Chapter 3 Cellular Concept and GSM

Abstract: This chapter is focused on the basic conceptual issues of wireless cellular networks. The chapter starts with the rationale behind the development of cellular system. The architecture of the cellular networks is then described considering the most popular cellular GSM system. Subsequently we go through the frequency reuse, channel assignment and interference issues in cellular systems. Hand off management and location tracking in cellular systems is then described. This section also includes the discussion on a set models and engineering methods that are required to design the infrastructure network for wireless voice services. The discussion on this chapter considers only the wireless voice service.

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Initially, the prime objective behind designing a wireless system for public was obtaining a good coverage area for voice communication. This objective was successfully achieved by the introduction of high powered wireless transmitters and receivers. However, this technique had two inherent problems: 1. The absence of large spectrum capacity was the major problem behind supporting all wireless users under the same coverage area. Historically, the Bell systems in New York City were capable to support only 12 simultaneous calls over 1000 sq. miles [11] when they implemented the experimental service. Let us determine the number of wireless channels required to introduce this system for New York City.

Example 3.1

Assume: 6 M people in the city 25 % penetration rate of wireless service 50 m Erlang traffic/user during the busy hour 30 KHz bandwidth of any one-way channel Total busy-hour traffic = 6.106 X 0.25X50.10-3 = 75,000 Erlang Assuming 90 % average occupancy of a channel, total bandwidth required is: 75000 X 0.9 X 2 X 30.10 3 = 5GHz It is impossible to get such a high spectrum to support the system. 2. The scheme was not capable to offer mobility among the users once they move out of the single coverage area of the terminal. The reason behind it lies in the limited transmission range of the hand-held, mobile terminals. The power of radio waves emitted by the mobiles decreases with inverse squared distance, even in the empty space. A portable battery powered terminal can support wireless links that are only few miles from the TRX/RCV at the best. So city wide coverage of both way communications is not possible. This scarcity of spectrum and the increasing demand for mobile communications compelled the regulatory agencies to wireless telephone system for achieving better capacity and good coverage area, even with limited wireless spectrum. The advent of cellular concept was the first major breakthrough to deal with this spectral scarcity, while providing the users a freedom of being mobile. In order to cope up with the limited transmission range of the mobile devices, the concept of a single, high power transmitter was replaced by a large number of low power transmitters and receivers. These transmitters and receivers are scattered over the entire coverage area, each covering only a small zone, termed cell. This chapter deals with the underlying architectural and operational concepts of the cellular networks with a focus on the widely deployed GSM (Global System for Mobile communications). GSM is the second generation mobile system (2G), based on digital cellular technology. The first generation wireless systems like, North American AMPS, were an analog cellular system that used analog mode of wireless communications. Most of the analog mode systems in the world have been replaced by 2G digital technology today. The prime objective of 2G system

is to provide reliable wireless voice service to user, thus most of the system parameters are optimized for voice communications only in the 2G system. Spectrum: During 1950s and early 1960s United States and other developed countries started working on the design of their cellular network. AT&T proposed the cellular network concept to FCC in 1968, but commercial technology was not ready before late 1970s. In 1983 FCC first allocated 40 MHz frequency for cellular radio system in USA. Thus the first generation analog cellular system started at different parts of the world as a local experimental system without any global co-ordination. The first generation wireless systems like, North American AMPS, were an analog cellular system that used analog mode of wireless communications. Different spectrum, channel and modulation techniques are used at different parts of the world. Table~1 provides an overview of these different first generation systems.

Table-1: Different Channel and Modulation Schemes

The second generation digital systems attempt to achieve a global seamless operation. Initially three systems got introduced, namely, North American TDMA, European GSM and Japan's JDC system. Although the North American TDMA system was introduced in Canada/USA, the rapid success of GSM through its partnership project made it the de-facto standards outside the CDMA technology. Hence, most of the North American technologies are either changed to GSM or in CDMA. By 2004 Number of GSM subscriber’s world wide reached close to 1.6 billions GSM phones. GSM is the second generation mobile system (2G), based on digital cellular technology. Most of the analog mode systems in the world have been replaced by 2G digital technology. The prime objective of 2G system is to provide reliable wireless voice service to user, thus most of the system parameters are obtained for voice communications only. The Japan's JDC system is still in operation and Japan is fast migrating to 3G WCDMA standards. The Table~2 provides a brief comparison between these three digital systems.

Table-2: Digital Systems of the World

Example 3.2: Find the total numbers of voice channels supported in the
2G European, North American and Japanese systems. Compute the total amount of bits per second supported in three systems. What is the efficiency of radio spectrum (bits/Hz) of these three systems? Today most of the second generation systems are GSM (Global System for Mobile communications); hence, we will consider GSM as typical cellular system to illustrate the concept of Cellular working. This GSM system has considerable impact on the implementation of the wireless Internet as circuit switched GSM voice network will migrate to GPRS data network to provide early version of wireless internet services. This chapter explains the working of cellular voice networks and its analysis by assuming the GSM system architecture. The prime objective of GSM 2G system is to provide reliable wireless voice service to user, thus most of the system parameters are optimized in GSM system for voice communications only. The basic architecture of cellular networks is described in Section~ 2 : the Architecture. Section~3 provides a discussion on wireless channel usage in the cellular system. The important topics discussed in this section includes the frequency reuse and channel assignment techniques. Subsequently, we have taken a look into the associated radio interference issues in Section ~4. Section~ 5 deals with the mobility management of wireless user in the cellular system. The important topics discussed in this section include the management of hand off and location tracking in cellular system.

2. Cellular Architecture
A close look into the cellular systems, shown in Figure~1 reveals the existence of different architectural components (sub-systems) in its internal domain. The canonical architecture of cellular systems (GSM in particular) consists of three major parts: the mobile terminal (MT), Base Station Subsystem (BSS) and the Network and Switching Subsystem (NSS). The most important component of BSS is Base Transceiver Station (BTS) and for NSS the Mobile Switching Center (MSC) [24, 19, 32]. Apart from these three components, the manufacturer specific Operation Sub-System (OSS) is also an integral part of cellular networks. As shown in Figure~ 1, using a wireless link, the MTs communicate with the BSS, which in turn contacts the MSC to set up a connection with other MTs or external networks~[35].

The wireless link is a common resource shared by all the active MTs of a cell. There are two types of wireless links:

Figure-1: Basic Cellular Concept

(1) the up-link or forward channel establishes one way wireless connection from the MT to the BTS, (2) the down-link or reverse channel establishes a one way connection from BTS to MT. We now provide a general idea of these functional sub-systems. The Mobile Terminal (MT): Historically the mobile terminal (MT) or Mobile Station (MS) is the first widely-deployed personal communication device. It uses an in-built radio to access the cellular network through the radio interface. It is also equipped with some kind of human interface like speaker, microphone, key-pad and display. Additionally, most of the today's MTs often contain a terminal interface to personal computers (PCs). In the traditional telephony, the telephone is directly connected to the copper wire that connects the telephone to the exchange. Hence, the identification of telephone is readily obtained from the identity of the copper line. However, in case of wireless, such relationship does not exist between MT and BTS. To establish this relationship, it is necessary for each MT to establish its identity first to get service from the network. Almost all the GSM-specific MTs have another significant component: SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) [32]. SIM is a removable smart card, which is responsible for storing the subscriber information and confidentiality. This SIM provides more flexibility and advantages to the mobile subscriber. A subscriber can now get a new mobile terminal and still use his old SIM taken from his own service provider. The separation of MT from the SIM also has the potential for increasing the sale of mobile phones, without any intervention of the service providers. Figure-1 shows how the SIM creates the flexibility in the cellular system by separating the radio interface function, common cellular service function of Mobile Equipment (ME) and customer specific data services of the system. The intelligent

plastic card of SIM has Read only memory (ROM) of 406 KB, Random access memory (RAM) of 256 bytes and NVM (Non Volatile memory) of 2-3 KB. The algorithms A3 and A8, (role of these will be explained in sectionxxx) are stored in the NVM. In addition SIM also stores the important Cellular identifiers and parameters like 1. Ki : User authentication Key explained in section 2. IMSI: (International Mobile Subscriber Identity) 15 bit user’s individual identification number consisting of country code, network code, number. This is the identity of the Mobile to the network and is assigned at the time of the terminal manufacture. 3. TMSI: (Temporary Mobile subscriber identity) assigned to the user after registration to a VLR. By using the TMSI, the mobile is able to move from one network to another without significant messaging penalty. 4. LAI: Location area identifier. The concept of location area is explained in section 5. PIN: 4-8 digit code identifying the user with respect to SIM. By using this PIN, user can update the user information in the SIM card by using the local controller. 6. Personal Phone book that stores the user personal phone numbers. 7. List of foreign networks where roaming is allowed. 8. Received short messages (SMS). The SMS services will be explained in Chapter 4.

Figure-2: Relation of SIM to the different MT (MS) functions

2. The Base Station Sub-System (BSS): The MTs communicate directly with the BSS through the wireless links. A group of BSSs are also connected to a MSC through wire-lined connection. Thus, the prime role of BSS is to connect the MTs with the MSC [35]. In most of the cellular systems (including GSM), the BSS contains two components: the BTS (Base Transceiver Station) and the BSC (Base Station Controller). Figure~ 2 shows a schematic diagram of the BSS with its different components. The BTS is responsible for communicating with the MTs through the wireless radio interface. Hence, it is comprised of antennas for transmission-reception and signal processing capability. Typically BTS for GSM is capable of

maintaining 3-5 radio careers, carrying 20-40 simultaneous communications [24]. In GSM standards, each radio carrier has 200 KHz bandwidth. This bandwidth is split into 8 slots, and each slot can support single one way communication. Thus effectively, GSM uses 25 KHz bandwidth for single one way voice communication. As a part of the BTS, the GSM architecture also includes a TRAU (Transcoder or Rate Adapter Unit) for speech encoding, decoding and adaptation of data rate. The 25 KHz for single one way voice communication is very limited bandwidth for traditional digital voice channel rate of 6Kbps. So, in cellular system, traditional 64Kbps PCM voice is further compressed to lower rate voice codes to fit into the 25 KHz spectrum. This function is called speech coding and TRAU implements this function. There are different speech coding standards that can be used in GSM systems. BSC, the second component of the BSS takes care of the radio interface management, allocation and release of radio channels and the hand off management. The BSC is responsible to connect multiple (typically l-10 for GSM) BTSs to a single MSC. GSM specifications also provide an interface, called ``Abis'' interface between the BSC and MSC.

Figure-3: Components of BSS system

3. The Network and Switching Sub-System (NSS): The primary switching functions of the cellular systems and databases required for maintaining subscriber profile and mobility management is incorporated in the NSS~[mall:pns88,mouly:cell92]. Its plays the most vital role in managing the communication between GSM users and other network users. The different components of this NSS are shown in Figure~3. Inside the NSS, the MSC (Mobile Switch Center) performs the switching functions by organizing call set-ups to and from the cellular GSM systems. An MSC is capable of controlling a few BSCs and almost a million MTs. The MSC provides the interconnection to land line switching centers by using the traditional voice circuit trunks. In order to interconnect with certain external data networks, like, PSPDN (Packet-Switched Public Data Network) or CSPDN (Circuit-Switched Public Data Network), the MSCs of GSM networks require a transmission and protocol adaptation equipment, broadly known as Inter Working Functions (IWF). Apart from MSCs, the NSS also consist of data bases required for basic mobility management. The main role

of the mobility management is to allow the mobile user from different system Figure-4: Components of NSS system to get service from a foreign MSC. The information of the mobile terminal (MT) relevant to the service provisioning, is stored in the HLR (Home Location Register).This is completely independent of the MT's current location. The HLR also needs to contain some information regarding the MT's current location. It is completely devoid of any switching capability, and acts as storage of thousands of subscriber information. The other important database included in GSM is the VLR (Visiting Location Register). It is linked to one or more MSCs and temporarily stores the subscription information for the set of subscribers under the coverage area of those MSCs. It also contains the precise location information of the MTs. Besides these basic components NSS also contains a gateway switch, termed as GMSC (Gateway MSC). During the call set-up for a GSM user, the call is first routed to this GSMC. It is responsible for fetching of relevant location information and routing of the incoming calls. Naturally, all GMSC needs to have specific interface with the external network and the SS7 signaling network for communicating with other NSS components. 2.2 GSM Protocol Stacks The most important component of cellular system architecture is the network protocol that creates the complex intelligence layer to dynamically managing the wireless and network resources to provide mobility. GSM control channel protocols are extension of SS7 and ISDN protocol stack for Mobility operation. Fogure-4 shows the different components of GSM protocol stacks and the Interfaces that interconnects the different network elements of a GSM network. At the Link layer ISDN LAPD protocol is adopted with modification. Layer-2 supports two SAP (Service Access Point) on one physical layer for Signaling and SMS (Short Messaging Service) messages. The different message fields of layer-2 protocol is

Figure-5: GSM Protocol Stacks and Interfaces is shown in Figure-5. The 184 bits of GSM message (section …. provides details on this message size)

. is transmitted as payload conforming to LAPDm, the modified version of LAPD. It checks address and sequence number for layer 3 and manages the acknowledgement of transmission of packets. The 184 bits of signaling protocol payload conforms to the LAPD protocol. The LAPDm have the message format different from ISDN LAPD specification, though the message lengths are same. The important differences are (a) the CRC and synchronization field of LAPD are not used in GSM, as these functions are implemented at the physical layer, (b) address and control fields are optional, (c) the fill-in bits are all '1's. The format of messages on the channels like PCH, AGCH and BCCH (details in section……) are all layer 2 messages with payload of 176 bits. Layer-3 field is 8 bit. The messages on FACCH and SDCCH (details in section…..) are 160 bits long. The address, control and length fields are each of 8 bits, thus keeping the total message length of 184 bits. SACCH has message field of 144 bits with 16 bits for fillin bits. Figure~ 4 shows the end to end protocol view of GSM from Mobile station to MSC interconnected through three interfaces namely Um, A.bis and A. The layout of the Layer-3 message is shown in Figure~6. The message categories on layer 3 are:

Figure-6: Layer-2 message format

1. RRM: Radio Resource Management: Manages the quality of Radio Link, assigns the radio channels, perform frequency hopping, performs handover procedure and power control of mobile station. The Radio Resource (RR) session uses the signaling and traffic resources between the mobile station and the Anchor MSC. Anchor MSC is the MSC that a mobile station will use as the anchor point for its connection, as it moves from one MSC to another MSC during the session. Because of the differences in the protocols of Um, A.bis and A, the RR session uses the SAPI0 Link, LAPD Connection and SCCP connection to communicate between Mobile Station and Anchor MSC. \Figure~ {RRSession} shows this connection. Notice that according to the location of TRAU (Transceiver unit), the bandwidth requirements for the connection will be different. GSM voice packets are normally carried on 16 Kbps bandwidth, so 4 GSM voice streams can be packed into one 64 Kbps PCM stream. The transmission of the data traffic in GSM network can be ciphered as explained in section,,,,,. It is possible to transfer data in non-ciphered

mode, as we have seen that the signaling messages are transferred in nonciphered mode called clear text mode. This change over from clear text mode to cipher-mode is performed at MSC by the RRM function. The cipher mode transmission provides the information security for the wireless link. In addition, GSM system supports Discontinuous Mode (DTX) transfer of voice packets. In DTX mode, during the silence period of speech signal, the minimum amount of data is transferred to reduce the channel interference. THE DTX transfer management is a function of RRM.

Figure-7: Layer-3 message fields

2. MM: Mobility Management: Updates the location information of the mobile station as the mobile station changes its location, performs the authentication procedure, assigns the TMSI (Temporary Mobile System Identification) to the Mobile station, and controls the attach and detach function. The more details of these functions are given in section XXXX 3. CM: Connection Management: Connection management function includes the set up and releases of the circuit switched connections in mobile originating and terminating calls and assistance to the SMS connection. The GSM directory number is called MSISDN (Mobile System ISDN) and it is based on CCITT Recommendation E.164. The routing in GSM is based on directory number MSISDN, and MSRN (Mobile Station Roaming Number). MSRN is the routing number used on second leg of the incoming call between GMSC and MSC. MSRN is not visible to the mobile users. It is temporarily allocated to the user session and used between the infrastructure machines and it is integrated with the numbering plan of the fixed network. It also reestablishes connection after connection disruption due to mobility related causes. If you notice the Figure~ 4 of GSM Protocol Structure, you will find that RRM function is distributed between Base Station, BSC and MSC, where as MSC controls all MM function. As in ISDN, Link Layer protocol LAPDm terminates at the BSC. The A-interface communication is based on SS7 Signaling connection Control Part (SCCP) and Message Transfer Part

(MTP). Adopting the complete functionality of SS7 signaling from BSC provides considerable signaling capability to the system, as it can handle both signaling and message transaction functions.

3. Cell Layout
The cell layout of a cellular network is determined by the planning process of the cells. Generally, a geometric map of the area to be covered is taken and based on the demography of the different areas; the coverage area is partitioned into different classes like down-town, urban, suburban, rural etc. The traffic intensity at each area is defined to estimate the amount of resources required for that area. Usually a radio designer use a radio network design tools for planning to cover the area with grid, triangular or hexagonal cells. The size of these cells is defined by the designer based on the radio parameters assumed in the design. Based on these grid or hexagonal cells, the potential cell sites are developed. Normally, this process in instantiated at the known cell-site locations, so that, the existing facilities of the service provider can be utilized in the design. The area covered by each type of polygon used is different. As shown in Figure~ 7, the area covered by a hexagonal polygon is greater than the other two polygons. Normally a hexagonal polygon is chosen in the design. This reduces the number of cellsites for a given coverage area.

Figure-8: Coverage area of different cell configuration types.

Example 3.3: The 10KmX10Km coverage area is divided into grids of of 10 meters apart on horizontal and vertical side. The square grids are numbered as (i,j) where i= 1.....1000 and j=1...1000. The grids between i= 500...600 and j=450....550 are high density grid and rest of the grids are low density grid. The high density is 0.1 subscriber per m2 and low density grids have 0.001 subscriber per m2. The traffic limited cells are limited to 1000 subscriber and coverage limited cells are of 1 KM. Find the optimum number of cells for the coverage area. Solution: There are two type of grids High density Grid: G (i, j ) for i = 500........600 and j = 450....550

Low density Grid: G (i, j ) for i = 1.....499,601........1000 and
j = 1.....449,551....1000

Number of subscriber in High density grid = 0.1X 10 X 10 = 10 Number of subscriber in low density grid 0.001X 10 X 10 = 0.1 Each point (i, j ) has a weight (10) or (0.1) Use any clustering algorithm to create the cell from the grid data using the following constraints 1. In a cell all grids should be adjacent 2. The total number of subscribers in a cell ≤ 1000 or the maximum distance from the centroid of the cell to the boundary of a grid is
≤ 1000

The distance measurement of two cell sites is an important parameter to estimate the radio frequency interferences. To simplify the calculations, the co-ordinate system used for hexagonal grid is indeed at 600 angle as shown in Figure~8. In this co-ordinate system, the distance between two points (u1 , v1 ) and (u 2 , v 2 ) is given by,

(u1 − u 2 )2 + (v1 − v2 )2 + (u1 − u 2 )(v1 − v2 )

If we like to determine the distance from the center(0, 0) to a cell (u=i, v=j), then,
D= =



+ j 2 + ij


(i + j )2 − ij

Figure-9: Transform the axis for Hexagonal cells

In the cellular system, the same frequency can not be used in the adjacent cells, as there will be co-channel interference. The hexagonal cell structure actually creates a cluster of 7 cells. To eliminate the co-channel interference the frequencies allocated to each cell will be different.

Figure-10: Frequency Reuse in cellular Systems

Let us consider a cell at distance (i,j) from the center (0, 0), to form the outer cluster of the hexagon. In order to avoid the co-channel interference, the radius of the outer cluster is given by
D 2 = 3R 2 i 2 + j 2 + ij



Area of the outer cluster of radius D that surrounds the cluster of hexagonal will be:
Aout = KD 2 = K .3R 2 i 2 + j 2 + ij



Area of the cell at the center:
A = KR 2

The number of cells in the outer hexagon is 3N, where N is the number of cells in a cluster. Hence,
Aout = 3N . A Aout = 3N A 3KR 2 (i 2 + j 2 + ij ) = 3N KR 2 N = (i 2 + j 2 + ij )




+ j 2 + ij ) = D2 3R 2

D2 3R 2


D = 3N R

For hexagonal cell N = 7, then
D = 4.6 R


D ratio is called channel reused ratio. R

Example 3.4: The wireless system uses mobile terminal with 500 mw power capacity and antenna gain of 3dB. The cell-site receiver sensitivity is 60dBm. The coverage are of the network is 20 KM square. Find the number of hexagonal cell site required to cover the area. If the cell site antennas are omni directional, what will be the reuse factor in this case using free space propagation model and signal to noise separation of 12 dB. Determine the minimum number of GSM frequencies required to build the coverage. Solution Figure- 11: Voice Coding and Sampling in GSM

2.3 GSM-voice The second generation systems are designed to provide more system capacity to the wireless spectrum and enhance the voice quality to close to land-line voice quality. The use of voice decoding plays a major role in the design and improving the voice capacity and quality of the cellular system. To explain the cellular voice signal processing function we use the high level functional scheme to generate the voice frames for the GSM system as shown in Figure~ 10. The analog voice signal is band-limited to 4 KHz by low-pass filters and then sampled at Nyquest rate 8 KHz. Each sample is then converted to 13 bits. Thus, after A/D conversion, we have the data rate of 104 Kbps. This data rate is then accumulated for 20 msec. The number of digitized samples in a block is
20.10 −3 = 160 samples of 13 bits each. These samples are used 125.10 −6

by the RPE-LTP (Regular Pulse Excited- Long Term Prediction) encoder, and it generates a 260 bit sample, with three classes of bits. Class-1a contains 50 most crucial bits, class-1b contains 132 bits of intermediate value and class-2 contains 78 bits that can be errored without significant deterioration in speech quality. In GSM, the encoded voice samples are then protected by channel coding. There are different channel coding schemes available. The errors in the 50 class-1a bits are protected by block polynomial coding, which takes

Figure-12: Different types of voice bits in GSM

additional 3 priority bits also. On the receiving end, if the error is detected then the whole 260 bits are ignored. The class-1b 132 bits are followed by 4 trail bits. Thus, including the parity and trail bits, the entire length of the class-1 block becomes 189 bits. These 189 bits are convolution coded with R=1/2 code of the constant length 5. Thus the total class-1 channel coded frame length is 378 bits. These 378 bits are concatenated with 78 class-2 bits, and thus a channel coded GSM frame of voice is created with 456 bits
456.10 −3 = 22.8 at every 20 msec. The data rate of the GSM spectrum is 20

Kbps. Figure~ 11 shows the schematic overview of this mechanism.

Figure- 13: Interleaving mechanism

The wireless channel encounters burst of errors due to fading and shadowing as mentioned in Chapter-2. To protect against this burst error, interleaving is applied. Interleaving breaks these 456 bits into 8 groups called D1-D8 of 57 bits each. A 40 msec segment of speech data is interleaved with a distance of 8 to combat errors in multipath fading. The GSM interleaving duration is 40 msec and the interleaving distance is 8. The frame length is theoretically
40 = 5 msec. The actual frame length of GSM system is 4.615 msec. In each 8 frame 57.2 = 114 bits of user data for speech transmission is transmitted. This

scheme of forming the 114 bits interleaved frame is shown in Figure~12. Frame Structure Total GSM spectrum = 25 MHz, Total number of GSM channels supported on this spectrum = 124 Bandwidth per channel = ⎢ ⎥ = 200 KHz ⎣ 124 ⎦ Figure-14: Frame Hierarchy in GSM Systems
⎢ 25.10 6 ⎥

The frame duration = 4.615 msec. This duration is divided into 8-time slots. Each of these time slots is physical channel and user will require acquiring one of these time slots to set-up communications. Time duration of channel =
4.615 = 0.577 msec. 8

Figure~ 13: frame-hierarchy provides the frame hierarchy of GSM. Table~ 3 gives the time duration of different types of frames. Example 3.5: The GSM data rate is 270.833 Kbps. What is the single bit duration in GSM link? During the GSM time slot of 0.577 msec, a burst of 148 bits are transmitted. What is the length in bits of effective difference between time slot time and burst time? This is called guard time.

Table-3: Time Duration of Different Frames

2.5 GSM Channels: The logical channels of GSM are classified into two broad categories: Traffic Channel: These channels are exclusively used to transfer voice signal bits and data bits. There are two data rates supported in the traffic channel. Full rate at 22.8 Kbps, and half rate at 11.4 Kbps. The Full rate coder RPE-LTP explained early generates 260 bits of data at every 20msec. Another Full Rate Coder EFR (enhanced Full Rate Coder).This uses speech synthesis approach using code excited linear prediction (CELP) model. It also generates 13 kbps signal like RPE-LTP. The voice quality of this coder is significantly better than RPE-LTP. This coder is mostly used in PCS-1900 GSM system of North America. The Half-rate codec is different type called VSELP and it analysis by speech synthesis the best code ward characterizing the excitation signal for each 20 msec. It generates 120 bits on every 20 msec, i.e., 5.6 kbps. Control Channels: These channels are used for signaling and control functions of the system. The information content transferred through these channels are very sensitive to channel error rate. In GSM system, the total amount of bits transferred per frame in these channels are same as voice frame, but the treatment of the bits of these channels are different from voice

channel, as it is shown in Figure- 14. To identify and correct the bit errors, these channel use more complex set of parity bits and the complete frame is half rate convolution coded to protect against bit failure.

Figure-15: Signaling frame creation for transmission

The signaling channels are subdivided into three broad categories, 1. Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH): These channels are uni-directional from the Base station to the mobile and these channels are used to broadcast the system information of the mobile's current cell and the neighboring cell. BCCH also provides the signal so that mobile synchronize its clock to the base station and is called synchronization channel (SCH) and frequency correction signal, so that mobile take to frequency of the cell (FCCH). 2. Common Control Channel: These channel works for both Mobile to Base Station direction and Base Station to mobile direction. To send any signal to the Base Station, the Mobile will access this common channel randomly (RACH), where as, Base Station will use this channel to page a mobile (PCH) or send the control channel assignment (AGCH) information to the mobile. 3. Dedicated Control Channel: The dedicated control channel can be either stand-alone control channel (SDCCH) or slow associated control channel (SACCH), assigned to a traffic channel or SDCCH. The SACCH is used for a function that can be performed at a slower speed or with minimum amount of data, like power and frame adjustment, control information and measurement data. The data fast associated control channel (FACCH) is implemented by frame stealing on Traffic channel, and the frame is identified by a flag, known as stealing flag, used for hand-off operation. Figure-16: Channel hierarchy of GSM

Figure~15 gives an overview of this channel hierarchy of GSM systems.

The traffic and Control Channels are handled on Normal Burst NB mode. The normal burst mode uses 26 bits training sequence in the middle and two sections of 57 bits of encrypted data and three zero trail bits (TB) at the beginning and at the end of the burst. The 57 bit encrypted data contains one bit Flag to indicate the user data or control logical channels (SACCH or FACCH). Each burst is separated by guard period (GP) to allow the drifting of the clocks of mobile and base station for some limited duration. There are three other Burst mode in the system to handle three other type of communication needs of GSM. Two of these Burst modes are created by the Base stations 1. Frequency Correction Burst FB: Base station broadcast this burst and Mobile Station uses it to synchronize its master clock. It has 142 zero bits in between the two trail bit sequences. 2. Synchronization Burst SB: Base station broadcast it and Mobile station uses it for three functions, (a) Training of equalizer, (b) learning of network identity, and (c) synchronizes with the time slot. It has 64 extended training sequences in the middle and two sections of encoded 39 bits on either side. There is another burst type that is used by the Mobile station called Random Access Burst (RAB) to register with the network so that it can communicate with network without prior assignment of signaling channel by the network. This burst mode has only 88 bits of data consisting of 41 synchronization bits and 36 encrypted data bits. The front trail is extended to 8 bits Figure~16 shows the format of these different burst types.

Figure-17: Formats of different Burst frames

Example 3.7: Find the extended Guard time of the Random Access Burst Mode. Why this extended Guard Time is required.

Example 3.8: The Uplink and Downlink of a GSM system uses slot zero of multi frame for control channel and broadcast channel with the following pattern.

Uplink: 4D-2R-8A-23R-8D-2R-4D Downlink:F-S-4B-4C-F-S-8C-F-S-8D-F-S-8D-F-S-8A-I where : D=Dedicated Control Channel, R=Random Access Channel, A= Associated Control Channel, F=Frequency broadcast channel, S= synchronization channel, B= broadcast control channel, C= Common control channel, I=idle. Determine the channel speeds in kbps for each channel type. Timing Advance: The GSM is a time division multiplexing system, and base station must receive the signal bursts from different mobile stations at a time synchronous manner within the limit of the guard time. Due to mobility, the location of the different mobiles will be different, as a result the propagation delays are different. Figure~17 shows two mobile stations

Figure-18: Why Timing Advance

MS-1 and MS-2 at a distance d1 and d 2 from the base station. The two adjacent slots are allocated to these two stations. If the base station slot time started at τ , the two signals will arrive at the base station as follows: MS-1 signal will arrive at base station at time τ +
τ +∆+
2d 1 c 2d 2 c
2d 1 and end at time c

MS-2 signal will arrive at base station at time τ + ∆ + if

2d 2 2d 1 , there will be time when two signals will collide at the base < c c

station. To synchronize the signals from different mobiles within the short guard time of GSM system, the concept of Timing Advance is used. Timing Advance is the mechanism to adjust the transmission time from the mobile based on its propagation delay from the base station. Once the dedicated connection is established with a mobile station, BTS continuously measures the time offset between its own burst schedule and the burst reception schedule of the mobile station. Based on these measurements, BTS can determine the required Time Advance of the mobile station. BTS then sends this Time Advance recommendation by using the SACCH at the rate of 2 per

second. The Timing Advance can take value between 0 to 233 micro second. The actual time advance is n bit period where the value of n can be from 0 to 63. This value of time Advance allows GSM to operate within 35 Km of radius. If the coverage is required more than 35 KM, the GSM guard time is can be extended by using only alternate burst for traffic transfer. At initial assignment or at handover between two cells which are not synchronized, both mobile station and base station does not know the Timing Advance for valid communication. In that situation, mobile station sends an access burst with null Timing Advance. Base station receives this burst and that includes double the propagation time. From this base station computes the Timing Advance and transfers this using signaling channel. From these point onwords, mobile station can start the normal burst for communication. Figure~18 A shows this signaling scheme for initial Time advance set-up From that point on-words, the S and BTS continuously exchange messages by using the channels like PTCCH/U or PTCCH/D or piggy backing on power control messages or using ACK/NACK messages to maintain the Time advance information accurate.

Figure-19: Timing Advance

Example 3.9: The multiplexing of the uplink radio channel is obtained by using this Timing Advance information at the base station as shown in Figure-19. Three Mobile stations MS1, MS2 and MS3 are located at a distance 1 KM, 2 KMs and 5 KMs from base station at time τ . The three mobile stations are allocated slots 1, 2 and 3 for their communications from the same GSM channel. By using the timing advance, all three mobile stations will be able to communicate to the base station, if the transmission of the mobiles are timed according to the timing advance value. In GSM system, the clocks are synchronized between base station and Mobile. The worst case Mobile at a distance 35 KM has time advance equals to zero. So the bits transmitted by that mobile will take the time required by the radio signal to travel 35 KM distance and that is time τ

4. Paging & Location Area:
The Mobility management in the GSM system is based on the concept of Location Area. As the mobile moves from one cell to another cell, the tracking of the mobile is done not based on cell area, but based on location

area. The coverage area of the Mobile network is divided into a number of MSC coverage areas. Within a MSC coverage area, numbers of cell sites are created so that the complete area is covered by the radio propagation of the cell site antennas. Thus any user within the MSC coverage area can communicate with the cellular network. The location area is a cluster of cells and that cluster is viewed by network as the location ID of the user when the user is located within the cell cluster. In worst case, this cluster can have only one cell. In that case the cell area and location area will be identical.

Figure-20: MSC with Single location area (LA)

Assume there is only one location Area (LA) in a system with one MSC. MSC receives 100K calls in BH and 50% of those calls are terminating Mobile Calls. There are n cells in the system and all these cells are connected to this MSC. Assume in our example the value of n=100. We are interested to estimate the number of paging message created by this MSC during BH.
100 X 10 3 X 0.5 = 500 Average number of calls per cell = 100

Though the mobile that is receiving the terminating call will be at one particular cell at that time, in this case, MSC does not know the location of the mobile. So MSC can not page only the particular cell where mobile is currently located. It will broadcast the page message to all the cells. Only one of the cell will reply to this paging message. MSC then only knows the location of the mobile. Number of paging message per cell = 500 X 100 = 50000 The basic cellular architecture with major entities for location management system, like, base station, MSC, HLR, VLR is described in Section~arch.

On the arrival of a call for a mobile terminal, the system initiates a search for the target mobile. This search mechanism is called terminal paging, the usual mechanism of which involves the broadcast of a page message from the MSC via the base stations serving the set of cells where the mobile terminal is likely to be present. The base stations broadcast the paging request over one or more designated forward control channels called the paging channels. The number and designation of the paging channels vary between systems. All the mobile terminals listen to the page message and only the target sends a response message back over a reverse control channel. Once this is known, the network establishes the connection to the Mobile using the cell-site antenna of that cell. Thus Location Area and Paging is important concept for terminating a Mobile Call. If there had been no information available about the mobile terminal, the system has to page all the cells in a service area as we have shown previously. Such an exhaustive search results in enormous signaling traffic even for moderately large networks [38]. The limited number of paging channels is bound to be congested with increasing number of calls. In order to put an upper bound on this cost, a mobile terminal is made to report its location from time to time. This reporting, called location update or registration, effectively limits the search space for paging. The registration mechanism involves acquisition of a dedicated or non-dedicated reverse control channel by the mobile device followed by a two-way messaging that successfully sends the update message from the terminal to the MSC/VLR. Even here, the allocation of channels differs across various systems. The higher amount of message exchange makes the cost of a registration remains higher than that of a terminal paging. The boundary of this registration function is determined by the location area.

Figure-21: MSC with 5 Location Areas (LA).

The challenge of the network designer is to find the optimum size of the location area. There are two signaling function that are interrelated in this process, namely the location management messages and paging messages. The location messages are generated continuously whenever a mobile crosses the location area boundary. This happens irrespective of whether the mobile is in session or idle. So if the size of the location area is small.

the number of location tracking messages will higher, where as with large location area sizes, the number of location tracking messages will be small. On the other hand, the paging message is generated when there is a terminating mobile call. For small location area, there are fewer cells in the location area and number of paging message will be few. But if the location area size is large, many cells will be part of the location area, and the number of paging message will be very high. The dynamics of this trade-off is shown in the Figure~{\Location Area} where in x-axis, the number of cells per location area. The location area planning use two important network data set, namely 1. Adjacent cell crossing data during BH: This is a nXn matrix with non zero entries only for adjacent cells. 2. Busy hour terminating call data per cell: This is a n dimensional vector.

Figure-22: Dynamics of Location area size and messaging cost

In addition the network planner will need the cost of paging and cost of location update message to determine optimal paging area. The optimization can be done by using Graph coloring technique. Example 3.9: A MSC has 100 cells. 50% of busy hour calls are terminating. If the busy hour calling rate of the switch is 10K and it is uniformly distributed over all the cells, find the total paging channel capacity of a cell, in case of one location area and in case of 100 location area. Assume each paging require 456 bits Case-1: Each Cell a Location Area Total Terminating call during BH in a cell = Average bandwidth required =
0.5 X 10.10 3 = 50 100

Paging traffic during BH = 456 X 50 = 22800 bits
22800 = 6.3 bits per sec 3600

Case -2 : The Complete coverage area is a Location Area

0.5 X 10.10 3 = 50 100 Paging traffic during BH = 456 X 50 X 100 = 2280000 bits 2280000 = 600.3 bits per sec Average bandwidth required = 3600

Total Terminating call during BH in a cell =

4.2 Paging Policies
The naive approach to location tracking is to page the mobile simultaneously either in the entire network, or within an LA as dictated by the last update message. Even though paging must be completed within an allowable time constraint, there exists the possibility of sequential zing the procedure. On a call arrival, the cells are paged sequentially for the mobile terminal following an ordering known as paging strategy. A very intuitive result in [44, 46] states that, under a steady-state location probability distribution of a mobile user, the optimal paging strategy (in terms of the mean cost of paging) with no delay constraint should page the cells in strict order of decreasing probability values. Clearly, a uniform distribution is the worst adversary, because no additional improvement is obtainable by changing paging strategy. An algorithm to find the optimal paging sequence under given time constraints is also presented in [44]. However, the worst case scenario still ends up with exhaustive paging and incurs very high cost. Most paging algorithms proceed with a high reliance factor on the latest update information. In the case of zone-based update, a blanket polling is done over the last reported LA. The target's existence in one of the constituent cells is guaranteed by the protocol. For the dynamic update schemes, the last known position of the mobile terminal and its neighborhood are considered to be the most probable position -- the probability decreasing in an omni-directional way with increasing distance. This is the underlying assumption for the popular cluster paging [36] and selective paging [1, 3, 23]. The directional bias in user movement has mostly been taken care of by associating a number of states for each cell under a Markov model [7, 9]. Using user profiles either by querying the mobile terminal or by retrieving from the billing database has also been considered [40]. Profile-based paging on optimal LeZi-Update is also investigated. This paging strategy initially uses the concept of PPM (prediction by partial match) style blending mechanism to compute the residence probabilities of the mobile user in deferent cells. It then polls the cells in decreasing order of residence probabilities. Some recent paging strategies have been proposed

for multi-system location management. In such a heterogeneous system, there exists both inter-system and intra-system paging. The overhead and cost of inter-system paging can be effectively reduced by using the concept of boundary location register [4]. Profile based active and idle paging requests have also been recently proposed to minimize the paging cost [34] in multi-system cellular networks.

5. Radio Interference
Interference: The major problem behind the performance improvement of the cellular systems is interference [42]. Interference can occur from a different mobile in the same or neighboring cell, other base stations operating in the same frequency or any non-cellular system operating in the same frequency domain. While interference in control channel results in call blocking, it affects the performance of the voice channels by introducing unwanted cross talks. The greater noise and increased number of base stations make the interference very severe in the dense urban (city) areas. This interference is broadly classified into two types: 1. co-channel interference 2. adjacent channel interference Co-channel Interference: The frequency reuse mechanism of cellular system results in the use of same set of frequencies by a number of cells. Such cells are termed as co-channel cells and interference arising from the signals of these cells are termed as co-channel interference [54]. Increase in transmission power increases this interference between co-channel cells. The co-channel cells must be isolated by a minimum distance to bound this interference into a tolerable amount. For a homogeneous cellular system, the co-channel interference is a function of cell-radius r and distance d to the nearest co-channel cell. The parameter Q =
d is often termed as r

co-channel reuse ratio. From hexagonal geometry, we have derived early that Q = 3N [42]. By increasing the value of Q it is possible to maintain larger separation of co-channel cells, thus reducing the co-channel interference. On the other hand, reduction of the value of Q is required to increase system capacity for a given spectrum. The tradeoff between this two orthogonal requirements is made by the designer of cellular systems. Let nc represents the number of co-channel interfering cells. If, S is the signal

power and I i is the interference power generated by the ith interfering cell, then the signal-to-interference ratio is given by:
S = I S

i =1


Now, if d i is the distance of the ith interferer, the received power at the mobile is approximately proportional to d i− m , for 2 ≤ m ≤ 4 , m is known as path-loss exponent. It has been shown in [42] that for homogeneous base stations and path loss experiment,
⎛d ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ r =⎝ ⎠ = i0

S = I

r −m


i =1


−m i

3N i0



The above equation provides a relation between

S and N . However, it must I

be noted that this equation is based on the hexagonal cellular geometry only, with cellular equidistant interfering cells. 5.2 Adjacent Channel Interference: Adjacent channel Interference [42] refers to the interference arising from the signals which have the frequency close to the actual signal. The problem gets aggravated if two users in adjacent channels use very close frequency bands. The base station often face difficulty in discriminating the desired mobile from its counterpart using a close channel. This event is commonly known as near-far effect. Adjacent channel interference can be tackled by using efficient filters. An easy technique to achieve this is to assign every cell a set of channels, whose frequency are maximally separated. This can be performed by sequentially assigning channel frequencies to different cells. Thus effectively, the adjacent channels in a cell can be separated by N ,where N is the clustersize.

6. Basic GSM Services
The basic GSM voice services includes the following main services

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Power on Procedure of the Mobile Mobile Registration and Authentication Originating Voice Call Terminating Voice Call Hand-off Location Update

In addition there are many highly complicated voice services available in a current cellular phone. For simplicity, only these services are explained in the following sections. The explanation is fairly at higher level, so that the concept of service implementation can be understood by the readers. To understand other services, readers can refer the GSM service specifications [56]. 6.1 'Power on' Procedure of Mobile: Once a Mobile switches to ‘Poweron’ position, the first thing the mobile has to do is to identify the carrier frequency used in the cell. To do that mobile measures the power of the all 124 carrier frequencies of the GSM system and determines the strongest carrier signal. The carrier containing the broadcast channel is transmitted at higher power level in a cell. So mobile station can easily identify the carrier on which the broadcast control channel is transmitted. Then mobile station finds the FCCH to identify the zero time slot. Once this is determined, mobile station adjusts its clock to get it adjusted to that frequency. Once it adjusted the frequency, it can start getting the other control channels. In the next synchronization channel frame it gets the information from the synchronization channel. The type of information mobile station extracts are (a) Base Station identification code, (b) up to 16 carriers of neighboring cells, (c) Cell Global Identity: a sequence of country code, mobile network code, location area code, cell identity, (d) other parameters like maximum and minimum power level, hysterics parameter for handover. At this point mobile is ready to register to the network. 6.2 Mobile Registration: In mobile communication registration and authentication are very important functions of the system to exclude the users of terminals who are not valid customers of a network. Because of the mobility and the easy accessibility of the wireless channels by any mobile device with the GSM functions, any GSM terminals will read the channels and get the network information. To do the registration, the mobile

station requests a dedicated control channel assignment from the base station by using RACH. The base station controller, on receiving this request, assigns a free slow dedicated control channel (SDCCH) to the mobile station and transfers this information using Associated Grant Control Channel (AGCH). Mobile station send the response that includes the TMSI and LAI that was last stored in the mobile using SDCCH to the base station. This information is transmitted by base station controller to the MSC and VLR. VLR checks the database of the mobile to confirm that the TMSI is valid. If it is valid, it updates the location information of the mobile. If the VLR data does not have the TMSI record of the mobile, it use LAI to determine the previous VLR where the mobile was registered. MSC/VLR then requests the previous VLR to transfer the mobiles data. If the previous VLR responds to the request by transferring the data, the current VLR updates its database with those information. In both cases, this will ensure the authentication of the mobile station. On the other hand, if the previous VLR also is not able to provide any data of the mobile, MSC/VLR sends a message to BSC to get IMSI from the Mobile station. This request is sent to the mobile station by base station using SDCCH. Mobile station sends the IMSI to the base station by using SDCCH, and this is restricted to only one attempt. Base station sends the IMSI information to the MSC/VLR. VLR decodes from IMSI the HLR location of the Mobile station. HLR transfers the mobile stations information to the VLR. At this stage the network will initiate the authentication of the mobile station. The sequence of signaling of this procedure is shown in Figure Registration Procedure

Figure-23: Registration Service

6.3 Mobile Authentication: As we mentioned earlier that the SIM card provides the capability to use sophisticated algorithm in the GSM system for Authentication and encryption of data. Network sends a 128 bit pseudorandom number RAND to the Mobile station. This is transmitted through the assigned SDCCH to the Mobile station. Mobile station in the SIM use this as input and the stored key K i to its A3 authentication algorithm and calculates the 32 bit electronic signature (SRES). This

Figure- 24: Mobile Authentication Process

SRES is transferred to the network using SDCCH. Network compares this received SRES to its own calculated SRES. If there is agreement, the authentication is successful. Figure- XXX shows this inter working between the Mobile station and the wireless network. VLR then assigns the TMSI and LAI to the mobile station and transmits these data in encrypted form using SDCCH channel. Mobile station, on receiving these data stores the information in NVM of the SIM card. After completion of Authentication, the Ciphering Process is started. As we mentioned early, SIM card also stores A8 algorithm in the NVM. Every Mobile equipment vendor stores the A5 Encryption Algorithm within the Mobile equipment. Within the SIM card RAND and key K i is used in conjunction with the A8 algorithm to generate the Encryption Key K c . The Mobile TDMA frame number is used along with this Key K c and the Encryption Algorithm A5 to create the bit string for encryption. This bit string and the data string are added by Modulo2 addition to generate the encrypted data. Figure~Ciphering Process shows the pictorial view of this process. Figure~ XXXX the schematic view of how these ciphering as applied to the voice packets.

Figure- 25 Ciphering Process

6.4 Mobile Call Origination: Figure~Mobile Call Origination shows the different messages interchanged between the different subsystems of GSM to set-up a mobile originating call. Mobile first sends a request for Channel by using Random Access Channel(RACH). BSC selects an idle SDCCH for the mobile and sends the response with channel assignment by using the Access Grant Channel (AGCH).Mobile sends the call request by using the SDCCH. The mobile goes through authentication and ciphering process, if this is not completed earlier, as explained in the mobile 'Power-on' process. After this sequence, mobile sends the destination number in MSISDN from in SET-UP message to MSC. MSC use the SET-UP message information to to form IAM (Initial Address Message} for the destination and transfers it using SS7 network. When MSC receives the ACM (Acknowledgement) response from the destination, MSC sends {\bf Alerting} message to the

Mobile and allocates the Access traffic channel. MSC receives the SS7 ANS (Answer) signal from destination and then sends CONNECT message to Mobile station using FACCH to reduce delay in answering. With CONNECT message, the mobile switch through the TCH channel to transfer the voice packets. At then end of conversation, when mobile originating party send END signal, it is detected by the MSC. It frees the TCH, makes the originating mobile station idle and send a RELEASE SS7 message to the destination switch to release the other party.

Figure-26: Message flow for Call origination

Figure-27: The complete processing on speech signal

In GSM system, the original speech signal goes through a number of processing steps before it is delivered in the wireless channel. This various processing functions on the speech signal make it robust, efficient for wireless communication and secured for personal information. This complex processing scheme makes the current wireless system highly secured communication system. 6.5 Mobile Terminating Call: In the mobile terminating call, the number used by the calling party does not represent any telephone exchange location or a physical line in a network. This represents a data location in the HLR that maintains the actual network identity of the called number. Normally the first few digits uniquely identify the GSM number and the operator of the network where this number is subscribed. For example in UK +44 385

indicates that the subscriber belongs to Vodafone, or in Finland +358 40 indicates the GSM customer of Telecom Finland. The local PSTN switch very quickly translates the first few digits and route the call to a {\bf GMSC} (Gateway MSC). GMSC has the access to the HLR of this company. By using SS7 network it enquires the HLR by using directory number of the mobile user, and receives the routing number. By using the routing number GMSC routes the call to the current MSC location of the mobile user. GMSC requires only switching function and toll switching software, it does not need and radio function. As we mentioned that GMSC uses the routing number to route the call not the dialed number, this routing number is MSRN as we mentioned earlier. If the number of MSRN is limited, HLR can not assign MSRN to every user within its record. In that case, when GMSC requests the routing information, HLR, based on MSISDN, gets the VLR number of the MSC and sends a request message with IMSI to VLR to get the MSRN. On receipt of this MSRN, HLR forwards the MSRN routing information to GMSC. Figure~{\MSRN provision} shows how this messaging is done in the system. Once the call has reached the destination MSC there are number of messages are transferred between MSC and the BSC to terminate the Figure~{\Terminating Call Procedure} shows the message sequences to terminate the call. On receiving the call, VMSC (Visiting MSC) sends an enquiry to VLR to get the LA information. VMSC, knowing the LA information generates the broadcast paging messages and transfer those messages to the BSCs. BSC on receipt of this message, identifies the Base stations that will send the paging message and transfer the paging message to the Base stations. Each Base station page the mobile user by using PCH channel. The mobile user, on identifying this page message, send the page response using RACH. Base station on receiving the page response, sends the message to MSC. MSC then authenticates the user by assigning SDCCH. After authentication, a FACCH is used to assign the traffic channel TCH and the Mobile is alerted by ringing. At the same time, MSC sends the Ringing message by using SS7 network to the originating end-office. On receipt of answer signal from the terminating mobile user, the Answer message is transferred to the originating office and voice path is cut-through.

Figure-28: Terminating Mobile Call set-up.

7. Mobility Management
The mobile terminal needs to be continuously tracked by the system to satisfy the seamless connectivity to the network irrespective of the state of the mobile phone. This tracking mechanism is known as mobility management. Depending on the user's status of communication, the mobility management has two flavors. The mechanism by which an on-going call is kept alive when the mobile user moves from one cell to another (or from one sector to another) by changing the base station is known as in-session mobility management or hand off management [39]. On the other hand tracking the mobile user in a stand by mode is known as location management. Location management is necessary for incoming calls. These calls are routed to the mobile within a precise time frame (Grade of Service) to avoid service failure and customer satisfaction. 6.1 Hand-off Management As the mobile changes its cell while in conversation, the call is transferred to a new channel of a new base station. The procedure involves identifying a new base station and subsequently transferring the control and voice signals to that new channel [39, 42]. Figure~\ref{handoff} demonstrates the hand off of the mobile from cell1 to cell2. In order to provide the users a feeling of un-interrupted connectivity, the hand off needs to be processed efficiently, such that it seems imperceptible to the user. The possible signal strength of the signals transmitted by the antenna of Cell-1(mobile phone’s current cell) and cell-2 9mobile phones new cell) is shown in

Figure-29: Hand Off in cellular Systems

Figure~\{Handoff Threshold} You notice, as the mobile is moving away from the antenna-1, the signal strength received by the mobile station from antenna-1 is decreasing. On the other hand, as it is moving closer to antenna2, the signal strength of antenna-2 is improving. And there is a cross over point, where the signal strength of antenna-2 will be better than signal strength of antenna-1. The hand-off procedure is a complex control function that involves interchange of multiple messages and to execute that function, it requires finite amount of time. In order to ensure that the hand-off function is initiated at adequate signal level with antenna-1, so that by the time handoff is completed the signal strength of antenna-2 is adequate to support the

communication, a hand-off trigger threshold is defined. This is an optimal signal level to initiate this hand off. This optimal signal level must be higher than minimum usable signal acceptable for voice quality. If the signal level for initiating hand off is pretty low, then the on-going session might be lost. On the other hand a very large signal for initiating hand offs might lead to un-necessary hand offs, thus increasing the burden and complexity of the system. Current GSM system specifies this minimum usable signal as between -90 dBm and -100 dBm [35]. The entire process of identifying the cell, transferring the on going session to the base station of that cell is controlled and managed by the MSC. Also, the base stations needs to monitor the signal strength for some specific duration to ensure that

Figure-30: Hand-off threshold

the decrease in signal strength is not arising from temporary fading, thereby assuring that the mobile is actually moving far away from the coverage area of the serving base stations. The running average of signal strength thus needs to be estimated for avoiding un-wanted hand offs. Intuitively, the time span needed to decide whether a hand off is actually necessary is dependent on the movement speed of the mobile. The time over which a call is maintained without hand off is known as dwell time [41]. This dwell time is dependent on the time varying effects of radio propagation, interference, channel fading and distance between mobile and the base station. Unfortunately, the variance of dwell time is quiet un-predictable. While large and less populated coverage areas have random dwell time concentrated around its mean, dense city areas possess dwell time widely varying from its mean. Broadly, the hand off mechanisms of cellular networks can be classified into two distinct types: system assisted hand off and mobile assisted hand off. 7.2 System Initiated Hand Off: In the first generation cellular systems, the hand off mechanism was almost entirely performed by the system [39, 42]. The base stations used to continuously monitor and measure the signal strengths. Estimating the signal strength of every mobile it used to determine the relative location of the mobile under its own coverage area. Moreover, a spare locator receiver in each base station was used to monitor the signal

strengths of the mobiles in its neighboring cells which have high probability of hand off. The entire process is controlled and managed by the MSC, which decides whether a hand off is actually necessary or not.

Figure-31: Hand-off Messaging 7.3 Mobile Initiated Hand Off: The hand off decision in second generation cellular systems, which use digital TDMA technology (e.g. GSM), is mobile assisted [35, 39, 42]. Every mobile continuously measures the signal strengths of the base stations and reports these measurements to its serving base station. When the mobile obtains a higher signal strength from a different base station, than its serving base station, for a certain period of time, the hand off is initiated. This mechanism improves the performance and latency of the hand off, since the MSC no longer needs to constantly monitor the signal strengths. This mobile initiated hand off is suited for micro cellular environments which require frequent hand offs. The GSM mobile initiated hand-off messaging sequence is shown in Figure~\(GSM HO Procedure}. The Mobile station is connected to BTS-1, but it is continuously monitoring the BCCH of the BTS-1 and its neighboring BTSs. It sends the RSSI report to BTS-1 based on these measurements using SACCH channel of the TCH it is using. Base station, on getting the RSSI measurements, decide the Hand-off trigger point and request a Hand-off initiation to BSC and MSC. MSC based on RSSI measurement, decides the BTS that will receive this call after HO, and send a HO request to BSC and BTS-2. The free TCH is reserved for this call at the BTS-2. BSC and BTS-2 acknowledge this request and bridge the connection to the existing call. BSC at the same time initiate the Hand-off command to BTS-1 by using the SACCH. BTS-1, on receiving the Hand-off Command, tune the RF frequency to the new channel of BTS-2, and send the Hand-off completion message to BTS-2 using the SACCH of the TCH allocated from BTS-2. The BTS sends this message to BSC and MSC to cut through the bridged connection. At this stage the voice packets are received from both antenna to the system. MSC finally sends the Release HO Channel message to BTS-1 through BSC. BTS-1 send this message to Mobile using SACCH of the TCH for BTS-1. Mobile terminal removes the connection to TCH from BTS-1. Now the voice packets are received from BTS-2 antenna

only. BTS-1 also send the Release HO channel confirmation message to BSC and MSC to free up the TCH allocated in BTS for the call. This Handoff procedure also will work for the case when the BTS-2 is located to a different BSC controlled by the same MSC. Figure~\{Hand-off Switching Points} shows the different switching points possible in the hand-off. When the Mobile station moves from the coverage area of one MSC to another MSC more complex messaging is required to complete the hand-off. This is explained in next section. Example 3.10 Assume that SACCH takes 40 msec to transfer messages to Mobile station and 40 msec to receive message from Mobile station. Also assume that each message processing time is average 5 msec at Mobile Station, BTS, BSC and MSC. Determine the duration when both TCH are simultaneously busy. If the occupancy of the controllers processing messages at BTS, BSC and MSC is 80%, what will be the impact on TCH capacity of the system? 7.4 Inter-System Hand Off: Apart from these two basic types of hand offs, a different scenario arises when a mobile moves away from one system to another, controlled by a different MSC. Such a hand off is termed as inter system hand off [42, 33]. An MSC realizes an inter-system hand off when it finds the mobile's signal to be very weak, but can not find another cell within its coverage area to transfer the on-going call. Figure~\{Inter System HO} shows the messaging for this case. The concept of Anchor MSC is used in this case. Anchor MSC is the MSC that remains as a fixed connection point of the call during the complete call session. With the concept of Anchor MSC, the call can move over large areas with multiple MSCs and still maintain its connection valid for the network. Figure~\{Anchor MSC} shows how the call leg from one MSC to another MSC can be changed without effecting the end to end connectivity. As shown in Figure~\{Inter System HO}, The old BSC sends Hand-off required message to old MSC. old MSC transform this message to MAP format and send to Anchor MSC. Anchor MSC sends the Hand-off perform message to New MSC. New MSC sends the Hand-off request message to New BSC. On reverse direction New BSC sends the Acknowledgement back to New MSC, which in turn sends the Hand-off Perform Acknowledgement message to Anchor MSC. Anchor MSC sends this to old MSC. Old MSC now sends the Hand-off Command to Old BSC. The new BSC will receive HO Complete from its BTS and sends this message to New MSC. New MSC send the End Signal Result to Anchor

MSC which will transfer that to old MSC. Old MS will send the clear command to old BSC and the channel will be released in the same sequence as we have seen in intra system hand-off. 7.5 Prioritizing Hand Offs and its Challenges: Generally, from the user perspective, the maintenance of an on-going session is more important than a new session arrival. In order to improve the quality of service (QoS) during the hand off, various research proposals are provided to give the hand off calls more priority over any incoming voice calls [43]. One way to prioritize the hand off calls is to reserve a fraction of total available channels exclusively for hand off requests from the on-going sessions. This scheme is known as guard channel concept [43]. However, this scheme lacks from low traffic utilization. Different dynamic channel assignment strategies are proposed to optimize the number of guard channels by using demand based frequency allocation. Another way to deal with hand off sessions is queuing of hand off requests [47]. The queuing of on-going sessions decrease the session blocking probability. Since, there is a significant difference between the hand off request time and session blocking time, it is wise to queue the hand off requests and provide the system some time to process the queued requests. Challenges in hand off often arise due to the wide variety of speeds between different users. While the users in high speed vehicles cross the cell boundaries in a few seconds, the pedestrians are often confined within a single cell. The problem is solved by introducing the concept of co-located ``large'' and ``small'' cells [29]. Different power levels and different antennas are used to manage these two distinct types of cells. This concept is popularly known as umbrella cell [29], where the large coverage area is provided for high-speed users and smaller coverage is given to low speed users. This reduces the number of hand offs for the high-speed users and also provide good coverage areas for slower pedestrian users. A hand off from a large umbrella cell to a small micro cell occurs when a high speed user slows down its speed (getting down from a car). 7.6 Hard and Soft Hand Off: The cellular systems (like GSM) assign different radio channels for hand off. This is known as hard hand off. On the other hand, in IS-95 code division multiple access (CDMA), no physical change in the assigned channel actually occurs. Instead the MSC simultaneously evaluates the received signal from single user at several

neighboring base stations. It then make a ``soft'' decision to choose a version of the user's signal to pass at a particular instance [37]. This procedure is known as soft hand off. A wide variety of research works exist in literature which propose to improve these soft and hard hand off strategies. The concept of primary virtual circuit (PVC) and switched virtual circuit (SVC) is used to improve the hand off latency in mobile wireless ATM networks [12]. Recent researches have also revealed that end-to-end solutions for smooth hand offs are required for transmission of streaming multimedia in wireless networks. These include integration of adaptive channel allocation strategies and predictive reservation of wireless bandwidth [13] for assuring stringent QoS guarantee. 8. Location Registration: Registrations caused by location update schemes have two major categories in [7], namely, static and dynamic update schemes. The static schemes are characterized by the fact that there are only certain fixed cells at which a mobile terminal registers to send an update message. Under the dynamic schemes, however, a mobile terminal can register in any cell---the decision is solely based on the user's activity. 8.1 Static Update Schemes: These are also called global schemes in the sense that the cells at which all or at least a group of mobile terminals initiate update messaging are set globally for the whole network. Following are the two most prominent static location update schemes that have been proposed in the literature:

Figure- 32: Location update procedure

8.2 Zone based update: The update scheme most widely adopted by the current cellular system (such as IS-41, IS-95 and GSM) [10, 20, 44] partitions the service area under an MSC into a number of zones formed by a non-overlapped grouping of neighboring cells. These zones are often called location areas (LA) or paging areas (PA). A mobile terminal must update whenever it crosses an LA boundary. The base stations must broadcast the LA-ID in addition to the cell-ID to assist the mobile devices in following the update protocol. Consequently, an LA assignment is globally induced for all subscribers. The search space for a mobile terminal's location under this

protocol is limited to the set of cells in the current LA. Figure~\{Location Update Procedure} shows how the location is updated in a GSM system where Zone based update scheme is used. Mobile station at the time of first registration gets the list of cells based on location area definition, when mobile should register to the system. When ever Mobile finds that the new base station ID on which it is located is one of that list of base stations, it uses RACH to send a Registration Request message to the base station. Base station sends this message to its BSC at the same time allocates SDCCH and communicates that acceptance to Mobile by using AGCH. BSC sends this information to MSC/VLR. VLR has the record of all home and visiting customers like IMSI. If this customer's record already exists in the VLR, it updates the entry with this new location data. It then sends the location update accepted message to Mobile. If VLR/MSC finds that this is a new customer, and no location data in its data base, it determines the location of its HLR from the IMSI that came along with the request. It then sends the Registration request to the HLR. HLR, using the user IMSI can find out the location data of the user and from that determines the old MSC/VLR identity. HLR then sends a message to old MSC/VLR to remove this user from its data base. Old MSC/VLR removes the location record of the user from its database and send the Acknowledgement to the HLR. HLR then sends the Registration Accepted message to new MSC/VLR. The new MSC/VLR, then starts the registration process by doing Authentication and ciphering using the SDCCH and allocates the TMSI to the user. In GSM system, there is another concept of Attach/Detach to track whether a registered user is attached to the network or not. There is one bit that is kept to record this information. Once a mobile user is registered to the network, periodically it sends the Attach message to indicate that it is still alive in the network. If for certain time duration, attach message is not received by the base station from a mobile, base station sets the mobile to detach state. This indicates to the network that the mobile is not alive in this network. This single bit of information avoids routing of calls to destination system for a mobile, which is at power-off state. The network can easily route those calls to announcement and voice mail service without wasting useful network resources. 8.3 Reporting center based update: An obvious drawback of the zone based update scheme is that the update traffic originates only in the boundary cells of the LAs, thereby overloading the reverse control channel used by the mobile devices for contention based channel access. An

alternative approach suggested in [6] is to designate some cells as reporting centers where the mobiles must update upon entering. On arrival of a call, the mobile must be paged in the vicinity of the reporting cell at which it has last updated. Performance of the static update schemes depend on the global design choices. Choosing an optimal set of reporting cells for a general cellular network has been shown to be NP-complete, although optimal or nearoptimal solutions for special types of cellular topologies (e.g., tree, ring and grid), and an approximate solution for general graphs have been shown to exist [7]. 8.4 Dynamic Update Schemes: These are also called local schemes as mobile terminals can make the decision whether to update or not without any global or design specific knowledge about cell planning. Three major schemes fall under the dynamic category---named by the kind of threshold they use to trigger an update: 8.4.1 Distance-based update: Under this scheme provided only in the IS-95 standard [7, 20, 23, 31, 35], the mobile terminal is required to track the (BS to BS) Euclidean distance from the location of the previous update and initiates an update if the distance crosses a specified threshold d. Although the distance would ideally be specified in terms of a unit such as mile or kilometer, it can also be specified in terms of the node distance metric defined over a graph that represents the cell geometry. One can think of these cells effectively forming a dynamic LA centered on the last known position of the device. Paging can thus be limited to all cells in this dynamic LA. Implementing a distance-based update, however, calls for some information about the relative distances of the base stations to be uploaded onto the mobile device. 8.4.2 Movement-based update: This scheme [3, 7] is essentially a way of over-estimating the Euclidean distance b traversed distance. The distance here is considered only in terms of the number of cells crossed, which needs to be counted by the mobile device until it reaches a certain threshold $m$, when an update is triggered. However, there is a penalty paid in an increased number of updates that it triggers counting local movements between different cells, even though the distance threshold is not being crossed.

Considering the worst case of movement away from the last known cell, a paging technique identical to the distance-based scheme can be deployed. 8.4.3 Time-based update: Under this scheme [7, 45], the mobile sends periodic updates to the system. The period or time threshold t can easily be programmed into the mobile using a hardware or software timer. While this makes it a truly local and attractive solution for implementation, one has to accommodate the cost due to redundant updates made by devices that are not mobile. For paging, the search space for the target device can be limited by all possible cells reachable by the user within the elapsed time from the last known cell. Performance of dynamic update schemes depend on the choice of the threshold parameters. Considering the evolution of the system between call arrivals under a memory less movement model, an iterative algorithm based on dynamic programming is used to compute the optimal threshold distance [31]. A similar approach in [23] computes hat{h} under a two-dimensional random walk model for user mobility over hexagonal cell geometry. All the three dynamic update schemes have been compared in [7] in terms of the paging cost with varying update rates. Using two types of user movement models, namely memory less and Markovian, on a ring cellular topology, it has been observed that the distance-based scheme performs the best consistently. 8.5 Hybrid Schemes: Several hybrid schemes, too, have been proposed in the literature. For example, a dynamic variant of the zone-based update scheme proposed in [53] allows different LA assignments for different mobile terminals based on individual call arrival and mobility patterns. This alleviates the localization problem of the registration traffic to some extent, although at the cost of choosing, maintaining and uploading a wide range of LA maps to mobile devices. In [27], the dynamism has been taken further by optimizing on the signaling costs that reflects the user's direction of movement and regional cell characteristics. The basic drawbacks of a static or global scheme, even if reduced by such approaches, still lingers. For example, a user can generate uninformative update messages by crossing LA boundaries or hopping in and out of reporting centers. As suggested in [48], considering per-user mobility is a first step towards dealing with these problems. Following the spirit of

reporting center selection, they propose a selective update scheme tuned to individual users over an LA-based cellular network. 8.6 Optimal Location Update: The mobility of the user generates an uncertainty of location. Any location management strategy will be optimal if this uncertainty is minimized. From the perspective of information theory, entropy provides the most fair measure of this uncertainty. The role of the optimal update scheme is to minimize this entropy and aid the paging mechanism with optimal information. There exists no update strategy which can work with information exchange any less than entropy. This scheme is quite analogous to a set of universal data compression algorithms which provide optimal data compression with information rate asymptotically equal to entropy. Since, there exists no popular, universal mobility model, the most generalized way is to assume that the user's movement profiles contain some patterns representing his/her life-style. Such patterns can be learned and predicted in an online fashion. Based on this motivation, LeZiUpdate [8] offers an optimal location update strategy. Using symbolic location representation strategy, it captures the location information as a set of symbols (sequence of strings). Whenever, the mobile changes its cell, the scheme checks whether the string has been encountered before. If so, it does not issue and actual update; otherwise it reports the new string to the associated VLR and MSC in a compressed form. The frequency of every symbol is incremented for every prefix of every suffix of each phrase [8]. The incremental parsing accumulates larger and larger phrases in the dictionary, thereby accruing estimate of entropy of all possible orders. Essentially, the algorithm approaches optimality for stationary, ergodic sources. 8.6 Inter-System Location Update: Some recent researches has reported on the problem of location management in a multi-system environment, although chiefly for the non-overlapping scenario. Both [4, 52] show that an integrated location management strategy can significantly outperform an independent operation of each sub-system's location management algorithm. For managing transitions across different sub-network domains, [4] presents the concept of boundary location registers, which help to migrate the MT's location information from one sub-system to another. At a protocol level, [50] proposes to extend Mobile IP functionality to support movement across multiple access networks. However, the problem of integrated location tracking in a generic multi-system environment is not effectively addressed by these works. In particular, a solution must consider both the non-zero

probability that an $MT$ is out of the coverage area of one or more subnetworks, and the possibility that an $MT$ might have different sessions (calling) activity states in each sub-network. Based on this motivation, optimal, topology-independent, centralized and distributed location management schemes have been recently proposed [34].

9. Cellular Traffic
Traffic intensity is the measurement of traffic generated by an user during the busy hour. There are two types of traffic measured in cellular systems: Voice Traffic: The total number of voice calls originated or terminated in a mobile during the busy hour (BH) is called voice traffic arrival rate. Each voice call is held for certain duration. The average duration of all voice calls is called holding time of a call. If λ represents the arrival rate of voice calls during a BH (call/sec), and T represents average holding time of a call (sec), then total BH voice traffic is given by λT . Voice traffic is generally represented by the unit called Erlang. Erlang is defined as a voice call of one hour duration. Hence, BH voice traffic can be given by:

Erlangs. In

cellular system per user BH voice traffic varies from 25mE (mill Erlang) to 100 mE. This number changes with customer penetration and new service offerings. Control Traffic: Control Traffic is only measured by the rate of arrival of the control messages and determined by the systems design parameters, which is not dependent on the user only. The protocol of the system and the network control architecture determines the control messages based on the implementation of the services. 9.1 Cell Traffic Analysis: The design of a cellular system depends upon the accurate estimation and forecast of the traffic generated in a cell. The main parameters in this estimate are: 1. Total number of users in a cell coverage area. 2. Percentage of users that can be captured in the network and its forecast. 3. Average traffic intensity of the user during the BH and Peak hour.

4. Percentage of active users in a cell during BH and Peak hour.

Busy Hour (BH): The cellular traffic is a random process; hence for performing any engineering estimate, a reference time period is required to measure the random process. Traditionally, telephone companies use the BH traffic as the reference traffic and the busiest hour as the reference timeperiod. This busiest hour is determined by a measurement methods of 60 consecutive days in the busy season of the year as suggested by the Bell System of USA or 15 consecutive days of the busy-season of the year as recommended by the ITU. In any case, the determination of the BH fixes the measurement time and average traffic during this measurements are called BH-traffic. Peak BH-traffic can be 3 highest days' average as in case of ITU or 10 highest days' average as recommended by Bell Systems as 10 HDBH (10 High Day Busy Hour) traffic. In addition if EVE (Extreme Value Engineering) is used, similar statistical parameters can be determined by using extreme value statistical method. In that case, the concept of BH is no longer valid. The arrival rate and the holding time, as described in the previous discussion are random variables. In most of the engineering analysis, the arrival process of calls or control messages are considered as Poisson process. The measurement of the holding time of the voice conversation has confirmed that the random distribution of the holding times of voice calls can be approximated by the negative exponential distribution. Thus, if λ and µ =
1 ( T is the holding time) represents the arrival and T

departure rate of the voice calls, then inter-arrival time distribution of wireless voice calls: 1 − e − λt and departure time distributions of voice calls: 1 − e − µt Example 3.11 In a cellular system, the measurements of arrival rate data during BH is found 200 calls per second. The average holding time of the call is measured at 180 seconds. Find the estimated traffic in Erlang and the departure rate per second for the system.

λ = 200
T = 180 sec Traffic =


3600 1 1 µ= = = 0.0055 T 180


200 X 180 = 10 3600

Grade of Service (GOS): The design of the wireless network resources is based on the concept of Grade of Service. This parameters indicate the quality of service provided by the network and includes parameters like Probability of blocking: This is the probability that all resources of the network is found busy or not working, when the network received a service request from an user that will require that resource. Example (a) probability of blocking of all radio channels in a cell, (b) probability of blocking of all interconnect trunks in a wireless switch for inter MSC call. Average Delay: This grade of service is mostly used in wireless control function and indicates how the control resources are used for the services. The delay for waiting for paging channel or random access control channel are example of this service quality. Delay Variation: This quality of service becomes important for services where the synchronization of the bit streams are important like voice packets received through a data network. This is also called Jitter quality of service.

Different standard bodies like ITU or IETF or organization like Bell System defined these parameters to design the network. Most of the wireless network providers use either Bell System recommended GOS parameters provided in the document LSSGR or use ITU recommendations. Following are few important GOS specifications from LSSGR and ITU documents that are useful for the design of wireless network. Example 3.12 In a cell, the average arrival rate is λ = 0.1 voice calls per second and the average holding time is


= 100 second. Determine the

blocking probability of the GSM system if only one GSM channel is used for voice traffic. If you like to restrict the blocking probability to 1%, how many GSM channels are required. Solution: (Erlang-B formula's derivation). The traffic channels in a cell can be used at full rate or at half rate. As the physical resource is provided at full rate, with half-rate user, more customers can be potentially supported in the system, than the full-rate. Example 3.13 In a cellular system, in a cell, only one TRX is used. Out of 8 available time slots (channels), 7 channels are used for voice traffic and 1 is used for control channel. Both the full and half rates are used by the user for voice traffic. If he probability of the half rate user is γ what is the blocking probability of the system, with arrival rate λ and holding time



Solution: Arrival rate of half-rate user = γλ Arrival rate of the full-rate user (1 − γ )λ The states of the birth and death process is represented by (i, j ) , where i and j respectively represents the number of half and full rate users in the system. The Figure-XXX shows the birth and death process of the system for the state (i, j ) . At state (i, j ) following events can occur to make transition to other 4 neighboring states Figure-33: State (i, j ) transitions for 2-dimensional birth-death process 1. A half rate call arrived at state (i, j ) will take the system to state (i + 1, j ) . The rate of this transition is = γλ . 2. A full rate call arrived at state (i, j ) will take the system to state (i, j + 1) . The rate of this transition is (1 − γ )λ . 3. A half rate call departed from the state (i, j ) will take the system to state (i − 1, j ) . The rate of this transition is iµ .

4. A full rate call departed from the state (i, j ) will take the system to state (i, j − 1) . The rate of this transition is jµ Similar transitions will occur to bring the system from the neighboring states to state (i, j ) . By using the birth-death Markov process, we derive the following steady state balance equation for probability of states.
p(0,0) = p(0,1)µ + p(1,0)µ p(i, j ) = p(i − 1, j )γλ + p(i + 1, j )(i + 1)µ + p(i, j − 1)(1 − γ )λ + p(i, j + 1)( j + 1)µ

Assume the solution of this state equation, based on our understanding of product form solution, it can be shown that the solution of these balance equations is the product from solution. So the probability of the state (i, j ) is given as follows
1 ⎛ γλ ⎞ 1 ⎡ (1 − γ )λ ⎤ p(i, j ) = ⎜ ⎟ ⎢ p(0,0) i! ⎜ µ ⎟ j! ⎣ µ ⎥ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦
i j

To determine the value of p(0,0) , we assumed the normalizing equations. The half-rate state variable i can be 0 ≤ i ≤ 2 N and full-rate variable j can be 0 ≤ j ≤ N . For j full-rate users in the system, maximum half-rate users can be served are [2 N − 2 j ] .
⎡ N 1 ⎛ (1 − γ )λ ⎞ j 2 N − 2 j 1 ⎛ γλ ⎞ i ⎤ ⎟ ∑ ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ p(0,0 ) = ⎢∑ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢ j =0 j! ⎝ µ ⎠ i =0 i! ⎝ µ ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦

The half-rate blocking ( BHR ) occurs when the full-rate and half-rate has used all the half-rate time slots. However, in addition, the full-rate blocking ( BFR ) occurs when only one half-rate slot is free in the system, i.e.,
B HR = ∑ p (2 N − 2 j , j )
j =0 N

B FR = ∑ p(2 N − 1 − 2 j , j ) + B HR
j =0 N −1

9.2 Engineering Guard Channel for HO: A cell handles two types of traffic, the new originating/terminating calls of a cell and the calls that are handed-off from the neighboring cells to a cell. The requirements of these

two calls are different. The call that is handed -off from the neighboring cells to a cell is an existing call. Due to resource limitations, if this type of call is blocked, that will cause the disconnection of the existing call. On the other hand, if a new originating or terminating call is blocked in a cell, this will cause the network busy signal to the user. It was noticed that customers are more annoyed when an existing call is disconnected than getting the network busy signal. To accommodate this condition, normally, the hand-off calls are given higher priority over the newly originating calls in a cell during the resource blocking. This is achieved by providing a set of resources reserved for the hand-off calls in the resource pool of the cell. This is called the guard channel. Figure~XXX: HO Guard Channel shows that in the cell out total N resources, the newly originating/terminating calls can only use M resources where M < N. But hand-off calls can use all N resources, thus N-M resources are reserved for hand-off calls.

Figure-34: HO Guard Channel mechanism

The determination of the system performance for this type of allocation scheme is done by using Birth and Death model. The arrival rate λ H is for the hand-off traffic from the neighboring cells. The arrival rate λO is for the new originating or terminating traffic. Assume the holding time of the call in the cell for both hand-off traffic and the new originating traffic are same and equals to


. We will use the birth and death equation to solve this

engineering problem. The state transition of this system is shown in the Figure- XXX. The state S 0 is the condition when there is no call in the channels. State S N is the system busy state. State S M indicates the point at which all new originating/terminating calls are blocked. If a new hand-off call arrives to the system and the system is in state S N , the hand-off call will be blocked. The probability of the state- i defined as p(i )
p(i ) =

(λ H + λO )i p(0) for i
i! µ



(λ H + λO )M λ H i − M p(i ) = p(0) for i
i! µ

M <i≤ N

Figure-35: Birth and death state transition of HO Guard Channel Model

N ⎡ M (λ + λ )i (λ + λO )M λ H i − M ⎤ p(0 ) = ⎢∑ H i O + ∑ H ⎥ i! µ i! µ i i = M +1 ⎢ i =0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦


The blocking probability of originating/terminating calls
Bo =

∑ p(i )
(λ H + λO )M λ H i − M ⎤
i! µ i ⎥ ⎥ ⎦


The blocking Probability of Hand-off Calls

(λ + λO )M λ H N − M ⎡ M (λ H + λO )i = p( N ) = H ⎢∑ i! µ i N!µ N
⎢ i =0 ⎣


i = M +1


10. Capacity Expansion technique:
In a cellular system, the capacity of cells required to meet the user demand is a continuously changing process. The early introduction of cellular system in USA has shown the that initial cellular capacity deployment in most cells were erroneous. There are 20% − 25% of cells having tremendous short-fall of capacity from the very early stage of network deployment. On the other hand, there are many cells where the deployed capacity is not fully used. Also, the capacity required in a cell continuously changes because of the dynamics of the coverage area. These dynamics include user growth rate, changes in area's usage partition (like new business parks, shopping malls residential sub-divisions etc.) and changes in vehicular traffic pattern due to the introduction of new highways and expressways. The capacity expansion is a continuous process in a cellular network. There are three different methods for in the expansion of capacity in a cellular network.

10.1 Addition of new channels in the cell-site: This is a very limited method, as most of the cellular networks are spectrum-limited. So, in most cases, additional channels are not available. Also, getting additional spectrum is very expensive. In USA, the PCS band provided additional spectrum in late 1990s, but it was very expensive for the service providers to get additional band from the spectrum auction. More than 20 billions of dollars were spent by the US wireless carriers to get an additional spectrum at 1.9 GHz frequency. Thus the old 900 MHz band and the 1.9 GHz band are two different frequencies with different system parameters. This capacity expansion of existing 900MHz cell by the 1.9 GHz spectrum is a very complex and expensive process. 10.2 Changing Frequency Plan: This is another technique that can provide relief to capacity constraints of some cells. The original frequency plan is changed by its new traffic characteristics, and also new channel allocation strategies. The Changing frequency plan is often associated with other capacity growth measures. This is required to increase the utilization of the spectrum.

Figure-36: Different Secterization of cells in Cellular Network

10.3 Sectorization: The third alternative is to change the architecture of the network by methods like sectorization, cell-splitting and multiple re-use factors. These methods are normally used by the wireless carriers in the early phase of capacity expansion, as the techniques are mostly related to the cell hardware changes without major impact on the over-all system control and messaging. 10.3.1 Directional Antennas: Generally, the service in a cell is started by erecting one omni-directional antenna at the center of a hexagonal site. As the traffic increases, the omni-directional antenna is changed by 3, 1200 directional antennas, to increase the capacity of the cell coverage area. This new cell is called sectored cell with three sectors. When a mobile during conversation moves from one sector to another, the call is handed over to the next sector. Because of the directional nature of the antenna, the same frequency can be used in the other sectors without interferences. The sectorization increases the control traffic as there are more handovers in

the system. Figure~ XXX gives a schematic diagram of this cellsectorization. In down town area, where traffic demand is very high six or higher ordered sector cells are used to increase traffic capacity. Example: In a GSM system, a OMNI cell is using one TRX. 7 channels are used for traffic and 1 channel for control traffic. Due to increase in traffic, company planned to use 1200, 3 directional antennas to create a 3sectored cell. Because, the sectorization increased the control traffic, estimates showed that 2 channels out of 8 channels of TRX are required for control traffic. Assume that GOS used in the design is 1\% blocking. All users are full-rate users. What is the capacity increased due to this sectorization ? [Solve using Erlang-B formula] Example: The current OMNI cell uses one channel for control traffic. The current hand-off rate is λ and s % of control channel traffic is due to handoff traffic. The cell is changed to 3-sectored cell. If the movement of the user is uniform in all directions, what will be the increase of hand-off traffic ? Solution: Assume that on each face of the hexagonal cell $\alpha$ calls are handed off to the neighboring cell. Also, α calls are received by that cell from its neighboring cell. Total hand-off messages in BH = 6(α + α ) = 12α .

Figure-37:Handoff with Sectorization of Cells

As shown in Figure~\ref{handoff-prob}, each sector has 4 boundaries: As the user movement is uniform within the coverage area, hand-off message/sector in BH = 4(α + α ) = 8α =. Hence, total hand-off message in he sectored-cell = 3.8α = 24α . By increasing the reuse, sectorization also helps to reduce S/I ratio. In analog systems for effective communication a S/I = 18db is required. Cell cluster of 7 cells are not sufficient with OMNI antenna to achieve this objective. A minimum cluster of 12 cells is needed. Because of directional

antenna, with 3-sectored cell, the S/I improves by 7 db. So, cluster can be reduced to N=7 or even N=4. This improves the capacity of the cell even further. Example: In a 25MHz GSM system with uniform frequency planning, the cluster size is N=12 when OMNI antenna is used. The system is changed to 3-sectored design with N=4. Assume that each TRX with OMNI antenna needs 1 control channel and with 3-sectored antenna needs 2 control channels. Find the capacity gain by changing to 3-sectored antenna. Solution: 25 MHz GSM system has 124 channels. Case-1:OMNI Cell The cluster reuse for N=12 Number of channels/cell =
124 ≈ 10 12 Total traffic channels = 10(8 − 1) = 70

Traffic capacity with 1 % blocking 0.01 = The Traffic Capacity A= 56.1 Erlang Case-2: 3-sectored
124 = 31 4 Total traffic channels = 31(8 − 2) = 186

70!! ∑
i =0

70 −1

Ai i!

Number of channels/cell =

Traffic capacity with 1 % blocking A ≈ 165 Erlang Capacity Improvement =
165 ≈3 56.1

Figure- 38 Cell Tearing in Cellular Systems

10.4 Cell Tearing: In this technique, the cell coverage area is spitted into two areas as shown in Figure~\ref{tiering}. The zone covered by the smaller hexagon in the cell is served by channels that transmit signals at a lower power. In this case, the channels allocated into a cell are divided into two

groups: (1) the channels that handle traffic of the smaller cell at lower power level and (2) the channels that handle traffic of the outer regions at a higher power level. because of the reduction of power in the smaller cell and the larger separation between the small cells, the reuse pattern of the smaller cells can be much less than the reuse pattern of the original (outer) cells. A reuse pattern of N=3 is possible to be achieved in this cell tiering concept, thus the outer cell might be served at reuse pattern of N=7 and the inner cell at N=3. If the inner cell is reduced to R/2, the coverage area of the
1 inner cell will be 4

of the total coverage area.

Let, ρ represents the uniform traffic intensity in the cell coverage area. Also, let, AL and AS represents the areas of the larger and smaller cell respectively. Thus, traffic in larger cell = ( AL − AS )ρ traffic in smaller cell = AS ρ If the Probability of blocking GOS used for the cell is b Channels required in larger cells E [( AL − AS )ρ , b] = K L Channels required in smaller cells E [AS ρ , b] = K S Assume total channels in the system = C Assume reuse factor of larger and smaller cell area: = N L and N S respectively Assume fraction of total channel C assigned to smaller cell = γ Total channels assigned to the cell = ⎢ + ⎥C NL ⎦ ⎣ NS Solve for γ from the following equation
⎡ γ (1 − γ )⎤C = K + K + L S ⎢ ⎥ NL ⎦ ⎣ NS (K + K S )N S N L − N S C γ = L C (N L − N S )

⎡ γ

(1 − γ )⎤

Equivalent reuse factor =

⎛ γ (1 − γ ) ⎞ C⎜ ⎜N + N ⎟ ⎟ L ⎠ ⎝ S



NS NL γN L + (1 − γ )N S

Fraction of channels assigned to small cell =

(K L + K S )N S N L − N S C (N L − N S )

The one complexity of this scheme is frequent hand-off within a cell, as mobile moves from smaller cells to the outer parts of the cells. This increases control traffic and complexity of hand-off. Also, because the splitting of channels the traffic efficiency decreases. One possible solution to improve this traffic efficiency is to consider the channels of the outer cell as an overflow traffic group for the channels of the inner cell. If λ1 , λ 2 , n1 and n 2 represent the arrival rates and number of channels in the inner and outer cells as shown in Figure XXXX, then the overall blocking of the system can be determined by using the Equivalent random theory of Wilkinson. Assume


is the average holding time of the channels in both inner and

λ1 µ λ Traffic offered in the outer cell A2 = 2 µ

outer cells and are equal in both cases. Traffic offered in the inner cell A1 =

Figure-39: Overflow traffic model of Tiered Cell

The average blocking of the inner cell traffic, if n1 channels are provided
b1 = A1n1 n1!∑
i =0 n1 −1

A1i i!

The mean traffic over flow from the inner cell to outer cell channels
= m1 = b1 A1

The variance of the overflow traffic from inner cell to outer channels
⎤ ⎡ A1 = v1 = m1 ⎢1 − m1 + ⎥ n1 + 1 − A1 + m1 ⎦ ⎣

The mean and variance of the outer cell Poisson traffic
= m2 = A2 = v 2 = A2

The total traffic offered to the outer cell channels is represented by mean (M ) and Variance (V ) as follows. Z is called peaked ness factor and for Poisson traffic it is equal to 1. This is a good indicator of the traffic characteristic. If it is less than 1, the traffic is called smooth traffic and the resources required to handle smooth traffic is less than the Poisson traffic. On the other hand, resources required for peaked traffic is more than Poisson traffic.
M = m1 + m2 V = v1 + v 2 Z= V M

The Equivalent Random theory provides the technique to determine the number of channels required to provide the GoS, where the offered traffic is not Poisson (thus Eralag Equations are not valid). This finds out the mean and variance of the hypothetical Poisson traffic (AHypoth ) that is offered to a hypothetical channel group (N Hypoth ) . Find N Hypoth by equating these mean and variance to the mean and variance of the offered traffic on the outer cell channel.
AHypoth = V + 3Z (Z − 1)
⎛ M +Z ⎞ N Hypoth = AHypoth ⎜ − M − 1⎟ ⎝ M + Z −1 ⎠

Use Earlang equation to determine the number of channels (N Total ) required to maintain the GoS (b ) .
NTotal AHypoth

N Total !∑
i =0

n1 −1

i AHypoth


The total channels required on the outer cell is then given by the following equation:

n2 = N Total − N Hypoth

Micro Cell: The heterogeneous traffic demand on the cellular coverage area has forced the cellular providers to innovate more diverse method of cellular coverage design. One of the very popular concept is the deployment of micro cell at the traffic Hot Spot or cold spot. Hot Spot Micro Cell: In this application, within a macro cell coverage area, the cellular providers identify the Hot Spots of traffic. To handle the Hot Spot traffic, cellular providers introduce Micro Cell with much lower antenna height and power of the transmission. This is very much like cell Tearing, the only difference is the micro cell location can be at any location of the cell coverage area. Cold spot Micro Cell: In this application, cellular provider identifies coverage gaps within a macro cell coverage area. A micro cell with much lower power is installed within this cold spot to provide the cellular coverage. Figure-XXX shows the location of the Micro Cell area within a Macro Cell coverage area. Note that the signal strength on certain part of the micro cell coverage area facing the antenna of the macro cell can be higher. Thus the Directed retry technique is used to lock to micro cell even when the macro cell signal strength is higher than the micro cell.

Figure-40: Micro Cell coverage within macro cell area

Directed Retry: This is the method to underlay micro cells within a macro cell and assign traffic to the micro cell. Within a coverage area as the power of the macro cell is generally higher than the micro cell, mobile generally tunes to the macro cell, even though the mobile within the coverage range of the micro cell. The macro cell in that case sends the list of micro cells that are closed to the mobile. Mobile finds out the strongest micro cell signal and tunes to that micro cell. This is called directed retry.

Directed Hand-down (DHD): In this case, the mobile finds the signal strength of the macro cell much better than the micro cell, though the mobile is within the coverage area of the micro cell. Macro cell accepts the call and set up the connection. Then within five seconds, it hand-over the call to micro cell. BER Hand up: In this case, if the micro cell finds that the BER of the call is not satisfactory, and there are spare channels available in the macro cell, it hand-up the call to the macro cell. This ensures the voice quality. Example: In a cellular network system, the total number of channels available is 400. The design uses 7-3 macro cell design with 1200 sectored cell. Each sector has one micro cell with 3 reuse factor. Find the optimum traffic and the allocation of channels to macro cell and micro cell when the micro cell traffic is 30%. If the micro cell traffic increase to 60^, what will be the change in the channel allocation.

Frequency Reuse: The frequency reuse mechanism needs to be smart enough to make efficient use of radio spectrum, which is required for satisfying the demand of increasing capacity and low interference. In a cellular network, the number of radio channels required for each cell is developed by using similar calculations for each cell. The channel assignment strategy is to develop the plan for minimum set of frequencies that can be deployed to meet the capacity requirements of each cell without interference. A large number of channel assignment strategies are proposed to fulfill these objectives. These strategies have great influence on the performance of the cellular system when a MT is handed off from one cell to the [49, 51]. Broadly, the channel allocation strategies are classified into two groups: fixed (FCA) and dynamic (DCA). The entire radio spectrum is first partitioned into a number of channel-sets. In the fixed channel assignment strategy, every cell is assigned a pre-determined channel-set. Graph coloring technique is used to perform these channel assignment strategies with the reuse distance constraint [22]. A call within a cell can only be serviced by the unused channels of that particular cell. Subsequently, a call is blocked if all the channels of the cell are currently occupied. The fixed channel allocation is suitable for stationary traffic in a cell.

However, in reality, the cell traffic in a cellular network is not homogeneous and non-stationary. According to flow of people in a city, the morning, the day-time and the evening traffic demands of cells often vary. If FCA is used, under these circumstances, the resources required for the network will be significantly more. On the other hand, if resources can be shared between the cells, there is significant reduction of resources. The following example illustrates this phenomenon: Example: The number of active users in 3 adjacent cells is shown in Table~\ref{active}. Find the total number channels required, if FCA is used. Assume traffic per active user is 50m Erlang and GOS is 1\% blocking. Find the total number of channels required, if the cells can dynamically share the channels. \begin{table}[!httb] \caption{\footnotesize{}} \label{active} \begin{center} \begin{footnotesize} \begin{tabular}{||c|c|c|c||} \hline \hline Cell & M & D & E \\ \hline A & $40$ & $80$ & $120$ \\ \hline B & $10$ & $200$ & $50$ \\ \hline C & $100$ & $20$ & $120$ \\ \hline \hline \end{tabular} \end{footnotesize} \end{center} \vspace{-0.1in} \end{table} On the other hand in dynamic channel allocation (DCA) strategy [5, 14, 15], the channels are not permanently assigned to a particular cell. During a call set-up, upon request of a channel from the base station, the MSC allocates any free channel available in the originating cell's interference region. The allocation procedure takes into account the probability of blocking in near future, channel frequency and reuse distance. Since a wide number of channels are now available to the cells, dynamic channel allocation scheme reduces the possibility of channel blocking and increases the channel utilization and system capacity. However, this is achieved at the cost of increased computational complexity and storage of the system.

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