservations - fourteen reservations to the Treaty of Versailles. These safeguards reserved the rights of the U.S. under the Monroe Doctrine and the Constitution and otherwise sought to protect American sovereignty from foreign influence that might occur should the U.S. join in the Leage of Nations. After the Senate rejected the Treaty twice, the Treaty of Versailles was defeated. The Lodge-Wilson personal feud, traditionalism, isolationism, disillusionment, and partisanship all contributed to the defeat of the treaty.

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72. Muese-Argone Offensive – (See #76, Role of US military in the Spring of 1918) 73. Norris, Speech Against War, 1917 - war only brings prosperity to stockholders on Wall Street, not the
common people

74. Pancho Villa's killing of Americans in US - (See #61, American military expedition, Mexico, 191617)

75. Paul von Hindenburg - ????? 76. Role of US military in the Spring of 1918 – Germany launched a huge resurgence of troops and the
Allied forces were compelled to unite under a single command. In late May, German forces got within 40 miles of Paris before U.S. forces pushed them back. The fresh American soldiers stopped the German advances by July and started to engage in counteroffensives. From September to November, a separate U.S. army under Black Jack Pershing launched the Muese-Argone Offensive. One of the objectives, in which soldiers cut German railroad lines, lasted 47 days and engaged 1.2 million U.S. troops. Heavy fighting in this offensive in the Argonne Forest killed and wounded 10% of the Americans involved. Alvin C. York became a hero when he single-handedly killed 20 Germans and captured 132 more. As the slowly advancing U.S. forces moved closer to German lines, they rapidly went through their supplies and were in danger of running short. Fortunately, the Germans were in an even worse situation and most gave up without a fight as the Allies approached.

77. Schenck v. United States (1919) – Supreme Court case that affirmed the legality of wartime laws such as the Espionage Acts of 1917 and the Sedition Act of 1918, which aimed at enforcing loyalty among the American people and stifling dissent. These laws incarcerated hundreds of anti-war Americans, chiefly Eugene V. Debs and William D. “Big Bill” Haywood. Critics claimed these laws were breaking the First Amendment and were subsequently jailed themselves. The Supreme Court ruled that freedom of speech could be revoked when such speech posed a “clear and present danger” to the nation. 78. Sinking of the Lusitania – (See #57, “A war to end all wars”) 79. Tampico incident - ?? 80. US Economic mobilization during WWI – To organize the voluntary mobilization of America,
Wilson appointed Herbert C. Hoover to head the Food Administration. He was already famous because he had sucessfully led a massive charitable drive to feed the starving people of war-racked Belgium. Hoover rejected issuing ration cards and instead proclaimed “Wheatless Wednesdays”, “Meatless Tuesdays”, and growing “Victory Gardens” to allow farmers to produce only for the soldiers. Thanks to Hoover, farm production increased by ¼ and food exports to allies tripled. Hoover's tactics were replicated by other wartime agencies like the Fuel Administration (“Light-less Nights”) and Treasury Department (“Victory Loans”). The government did forcibly take over the nation's railroads to ensure constant supply lines and also seized enemy merchant vessels in American ports. 81. U.S. Senate and the League of Nations – After the Election of 1918 gave Congress a Republican majority, Wilson faced large oppositions to the League's ratification at home. To them, the League was either a useless “sewing circle” or an over-potent “super-state”. A dozen militant isolationists, led by William Borah of Idaho and Hiram Johnson of California were known as “irreconcilables” or “the Battalion of Death”. This opposition at home gave his foreign adversaries more room to bargain in Paris: France asked for the Rhineland and Saar Valley but got neither along with the Security Treat under which Britain and the U.S. pledged to come to France's aid in the event of another German invasion. Italy demanded Fiume and Japan demanded Chinese and German possessions in the Pacific (specifically Shandong Peninsula, a completely Chinese region). Treaty of Versailles – Germany had surrendered on the promise that the treaty would be based on Wilson's 14 Points, but in the end, only four of the original 23 were fully implemented. Wilson was forced to compromise away most of his 14 points to guarantee an end to the war and a start to the League of Nations. Though it was somewhat of a failure, the treaty liberated millions of minorities. Wilson went back to American to get the new treaty ratified and was met with a whirlwind of protest from isolationists. He was also attacked for not making the treaty harsher on the conquered Germans. Others thought it was too harsh. Wilson then went on a tour to convince the American people to approve of the treaty, but he was followed by the Battalion of Death who swayed public opinion. Wilson collapsed from exhaustion during the tour, and

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during his recovery, Lodge proposed the Lodge reservations. Wilson urged the senate to vote AGAINST the treaty as long as the Lodge Reservations were attached. After the treaty was killed, Wilson proposed a “Solemn Referendum” in 1920 in hopes of ending the deadlock. He based the Election of 1920 on acceptance of the Treaty and when Harding (Republicans) was elected president, Wilson's dream was over. Enfeebled, Wilson was forced to make a separate treaty with the German Republic shortly thereafter. 82. Wilson, Speech for War, 1917 – Wilson was against giving this speech but gave into popular demand. He said that armed neutrality was no longer possible and that the U.S. must take action. They had to make the world safe for democracy. The U.S. should have no selfish goals in mind, it should only want peace, it will fight by the rules, without passion. There is no problem with Germany's people, only its government. 83. Wilson's goals at Versailles Conference – (See #81, U.S. Senate and the League of Nations)

1920s 84. "red scare" of the early 1920s - Scare across the country due to Communism and Socialism. Started
with the Sedition and Espionage Acts of 1917, and many were deported of suspected Communism. At the forefront of this movement was A. Mitchell Palmer, Wilson’s attorney general, who single handedly saved the US from a Bolshevik revolution and communism; he was known as the fighting Quaker. 85. American gangsterism in the 1920s – There was a boom in organized criminal activities during the 1920s because of Prohibition, which banned the sale and consumption of alcohol. Enterprising individuals soon found ways around this rule, most notably Al Capone, the top Chicago gangster of the 1920s. Chicago was by far the most spectacular example of lawlessness. In 1925, “Scarface” Al Capone, a grasping and murderous booze distributor began six years of gang warfare that netted him millions of blood-spattered dollars. He was branded “Public Enemy Number One.” 86. Bonus Army - Many veterans of WWI were numbered among the hard-hit victims of the depressions. Industry had secured a “bonus” – though a dubious one – in the Hawley-Smoot Tariff. Thousands of impoverished veterans, both of war and of unemployment, were now prepared to move on to Washington, there to demand of Congress immediate payment of their entire bonus. The Bonus Expeditionary Force, about 20,000 men, converged on the capital in 1932. Although Hoover charged that the “Bonus Army” was led by riffraff and reds, in fact only a sprinkling of them were former convicts and Communist agitators. The eviction was carried out by Douglas MacArthur with bayonets and tear gas, and with far more severity than Hoover had planned. 87. Hawley-Smoot Tariff of 1930 - The Hawley-Smoot Tariff of 1930 followed the well-worn pattern of legislative horse-trading. It started out in the House as a fairly reasonable protective measure, designed to assist the farmers. But by the time the high-pressure lobbyists had pushed it through the Senate, it had acquired about a thousand amendments. It thus turned out to be the highest protective tariff in the nation’s peacetime history. The average duty on nonfree goods was raised from 38.5%, as established by the FordneyMcCumber Act of 1922, to nearly 60%. 88. Hoover's idea of "rugged individualism" - “Not what the country can do for you, but what you can do for the country.” The belief that industry, thrift, and self-reliance were the key out of the Depression. Hoover floundered in the Great Depression, and not willing to take a direct role in the economy he assisted hard-pressed railroads, banks, and rural credit unions in the hope that if financial health were restored at the top of the pyramid, goodness would trickle down. 89. Industrial Workers of the World – trade union led by Big Bill Haywood. 90. Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928 - Officially known as the Pact of Paris, it was ultimately ratified by 62 nations. This new parchment peace was delusory in the extreme. Defensive wars were still permitted, and what scheming aggressor could not cook up an excuse of self-defense? Lacking both muscles and teeth, the pact was a diplomatic derelict. 91. Ku Klux Klan of the 1920s - As reconstituted, the Klan spread with astonishing rapidity, especially in the Midwest and the “Bible Belt” South. At its peak in the mid-1920’s, it enrolled about 5 million duespaying members and wielded potent political influence. It capitalized on the typically American love of

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excitement, adventure, and joining, to say nothing of the adolescent ardor for secret ritual. At bottom, the KKK was an alarming manifestation of the intolerance and prejudice so common in the anxiety-plagued minds of the 1920s. 92. Margaret Sanger - An organized birth-control movement, led by fiery feminist Margaret Sanger, openly championed the use of contraceptives. A National Women’s Party began in 1923 to campaign for an Equal Rights Amendment to the Constitution. 93. National Woman's Party – led by Alice Paul, a Quaker pacifist. Demonstrated against the war with marches and hunger strikes. 94. Women's rights movement, 1910-1919 - ????? 95. Sacco-Vanzetti case – In 1919-1920, a number of states passed criminal syndicalism laws that made the advocacy of violence to secure social change unlawful. Traditional American ideals of free speech were restricted. Anti-redism and anti-foreignism were reflected in this criminal case. The two men were convicted in 1921 of the murder of a Massachusetts paymaster and his guard. Although given a trial, the jury and judge were prejudiced against the men because Sacco and Vanzetti were Italians, atheists, anarchists, and draft dodgers. Despite criticism from liberals and radicals all over the world, the men were electrocuted in 1927. 96. Scopes Trial - Trial between John T. Scopes (defended by Clarence Darrow) and William Jennings Bryan, who joined the prosecution. Scopes was indicted for teaching evolution, and was eventually found guilty and fined $100. William Jennings Bryan died 5 days later, most likely because of being humiliated at the witness stand and the extreme heat. 97. Stock market crash of 1929 - Causes of the Great Depression A. Business and Farming activity falls 50%. Unemployment was 12-15 million B. There was overproduction and under consumption, which reduced the purchasing power of the individual. Prices were too high, which led to workers being laid off. C. Overexpansion of credit. Many people bought on credit, and banks stupidly lent them money. Eventually banks ran out of money and closed, taking savings with them. 98. Teapot Dome scandal – Involved Alfred Fall the Secretary of the Interior under Warren Harding who leased private oil reserves to friends for money. 99. US efforts for World Peace in the 1920s - ?????

New Deal 100. New Deal - FDR’s famous program which was designed to get rid of the Depression. It had three periods
– Relief, Recovery, and Reform.

101. "Brain Trust" - FDR’s reform-minded intellectual advisers, who conceived much of the New Deal
legislation. They only asked for “$1” a year in salary, and in actuality were only called into Washington about five or six times a year. 102. "Share our Wealth" – Program invented by Huey Long, a Senator from California, who was also known as the “Kingfish.” This program would give every poor family $5,000 dollars, usually taken from the prosperous. It did not work out well as many people thought he would become a fascist dictator.

103. 20th and 21 "Amendments A. 20th Amendment - Inauguration Day on January 20th (Lame Duck Amendment) B. 21st Amendment – Repealed the 18th Amendment, a campaign promise of FDR. 104. Alice Paul – (See #93, National Women's Party) 105. Banking Holiday - declared by Roosevelt on the day of his inauguration to prevent people from
withdrawing all of their money and allowing banks to recover and not all go bankrupt. 106. Civilian Conservation Corps – CCC – one of the most popular New Deal “alphabet” agencies. Passed by the Hundred Days Congress to relieve unemployed workers. It employed 3 million young men into camps putting them to work on useful projects such as reforestation, fire-fighting, swamp drainage, etc. The young men were also required to send some of their paycheck to their parents. 107. FDR, 1st Inaugural Address, 1933 - this platform was only 1400 words, ridiculously short. Its main

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points were to 1. Restore prosperity with 25% CUT in government spending (The New Deal actually doubles government spending). 2. Pass a competitive tariff for revenue. 3. Repeal the 18th Amendment with the 21st, which allows the alcohol industry to use agricultural surplus, as well as create jobs for manufacturing, transporting, and selling. The government can also tax liquor to boost its own income. 4. Relief for unemployed through federal public works. 108. FDR's "Court-Packing Scheme” - in 1927, Roosevelt wanted to invigorate the Supreme Court with new blood because all nine members were old men, with Old Guard political ideas, and they were against the radical white house. Roosevelt saw this a reasonable because the people so decisively elected him and a congress that worked with him, so why not have a Supreme court that cooperates as well? He wanted to add a new justice for every one over seventy that would not retire. Many citizens and the Congress were against this. They felt Roosevelt was trying to be a dictator and overrule the delicate system of checks and balances.

109. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation –
A. During the 100 Days Congress of FDR, Congress to pass the Emergency Banking Relief Act of 1933. It gave the president power to regulate banking transactions and foreign exchange and to reopen solvent banks. B. Congress then passed the Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act, creating the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). A reform program, the FDIC insured individual bank deposits up to $5,000, ending the epidemic of bank failures. C. In order to protect the shrinking gold reserve, President Roosevelt ordered all private holdings of gold to be given to the Treasury in exchange for paper currency and then the nation to be taken off the gold standard-Congress passed laws providing for these measures. 110. Frances Perkins - First woman Cabinet member. She served as Secretary of Labor under FDR. 111. Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal – (See #100, New Deal) 112. George Norris – Senator from Nebraska, he was the mastermind behind the Tennessee Valley Authority. This revolutionary New Deal legislation aroused strong conservative criticism for producing low-cost electrical power in competition with private utilities. Passed in the 100 Days. 113. Glass-Steagall Act - The Hundred Days Congress buttressed public reliance on the banking system by enacting the memorable Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act. This measure provided for the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, which insured individual deposits up to $5,000. Thus ended the disgraceful epidemic of bank failures. 114. Huey Long – (See #102, "Share our Wealth") 115. John Maynard Keynes – British economist that proposed a strategy called “deficit spending”, which Called for spending more than you are taking in. 116. Social Security Act - passed in 1935, one of the most complicated and far-reaching laws to go through Congress. Provided for federal-state unemployment insurance as well as security for the retired elderly. It was paid for through taxes on employers and employees. A monthly check was given to those who qualified. 117. Tennessee Valley Authority – (See #112, George Norris) 118. US policy of isolationism, 1919-1939 – (See #134.A and #134.B in Policy of appeasement) 119. Wagner Act - When the Supreme Court axed the blue eagle of the NRA, a Congress sympathetic to labor unions undertook to fill the vacuum. The fruit of its deliberations was the Wagner, or National Labor Relations, Act of 1935. It recognized the right of employees to join labor unions and to bargain collectively (reinstating the provisions of the National Industrial Recovery Act’s section 7a); it created the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) to enforce laws against unfair labor practices. 120. Works Progress Administration - Large federal employment program, established in 1935 under Harry Hopkins, that provided jobs in areas from road building to art. It performed many useful tasks while providing federal jobs for unemployed workers. It employed more than eight million people to repair roads, build bridges, and work on other projects; also hired artists and writers. Passed in 1935.

World War Two

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121. "Get Hitler First" – “Get Germany First” - while many Americans cried for vengeance on Japan, the
U.S. worked out the ABC-1 agreement with Britain in which they adopted the grand strategy of subduing Germany. If the U.S. tried to split its forces between Europe and Asia, it would risk Germany taking over all of Europe. Instead, the Allies would knock out the Germans and then concentrate on weaker Japan. Though it was a brilliant plan, it suffered criticism from ignorant Americans. 122. "Lend-Lease" Law – Passed by Congress in 1941, who feared the collapse of Britain to Hitler. Nicknamed "An Act Further to Promote the Defense of the United States," it allowed for American arms to be lent or leased to the democracies of the world that needed them, while supposedly keeping the U.S. out of the war. Key opponents of the bill, such as Senator Taft, criticized it, reporting that the arms would be destroyed and unable to be returned after the war. The bill marked the abandonment of any pretense of neutrality. Hitler recognized the Lend-Lease Bill as an unofficial declaration of war. 123. African-American migration during WWII - ????? 124. Allied Strategy after Pearl Harbor – (See #121, “Get Hitler First”) 125. Atlantic Charter – Created during the Atlantic Conference, which was called in August 1941 after Hitler launched a surprise attack on the U.S.S.R. that FDR and Churchill feared might cause the Soviet Union to surrender. The Charter promised that there would be no territorial changes contrary to the wishes of the inhabitants. It further affirmed the right of a people to self-soveriegncy and, in particular, to regain the governments abolished by dictators. Among various other goals, the charter declared for disarmament and a peace of security, pending a “permanent system of general security.” 126. Chiang Kai-Shek – (See #142, same name) 127. Destroyers for Bases Agreement – Sympathy for Britain grew during the Battle of Britain and soon Roosevelt was faced with a crucial decision: whether to keep the U.S.'s isolation or to help Britain by all means, short of going to war. The most powerful group of those who supported aid for Britain was the “Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies”, while Isolationists organized the “America First Committee”. On September 2, 1940, President Roosevelt agreed to transfer to 50 destroyers left over from WWI to Britain. In return, Britain agreed to hand over to the United States 8 valuable defensive base sites. Shifting warships from a neutral United States to Britain was a flagrant violation of the U.S.'s neutrality obligations. 128. Dwight Eisenhower - Commander of the Allied military assault against Hitler in North Africa (Operation Torch) and France (Operation Dragoon). He led the largest water-borne attack in history on North Africa and was at the head of the D-Day invasion of France (Operation Overlord). 129. FDR, Press Conference on Lend-Lease,1940 - ????? 130. FDR's support for Britain in World War Two – FDR's support for Britain included the Destroyers for Bases Agreement (See #127), the Lend-Lease Act (See #122), and the “Neutrality” Act of 1939 (See #134.F) 131. Hideki Tojo – General of the Japanese Imperial Army and wartime leader of Japan during World War II 132. Munich Conference - (See #134, Policy of appeasement) 133. Nye Commission Report - A Senate committee, headed by Senator Nye of North Dakota, was appointed in 1934 to investigate the “blood business” of the “merchants of death”. By sensationalizing evidence regarding America’s entry into WWI, the senatorial probers tended to shift the blame away from the German submarines and onto the American bankers and arms manufacturers.

134. Policy of appeasement A. Disarmament - Tackled by Harding at the Washington Disarmament Conference in 1921 – 1922.
Secretary of State Hughes declared a 10-year moratorium of battleship building and even proposed scrapping current ships. The ratio of America's and Britain's and Japan's navies would be 5:5:3. The Five-Power Naval Treaty of 1922 stated that the U.S. and British would not fortify their Pacific bases, but Japan could. The Four-Power Treaty between Britain, Japan, France, and the U.S. replaced the AngloJapanese Treaty and preserved Pacific status-quo. B. Neutrality Legislation - Responding to overwhelming popular pressure, Congress passed the Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, and 1937. The acts stated that when the president proclaimed the existence of a foreign war, certain restrictions would automatically go into effect. No American could legally sail on a

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belligerent ship, sell or transport munitions to a belligerent, or make loans to a belligerent. The Neutrality Acts were made to keep the United States out of a conflict. By declining to use its vast industrial strength to aid its democratic friends and defeat its totalitarian foes, the United States helped to provoke the aggressors. C. Pacific Appeasement- In 1937, the Japanese militarists touched off an explosion that led to the all-out invasion of China. President Roosevelt declined to invoke the recently passed neutrality legislation by refusing to call the "China incident" an officially declared war. If he had, he would have cut off the trickle of munitions on which the Chinese were dependent. The Japanese, as a result, were able to continue to buy war supplies in the United States. In 1937, Japanese planes sunk an American gunboat, the Panay. Tokyo was quick to make apologies and the United States accepted. D. Events leading to the Munich Conference - In 1935, Hitler violated the Treaty of Versailles when he introduced mandatory military service in Germany. In 1936, he again violated the treaty when he took over the demilitarized German Rhineland. In March 1938, Hitler invaded Austria. (Note: Austria actually voted for the occupation, fully aware that if it resisted, Germany would forcefully take over Austria). At the Munich Conference in September 1938, the Western European democracies, unprepared for war, betrayed Czechoslovakia to Germany when they gave away Sudetenland. They hoped that by doing this, Hitler's greed for power would end. In March 1939, Hitler took control of Czechoslovakia. E. Poland - On August 23, 1939, the Soviet Union signed a nonaggression treaty with Hitler. The HitlerStalin pact meant that Germany could make war on Poland and the Western democracies without fear of retaliation from the Soviet Union. Hitler demanded from Poland a return of the areas taken from Germany after WWI. After Poland failed to meet his demands, Hitler militarily invaded Poland on September 1, 1939. Britain and France, honoring their commitments to Poland, declared war on Germany; World War II had started. F. America's Response - Although Americans were strongly anti-Nazi, they were desperately determined to stay out of the war. The Neutrality Act of 1937 lifted the arms embargo against Britain and France. Heeding to the need of France and Britain of war materials from America, Congress passed the Neutrality Act of 1939. It stated that the European democracies could buy American war materials as long as they would transport the munitions on their own ships after paying for them in cash. America thus avoided loans, war debts, and the torpedoing of American arms-carriers by the German U-Boats. Overseas demand for war goods brought a sharp upswing from the recession of 1937-1938 and ultimately solved the decade-long unemployment crisis. 135. Prime Minister Chamberlain – British PM who signed over the Sudetenland to Hitler at the Munich Conference. His famous last words were “"My good friends, for the second time in our history a British Prime Minister has returned from Germany bringing peace with honour. I believe it is peace for our time."

136. Truman's decision to use the Atomic Bomb, 1945 A. Yalta Conference – February 1945, the Big Three (Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin) met in Yalta to
discuss the war's end. Poland was granted a representative government with free elections, though Stalin later changed that. Bulgaria and Romania were also granted similar elections, and again Stalin saw to it that only communist parties could run. They also announced plans for fashioning a new international peacekeeping organization-the United Nations. FDR wanted Stalin to join the war against Stalin but he refused until he was promised the southern half of Sakhalin Island, lost by Russia to Japan in 1905, and Japan's Kurile Islands. The Soviet Union was also granted control over the railroads of China's Manchuria and special privileges in the two key seaports of that area, Dairen and Port Arthur. These concessions gave Stalin control over vital industrial centers of America's weakening Chinese ally. B. Potsdam Conference – July 1945 near Berlin, it sounded the death knell of the Japanese. President Truman met with Joseph Stalin and the British leaders. The conference issued a stern ultimatum to Japan: surrender or be destroyed. Amreicanb bombers showered Japan with millions of leaflets warning them of an enormous attack if their leaders did not surrender. C. The Japanese still refusing to surrender, so on August 6th, 1945, the first of two atomic bombs was dropped on Hiroshima. It was nicknamed “Little Boy” and flown on the Enola Gay by Col. Paul Tibbets. D. On August 8, Stalin invaded the Japanese defenses of Manchuria and Korea. After the Japanese still

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refused to surrender, the second atomic bomb – nicknamed “Fat Boy” and flown on Bocks Car by Maj. Charles Sweeny – was dropped on Nagasaki on August 9. E. On August 10, 1945, Tokyo surrendered under the condition that Hirohito be allowed to remain the emperor. The Allies accepted this condition on August 14, 1945. The formal end to the war came on September 2, 1945.

1940s & 1950s 137. "Dixiecrats" – (See #165, Strom Thurmond) 138. "McCarthyism" – the name for the anti-communist witch hunt which arose during the Cold war when
many Americans feared the Soviet Union and the spread of communism, started by senator Joseph McCarthy a ruthless pro-democracy crusader. He claimed that there were many communists who were knowing employed by the government and set out to hunt them down but never found a single one. He often used this crusade to attack political opponents of the Republicans, especially the Democrats. When he attacked the U.S. Army in 1954, he was kicked out of the Senate for unsportsman-like conduct. 139. 38th parallel – The Korean War – A. When Japan collapsed in 1945, Korea had been divided up into two sections: the Soviets controlled the north above the 38th parallel and the United States controlled south of that line. On June 25, 1950, the North Korean army invaded South Korea. President Truman's National Security Council had recommended NSC-68, calling for the quadrupling of the United States' defense spending. Truman ordered a massive military buildup, well beyond what was necessary for the Korean War. NSC-68 was a key document of the Cold War because it not only marked a major step in the militarization of American foreign policy, but it reflected the sense of almost limitless possibility that encompassed postwar American society. B. On June 25, 1950, President Truman obtained from the United Nations Security Council a unanimous condemnation of North Korea as an aggressor. (The Soviet Union was not present at the meeting.) Without Congress's approval, Truman ordered American air and naval units to be sent to support South Korea. C. On September 15, 1950, General MacArthur succeeded in pushing the North Koreans past the 38th parallel. On November 1950, though, hordes of communist Chinese "volunteers" attacked the U.N. forces, pushing them back to the 38th parallel. Due to General MacArthur's insubordination and disagreement with the Joint Chiefs of Staff about increasing the size of the war, President Truman was forced to remove MacArthur from command on April 11, 1951. In July 1951, truce discussions dragged out over the issue of prisoner exchange. D. True to his campaign promise, President Eisenhower attempted to end the Korean War. In July 1953, after Eisenhower threatened to use nuclear weapons, an armistice was signed, ending the Korean War. Despite the Korean War, Korea remained divided at the 38th Parallel. 140. Berlin Airlift – A massive plan to keep supplies going into west Berlin after a Soviet blockade tried to starve the Allies out. The blockade was finally lifted in May 1949, but by then the Cold War governments were formed and tensions would continue for four decades. 141. Brown v. Board of Education, 1954 – landmark Supreme Court case in which Chief Justice Earl Warrren surprised the nation by ruling segregation in public schools was unconstitutional. This progress in civil rights was disliked by many in the South, especially Orval Faubus, the Governor of Arkansas who sent in the state's National Guard to prevent nine black students from attending Little Rock High. President Eisenhower followed up by sending the U.S. Army in to allow the students to attend, even though he didn't agree with integration. Faubus had the last word by closing the school system. 142. Chiang Kai-Shek – he fought against the Japanese during WWII, he was the leader of the Chinese nationalist party, the US supported him even though he was corrupt b/c he promised to fight communism, was overthrown by Mao Zedong and the communists . 143. Chief Justice Earl Warren – (See #141, Brown v. Board of Education, 1954) 144. Cold War – a tense standoff that began after World War Two because of mistrust between America and the U.S.S.R. It lasted for nearly four decades and shaped the lives of almost everyone on the planet.

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145. Containment – doctrine devised by George F. Kennan, a young soviet specialist, which thought that the
vigorous spread of Soviet communism could be controlled by firm containment from the US. Truman took his advice and announced he was getting firm with the U.S.S.R. 146. Dave Beck – In 1959, a drastic labor-reform bill grew out of recurrent strikes in important industries and corruption in unions. The Teamsters Union leader, "Dave" Beck was sentenced to prison for embezzlement. When his union replaced him with James R. Hoffa, the AFL-CIO expelled the Teamsters. Hoffa was later jailed for jury tampering. Later, President Eisenhower passed the Landrum-Griffin Act. It was designed to bring labor leaders to book for financial shenanigans and to prevent bullying tactics. 147. Dien Bien Phu – site of a French garrison in Vietnam that was attacked in 1954 by Vietnamese nationals led by Ho Chi Minh. Eisenhower decided not to intervene and the French were kicked out of Vietnam. A conference at Geneva halted the communist nationals at the 17th parallel. A pro-Western government was formed at Saigon by Ngo Dinh Diem and nation-wide elections were supposed to occur, but the U.S. postponed them indefinitely for fear of a communist takeover. The U.S. still managed to send the SouthVietnamese economic and military aid. 148. Dwight Eisenhower – ?????

149. Eisenhower and the Suez Crisis – A. In 1953, in an effort to secure Iranian oil for Western countries, the CIA engineered a coup that installed
Mohammed Reza Pahlevi as the dictator of Iran. President Nasser of Egypt was seeking funds to build a dam on the Nile River. After associating with the communists, secretary of state Dulles pulled back U.S. monetary aid for Egypt. As a result, Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal, which was owned by the French and British. In October of 1956, the Suez Crisis ensued as the French and British launched an assault on Egypt. The two countries were forced to withdraw their troops as America refused to release emergency supplies of oil to them. B. In 1957, Congress proclaimed the Eisenhower Doctrine, pledging U.S. military and economic aid to Middle Eastern nations threatened by communist aggression. C. In 1960, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iraq, Iran, and Venezuela joined together to form the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). 150. Eisenhower Doctrine – (See #149.B, Eisenhower and the Suez Crisis)

151. Formation of NATO – A. The Cold War, the struggle to contain Soviet communism, was not a war, yet it was not a peace. In 1947,
Congress passed the National Security Act, creating the Department of Defense. The department was headed by a new cabinet officer, the Secretary of Defense. Under the Secretary were the civilian Secretaries of the Navy, the Army, and the Air Force. The uniformed heads of each service were brought together as the Joint Chiefs of Staff. B. The National Security Act also established the National Security Council (NSC) to advise the president on security matters and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to coordinate the government's foreign fact-gathering. C. In 1948, the United States joined the European pact, called the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). American participation strengthened the policy of containing the Soviet Union and provided a framework for the reintegration of Germany into the European family. The pact pledged each signed nation to regard an attack on one as an attack on all. The Senate passed the treaty on July 21, 1949. D. The NATO pact marked a dramatic departure from American diplomatic convention, a gigantic boost for European unification, and a significant step in the militarization of the Cold War. 152. Formation of SEATO – the Southeast Asian Treaty Organization – designed to protect South Vietnam and other Asian countries from communist influence. 153. General MacArthur's resignation - ????? 154. Goals of the Fair Deal – Truman's plan for social improvements, it called for improved housing, full employment, a higher minimum wage, better farm price supports, new TVAs, and an extension of Social Security. The only major successes came in raising the minimum wage, providing for public housing in the Housing Act of 1949, and extending old-age insurance to many more beneficiaries in the Social Security Act of 1950.

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155. Ho Chi Minh – (See #147, Dien Bien Phu) 156. James R. Hoffa – (See #146, Dave Beck) 157. John Foster Dulles – Secretary of State under Eisenhower who, in 1954, proposed a plan in which
Eisenhower would set aside the army and the navy to build up an air fleet of superbombers (called the Strategic Air Command, or SAC) equipped with nuclear bombs. This would allow President Eisenhower to threaten countries such as the Soviet Union and China with nuclear weapons. Dulles didn't just want to contain communism, he wanted to push it back, so he supported the military doctrine of “massive retaliation”. 158. Mao Zedong – In late 1949, the Chinese Nationalist government of Generalissimo Jiang Jieshi was forced to flee the country to the island of Formosa (Taiwan) when the communists, led by Mao Zedong, swept over the country. The collapse of Nationalist China was a depressing loss for America and its allies in the Cold War as ¼ of the world's population fell to communism. Mainland China was recognized as the real China by the U.S.S.R. while Taiwan was recognized by the West. 159. Marshall Plan – In 1947, France, Italy, and Germany were all suffering from the hunger and economic chaos caused in that year. Secretary of State George C. Marshall invited the Europeans to get together and work out a joint plan for their economic recovery. If they did so, then the United States would provide substantial financial assistance. Marshall offered the same aid to the Soviet Union and its allies, but the Soviets refused it. Although quite expensive, legislators passed the plan after realizing that the United States had to get Europe back on its feet. Within a few years, Europe's economy was flourishing. The Marshall Plan led to the eventual creation of the European Community (EC).

160. Martin Luther King – A. A black civil rights leader who believed in using peaceful demonstrations and civil disobedience instead
of violence as means of getting equality, helped register blacks to vote in South.; led the Montgomery bus boycott, killed in 1968 by James Earl Ray. B. In 1957, Congress passed the first Civil Rights Act since Reconstruction Days. It set up a permanent Civil Rights Commission to investigate violations of civil rights and authorized federal injunctions to protect voting rights. Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. formed the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) in 1957. It aimed to mobilize the vast power of the black churches on behalf of black rights. In April 1960, southern black students formed the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) to give more focus and force to their efforts. 161. Nikita Khrushchev – the head of Soviet Union, he followed in Stalin's footsteps and tried to force communism on weak countries, supported Castro. At the Geneva summit conference in 1955, President Eisenhower attempted to make peace with the new Soviet Union dictator, Nikita Khrushchev, following Stalin's death. Peace negotiations were rejected. 162. Post-World War II U.S. policy in the Middle East – (See #149, Eisenhower and the Suez Crisis) 163. Security Council of the UN – Comprised of representatives of 15 member nations. Five countries (U.S., England, France, China, and Russia) are permanent members while the others rotate. The chief responsibility of the council is to maintain world peace. 164. Sherman Adams – Eisenhower's Chief of Staff for six years. He resigned after receiving an expensive fur coat and left Eisenhower's administration directionless for its last two years. 165. Strom Thurmond – Governor of South Carolina who was elected as the Southern Democrats' (dixiecrats – States' Rights Party ticket) nominee in the Election of 1948. He split the party's votes but Truman still won. 166. Syngman Rhee – ????? 167. Taft-Hartley Act – Passed in 1947 by the Republican Congress over Truman's veto. It outlawed the "closed" (all-union) shop, made unions liable for damages that resulted from jurisdictional disputes among themselves, and required union leaders to take a noncommunist oath. Taft-Hartley was just one of several obstacles that slowed the growth of organized labor in the years following WWII. 168. Thomas Dewey – The Republican's candidate in the Election of 1948, he was defeated by the incumbent Democrat Truman. 169. Thurgood Marshall – The first black Supreme Court Justice, he was previously the chief legal counsel for the NAACP and ruled in high court that separate professional schools for blacks were unconstitutional.

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170. Truman Doctrine, 1947 – President Truman embraced the policy of containment in 1947 when he
stated that Britain could no longer bear the financial and military burden of defending Greece against communist pressures. If Greece fell, Turkey and the rest of the eastern Mediterranean would collapse to the Soviet Union. On March 12, 1947, President Truman came before Congress and requested support for the Truman Doctrine. He declared that it must be the policy of the United States to aid any country that was resisting communist aggression. 171. Truman Plan – (See #170, Truman Doctrine, 1947) 172. Vo Nguyen Giap – ?????

1960s 173. "Children's Crusade" – ????? 174. 1964 Presidential Election – The Democrats nominated Lyndon Johnson to run for president for the
election of 1964. The Republicans chose Senator Barry Goldwater. Goldwater attacked the federal income tax, the Social Security System, the Tennessee Valley Authority, civil rights legislation, the nuclear test-ban treaty, and the Great Society.

175. 1968 Democratic Party convention – A. On June 5, 1968, the night of the California primary, Robert Kennedy was shot and killed by an Arab
immigrant resentful of the candidate's pro-Israel views. When the Democrats met in Chicago in August 1968, angry antiwar zealots, protesting outside the convention hall, violently clashed with police. Hubert H. Humphrey, vice president of Johnson, won the Democratic nomination. B. The Republicans nominated Richard Nixon for president and Spiro T. Agnew for vice president. The Republican platform called for a victory in Vietnam and a strong anticrime policy. The American Independent party, headed by George C. Wallace, entered the race and called for the continuation of segregation of blacks. Nixon Won. 176. American base at Guantanamo Bay – Cancún for suspected terrorists, obviously. 177. Assassination of Robert Kennedy – (See #175.A, 1968 Democratic Party convention) 178. Barry Goldwater – (See #174, 1964 Presidential Election)

179. Bay of Pigs Invasion of Cuba, 1961 – A. In 1961, President Kennedy extended the American hand of friendship to Latin America with the Alliance
for Progress, called the Marshall Plan for Latin America. A primary goal was to help the Latin American countries close the gap between the rich and the poor, and thus quiet communist agitation. Results were disappointing as America had few positive impacts on Latin America's immense social problems. B. Bay of Pigs Invasion – On April 17, 1961, 1,200 exiles landed at Cuba's Bay of Pigs. President Kennedy was against the direct intervention of the overthrow of Fidel Castro in Cuba, failing to provide air support for the exiles. The invasion therefore failed as the exiles were forced to surrender. C. Cuban Missile Crisis – The Bay of Pigs blunder pushed the Cuban leader further into the Soviet embrace. In October 1962, it was discovered that the Soviets were secretly installing nuclear missiles in Cuba. Kennedy rejected air force proposals for a bombing strike against the missile sites. Instead, on October 22, 1962, he ordered a naval "quarantine" of Cuba and demanded immediate removal of the weapons. For a week, Americans waited while Soviet ships approached the patrol line established by the U.S. Navy off the island of Cuba. On October 28, Khrushchev agreed to a compromise in which he would pull the missiles out of Cuba. The American government also agreed to end the quarantine and not invade the island. D. In late 1963, a pact prohibiting trial nuclear explosions in the atmosphere was signed. In June 1963, President Kennedy gave a speech at American University, Washington, D.C. encouraging Americans to abandon the negative views of the Soviet Union. He tried to lay the foundations for a realistic policy of peaceful coexistence with the Soviet Union. 180. Cesar Chavez – head of the United Farmworkers organization Committee; improved work conditions

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for crop harvesters, "stoop laborers"; made possible under the AFL 181. Charles DeGaulle - President of France, didn't trust the U.S., prevented Britain from entering the "Atlantic Community"; didn't let NATO build up nuclear arms within France, took France out of NATO because he shared many Europeans' view that the U.S. went too far in Vietnam. 182. Cold War – (See #144, same name) 183. Containment – (See #145, same name) 184. Cuban Missile Crisis – (See #179, Bay of Pigs Invasion of Cuba, 1961) 185. Daniel Elisberg – (See #209, Pentagon Papers)

186. Dennis Banks 187. Domino theory – Theory that as one Pacific nation fell to communism, the whole Asian continent would
follow. The first nation was Vietnam, but no other countries followed. 188. Flexible response – JFK and McNamara used this doctrine which was an array of military options that could be matched to the importance of the crisis, (Laos, China, or Vietnam) JFK increased spending on conventional military forces and bolstered the Special Forces, replaced the policy of "massive retaliation"

189. 190. 191. 192. 193. 194. 195. 196. 197. 198. 199. 200. 201. 202. 203. 204. 205.

Freedom Riders Fulbright, The Arrogance of Power, 1966 George McGovem George Wallace George Wallace & Curtis LeMay Great Society Ho Chi Minh – (See #147, Dien Bien Phu) Hubert Humphrey – (See #175.A, 1968 Democratic Party convention) James Baldwin James Meredith JFK's assassination, 1963 JFK's blockade of Cuba, 1962 King, "I Have a Dream," 1963 LBJ sends combat troops to Vietnam, 1965 Malcolm X Martin Luther King – (See #160, same name) Miranda v. Arizona, 1966 – Miranda Decision – controversial case, insured right of accused to remain

silent, thereby protecting against confessions forced under torture.

206. Nikita Khrushchev - Krushchev authorized building of nuclear warheads in Cuba (90 mi. from US) that were
aimed at US (Cuban Missile Crisis), after a show down between he and JFK and Krushchev was forced to back down, 1962 Kitchen Debate- famous debate between Nixon and Soviet leader Krushchev in Moscow where Nixon staunchly defended 207.American democracy, Nixon gained support by showing that he was capable of confronting and dealing w/ the Soviets

208. Nixon, "1st Inaugural Address," 1969 209. Pentagon Papers – top secret Pentagon study of US's involvement in the Vietnam, which leaked to
press by Daniel Ellsberg. The documents revealed that JFK and LBJ had deceived the American public by provoking the 1964 North Vietnamese attack in the Gulf of Tonkin, therefore showing that the Vietnam was was wholly unjust. It led to further antiwar sentiment and forced Nixon to look even harder into ending involvement in Vietnam 210. Post-World War II U.S. policy in the Middle East – (See #149, Eisenhower and the Suez Crisis)

211. 212. 213. 214. 215.

Richard Daley Richard Nixon & Spiro Agnew Robert Kennedy Robert McNamara Russeil Means Page 18 of 20 Toxic-Penguin.com

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216. TET offensive of 1968 – During Vietnamese New Year (Tet) in January 1968, the Viet Cong attacked
27 key South Vietnamese cities, including Saigon. The Tet Offensive ended in a military defeat for the VC, but it caused the American public to demand an immediate end to the war. American military leaders responded to the attacks for a request of 200,000 more troops. President Johnson himself now began to seriously doubt the wisdom of continuing to raise the stakes. 217. The Feminine Mystique by Betty Friedan – Betty Friedan launched the modern women's movement in 1963. “The Feminine Mystique" is classic feminist protest literature, it indicted boring housework and helped women who were working from feeling guilty for being non- feminine. 218. Vo Nguyen Giap – (See #172, same name)

1970s 219. 220. 221. 222. 223. 224. 225. 226. 227. 228. 229. 230. 231. 232. 233. 234. 235. 236. 237. 238. 239. 1980s 240. 241. 242. 243. 244. 245. 246. 247. 248. "Supply-side economics" 1992 Presidential Campaign and Health Care 1st Persian Gulf War Boycott of the 1980 Olympics Colin Powell Fall of the Soviet Union George H. W. Bush George H. W. Bush and the Persian Gulf War, 1991 George W. Bush (43rd), Iraq and Afghanistan Page 19 of 20 Toxic-Penguin.com "Whip Inflation Now" campaign Alfred Kinsey Arab Oil Embargo Camp David Accords Carter, Address on Camp David Accords, 1978 Carter, Sadat, Begin at Camp David, 1978 Cold War – (See #144, same name) Détente Eugene McCarthy Helsinki Accords James E.Carter Nixon pardon Nixon visits China, 1972 Panama Canal Treaty of 1978 Post-World War II U.S. policy in the Middle East – (See #149, Eisenhower and the Suez Crisis) SALT I Sam Ervin Sandra Day O'Connor War Powers Act (1973) Watergate hearings Yom Kippur War -

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249. 250. 251. 252. 253. 254. 255. 256. 257. 258. 259. 260. 261. 262.

Gramm-Rudman-Hoilings Act, 1986 Invasion of Grenada Invasion of Panama (1989) Iran-Contra affair Madeline Albright Mikhail Gorbachev Moscow Summit Reagan and Bush intervene in Nicaragua and El Salvador Reagan's New Federalism Savings and loan faiiures of the 1980s Strategic Defense initiative Trends in American society in the 1990s Vladimir Putin William Clinton -

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