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Low Temperature Waste Energy

Recovery in Chemical Plants


and Refineries
May 16, 2012
Texas industries of the Future

TAS Background
TAS DIVISIONS
1. Gas Turbine Compressor Inlet Air
Cooling (TIC) by chilled water
technology 1999
2. Commercial Chilled Water Plants
(District Cooling) - 2003
3. Modular Utility Systems / Critical
Energy Systems / Modular Data
Centers - 2006
4. Renewable Energy Systems
2008

Chillers Plants: 956,000 refrigeration tons to date

Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC): 120 MW to date

Low Temperature Waste Heat


TAS defines as < 400 F (200 C)
Historically most difficult to recapture for electric
power generation purposes
Best Uses for Low Temperature Heat
Regenerative (recuperative) heating of feed-stocks
District Heating
LP steam generation

Other uses for Low Temperature Heat


Absorption chiller technologies

Single-effect absorption chillers require 190 F to 250 F


(90 - 120 C) heat sources

Double-effect absorption chillers can use up to 350 F


(175 C) resources

Absorption chiller plants require up to 2X capital cost of


electric-driven chillers

Higher water consumption at cooling towers

Typical large plant cost of $1,000 per ton

TAS experience: several thousand refrigeration tons

Other uses for Low Temperature Heat


Heat-to-Power using ORC

200 F to 300 F, TAS uses R134a


300 F to 400 F, TAS uses R134a, recuperated cycle
>400 F, TAS uses R245fa, recuperated
>600 F, steam is economically superior
if project is > 10 MW

Most TAS ORC plants use non-flammable refrigerants


instead of hydrocarbon working fluids
This safety advantage may be less of an economic
driver at petrochemical and refinery sites

H2P: Advanced Heat Recovery


More Economical than Steam for Small Projects
The evolution of Organic Rankine
Cycle (ORC)

1
2

Hot thermal oil evaporates


and superheats the organic
working fluid
Organic working fluid
expands thru two-stage turbo
gen-set, creating power

Prior to condensing, expanded


organic fluids heat is recuperated to
preheat the evaporator feed

Working fluid is condensed at ~120F


and ~40 psi, and then pumped to high
pressure, >600 psi, to repeat the cycle

Organic Working Fluid


Expander
Generator

Source heats thermal oil


loop from 300F (149 C) to
500F (260 C)

any heat
source

Evaporator

Recuperator

Condenser

Cooling,
Air or
Water

Basic Economics of Industrial H2P


If goal is 3 - year payback, then following criteria must be met:
1) > $100 / MWHr power value
2) < $2,500 / kW installed
3) 95% Capacity Factor
99% of waste heat projects
DONT meet these criteria

H2P is typically NOT a capital improvement project with


a 3 year payback

It can be a solid power generation project with a 6 year


payback

Economy of Scale Matters


unit cost

Lowering equipment costs is always important, but


unit cost actually responds better to raising power output.

Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE)

All costs in contant


Dec 2010 dollars
Coal: PC
Coal: IGCC
Natural Gas: NGCC (2010)
Natural Gas: NGCC (2012)
Nuclear
Biomass: CFB
Wind: On-Shore
Wind: Off-shore
Solar: CSP
Solar: PV (2010)
Solar: PV (2012)
Heat-to-Power (SPE)
Heat-to-Power (industrial)
Heat-to-Power (energy)
Heat-to-Power (3rd party)

nominal
plant
capacity, capacity
MW
factor, %
750
80
600
80
550
80
550
90
1,400
90
100
85
100
30
200
40
250
37
10
22
10
22
5
95
5
95
5
95
5
95

heat rate,
Btu/kWHr
8,750
8,940
6,900
6,200
10,000
12,900
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

total
plant
cost,
$/kW
2,150
2,725
1,105
1,105
4,150
3,950
2,363
3,550
4,300
4,000
2,000
2,500
2,500
2,500
2,500

total
capital
fixed
required, O&M,
$/kW
$/kW-yr
2,580
48
3,300
74
1,325
16
1,325
16
5,575
110
4,500
63
2,473
35
3,725
105
5,275
66
4,388
58
2,194
58
2,750
20
2,750
20
2,750
20
2,750
20

Data and methodology taken from EPRI

variable
O&M,
$/MWHr
2.0
2.3
2.3
2.3
1.7
5.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0

fuel
price,
$/million
LCOE,
Btu
$/MWHr
1.9
57
1.9
71
6.0
64
3.5
41
0.6
82
4.0
116
0.0
107
0.0
145
0.0
173
0.0
349
0.0
210
0.0
335
0.0
115
0.0
70
0.0
59

TAS: Working to Improve Economics


1)

Development of a new axial turbine family for geothermal and industrial


waste heat applications,

2)

Demonstration of TAS Advanced Heat Recovery AHR (supercritical &


recuperated cycle) at lower resource temperatures, at utility scale, and

3)

Use of environmentally-safe and non-flammable working fluid

ISO 9001:2008
fabrication
environment
Predictable project
economics
Target: $2,500 / kW,
installed (5 to 10 MW
level)

Thank You!
Tom Tillman
ttillman@TAS.com
BD Manager, Heat-to-Power
832.494.7586

dont forget!
www.heatispower.org