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MAHATMA GANDHI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

GANDIPET, HYDERABAD.
EEE Department EM-II LAB

Experiment No: 6

III/IV EEE (I Semester)

Page 1 of 5

V AND INVERTED-V CURVES OF SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR


Aim: To draw the V and inverted-V curve of three phase Synchronous Motor at
different loads.

Corollaries: 1. Obtain the characteristics of field current verses armature current and field

current verses power factor.

Theory:With constant mechanical load on the synchronous motor, the variation of


field current changes the armature current drawn by the motor and also its
operating power factor. As such, the behavior of the synchronous motor is
described below under three different modes of field excitation.
1. Normal excitation:
The armature current is minimum at a particular value of field current,
which is called the normal field excitation. The operating power factor of the
motor is unity at this excitation and thus the motor is equivalent to a resistive type
of load.
2. Under excitation:
When the field current is decreased gradually below the normal excitation,
the armature current increases and the operating power factor of the motor
decreases. The power factor under this condition is lagging. Thus, the synchronous
motor draws a lagging current, when it is under excited and is equivalent to an
inductive load.
3. Over Excitation:
When the field current is increased gradually beyond the normal excitation,
the armature current again increases and the operating power factor decreases.
However, the power factor is leading under this condition. Hence, the synchronous
motor draws a leading current, when it is over excited and is equivalent to a
capacitive load.
If the above variation of field current and the corresponding armature
current are plotted for a constant mechanical load, a curve of the shape of V is
obtained as shown in fig (10.10). Such a characteristic of synchronous motor is
commonly called as V curve of the motor. The characteristic curve plotted
between input power factor and the field current for a constant mechanical load on
the motor are of the shape of inverted V and are known as inverted V curves.
For increased constant mechanical load on the motor, V curves bodily shift
upwards as shown in fig (10.10). The curve joining the minimum current points of
various V curves plotted for different mechanical loads, is normally called a
unity power factor compounding curve.
_______________________________________________________________________
_Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

MAHATMA GANDHI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY


GANDIPET, HYDERABAD.
EEE Department EM-II LAB

Experiment No: 6

III/IV EEE (I Semester)

Page 2 of 5

Name Plate Details: Type


Volts
Frequency
KW/HP
RPM
Amps
Rating
Connection
Insulation

:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:

Specifications / Technical details of Equipment and instruments: a) Equipment:


S.no
1
2
3
4

Name of equipment
Alternator
DC shunt motor
Rheostat
Rheostat

Range

Quantity
1
1
1
1

Make

b) Instruments:
S.no
1
2
3

Name of instrument
Ammeter
Ammeter
Ammeter

Range
(0-2) A
(0-10) A
(0-5) A

Type
MI
MI
MC

Quantity
1
2
1

Make
AE
AE
AE

Voltmeter

(0-600) V

MI

AE

Circuit Diagram: -

_______________________________________________________________________
_Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

MAHATMA GANDHI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY


GANDIPET, HYDERABAD.
EEE Department EM-II LAB

Experiment No: 6

III/IV EEE (I Semester)

Page 3 of 5

Observation Tables: V curves:


Sl.No

Field
current (A)

Armature
current (A)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Procedure: 1. Connect the circuit as per circuit diagram shown in fig 6.1.
_______________________________________________________________________
_Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

MAHATMA GANDHI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY


GANDIPET, HYDERABAD.
EEE Department EM-II LAB

Experiment No: 6

III/IV EEE (I Semester)

Page 4 of 5

2. Initially the motor should be at no load and the auto transformer is at zero
position.
3. Give the supply closing the MCB and start the motor by means of 3-
variac.
4. For getting V curves allow the motor to run at one particular load.
5. For different values of field current note down the various meter readings.
6. Plot the curves between field current verses armature current to get V
curves and field current verses power factor to get inverted V curves.
7. For different load settings different V and inverted V curves will be
obtained.

Precautions: General:
1. There shouldnt be any loose connections.
2. The readings must be taken without any parallax error.
Technical:
1. The motor field rheostat should be in minimum resistance position.
2. The alternator field potential divider should be in the maximum voltage
position.

Model Graphs:

Result: The V and inverted V curves of a synchronous machine is obtained.


VIVA VOCE:
_______________________________________________________________________
_Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

MAHATMA GANDHI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY


GANDIPET, HYDERABAD.
EEE Department EM-II LAB

Experiment No: 6

III/IV EEE (I Semester)

Page 5 of 5

1. What are the basic differences between a 3-phase synchronous motor and 3phase induction motor?
Sol. Synchronous motor is a constant speed machine rotates at synchronous
speed where as induction motor is a variable speed machine rotates at
asynchronous speed.
2. What are the various methods of starting a 3-phase synchronous motor?
Sol. Damper winding method, pony motor method and DC motor
3. What is the power factor of the motor at normal excitation?
Sol. UPF
4. What is the nature of power factor, when a synchronous motor is operated
(i) under excited (ii) over excited?
Sol. Lagging power factor in case of under excitation and leading power factor
in case of over excitation.
5. Is it possible to operate a synchronous motor on any other speed than the
synchronous speed?
Sol. No

_______________________________________________________________________
_Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering