Navigacija je sposobnosti voljenja broda, aviona ili svemirskog broda od jedne do druge tacke na zemlji ili nebeskom tijelu, najkracim, najskigurnijim i najbrzim putem

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PPC

Navigacija je sposobnosti voljenja broda, aviona ili svemirskog broda od jedne do druge tacke na zemlji ili nebeskom tijelu, najkracim, najskigurnijim i najbrzim putem

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This is a facility whereby electronic lines can be drawn on the screen. The position, length and

orientation of the lines can be adjusted, thus making it possible to produce parallel indexing lines

and to draw navigational limits in channels, traffic separation schemes, poor-response coastlines

etc. It is also possible to indicate points of interest such as isolated rocks and buoys with

symbols.

These allow the observer to prepare and store the pattern at a convenient time when passage

planning and subsequently to recall it when required. It is possible to move the map around the

screen in order to align it with displayed radar echoes. The facility is generally used in

association with automatic ground-stabilization.

The potential point of collision

The potential point of collision (PPC) is that point toward which own ship should steer at her

present speed (assuming that the target does not manoeuvre) in order for a collision to occur.

The reason for displaying the PPCs is that they assist in developing a collision avoidance

strategy by showing the observer, at a glance, the courses, which are completely unacceptable,

because they intersect a collision point.

They do not give any indication of miss distance (other than in the zero case) and any attempt to

extrapolate the clearing distance either side of the point is dangerous. A safe course is one which,

among other things, results in passing at a safe distance, which implies knowledge of clearing

distance.

Safe and effective use of PPC does depend upon a thorough understanding of the factors, which

affect their location and movement.

The concept of collision points

When two ships are in the same area of sea, it is always possible for them to collide. The point(s)

at which collision can occur may be defined and depends upon:

The speed ratio of the two ships,

The position of the two ships.

Considering any two ships, usually one is moving faster than the other; the possibility that one is

at exactly the same speed as the other and will maintain that ratio for any period of time is quite

unlikely, though it may also happen.

The ship which is the faster of the two will always see displayed one and only one collision point,

since it can pursue the target if necessary.

The ship, which is the slower of the two, may see displayed two collision points, both of which

must be on the target track.

One exists where the slow ship heads toward the target and intercepts it, while another exists

where the slow ship heads away from the target but is struck by it.

Alternately there may be no way for the slower ship to collide with the faster (even though the

faster may collide with the slower) because it is just not fast enough to reach the target

Note A critical in-between case of one collision point exists where the slow ship can just reach

the track of the fast ship.

It is important to realize that collision points exist, whether an actual collision threat exists or

not. The only significance is that in the event of an actual collision threat, the collision points are

the same for both ships.

The behaviour of the collision point when the target ships speed changes

If the speed ratio is infinitely large, e.g. when the target is stationary, then obviously the collision

point is at the position of the target. If the observing ship maintains speed while the target begins

to increase speed, the collision point will begin to move along the target track. When the target

speed has increased to that of the observing ship, the secondary collision point will appear at

infinity. Further increase of the target speed will move the primary and secondary collision

points toward each other (not necessarily by equal amounts); eventually, own speed in

comparison to target speed may be so slow that the two points will merge and then disappear.

The behaviour of the collision point when the target changes course

If the two ships have the same speed, the collision point moves on a locus, which is the

perpendicular bisector of the line joining the two ships. The greater the aspect, the farther away

the collision point will be. Theoretically, the limiting aspect in this case is 90, but then the

collision point would be at infinity and hence an aspect of some 85 plus is considered the

practical limit.

For a slower observing ship

When the observing ship is slower than the target, two collision points exist. And they are seen to

be on the circumference of a circle whose centre and radius are dependent of the speed ratio; the

circle is always on the observing ship side of the unity speed ratio locus. A limiting aspect can

be defined which is also dependent on the speed ratio. A slower own ship will mean that a target

will have a smaller limiting aspect angle.

Aspects greater than the limit pose no hazard since the observing ship can never catch up with the

target.

When the observing ship is the faster, the circle of collision points lies on the target side of the

equal-speed locus. As the aspect increases, the collision point moves farther away from the

observing ship. There is no limiting aspect and collision is always possible.

This is effectively a limiting course for the observing ship, if the actual heading is to the remote

side of this line, all collision points appear on the one bow. If own heading is inside this limiting

direction, the collision point will move across the heading marker as the target changes aspect.

Example:

Own Ship on course of 000 (T) and at a speed of 10 knots, observes as follows:

Time

0923

Bearing Range

037 (T)

10.3 NM

0929

036(T)

8.5 NM

0935

034(T)

6.7 NM

2

1

If vessel alters course to port (O) then there would be collision at point P1.

And if she alters course more to port nearly same as that of the target then too there would be

collision at P2

How to draw:

Draw the normal plot. Extend the line WA to beyond the plot.

From centre C, draw a line to A and extend it beyond the plot.

Draw an arc centred on W, with radius as WO so as to cut the new line CA extended.

Name the points of intersection O and O.

Join WO and WO. These are the new course to steer for collision to occur.

Draw parallel line to WO and WO from C, so as to cut the extended line WA.

Measure off the Bearing and distance of points P1 and P2 from C.

These are the two PPCs.

The predicted area of danger (PAD)

The shortcomings of collision points can be listed as follows:

Inaccuracies in data acquisition are likely to displace the points.

No account is taken of the dimensions of the ships involved.

They offer no quantitative indication of miss distance, which is the essential data required for

collision avoidance.

The logical development is to construct, around the PPC, a plane figure which is associated with

a chosen passing distance and in the calculation of which due margin of safety can be allowed for

the effects of data inaccuracies and the physical dimensions of the vessels involved.

The area within the figure is to be avoided to achieve at least the chosen passing distance and is

referred to as a predicted area of danger or PAD. It is essential that the user has a thorough

understanding of the principles underlying the presentation with particular reference to the

location, movement, shape and change of shape of the PAD. As will be seen from the following

explanation, this is not a simple subject.

In the case of the collision point there is a course which intercepts the targets track at the given

speed ratio, whereas in the predicted area of danger there are generally two intersection

points. One of these is where the observing ship will pass ahead of the target and the other where

the observing ship will pass astern of the target. The angle subtended by these two limiting

courses will depend upon:

The speed ratio.

The position of the target.

The aspect of the target.

As shown in the case of the collision point, a faster observing ship must always generate a single

cross-ahead and cross-astern position. A slower observing ship produces much more complex

possibilities and, depending on the three variables noted above, these might include:

Two cross ahead and two cross-astern points.

One cross ahead and two cross-astern points.

Two cross-astern points.

No hazard.

In the case of the single or primary collision point, the position at which the observing ship will

cross ahead of the target is always farther from the target than the collision point, while the crossastern point is always nearer to the target.

In the case of a slower observing ship, where there is a secondary collision point, the second

cross-ahead position is nearer to the target and the associated cross-astern position more remote

from it.

To indicate limits within the cross-ahead/cross astern arc, it is necessary to draw a bar parallel to

the targets track and at the intended miss-distance closer to the observing ships position.

The limits defined by the arc and the bar are such that, if the observing ship were to cross those

limits, then it would be at a less distance than the desired miss-distance from the target.

The PAD in practice

In order to produce an acceptable system for practical operation, these limits are normally

encapsulated by a symmetrical figure such as an ellipse or a hexagon.

In the case of the ellipse, the major axis is equal to the difference between the cross-ahead and

cross-astern distances as measured from the target, while the minor axis is equal to twice the

intended miss-distance. In the case of the hexagon, it is drawn from a rectangle and two isosceles

triangles. The base of the triangle is always twice the miss-distance and the vertical height is one

quarter of the distance. It should be noted that the collision point is not necessarily at the centre of

either of the traditional figures.

In many cases the stylized figures do not follow the limits exactly, but any bias is on the safe side.

Changes in the shape of the PAD

Due to the lack of symmetry in the geometry, which generates the area, the cross-ahead and

cross-astern positions do not move symmetrically about the collision point when the missdistance is changed. The cross ahead position usually moves more markedly than the crossastern position, showing the movement of the two collision points, where the primary movement

is much slower than the secondary. The overall result is an asymmetrical growth of the area with

the cross-ahead position moving rapidly away from the collision point.

The movement of the PAD

As in the case of the collision point, when a danger area is violated by the heading marker the

danger area will continue to move down the heading marker with the cross-ahead and crossastern points on opposite bows. The shape of the danger area may change but it will never move

off the heading marker. In the case of a slower ship, where either of the two predicted areas is

violated, the other will move in toward the target and eventually merge with the one on the

heading marker.

In the limiting case where the observing ships heading marker just touches the limit of either of

the predicted areas of danger, the limit will remain in contact with the heading marker, although

the shape of the area may change considerably.

In the non-collision case where the heading marker does not violate one of the danger areas, the

areas themselves will move across the screen, changing in shape and position. In the case of the

dual areas of danger, although the movement will generally be the same as that shown for the

dual collision points, a special case can arise when two danger areas may merge. This special

case indicates the possibility of two cross- astern positions existing but no cross-ahead

position. It is also possible that cross- astern positions may exist and an area of danger be drawn,

which does not embrace an actual collision point.

Special cases

In some cases, for example, an end on encounter, a cross-ahead and cross-astern position is not

valid. In this context it is necessary to consider a pass-to-port and pass-to-starboard as defining

the limits of the miss distance. In the practical case, this results in the generation of a circle about

the targets position.

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