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Structural Timber and Concrete Level Of Development

(LOD): When to Draw the Line and Where to Model It!
IKERD Consulting: Will F. Ikerd, PE, CWI, LEED AP, Principal, President
ITW Building Components Group: Steve Bumbalough, Product Manager, Global Software Development
IKERD Consulting: Brenda Herrera Ikerd, CFO, (English & Spanish Version, AU Online)

Code

SE4912 (Las Vegas, Live)
Companion Virtual Personations:
SE5475 (Virtual English) | SE5118 (Virtual Spanish)
Printed 2011-11-13

Description:
This class will provide an in-depth discussion of the level of development (LOD) of structural timber
and concrete models at the different stages in a building lifecycle: design, construction and
ownership. We will consider the new AIA BIM Protocol Exhibit E202 that defines models on a scale
of 100 to 500. The class will cover how structural timber and concrete models are used by
architects, mechanical engineers, construction managers, sub-contractors, and fabricators. Most
importantly, the class will discuss how each of these stakeholders uses timber and concrete
structural models differently and need different content. We will demonstrate how the newly issued
Structural Engineering Institute LOD BIM (authored by speaker Will Ikerd) can be used to define
team expectation of what should be modeled. Practical examples of model development issues will
be shown, along with effective approaches to resolve the challenges of using the SEI LOD model
as an early BIM planning tool.

Learning Objectives
At the end of this class, you will be able to:

Describe what LOD is.

Identify who LOD should be used on your project.

Describe good practices for BIM models when working with teams on collaborative projects.

Speakers:
Will Ikerd, PE, LEED AP

Steve Bumbalough

Brenda Herrera Ikerd

au@ikerd.com
Principal, President
IKERD consulting

steveb@itwbcg.com
ITW Building Components Group
Product Manager,
Global Software Development

au@ikerd.com
Principal, CFO
IKERD consulting

Structural Timber and Concrete Level Of Development (LOD):
When to Draw the Line and Where to Model It!

About the Speakers:
Will Ikerd, P.E., CWI, LEED AP
e: au@IKERD.com
Will Ikerd is a nationally recognized consultant in structural engineering and building enclosures utilizing Building
Information Modeling in both design and construction. Will also specializes in implementing BIM strategies for construction
management firms interested in expanding their work in Virtual Design and Construction (VDC). He co-chairs the national
American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Structural Engineering Institute - Council of American Structural Engineering
(SEI-CASE) committee on BIM, is co-chair of the BIM Forum's Designer's Sub-forum, and chairs the Structural Engineers
Association of Texas Committee on BIM. Will is also a member of American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC)
Technology Integration (TI) committee for the steel industry use of BIM and a member of American Concrete Institute
(ACI) 131 Committee on BIM for concrete. He is a practicing professional engineer who frequently speaks and writes
about BIM, civil, and structural engineering, and building enclosure design. He is Principal at IKERD Consulting LLC and
can be reached at au@ikerd.com.

Steve Bumbalough
e: steveb@itwbcg.com
Steve Bumbalough is Product Manager for Global Software Development within the ITW Building Components Group. ITW
is a global diversified manufacturer of products that cross over several major market segments such as Industrial
packaging, Food Equipment, Polymers, Transportation, and Construction Products. Founded nearly 100 years ago in
1912, ITW started off as a small company manufacturing hand tools and components for the transportation and
communications industries prior to WW1.
Today, ITW has a market cap of roughly $24B with over 5000 product lines and 60,000 employees. We are structured of
over 825 different business units in 52 different countries. ITW likes to foster growth thru product innovations, extending
current products to new industries and acquiring businesses that improve offerings to their current customer base.
One of ITW’s guiding principles is the 80/20 principle which, in a nutshell, simply acknowledges that 80% of a company’s
sales are driven by 20 % of its products sold to key customers. In the truss and wall panel industry the 80 is represented by
the light frame wood industry. Between builders and the supply chain, residential and light commercial markets remain one
of the most highly fragmented in the construction industry as a whole. So providing solutions to connect these dots and
define levels of development for the digital models based on corresponding deliverables is what ITW does. Drawing a
home and framing it, optimizing it, and manufacturing it from a single model is revolutionizing BIM for the timber
marketplace.

Brenda Herrera Ikerd
e: au@IKERD.com
Brenda Herrera Ikerd is a founding partner and majority owner of Ikerd Consulting LLC and its subsidiary i2concepts.com, a
building information modeling and technology integration consultancy that focuses on the use of Virtual Design and
Construction (VDC). She has worked in design and construction in the United States and Mexico since the mid-1990s
before starting her BIM and VDC consulting firm in 2003 that specializes in the areas of structure and building envelope.
She is currently co-authoring a book on VDC with Autodesk® Navisworks® software in both English and Spanish. She can
be contacted at au@ikerd.com.

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............................................................... 8  4............................................ version 2010..  Model Structure as it will be Constructed: ............................................................................................ Masonry and Wood Content is Structural ............................................................................................ 10  11. Concrete............................................................................... Strive for Collaboration (IFC & CIS/2): ........................................................ 1  About This Session & Paper ........................................ 8  7................ 7  1................................................................................................11 ..................................................................................... 19  LOD 350.......  Have Senior Engineers in Responsible Charge Open & Review their Models .............................................................  Not All Steel........................................................................................................................................ 13  Model Management ... 15  File Formats ...................................................................................  Clearly Define the Local X..........................................................................................  Train the team Inside & Out .................................................................................  Match BIM Material with Project Specifications (LOD 300) .............................................................................................  Don't Assume Construction Ways & Means During Design ......................... 7  2... 7  3... & MEP)........................... 1  Speakers: ..........................................................................................................Z Origin .............................. 8  6..................................................Y.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 9  10............... 15  LOD 100......................................Structural Timber and Concrete Level Of Development (LOD): When to Draw the Line and Where to Model It! Contents Description: ........... Tilt-Up Panel Concrete (CSI MF# 03 47 13) & Shared Models ......................................................................................................................................................................................................  Avoid Re-modeling................................................... 8  8............................................................................................ 4  Ikerd's Rules Of Thumb for Design Level Structural Modeling (100-350 LOD) ......................... 24  Resources & Bibliography........ S....................................................................  Do Not Duplicate Model Content Across Disciplines (A.............................................................................................  Use Shared Model When Two Disciplines Need to Control the Content: ................................... 10  About the E202 OBJECT CLASSIFICATION UniFormat & MasterFormat ..................................................................................................................................  Model Typical 1/8" Plan Content for Design (LOD ~300) ................................................................................................................................................ 1  Learning Objectives ........................... 21  LOD 450. 23  Example.............. 15  Initial Responsibilities of the Structural Model .............. 4  Definitions ........ 8  5................... 9  9..... 18  LOD 300......................................................... 20  LOD 400. 17  LOD 200...... 11  Hierarchical Structural LOD Model................................................................ 22  LOD 500........................................................... 29  3 ...................................

2008). This paper references the AIA E202 (American Institute of Architects [AIA]. and authorized uses of Building Information Models in the structural aspects of a project. schedule. 2009) and ACI's concrete reinforcing detailing manual (American Concrete Institute [ACI]. texts. A Building Information Model(s) is a digital representation of the physical and functional characteristics of the Project it is created for. 4 . material. In addition to the E202. American Institute of. material. Project contract forms such as design-bid-build. It also recommends specific responsibility for the development of structural model content to a defined Level of Development at key project milestones that are to be developed by the project teams. Building Information Model (BIM) is defined as a relational database of building objects that stores information such as geometry. Definitions The following are common definitions used in this paper that have been adapted from the AIA E202 and the 301 BIM Addenda." Level of Development (LOD) in the AIA E202 describes the level of completeness to which a Model Element is developed (Architects. cost and many other aspects of the objects. 2008) which is a document that provides a framework for defining model definition. drawings derived from the Models. the AISC Steel Detailing manual (American Institute of Steel Construction [AISC]. a structural BIM and a MEP BIM. An example of a federated model would be the combination of an architectural BIM. The 301 BIM Addendum defines a Federated Model as "a Model consisting of linked but distinct component Models. examples are shown on the structural LOD that could be applied to most typical projects. the session will present information from the authors’ work as well as content that they have adapted from the Consensus Doc 301 BIM Addendum (ConsensusDOCS. and cost that is created from two or more separate models. It is an incorrect application of LOD to refer to an overall model as a particular LOD. design-assist and IPD will be mentioned but are beyond the focus of this session. 2008). This paper is only meant as a guide to aid project teams in discussing the structural level of development on their projects and should not be used without a thorough consideration of the content’s application and consequences. Federated Model is defined as a relational database of building objects that store information such as geometry. “Building Information Modeling” means the process and technology used to create the models. expected levels of development. all members of the design team can work together and collaborate with the construction manager’s team. so that a change to one component Model in a Federated Model does not create a change in another component Model in that Federated Model. The paper also includes sample general notes related to BIM in structural construction documents. schedule.Structural Timber and Concrete Level Of Development (LOD): When to Draw the Line and Where to Model It! About This Session & Paper This paper suggests protocols. LOD should only be used to describe individual model objects. rather a model is a collection of objects that are varying LODs. 2008) . Finally. It is assumed that regardless of the project form. design-build. and other data sources that do not lose their identity or integrity by being so linked. and an excel spread sheet tool to aid in defining a projects’ structural LOD.

system or assembly within a building or building site. distributes. design.Structural Timber and Concrete Level Of Development (LOD): When to Draw the Line and Where to Model It! Level of Detail (LOD) is a deprecated term that should no longer be used in describing BIM content. studies. the authors consider this a BIM with a LOD greater than 300 as described in this paper. and (c) contains the equivalent of shop drawings and other information useful for construction." This is typically adding or modifying a BIM to change its LOD. Construction BIM is defined by the 301 BIM Addendum as "a Model that (a) consists of those aspects of the Project that are to be modeled as specified in the BIM Execution Plan prepared pursuant to this Addendum. and (b) incorporates. Model Element Author is defined by the AIA E202 as the party responsible for developing the content of a specific Model Element to the LOD required for a particular phase of the Project. Steel Fabricators." This is typically a BIM with a LOD less than or equal to 300. transmits. if none. However. communicates or otherwise shares with other Project Participant(s) for use in or in connection with a Model for the Project. For this reason. As an example. Contributor is defined by the 301 BIM Addenda as "a Project Participant who makes a Contribution. Design Model is defined by the 301 BIM Addendum as "a Model of those aspects of the Project that (a) are to be modeled as specified in the BIM Execution Plan prepared pursuant to this Addendum and (b) have reached the stage of completion that would customarily be expressed by an Architect/Engineer in two-dimensional Construction Documents. The geometry detail is very precise but the information the object conveys is in-accurate and not developed. from a designer's Construction Documents. a steel open web joist in Revit Structure looks highly “detailed” at the fine level of display. such as for analysis. For the purposes of this paper focused on structural content. Model Element is defined by the AIA E202 as a portion of the Building Information Model representing a component. 5 . (b) utilizes data imported from a Design Model or. and Erectors. Model Elements are represented by the Construction Specifications Institute (CSI) MasterFormat classification system with cross referencing to the Omniclass system. the AIA and the AGC BIM Forum use the term Level Of Development to describe a model object. estimating or scheduling. data or information that a Project Participant (a) creates or prepares." In the structural domain these would include Owners. The level of “detail” of model object geometry is often very misleading as a measure of the quality of the information that objects represents." As a reference. or renderings. preliminary designs. Contribution is defined by the 301 BIM Addendum as " the expression. A Model prepared by an Architect/Engineer that has not reached the stage of completion specified in this definition is referred to as a Model. Construction Managers. Architects. the web geometry is only suggestive and not developed. This shall not include Models such as analytical evaluations. Model User is defined by the AIA E202 as any individual or entity authorized to use the Model on the Project. Model Element Authors should be identified at the beginning of a project in the LOD table that accompanies this document.

This could include construction items such as erecting braces. This content is not always available from designers due to the information being contingent on which manufactures are selected by the contractor. and are not derived from." This is typically comprised of BIMs with LODs of 300 but may require greater LOD than 300. open web joist web member configuration.Structural Timber and Concrete Level Of Development (LOD): When to Draw the Line and Where to Model It! Drawings are defined by the 301 BIM Addendum as "(a) those two-dimensional plans. a Model and (b) those two-dimensional projections derived from a Model supplemented with independent graphics and annotations specified by the Parties to be Contract Documents. Level of Development 350. Level Of Development 450. form work bracing. back shores. miscellaneous steel braces. and cranes. This content can be beneficial when conducting site planning and 4D scheduling of the construction. Site Construction \ Erection Content Model is defined by the author as that content that goes beyond what is needed in the LOD 400 fabrication model to include temporary building content that is used during onsite construction. Models with LOD of 350 can be a hybrid of manufacturing level information that is known along with 3D massing based on rational assumptions for that content that falls short of a LOD 400. sketches or other drawings that are Contract Documents under the Governing Contract and are created separately from." Full Design Model is defined by the 301 BIM Addenda as “a Model consisting of coordinated structural. Pre-construction Coordination Model Elements is defined by the author as that content that goes beyond what designers have information to show but is less than a manufacturing level of development. scaffolding. and curtain wall systems. However. 6 . architectural. MEP and other Design Models designated in the BIM Execution Plan to be produced by the design team. shores. content such as these can effect 3D spatial trade coordination and is typically needed before full fabrication level of development model elements (LOD 400) can be made. This could include construction engineered items such as light gage kicker locations.

To date. Some of them relate more to sociology than technology (9. Clearly Define the Local X.0) at the southwest most column grid intersection with a south and west offset of 10. Strive for modeling content that will export to IFC and CIS/2 formats when possible. Avoid Re-modeling. As an example.Y. 6. S & MEP Use Shared Model When Two Disciplines Need to Control A Given Content Don't Assume Construction Ways & Means During Design (Ask!) Match BIM Material with Project Specifications Have Engineers in Responsible Charge Open & Review Their Models Not All Steel. Y. 2. these common steel detailing applications do not readily read in any custom families such as connections. 3. Concrete and Wood Content is Structural Train the Team Inside & Out on Structural BIM LOD 1. We also establish plan north as being in the positive Y direction. Critically review the value of modeling content if it cannot be used downstream in construction via model hand-off or export. As you review them.com). Below is a summary of my eleven rules of thumb followed by a more detailed definition of each: 1.Z Origin During Design Model Typical 1/8" Plan Content for Design Model Structure as it will be Constructed Do Not Duplicate Model Content Between A. and 11).Y coordinates of the origin (0.Structural Timber and Concrete Level Of Development (LOD): When to Draw the Line and Where to Model It! Ikerd's Rules Of Thumb for Design Level Structural Modeling (100-350 LOD) The following are my opinions on eleven topics I believe are fundamental to workable model element development in the design and construction of structures. 10. Strive for Collaboration (IFC & CIS/2) Clearly Define the Local X. 8. 100' or absolute elevation depending on firm preference. 4. 5. 9. The offsets of 10. Z coordinates that other trades will use in construction that are coordinated with the structural model. 7.Y. 100 or 1000 feet depending on the project size. 2. avoid modeling content that will have little downstream value. The Z elevation should be defined as 0. I typically prefer defining the X. Strive for Collaboration (IFC & CIS/2): Where possible. gusset plates. approximately 90% of the North American steel detailers working in 3D are using one of two nonAutodesk applications for steel detailing. 11. The southwest column intersection is chosen so that the structure is in a positive X-Y coordinate system. Avoid Re-modeling.Z Origin The project general notes and specification should clearly define the local relative X. Most 3D structural detailing applications used do not readily import Revit content beyond the basic standard member information. please send your comments and feedback to me (au@Ikerd. I typically use a relative 100’ elevation. 100 or 1000 feet south and west of the origin are so that any portions of the building that extend south or west of the project origin grid intersections will also be within a positive X-Y coordinate system. and built-up members. 7 . 10.

4. Material strengths and other similar items should be modeled as they are specified in the construction documents. 5. A benefit of defining the local relative origin early and stating it in the project’s general notes is so other models that are developed for shop drawings from the construction documents have a point of reference to follow when they are submitted for review. If (1) the structural team’s contract includes higher levels of modeling and (2) they have received direction from the construction team. Use Shared Model When Two Disciplines Need to Control the Content: Use a shared model when two or more designers need to control model elements. Model Typical 1/8" Plan Content for Design (LOD ~300) For design documents (LOD ~300) model those elements that would traditionally appear on a 1/8" scale structural plan. S. Y. and interior masonry walls. Using this set relationship between the civil absolute and structural relative coordinate system. and Z offset and a Z-axis rotation. there is definitive value in the additional modeling. all federated project models can be easily converted to absolute or relative systems depending on the owner’s preference in their facility management models (LOD 500). 6. The following are a couple of examples of structural items that should not be modeled during design unless their construction sequence has a material effect on the structure’s performance and the two conditions listed above are met: 8 . 7. This process aids linking the structural model to 3rd party applications that are based on traditional CAD coordinate systems. Don't Assume Construction Ways & Means During Design Structural design (LOD <350) BIM should not assume ways & means of construction by modeling content that requires decisions and direction from the construction team. Do Not Duplicate Model Content Across Disciplines (A. Rather create a shared model with that shared content that is linked into the structural and architectural model for example. However. Model Structure as it will be Constructed: Model as it is built at LOD 300 and higher. if these two conditions are not met. This local relative building coordinate system is also tied back to the civil engineers’ state plane coordinate system. & MEP) Do not duplicate model content in different design team models.Structural Timber and Concrete Level Of Development (LOD): When to Draw the Line and Where to Model It! These rules above form the basis of the project’s “local” relative building coordinate system. load bearing tilt-panels with architectural reveals. 3. the structural model is more accurate without assumptions modeled into it. The civil state plane absolute coordinate system will then have a set relationship with the structural local relative coordinate system of an X. miscellaneous support steel and lentil shelf angles. Structural content that is a candidate for a shared model would be structural slabs with architectural recesses.

This is often part of a state’s definition of Responsible Charge. Steel’s should have separate material and color at a minimum for the following types : a. b.Structural Timber and Concrete Level Of Development (LOD): When to Draw the Line and Where to Model It! a. Tilt-wall panel numbers for erecting sequences. it seems reasonable that the structural engineer of record should be opening the models and reviewing the work done in them by their EIT's. I am not suggesting that firm owners and senior engineers model their own projects. This may mean there will be a 3000 psi mix with air-entrainment for exposed concrete members and a second 3000 psi mix without air-entrainment for interior conditions. strengths and other properties used in the structural BIM shall be correlated with the project specifications and general notes. My preference is for firms to develop a consistent color template for their structural materials that will aid in checking model content. It is hard to understand how senior engineers who cannot open and review models can manage BIM projects to a LOD and write proposals that define that LOD using a process that they cannot access. Concrete should similarly have a separate BIM concrete material property for each distinct concrete mix design shown in the project’s general notes and specifications. Structural model materials should match those that will be used in the design. walk through them and review the content without having to ask a junior engineer to come help them spin the model around. it gives them a powerful way to mentor and train the next generation of engineers by 9 . Have Senior Engineers in Responsible Charge Open & Review their Models Many states that I am aware of have some requirements to the effect of having the structural engineer who will be sealing the design of a building to have continuous and direct supervision and oversight of the work product used to create the design. they should consider having a very basic day to day level of knowledge that will allow them to open the models. A500 (HSS sections) b. Match BIM Material with Project Specifications (LOD 300) The material names. As such. A36 (angle and plate material) c. Engineers who have not learned the BIM tools in their office enough to open the models and walk through them cannot make informed decisions about BIM LOD. A53 (pipe material) 9. More importantly. Concrete pour breaks and construction joints in continuous concrete sections. 8. The level of competency to be able to navigate a model typically only takes one or two hours of effort to learn and allows the engineer in responsible charge to be an active part of their design in BIM. F1557 (anchor rod material) e. However. A992 (wide flange members) d. junior engineers and technicians. Projects with existing structures for example that have A36 steel wide flange members with new construction with A992 steel should be modeled with the proper materials for each.

non-load bearing masonry and wood framing architectural partition walls. Train the team Inside & Out All of the discussion of structural BIM LOD is academic unless everyone who works on the project understands what the goal for the project LOD are. This means that PM and engineers in the firm need to learn how to master the BIM tools. 10.Structural Timber and Concrete Level Of Development (LOD): When to Draw the Line and Where to Model It! having them review their junior engineers work in a graphically rich 3D environment. concrete recesses in floors and concrete mechanical equipment pads. 11. concrete site paving. Masonry and Wood Content is Structural Not all model content that is steel. All such content should be modeled by the discipline that has the greatest control over the design and /or coordination of the element. Concrete. 10 . These engineers must then work with their architects and mechanical engineers to form a rational approach to the LOD across the project. Not All Steel. concrete. masonry and wood is structural nor should it be in the structural engineer’s model beyond typical 2D details. Examples of such content would be steel lintels supporting brick over architectural openings.

" available Howeverr. as its system orga anization allows objects to o be placed before their properties have h been fu urther define ed. OmniClass. C CSI's website states s that "U UniFormat’s approach to o organizing g data is also o important tto the contin nued developm ment of build ding informattion modelin ng (BIM) softtware.Structural T Timber and Co oncrete Level Of Development (LOD): When to Draw the Line e and Where to o Model It! About the t E202 OBJECT O CLASSIFI C CATION U UniFormat & Maste erFormat The AIA E202 docum ment utilizes the Constru uction Speciffication Institute's (CSI) UniFormat in its table for defining the 'Level of De efinition" of the t models ((AIA E202 § 1.2. When revvision is com mplete. MasterF Format and UniFormat U arre three of th he foundatio on classificattion systemss e to structure e the constru uction data attached a to a model. this versiion of UniFo ormat will be used as the e basis for Ta able 21 – Elements of O OmniClass. This fact CSI MasterFormat while 11 . because UniFormat U is designed to o have broad d categoriess that can be e defined.3 Mode el Element). Bu uilding structure informattion is alread dy well defin ned in the sixx digits of the e 2010 w it maintains a suffic cient flexibilitty to be adjusted to a givven project. the ere are only a few w structural related cate egories listed d in the AIA E202 table u using UniFormat as sho own in the image above.

I will use MasterFormat in this presentation to aid in defining structural content that compliments the UniFormat used in the AIA E202.zz: 32-XX-YY. 12 .Structural Timber and Concrete Level Of Development (LOD): When to Draw the Line and Where to Model It! is demonstrated in a structural engineer’s ability to provide project specification in MasterFormat before the structural design is complete. Early in the project.. Ext. Ext. Thus.zz: 04-XX-YY. steel (Division 05) or timber (Division 06). they know if there design will have open web joists (CSI MF 05 21 19. the engineer knows if the structure will have concrete (Division 03). Plastic.) Wood.zz: Concrete Masonry Metals (Steel. Sample of author’s structural LOD table for structural concrete content. Earthwork Exterior.zz: 36-XX-YY.00). 03-XX-YY.00) for example. masonry (Division 04).zz: 05-XX-YY. The first 2 numbers in MasterFormat define the traditional divisions and I suggest using these as the fundamental frame work to organize a discussion around the level of structural model element development. the user can add a two digit decimal suffix to the numbers to further refine the organization of structural content. For example.zz: 31-XX-YY.zz: 10-XX-YY. tilt wall (CSI MF 03 47 13.zz: 06-XX-YY. they know what the foundation system will be. In addition to the six base numbers in MasterFormat. Site Misc. Furthermore. Finishes Fnd.00) and steel roof decking (CSI MF 05 31 23.

Current practice for many engineered items such as structural steel connections. The general concept is that each subsequent LOD typically builds on the previous level and includes all the characteristics of previous levels.Structural Timber and Concrete Level Of Development (LOD): When to Draw the Line and Where to Model It! Hierarchical Structural LOD Model. My intent in creating this content and the sample models provided is to identify the specific content requirements and associated authorized uses for each Model Element at seven different levels of completeness that are typically at progressively higher-levels of model element development. The descriptions are only our opinions and the definitions will need to be adjusted depending on the project that they are applied to. 13 . developed by the author. version 2010. in structures and building enclosures this is not always the case.11 The following Hierarchical Structural LOD model. is a tool that is being developed to aid in graphically defining structural model content for project teams. or steel open webbed joists is for the model content to be remodeled in the construction model. unitized curtain wall systems. The design models (LOD 300 or less) of these elements are rarely being used to electronically automate the creation of the construction models (350+) due to lack of software interoperability. However.

2D lines and a structural narrative.Structural Timber and Concrete Level Of Development (LOD): When to Draw the Line and Where to Model It! The summary below outlines a sample of a possible seven level system for the structural level of model element development.) EXAMPLE 100 Conceptualization Schematic Design Little model content with some massing. general estimating and 3D spatial validation 350 Beyond Detail Design Pre-Construction Detailed estimating and 3D Spatial Validation content that is not in the designer’s models. 300 Detailed Design Construction Documentation Create 2D construction documents. Temporary site items such are cranes. etc. 500 Facility Management Hand Over Maintenance & Renovation Sample of author’s structural model element LOD for the foundation edge condition of a slab-on-grade system. 14 . 200 Criteria design Design Development General structural objects are modeled to reserve space. These levels are namely: Ikerd's Structural LOD Adapted From AIA E202-08 LOD LOD CONCEPT PHASE TRADITIONAL PHASE (TYP. 450 Erection & Site Installation Construction Administration Daily field erection reports added to the structural model. 400 Fabrication Detail Construction Administration Shop Drawing level information.

Model origin. This paper suggests that the structural model information at LOD of 100 is typically addressed with the aid of structural design narratives as this is all that is typically required early on in a project. As an example. the team’s BIM Execution plan should state "Models shall be delivered in the following format(s) as appropriate to their use for example:” The following examples would be for the level of model element development for design intent which is typically shown as 300 to 350 as suggested in this paper. coordinate system.DWG (for non-Revit team members) Exported *.NWC (Navisworks) Exported *. Access rights File Formats The level of model element development is not complete if it does not include a definition of the applications that are used.NWC (Navisworks) Exported *.RVT Exported *. Use of Model Architectural Design Intent Application Revit Architecture 2011 Mechanical Design Intent Revit MEP 2011 Structural Design Intent Revit Structure 2011 Required File Format(s) Source *.RVT Exported *.DWG (for non-Revit team members) Exported *. File storage location(s) 3. and units 2.RVT Exported *.IFC (for non-Revit team members) Source *.IFC (for non-Revit team members) Source *.NWC (Navisworks) Exported *.IFC (for non-Revit team members) 15 . 5. Processes for transferring and accessing files with other team members 4. Initial Responsibilities of the Structural Model The party responsible for managing the structural model shall facilitate the establishment of protocols for the following: 1. the structural consultant should be responsible for the content until it is handed off to the preconstruction phase which in the US is typically at a LOD of 300 to 350 on most commercial building projects. When a structural LOD of 200 is required.Structural Timber and Concrete Level Of Development (LOD): When to Draw the Line and Where to Model It! Model Management The level of model element development is not complete if it does not define who is responsible for managing model content for each defined phase of the project. Uploading models to the Spatial Validation manager.DWG (for non-Revit team members) Exported *.

They are: LOD LOD LOD LOD LOD LOD LOD 100 200 300 350 400* 450* 500* *For the structural design aspects of the LOD topic of this session. Future updates to the structural LOD model will include level 500 topics. Few owners are currently requiring content that would be defined at LOD 500. we will mainly focus on LOD 100 through 350. 16 .Structural Timber and Concrete Level Of Development (LOD): When to Draw the Line and Where to Model It! The following examples are LOD summary sheets that teams should develop at the beginning of a project.

square feet of floor area.. Authorized Uses General coordination of space. and orientation in 3D. 17 .). pound of steel per square foot.Structural Timber and Concrete Level Of Development (LOD): When to Draw the Line and Where to Model It! LOD 100 Typical Model Element Content: The majority of structural content is actually not modeled at this level. Reserving required spaces for the building exterior system. location. This provides ample information for contractors to conceptually price early designs.g. volume. Structural definition is typically accomplished by providing a structural narrative to accompany the architects massing model. etc. Estimating. The Model may be used for very general project phasing such as 'existing structure' vs. Schedule. volume or similar conceptual estimating techniques (e. These may be used to develop some estimate based on general area. Early conceptual estimating. Conceptual estimating if a structural narrative is provided along with the architectural LOD 100 model. height. 'new structure'. When structural modeling is created it is only overall structural massing indicative of area.

The model will be accompanied by general notes. Schedule. 'new structure'. and orientation may be modeled in three dimensions or represented by other data. Overall structural massing indicative of area. height. 18 . and typical details to define higher level information that is not typically shown in 1/8" scale plans. location. DD level estimating along with the DDs and specifications. volume.Structural Timber and Concrete Level Of Development (LOD): When to Draw the Line and Where to Model It! LOD 200 Typical Model Content. Main structural members and systems are modeled with generic standard modeling tools for the creation of 2D construction documents. Authorized Uses: Design Development Document level information. Conceptual estimating at best if a structural narrative is provided along with the structural BIM. connections. Estimating. The Model may be used for very general project phasing such as 'existing structure' vs.

Main structural members and systems are modeled with standard modeling tools for the creation of 2D construction documents. columns. levels. walls. beams. The model will be accompanied by general notes. Estimating. Examples of these structural members that are modeled with standard tools in the BIM application (like Revit) are gridlines. and typical details to define higher level information that is not typically shown in 1/8" scale plans. The Model may be used for very general project phasing at the construction document level. CD level estimating along with the CDs and specifications. connections. Authorized Uses: Create Construction Document (CD) level information that is shown in plans.Structural Timber and Concrete Level Of Development (LOD): When to Draw the Line and Where to Model It! LOD 300 Typical Model Content. 19 . Schedule. slabs. main gravity systems and main lateral systems.

In Revit. An example of such content would be in a design model where the gusset plates modeled on the braces of steel frames by a custom brace family or via in place families. Another example of LOD 350 level content would be miscellaneous steel and brick shelf angles. Modeling of structural loads would be other examples of content in this LOD that is beyond the content used to create construction plan documents. Authorized Uses: Detailed 3D spatial validation. The Model may be used for very general project phasing of main structural systems and some detailing scheduling. Modeling beyond main structural members and systems with standard BIM application tool for the creation of 2D construction documents but at lower level of detail than would be required for fabrication. Schedule. Estimating.Structural Timber and Concrete Level Of Development (LOD): When to Draw the Line and Where to Model It! LOD 350 Typical Model Content. this level of model typically requires modifying existing families or using frequent in place families to model content that is not traditionally shown on a 1/8" set of drawings. 20 . Construction Document level estimating.

Structural Timber and Concrete Level Of Development (LOD): When to Draw the Line and Where to Model It! LOD 400 Typical Model Content. Fabrication level information. Detail scheduling with fabrication level information. Estimating. Authorized Uses: Creating shop and fabrication level information. Schedule. Detail estimating with fabrication level information. 21 .

and cranes.Structural Timber and Concrete Level Of Development (LOD): When to Draw the Line and Where to Model It! LOD 450 Level of Detail 450. Schedule. This content can be beneficial when conducting site planning and 4D scheduling of the construction. Estimating: Detailed construction estimating that includes job site level information. Detailed construction scheduling for 4D scheduling. Site Construction \ Erection Content is defined by the author as that content that goes beyond what is needed in the LOD 400 fabrication model to include temporary building content that is used during onsite construction. Typical Model Content. Authorized Uses: Detailed construction coordination of the site. This could include construction items such as erecting braces. 22 . scaffolding. whalers.

Authorized Uses: Uses at this level must be determined on a case by case basis with the owners and facility managers. Content at this level must be determined on a case by case basis with the owners and facility managers. Scheduling building usage of items such as room use at this level must be determined on a case by case basis with the owners and facility managers. Estimating.Structural Timber and Concrete Level Of Development (LOD): When to Draw the Line and Where to Model It! LOD 500 Typical Model Content. 23 . Estimating of items such as service life and operating cost at this level must be determined on a case by case basis with the owners and facility managers. Schedule.

This would be an example of model elements that would be a candidate for a shared model.Structural Timber and Concrete Level Of Development (LOD): When to Draw the Line and Where to Model It! Example. architects have shown the panel elevations of the buildings and as such. It is traditionally the architect’s role to define window. Tilt-Up Panel Concrete (CSI MF# 03 47 13) & Shared Models The images below show common typical details for tilt-up concrete panel construction that is classified with CSI MF # 03 47 13. Historically. recesses and joint locations with feedback from the structural engineer. The architect would normally be the one to define panel reveals. many structural engineers have not provided full building and panel elevations. door and other wall openings. A LOD of 300 would be the detail required to create construction document plans at a 1/8" scale. The structural engineer would have their model with all structural content 24 . The architect would have their model with all architectural content such as interior walls and plans except for the tilt-walls.

The structural model would have items such as the foundation and interior steel structure and the typical tilt wall details that have been previously shown. The team would schedule which firm has the 'rights' to modify the 3rd shared model at a give time of the week. windows. Pay attention to line items that change Model Element Author from one LOD to a higher LOD when defining structural elements LOD with the table provided in this paper. dry-wall. As the design passes into preconstruction. the tilt-wall model could be easily federated in Navisworks and coordinated with the steel detailer’s LOD 350 and 400 level models for pre-shop drawing review. Sample of LOD of Tilt-Wall using author’s spreadsheet developed with the CSI MasterFormat 2010 titles and numbers and the custom added categories.Structural Timber and Concrete Level Of Development (LOD): When to Draw the Line and Where to Model It! and plans except for the tilt-walls. STLD = Steel Detailer. ceilings and lights. CONC – Concrete Contractor. The image on the left shows the structural model. We would recommend something like a weekly schedule where the architectural team has model editing 3 days and the structural team has it 2 days. Consider a shared design team model for such objects where multiple parties must control the object during the design phase of the project (typically LOD 300 or less). The model in the middle is the Shared Design Model that both teams work in and use to create their construction document plans. STRL = Structural Engineer Designer. At all-times. The image on the right Is the architectural model with interior walls. The team would then have a third separate "Tilt-Wall Only Model" without any plans. Note the thirteen line items that were noted for the tilt-up concrete panels to CSI MF # 03 47 13 in the image below. TBD = To Be Determined on a case by case basis. When the structural team has the model for editing. This would eliminate any duplicate modeling for the tilt-walls on the design side and would also allow all team members to take the models to an appropriate level of detail for construction documents. 25 . each team would have the previous week's 'published' shared model linked into each of their models. The table below shows how the LOD table could be used to define this workflow. they would be reviewing the architectural design for structural considerations. SHARED BIM STRUCTURAL ARCHITECTURAL Example of shared model for the tilt up panel walls on a building. The most important aspect of the shared model is that it allows each discipline to control the model content that they are responsible for without having duplicated content in multiple models. ARCH = Architectural Designer.

It is typically better to specify that the joist manufacture will provide a 3D model of their content as part of the shop drawings. There is little value in designers creating custom joists to approximate these manufacture’s unknowns. This is particularly important if MEP or other trades need to run building systems through the webs of the joists. there are many different manufactures who make joists and they have considerable freedom to design the web configurations. As such. No two manufactures will be the same. 26 . The joist depths and weight are correct.Structural Timber and Concrete Level Of Development (LOD): When to Draw the Line and Where to Model It! Example. the generic joist content in Revit looks highly detailed but is not necessarily accurate as it relates to the chord sizes and web configurations. Wood Joist Framing Wood Joist systems are a class of structural content that are made of engineered products and vary by manufacturer. joist seats and chords. However.

THE GENERAL CONTRACTOR SHALL FACILITATE THE BIM VIRTUAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION (VDC) COORDINATION PROCESS. iii. STRUCTURAL STEEL. WEBSITE ADDRESS: http://www. They also provide a framework for the structural design team to utilize higher level fabrication models as part of their shop drawing review. A READ ONLY NAVISWORKS (NWD) FILE IS AVAILABLE THAT SHOWS THE PROJECT SCOPE AND INCLUDES PHOTOGRAPHIC MARKERS OF EXISTING COMPONENTS OF THE BUILDING. THIS FILE IS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD WITH THE FOLLOWING WEBSITE INFORMATION PURSUANT TO ACCEPTANCE OF OUR ONLINE ELECTRONIC FILE TRANSFER AGREEMENT. BUILDING INFORMATION MODELING A STRUCTURAL BUILDING INFORMATION MODEL (BIM) HAS BEEN PREPARED FOR THIS PROJECT. ELECTRICAL. THIS MODEL WILL BE AVAILABLE FOR SIXTY (60) DAYS FROM THE DATE THAT THESE DRAWINGS ARE ISSUED FOR CONSTRUCTION. EACH OF THE FOLLOWING TRADES SHALL PROVIDE DIMENSIONALLY ACCURATE 3D MODELS OF WHAT THEY WILL INSTALL THAT ARE COORDINATED WITH THEIR SHOP DRAWINGS FOR 3D SPATIAL VALIDATION WITH THE STRUCTURE AND EACH TRADE: MECHANICAL. CEILINGS. BUILDING ENVELOPE. AND TO FACILITATE SCHEDULING PRIOR TO SUBMITTING SHOP DRAWINGS FOR A GIVEN ZONE OF THE PROJECT. ALL 3D TRADE MODELS USED FOR SHOP DRAWINGS SHALL BE MADE AVAILABLE IN AN EXPORTED AUTOCAD 2007 DWG FORMAT AND NAVISWORKS NWC FILE TO THE DESIGN TEAM TEN BUSINESS DAYS PRIOR TO SHOP DRAWINGS BEING SUBMITTED FOR REVIEW. CONCRETE EMBEDS. ii. 27 .xxxx USER NAME (CASE SENSITIVE): xxxx PASSWORD (CASE SENSITIVE): xxxx THE FOLLOWING BIM REQUIREMENTS ARE PART OF THE CONTRACT DOCUMENTS: i. iv. MISCELLANEOUS STEEL.Structural Timber and Concrete Level Of Development (LOD): When to Draw the Line and Where to Model It! SAMPLE GENERAL NOTES FOR CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS The following sample general notes provide ideas for construction documents to provide guidelines to the construction team to develop models beyond LOD 300. FIRE PROTECTION. THE GENERAL CONTRACTOR SHALL PROVIDE A BIM SPECIFICATION TO INSURE THAT ALL SUB CONTRACTOR MODELS CAN BE FEDERATED. THE DESIGN TEAM SHALL BE INVITED TO THESE MEETINGS AND NOTIFIED OF THEM TWO WEEKS IN ADVANCE OF THE MEETINGS. v. CIVIL SITE WORK. PLUMBING. DRYWALL. THE GENERAL CONTRACTOR SHALL CONDUCT CONSTRUCTION COORDINATION MEETINGS TO COORDINATE SUB CONTRACTOR MODELS. LIGHT GAGE COLD FORMED STEEL AND ANY OTHER TRADES THAT COULD AFFECT THE STRUCTURE. TO ESTABLISH PRIORITIES OF SYSTEMS. CAST-IN-PLACE CONCRETE.

THE GRID LINE INTERSECTION OF GRIDS "A" AND "11" SHALL BE SET AT X= 1000'-0” AND Y= 1000'-0". viii.Structural Timber and Concrete Level Of Development (LOD): When to Draw the Line and Where to Model It! vi. 3D SPATIAL VALIDATION SHALL BE CONDUCTED SUCH THAT THE MODELS ARE BROKEN UP AND SUBMITTED BY ZONES. vii. LEVEL ONE FINISH FLOOR = 100'-0" b. THE ORIGIN COORDINATES FOR ALL 3D TRADE MODELS SHALL BE SET AS FOLLOWS: a. 28 . EACH ZONE IS DEFINED FROM FINISH FLOOR ELEVATION OF ONE FLOOR TO THE NEXT FLOOR. SUB-CONTRACTORS SHALL USE THE STRUCTURAL CONCRETE AND STRUCTURAL STEEL CONTRACTORS MODELS TO COORDINATE THE SCOPE OF THEIR WORK AND CLEARANCES WITH THE BUILDING STRUCTURE AND ALL OTHER DISCIPLINES.

29 . (2008). Chicago: AISC.Structural Timber and Concrete Level Of Development (LOD): When to Draw the Line and Where to Model It! Resources & Bibliography  www. SP-66 (04).org  AECOknowledge. ConsensusDOCS. Detailing for Steel Constrution.com  Author. DC: AIA. 3rd Edition.com/adsk/servlet/pc/index?siteID=123112&id=15115212  SEIbim.com Bibliography American Concrete Institute [ACI]. Pub. email: au@ikerd. (2009). Will Ikerd.autodesk. please send an email to schedule a phone call. ConsensusDOCS 301: Building Information Modeling (BIM) Addendum.  Autodesk Documentation & Online Help http://usa. Washington.com If interested in discussing this topic with the author or receiving updates of the LOD model. (2008).2004. or online GoToMeeting (or Skype for international calls). American Institute of Steel Construction [AISC]. American Institute of Architects [AIA]. Arlington: ConsensusDOCS. AIA Document E202™ – 2008. (2008). ACI Detailing Manual .IKERD. Farmington Hills: ACI.