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AEROSPACE ENGG.

, IIT KANPUR

Project Report AE-462
Disaster Management & Surveillance Drone
Group 6
Pranav Kumar Singh
Jatin Mitruka
Parveen Kumar
4/25/2014

Table of Contents
1. Introduction: .................................................................................................................................................... 3
2. Wing Box Configuration:.................................................................................................................................... 4
3. V-n Diagram with Gust Envelope:....................................................................................................................... 5
4. Procedures involved:......................................................................................................................................... 7
4.1. Material Description:.................................................................................................................................. 7
4.2 Calculation of Wing Section properties : ....................................................................................................... 7
4.3 Normal and Chordwise load per unit length Calculation:................................................................................ 8
4.4 Inertia-Gravity load per unit length Calculation: ............................................................................................ 8
4.5 Computation of Shear Force and Moment Distribution along span: ................................................................ 8
4.6 Net Loads at i th Wing Bay : ........................................................................................................................... 8
4.7 Idealization of Forces:.................................................................................................................................. 9
4.8 Shear forces and Moments at a Wing Section: .............................................................................................. 9
4.9 Wing Box Idealization: ............................................................................................................................... 10
4.10 Normal Stress Computation: .................................................................................................................... 12
4.11 Shear Stress Computation:....................................................................................................................... 12
4.11.1 Shear Stress due to Shear Forces:....................................................................................................... 12
4.11.2 Shear stress due to Torsion: ............................................................................................................... 12
4.12 Factor of Safety calculations:.................................................................................................................... 13
4.13 Crushing Loads: ....................................................................................................................................... 13
4.14 Buckling of stringers and spars: ................................................................................................................ 13
4.15 Buckling of panels:................................................................................................................................... 13
5. Results and Discussion: ................................................................................................................................... 14
6.Iterations for Weight Reduction:....................................................................................................................... 29
7. Summary:....................................................................................................................................................... 30
Appendix:........................................................................................................................................................... 31

1. Introduction:
Mission of our project is to design a drone aircraft for Disaster Monitoring and Surveillance Purpose. MQ -9
Reaper, Global Hawk are used for base calculations. V- n diagram and gust envelope are drawn using details
given in subsequent sections. Later we calculated Distributed Aerodynamic loads on the points obtained
along the span of the wing. All details have been described in respective sections.

Details of our design:
Range

2000km

Endurance 30 hrs
W(Total)
5400 kg
W(Payload) 1500 kg
Airfoil
NACA 653 – 618
Flaps

Plain

Details of wing:
b (in m)
Sw(in m2 )

26
45

e
λ
CD 0

0.9
0.4
0.058

Details of V- n diagram:
Cza max
Cza min
Cz alpha
Vcruise
Vdiving
Vstall
positive

1.22
-0.8
5.41
360.89 ft/s
451.11 ft/s
130.14 ft/s

2. Wing Box Configuration:
A typical wing box of an aircraft consists of spars, ribs, stringers as well as skin covering them.
As an initial guess for half span of wing (13 m) two spars are situated at c/4 and 3c/4 from the leading edge .
There are around 20 ribs installed in the half span. Both ribs and spars are made of aluminium. The cutaway
of Global Hawk was used as baseline for the initial guess of wing box structure. The detailed structure of the
ribs would be decided later. The aerofoil chosen for the drone is 6-series NACA aerofoil named as
NACA-653-618. The plots obtained through the data for this aerofoil are given below:

Figure 1 Variation of Normal force Coefficient with angle of attack

Figure 2 Variation of Pitching moment Coefficient with angle of attack

V-n Diagram with Gust Envelope: Figure 3 V-n Diagram with Gust Envelope 3. . ρ . CD.is in slug/ft3 at sea level v – Air relative speed in ft/s W/S – in lb/m2 Czmax .is maximum value of normal force coefficient. of aircraft. from C. Here normal lift coefficient is calculated using following expression:- where. 2) Negative Limit Manoeuvring Load Factor (n2 ): with negative sign This limit is indicate by line BE in the diagram. Cma are obtained from airfoil data.c.3. CL . 3) Parabolic portion OA where Maximum positive lift coefficient of the airfoil section is the limiting factor is obtained using the following relation: where. 1) Positive Limit Manoeuvring Load Factor (n1 ) : Calculated using formula – In diagram line AC represents this limit.G.1 Steps to complete V-n Diagram : Different attributes of the aircraft used in the following procedure are as given in introduction. cw and lt are wing chord and distance of tail a.

   Rough Air Gust ( Speed – 66 ft/s ) : It is considered only up to velocity at point A. Dive Speed Gust ( Speed – 25 m/s ) : It is considered only up to dive speed. Points D and C are joined via a straight line. All are considered at sea level conditions up to different respective ranges of speeds.2 Steps to complete Gust Envelope: The normal load factor for drone corresponding to three different kinds of gusts (both positive and negative) are analysed here. 5) The upper limit of attainable air relative speed marked (also called Dive Speed ) through line BC is obtained from the relation: 6) Point D corresponds to cruise velocity of drone. High Speed Gust ( Speed – 50 ft/s ) : It is considered only up to cruise velocity. 3. The gust load factor is calculated from: Where V is in knots Ude in ft/s where a= slope of a/c normal force coefficient .4) Parabolic portion OE where Maximum negative lift coefficient of airfoil is the limiting fac tor is obtained through following relation: where Czmin is maximum value of negative normal force coefficient.

axis is positive upwards while x is positive forward as shown in the Fig Figure 4. Thus 28 wing sections were formed starting from the root section to tip section.1. The mechanical properties of the material obtained from Ref are as follows: Mechanical /Physical Properties Density Tensile Yield Strength Ultimate Tensile Strength Poisson’s Ratio Shear Modulus Modulus of Elasticity Value 2780 kg/m3 345 MPa 483 MPa 0. The cross-sectional characteristics of spars.25 m 4.4.2 Calculation of Wing Section properties : As we know the wing is tapered so the mass per unit length varies accordingly apart from the discontinuities arising because of ribs. The partition was done to create bays of different lengths at different locations along the wing as follows:    0 – 5 m5 – 10 m 10 – 13 m - 1m 0. Continuous reduction in area for all the components (except skin) proportional to the taper was assumed as observed in the SolidWorks snapshot of the model in Fig.5 m 0. longerons and skin were assumed for the root section.33 28 GPa 73.1 GPa 4. Procedures involved: A body axes coordinate system was chosen for the aircraft to carry on further analysis. Since there is no sweep for the wing y-axis is perpendicular to upstream velocity. Properties of the wing section that were extracted using SolidWorks tools are: . The yaxis is along the locus of AC of the wing. 8 longerons (up to 9 m along the span) and skin in SolidWorks. The body axis representation To simplify the analysis wing was divided into 27 wing bays. A typical wing box structure was designed with 2 spars. Material Description: Aluminium alloy 2024-T3 was chosen for present design of wing box. General wing box structure for different aircraft designs was studied from Ref for this purpose. Z.

   Coordinates of centroid of the section ( Since material is uniform it is also the CG for the section). Iyy . Ixy ). 4. Former gives chordwise force per unit lenth while latter gives normal force per unit length as shown below : Here α is angle of attack of the wing. drag and pitching moment act about AC of the wing section while the inertiagravity loads act about CG. Area moment of Inertia (Ixx .4 Inertia-Gravity load per unit length Calculation: An initial design of the wing box was set up by locating spars and longerons at proper places in the wing section. bending moments ( Mz and Mx ) and torsion ( MT )at each section. For half span. starting from the root section. These loads at each station were computed in initial steps.25 m and the remaining 16 ribs were placed at a distance of 0.gravity load per unit length was calculated using following expression: where nz is load factor and mi is the mass per unit length at ith station. 4. Normal Force : Chordwise Force : Pitching Moment: Inertia-Gravity Load : .3 Normal and Chordwise load per unit length Calculation: These are obtained via resolution of sectional lift and drag force along the two directions – one along the chord and other perpendicular to the chord. Area of the section.5 Computation of Shear Force and Moment Distribution along span: We know that lift. The total load is computed by taking average of load per unit length at 2 stations and mult iplying it with width of bay. 4. Ribs were distributed along the span with some prior assumptions.75 m between them till the tip section. 4.6 Net Loads at ith Wing Bay : A linear variation of loads per unit length (along span) is assumed between stations ‘i’ and ‘i+1’ on the ith wing bay. All these external forces give rise to the shear forces ( Vz and Vx ). Inertia. first 4 ribs were placed at distance of 0.

  dC w    dC w      2  1  dY  i 1  dY   Yc  Yc    dC dC 3   i w  w         dY  i 1  dY  i     dC w   dC w   Yi CWi          dY  i 1  dY  i  2 M xi 1  M xi   Vzi  Yi  NWi YN  FIG Zi YIG   dN w    dN w      2  1  dY  i 1  dY   YN  Yi    3  dN w   dN w  i        dY  i 1  dY  i     dN w   dN w   Yi NWi        dY dY    i  2 i 1    dF   dF   Y FIG Zi    IG z    IG z   i  dY   i 1  dY  i  2  YIG  1  dFIGZ   dY   dF    IGZ  i 1  dY   i   dFIGZ    dY       dF   2 IGZ  i 1  dY 3       Yi  i    4. B and C corresponding to normal.e. Z C ) C  (X IG .4. The expressions used for this purpose are as follows: A  (X N . Z N ) B  (X C . YIG . This is free end boundary condition similar to that in case of cantilever beam. Three different centroidal locations were computed for each of the three different loads. Here it is assumed that net force on ith wing bay acts through a point which of course the centroid of force distribution. YC . Locations of the 3 centroid namely A. The expressions for loads at ‘i+1’ station at positive Y face are : .7 Idealization of Forces: This step includes idealization of normal. chordwise and inertia-gravity loads. Z IG ) Vzi 1  Vzi   NWi  FIG Zi V X i 1  V X i   CWi M zi 1  M zi   V X i  Yi  CWi Yi Where.e. were calculated with respect to ‘i+1’ section for any ith section. YN . i = 1 denotes station at ‘wing tip’ while i = 28 refers to ‘wing root’. ‘wing tip’ the shear forces and moments are zero. It was done for each bay as a prior step required for computation of shear forces and moments. chordwise and inertia-gravity loads respectively. The calculations were done starting from tip to root i. For i= 1 i.8 Shear forces and Moments at a Wing Section: These were calculated at each of the 28 stations set up earlier.

Coordinates of all the booms. .S. area of a longeron was concentrated into single boom.M ti 1  M ti  M ac i  N Wi X N  FIG Zi X IG  CWi Z c   dM aci   dM aci   Yi     M aci     dY   2  dY   i 1  i   Z c  YIG  1   dFIGZ 3     dY      i 1   dCw   dCw   2 Z  Z  2    Z aci 1  2 Z aci ac ac i  1 i   dY  i  dFIGZ     dY  i 1      dY   i 1  dFIGZ   dY    dF     IGZ      i 1  dY  i    dFIGZ    dY            dF     2 IGZ    dY    i 1   Yi  3 i    4. Spars were idealized into 6 booms each. It was assumed that whole C. The remaining portion extending to tip due to absence of longerons was idealized to 40 booms cum web as shown in Fig. their areas and thickness of we between them is given in following table. For the wing section without stringers only corresponding booms are removed from the list while all other values remain same.9 Wing Box Idealization: Wing box was idealized in such a manner that both area and moments of inertia were conserved using the procedure given in Ref. Consequently. the portion of wing from root to 9m along span was idealized to 48 booms cum webas shown in Fig. The skin segments remaining between the longerons and spars were idealized into 2 booms each.

04318 1.001152 0.001985 0.1297 1.1877 1.00164 0.00075 0.2082 1.00075 7.01 0.08202 0.83E-05 0.9804 -0.25355 -0.29894 1.05013 -0.003 0.14215 0.000113 0.1801 0.04648 -0.000214 0.000113 0.18522 -0.0624 1.001094 0.00164 0.2544 -0.00164 0.27639 0.00164 0.13338 -0.68526 0.17487 0.00164 0.19738 0.01 7.000196 0.24151 1.27955 0.3 0.49347 0.03717 -0.2137 0.01 0.00075 9.29662 0.75097 0.13427 0.10844 0.3525 0.8785 -0.1215 0.83E-05 0.56815 0.70243 0.24E-05 0.01 0.11353 0.02198 0.40953 0.01 0.41253 -0.2424 0.295 1.11353 -0.00075 6.25561 0.6864 -0.00075 7.000463 0.003 0.61 -0.15458 2.00164 0.0196 -0.71884 0.00078 0.19342 -1.04856 1.917 -0.8059 0.000196 0.46703 -0.206 0.94301 -0.00075 0.0034 Xcentroid Ycentroid -1.8076 -0.000196 0.17745 0.2802 -0.00043 0.000805 0.13984 0.17673 -0.936702 0.313 0.00075 0.0491 1.0946 1.32967 0.54987 -0.919 0.78963 0.12307 -0.003 0.34933 -0.33007 -0.2 0.41821 0.003 7.46468 0.000239 0.1335 0.01 .74133 -0.000214 0.0663 -0.000463 0.00164 0.5705 -0.1836 0.000113 0.04142 2.61537 0.3544 -0.00075 0.24E-05 0.03733 -0.1404 0.000148 0.17598 -0.17608 0.143 0.0886 -0.25124 -0.1886 -0.003 0.217 -0.000805 0.2378 0.14564 0.26243 1.Booms 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 X Y 0.24764 -0.35483 0.00075 0.16499 -0.108 Area Thickness 0.000238 0.18647 -0.78947 -0.15103 0.11753 0.000196 0.21984 -0.0183 0.0538 0.2474 -0.8448 0.000196 0.12056 0.00075 0.0687 -0.00164 0.06605 -0.21 0.217 0.003 6.21E-05 0.2537 1.2394 -0.05055 0.7734 -0.25136 -0.104 0.41707 -0.000113 0.63887 -0.8E-05 0.4528 -0.00164 0.00043 0.00078 0.131 1.85583 -0.28627 1.61603 -0.22497 -0.066145 0.000196 0.64297 0.00613 2.8994 -0.2518 -0.003 0.4646 -0.18447 0.55383 0.98197 0.4605 0.00075 0.000139 0.5536 -0.22337 0.35652 -0.000148 0.70413 -0.15996 0.00075 0.0763 0.00164 0.000139 0.000196 0.1536 -0.7738 0.1423 0.01 0.08598 1.8E-05 0.00164 0.1233 1.2154 -0.23196 -0.25305 -0.314 -0.1652 2.000196 0.0968 0.000124 0.45045 0.2347 0.1605 0.2449 -0.001188 0.513 0.18754 0.54964 0.8801 0.01 0.128 0.21E-05 0.13011 0.74907 -0.8448 0.001188 0.85662 0.516 -0.00075 0.14421 -0.28738 0.00075 0.000124 0.001152 0.001985 0.00164 0.000239 0.49347 -0.1738 0.0986 -0.00075 0.7195 -0.61 0.18466 0.1264 -0.79593 -0.29606 1.8931 0.01 0.001094 0.00075 0.003 0.040172 0.74133 0.01 0.02287 1.01 0.24685 0.136 0.000238 0.1023 1.34698 0.03424 1.01 9.15402 0.0918 0.79047 0.06998 1.

   Imaginary small cut was made in between booms location (6. Here ‘x’ and ‘y’ are with respect to centroid of the section as shown in Fig.2 Shear stress due to Torsion: Torsion generates constant shear flow in each of the cells.11. Also there are no thermal stresses. 23 ). It is assumed that there is no normal force acting on any wing station. Shear flow due to Torsion is calculated by solving three equation as in earlier case. 20) and (22. o The first equation is obtained from equilibrium condition. 7).10 Normal Stress Computation: Normal stresses at any wing section arise predominantly due to bending moments. The normal stress at any boom is computed using following expression. qi 1  qi  V y Qx I XX  V X QY I YY Qx  yi Ai Qx  xi Ai 1   2 1 ds 1 q1     A1 CELL1 t A2  1 1 ds  ds 1 ds   q    q   21  A 2 CELL 2 t A wall12 t  3  A wall1 2 t  1    2 ds  1 q(0)ds 1     A1 cell1 t A2 wall3 4 t  q(0)ds t cell 2  4.1 Shear Stress due to Shear Forces: Shear stress at any wing section was calculated by initially calculating shear flow in the idealized section (procedure given in Ref ). The remaining part of the shear flow (q (1)) which is constant for a particular cell was calculated by solving three equations.11.11 Shear Stress Computation: 4. This leads to a particular portion of wing under compression while other under tension. Shear flow (q(0)) with open section acted by Vz and Vx (wrt to body axis) is calculated using the formulae. 4. (19.4. Since material is uniform throughout there is no requirement of modulus weighted entities. o The remaining equations were obtained from the constraints that the section in rigid in its own plane so twist is equal for all of them. The first equation is equilibrium equation while other two are derived through constraints similar to above step. .

4.     Buckling of panels due to force Vy (wrt to body axis) considering simply supported at each ribs location is calculated Firstly the wing is divided into many rectangular panels (Aspect ratio 3) and some trapezoidal pane l Then buckling is calculated on these panels using the maximum normal stress and minimum crosssection are present in the panel It is then compared with the critical stress (cr) of the material . where the actual compressive stress at the point of failure is less than the ultimate compressive stresses that the material is capable of withstanding. how much stronger the system is than it usually needs to be for an intended load.   Buckling of stringers due to normal stress considering simply supported at each ribs location is calculated It is then compared with the critical stress (cr) for the component.    Firstly change in Aero loads ( wCw. 4.15 Buckling of panels: Buckling failure can occur at reduced primary critical stress levels if the structure is subjected to orthogonal compressive stresses or high shear stresses. for critical cases of loading.) is used between all the stations Using the bending moment distribution crushing force (P crush ) is calculated directly using 4. which can be ignored for solid but not for box beams and hence intermediate ribs are required. Mac)and inertial + gravity loads (F) are calculated using formulae Linear variation of aerodynamic centre (A. Essentially. von Mises yield criterion was used for this purpose. FOS was computed for all the booms at all stations.13 Crushing Loads: Crushing loads on box beams occurs due to curvature developed from bending.C.14 Buckling of stringers and spars: Buckling is characterized by a sudden failure of a structural member subjected to high compressive stress.12 Factor of Safety calculations: Factor of Safety is a term describing the structural capacity of a system beyond the expected loads or actual loads. von Mises stress ( σ v ) is calculated using following formula for plane stress condition: where σ 1 and σ2 are normal stresses and σ 12 is shear stress for plane stress loading. FOS is given by : 4.

19.v = 63. Results and Discussion: Mass/length (in kg/m) 2000 Wing section properties: Figure 5 plots shown for C.19.5 2 1 -2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Span Location (y) (in m )along AC 14 Span Location (y) (in m ) Normal and chordwise load per unit length: 1000 10000 n = 3.5 Ixy 7 Distance ( in m ) 0 6 5 4 -0.G.5 -1 3 -1.5 m/s 9000 500 8000 7000 dN/dy (in N/m) dC/dy (in N/m) 0 -500 -1000 6000 5000 4000 3000 -1500 2000 -2000 0 2 4 6 8 Span Location (y) 10 12 14 1000 0 2 4 6 8 Span Location (y) 10 12 14 .v = 137.v = 63.19.19.Mass per unit length and Area Moment of inertia along the span location.2500 5.4 m/s n = 3.5 m/s n = 3.v = 137. 1500 1000 500 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Span Location (y) 5 10 x 10 1 XCG 9 Leading Edge Trailing Edge Ixx Iyy 8 4 Area Moment of Inertia ( in cm ) 0..4 m/s n = 3.

v = 110 m/s n = -1.27.27.5500 1400 n = -1.v = 42 m/s 5000 4500 4000 dN/dy (in N/m) dC/dy (in N/m) 1000 800 600 3500 3000 2500 2000 400 1500 200 1000 0 500 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Span Location (y) Span Location (y) 0 0 n = 1.13.v = 28 m/s dN/dy (in N/m) dC/dy (in N/m) 5000 500 0 4000 3000 2000 -500 1000 -1000 0 2 4 6 8 Span Location (y) 10 12 14 0 0 2 4 6 8 Span Location (y) 10 12 14 .v = 109.v = 45 m/s n = 1.6.7 m/s 1.v = 63 m/s n = 1.v = 63 m/s n = 1.v = 109.86.7 m/s 1.6.v = 55.5 m/s 0.27.v = 38.9 m/s 1.v = 137.7 m/s 1200 n = 1.v = 45 m/s n = 1.1 m/s n = -0.v = 137.62.86.13.v = 109.125.7 m/s -500 -200 -1000 dN/dy (in N/m) dC/dy (in N/m) -300 -400 -500 -600 -700 -1500 -2000 -2500 -800 -3000 -900 -1000 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 -3500 14 0 2 4 6 Span Location (y) 8 10 12 14 Span Location (y) 1500 7000 n= n= n= n= 1000 2.v = 38.v = 110 m/s n = -1.7.v = 42 m/s -100 n = -1.7.5 m/s 0.2.v = 109.2.44.27.v = 28 m/s n= n= n= n= 6000 2.9 m/s 1.1 m/s n = -0.44.v = 55.62.125.

6 m/s 0.4 m/s 0.v = 137.v = 32.9 m/s 0.v = 29.v = 29.6 m/s 0.5 m/s 1000 500 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -500 0 2 4 Span Location (y) Figure 6 : Normal and chord force variation along the span location 6 8 Span Location (y) 10 12 14 .7.14.7.v = 63.29.83.5 m/s 0.9 m/s 0.83.v = 63.4 m/s 0.v = 32.2500 n= n= n= n= 1500 1000 500 0 n= n= n= n= 1500 dC/dy (in N/m) dN/dy (in N/m) 2000 2000 0.v = 137.29.14.

7 m/s n = 3.v = 63 m/s n = 1.29.13.62.v = 109.19.v = 63.v = 45 m/s n = 1.125.5 m/s 10 12 14 .14.Inertia-Gravity load per unit length: 0 -100 -200 /dy (in N/m) -300 -400 IGz -500 -600 dF Figure 7: Plot shows the variation of Inertia gravity load per unit length with the span locat ion.v = 55.4 m/s 0.83.6 m/s 0.6.v = 137.v = 137.42 m/s n = 3.86.v = 32.2.v = 109.v = 29.v = 110 m/s n = -1.5 m/s 0.v = 137.9 m/s 0.1 m/s n = -0.19. -700 n = 1.27.5 m/s -200 600 -400 500 dFIGz/dy (in N/m) /dy (in N/m) -600 dF IGz -800 -1000 -1200 400 300 200 -1400 -1600 -1800 100 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 Span Location (y) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Span Location (y) 0 0 -50 -200 dFIGz/dy (in N/m) -400 -600 dF IGz /dy (in N/m) -100 -800 n= n= n= n= -1000 -1200 0 2 4 6 8 Span Location (y) 10 2.v = 42 m/s -800 -900 -1000 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Span Location (y) 700 0 n = -1.7.44.v = 63.v = 28 m/s 12 14 -150 -200 -250 -300 -350 -400 -450 0 2 4 6 8 Span Location (y) n= n= n= n= 0.v = 38.27.7 m/s 1.9 m/s 1.7.

7 m/s 1.2.v = 109.5 m/s 0.v = 38.7 m/s 1.62.13.62.v = 38.v = 28 m/s n= n= n= n= 10000 8000 2.5 x z M (in Nm) x 10 -4 1 -6 0.v = 109.v = 109.7.5 0 2.v = 137.v = 28 m/s 10 12 14 Span Location (y) 4 4 5 x 10 3 n= n= n= n= 2 2.v = 28 m/s 6000 4 V (in N) 3 2000 x Vz (in N) 4000 0 2 -2000 -4000 1 -6000 0 -8000 0 2 4 6 8 Span Location (y) 10 12 14 0 2 4 6 8 Span Location (y) 10 12 14 .v = 137.9 m/s 1.2.v = 38.5 m/s 0.7.62.v = 38.13.7.v = 137.5 m/s 0.13.7 m/s 1.5 m/s 0.9 m/s 1.13.v = 28 m/s n= n= n= n= 2.62.0 Shear Force and Moment distribution: -2000 MT (in Nm) -4000 -6000 -8000 Figure 8: Shear force and Moment distribution shown along the span location n= n= n= n= -10000 -12000 0 2 4 6 8 2.62.v = 137.7.v = 137.v = 38.v = 109.9 m/s 1.v = 28 m/s M (in Nm) 2 -2 1.13.7 m/s 1.2.5 -8 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 14 0 2 4 6 Span Location (y) 4 6 8 10 12 14 Span Location (y) x 10 12000 n= n= n= n= 5 2.9 m/s 1.7.7 m/s 1.5 m/s 0.2.2.9 m/s 1.v = 109.

5 4 M (in Nm) 2 1.v = 63 m/s n = 1.86.5 2 -5000 -6000 1.44.44.v = 45 m/s n = 1.6.v = 63 m/s n = 1.86.v = 45 m/s n = 1.5 -7000 1 0.v = 63 m/s n = 1.6.v = 45 m/s n = 1.5 0 n = 1.v = 42 m/s -7000 -8000 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Span Location (y) 4 6 x 10 5 3 n = 1.v = 45 m/s n = 1.5 0 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Span Location (y) Span Location (y) 4 4.v = 63 m/s n = 1.6.v = 42 m/s 2.6.86.v = 42 m/s 5 n = 1.44.v = 42 m/s -8000 -9000 0 2 4 6 8 Span Location (y) 10 12 14 -10000 0 2 4 6 8 Span Location (y) 10 12 14 .5 -3000 3 z Vx (in N) -4000 V (in N) Mz (in Nm) x 10 2.v = 45 m/s n = 1.44.5 x 10 0 n = 1.86.v = 63 m/s n = 1.v = 42 m/s 4 -1000 -2000 3.86.6.5 x 3 2 1 1 0.44.Figure 9: Shear force and Moment distribution shown along the span location 0 -1000 -2000 -4000 T M (in Nm) -3000 -5000 -6000 n = 1.

5 2 x z 4 2 1.42 m/s n = 3.v = 63.19.19.0 -2000 Figure 10: Shear force and Moment distribution shown along the span location -4000 MT (in Nm) -6000 -8000 -10000 -12000 -14000 n = 3.v = 137.5 -4 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 14 Span Location (y) 0 2 6 8 10 12 14 Span Location (y) 4 8 4 4 x 10 1 x 10 n = 3.5 8 3 M (in Nm) M (in Nm) 6 2.5 n = 3.42 m/s n = 3.5 1 0 0 2 4 6 8 Span Location (y) 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 Span Location (y) 10 12 14 .v = 137.5 m/s 0.19.19.v = 137.19.5 m/s 10 x 10 n = 3.42 m/s n = 3.v = 137.5 0 1 -2 0.5 3 -1 2 -1.v = 137.42 m/s n = 3.5 6 0 Vx (in N) Vz (in N) 5 4 -0.42 m/s n = 3.5 m/s -16000 -18000 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Span Location (y) 4 5 x 10 12 4.v = 63.v = 63.19.5 m/s 4 3.19.v = 63.19.5 m/s 7 n = 3.19.v = 63.19.

5 10000 -1 8000 V (in N) -1.v = 55.125.125.7 m/s 6000 x Vz (in N) 0 -2 4000 n = -1.125.1 m/s n = -0.125.7 m/s -2.27.0 Figure 11: Shear force and Moment distribution shown along the span location -200 -400 M (in Nm) -600 T -800 -1000 -1200 n = -1.1 m/s n = -0.27.v = 110 m/s n = -1.7 m/s -16 -18 14 Span Location (y) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Span Location (y) 4 x 10 12000 -0.125.27.v = 109.7 m/s -6 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 n = -1.v = 110 m/s n = -1.27.v = 109.v = 109.27.v = 55.v = 110 m/s n = -1.1 m/s n = -0.27.27.v = 109.5 n = -1.27.v = 110 m/s n = -1.7 m/s -1400 -1600 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Span Location (y) 4 0 4 x 10 0 x 10 -2 -1 -4 -2 M (in Nm) -8 x -3 z M (in Nm) -6 -4 -10 -12 -5 -7 -14 n = -1.27.v = 55.v = 109.27.v = 55.v = 55.1 m/s n = -0.5 -3 0 2 4 6 8 Span Location (y) 10 12 14 2000 0 0 2 4 6 8 Span Location (y) 10 12 14 .v = 110 m/s n = -1.1 m/s n = -0.

6 m/s 0.7.6 m/s 0.5 m/s 0 M (in Nm) -2 6 x z M (in Nm) 8 -4 4 -6 2 -8 -10 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Span Location (y) Span Location (y) 4 2 x 10 n= n= n= n= 1.7.v = 137.6 0 0.83.4 m/s 0.9 m/s 0.v = 63.v = 137.83.v = 63.29.v = 32.14.9 m/s 0.v = 29.v = 29.83.14.v = 32.v = 29.v = 29.4 m/s 0.6 15000 0.14.v = 32.v = 32.29.v = 137.9 m/s 0.v = 63.29.4 0.83.8 0.9 m/s 0.4 m/s 0.4 m/s 0.14.5 m/s x 10 n= n= n= n= 10 0.9 m/s 0.6 m/s 0.29.14.4 m/s 0.v = 63.v = 32.7.5 m/s M (in Nm) -1000 T -1500 -2000 -2500 -3000 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Span Location (y) 4 4 x 10 4 12 n= n= n= n= 2 0.4 V (in N) 1 5000 x z V (in N) 1.6 m/s 0.7.0 Figure 12: Shear force and Moment distribution shown along the span location n= n= n= n= -500 0.v = 29.v = 137.v = 63.7.5 m/s 10000 1.5 m/s n= n= n= n= 0.29.2 0 -5000 0 2 4 6 8 Span Location (y) 10 12 14 0 2 4 6 8 Span Location (y) 10 12 14 .6 m/s 0.2 0.8 1.83.v = 137.

v = 137.29.5 m/s 3 Shear Stress due to Torsion (in Pa) 7 8 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 0 Boom no.Normal stress distribution along span: 8 3 8 Boom no.v = 137.v = 63.19.19.v = 137.5 m/s 2.19.5 m/s n = 0.42 m/s n = 3.42 m/s n = 3.v = 63.19.29.5 m/s n = 0.v = 137. 26 x 10 n = 3.29.5 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 0 14 Span Location (y) 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Span Location (y) Figure 13: Normal stress distribution shown along the span location for booms 26 and 35 Shear stress distribution along span: 7 Boom no. 35 x 10 2.v = 137.5 m/s n = 0.v = 63. 23 x 10 n = 3.v = 137.5 1 0.v = 63.5 1 1.5 0.19.5 m/s Normal Stress (in Pa) Normal Stress (in Pa) 2 2 1.19.5 m/s 6 Shear Stress due to shear force(in Pa) 4 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 2 4 6 8 Span Location (y) 10 12 14 -12 0 2 4 6 8 Span Location (y) 10 12 14 .v = 137.v = 137.5 m/s n = 0.19.5 Boom no.5 n = 3.29.42 m/s n = 3.42 m/s n = 3. 23 x 10 n = 3.19.

5 -1 -1.v = 137.5 Figure 14: Shear stress distribution due to Torsion . 23 x 10 n = 3.5 0 -0.v = 63.v = 137.5 m/s Shear Stress Total (in Pa) 1 0.v = 63.5 m/s n = 0.19.v = 63.5 0 -0.5 -2 0 2 4 6 8 Span Location (y) 10 12 14 . 9 x 10 n = 3.5 m/s n = 0.5 m/s 1 Shear Stress Total (in Pa) Shear Stress due to Torsion (in Pa) 3 0.29.5 -1 -1.29.8 1.42 m/s n = 3.v = 137. shear force and Total are shown along the span location for booms 23 and 9 Boom no.5 m/s n = 0.v = 137.v = 137.19.19.5 -1 -1.v = 63.19.19.29.v = 137.42 m/s n = 3.42 m/s n = 3.5 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Span Location (y) 7 8 Boom no.5 m/s 0.19.v = 137.5 0 14 Span Location (y) 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Span Location (y) 8 1.19.5 m/s n = 0.19.29. 9 x 10 n = 3.42 m/s n = 3.5 Boom no. 9 x 10 1 2 Shear Stress due to shear force(in Pa) n = 3.5 0 -0.5 m/s 1 0 -1 -2 -3 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Boom no.v = 137.

19.5 m/s n = 0.v = 137.29.19.v = 137. 20 Boom no.v = 137.v = 63.v = 137.19.29.19.19.7.19. 7 Boom no.v = 137.v = 63.29.5 m/s 300 600 250 Crushing load (in N) Crushing load (in N) 6 Span Location (y) Span Location (y) 500 400 300 200 150 100 200 50 100 0 0 2 4 6 8 Span Location (y) 10 12 14 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Span Location (y) Figure 15 : Variation of crushing load with span location is shown for 4 different booms 6.v = 63.42 m/s n = 3.C rus hing load variation: Boom no.v = 63.5 m/s n = 0.19.42 m/s n = 3.5 m/s 3500 3000 Crushing load (in N) Crushing load (in N) 2500 2000 1500 1000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 500 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 0 14 2 4 8 10 12 14 Boom no.29.19.5 m/s n = 0.5 m/s n = 0.42 m/s n = 3.20 12 14 .v = 137.19.v = 137. 6 4000 3500 n = 3.5 m/s 3000 n = 3.5 m/s 700 n = 3.42 m/s n = 3.v = 137. 19 350 800 n = 3.

5 m/s 1.5 1 0.19.Buckling of Panels: 9 3.19.v = 63.5 30 25 20 15 10 n = 0.5 0 0 1 0 0 2 1 3 4 5 6 Span Location (y) 3 4 5 2 7 6 8 7 0 0 9 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Span Location (y) 9 Span Location (y) 12 (Critical stress/Normal stress) ratio n = 0.5 n = 3.5 1 1 7 6 5 4 3 2 0.5 1.5 3 2.19.5 5 4.5 3.v = 137.5 2.v = 137.5 m/s Figure 16 : Buckling of Panels with station location is shown 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Span Location (y) Buckling of stringers: 40 6 (Critical stress/Normal stress) ratio 35 (Critical stress/Normal stress) ratio 5.v = 137.5 m/s 8 33 (Critical stress/Normal stress) ratio stress/Normal (Critical ratio stress)ratio stress/Normalstress) (Critical n =n3.29.5 2 2 1.v = 63.5 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Span Location (y) 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Span Location (y) 6 7 8 9 Figure 17 : Buckling of stringers with station location is shown 9 9 .v = 63.5 4 3.295.5 m/s 2 n = 3.42 2.42 m/s m/s = 3.19.

19.5 Figure 20: Factor of safety is plotted for n=3. v=137.5 .Factor of safety: Figure 18: Factor of safety is plotted for n= 0.29.5 Figure 19: Factor of safety is plotted for n=3. v=63.v=137.19.

11. Variation of Inertia-Gravity Loads: Inertia gravity loads depend on the load factor and mass per unit length of a wing section. High non. Both decrease from root to tip. “ n= 3. 12.linear behaviour towards the tip basically for normal force is because of similar behaviour of lift.5”. “V=137. The kinks at regular distances show position of ribs along span. . the variation is nearly linear. these booms number for both shear as well as normal stress case have the most critical values and are selected out of all the 48 booms.19.Wing Section Properties: Plot for mass distribution for wing box along span is shown in Fig5. Shear force along normal (Vz) is positive or negative depending on the behaviour of normal force which dominates or the sign of load factor.29. 10 . It can be observed that Iyy is significantly higher than other two. The normal force per unit length is positive or negative depending upon whether load factor is positive or negative respectively. v=137. 13. The reason can be attributed to the dominance of drag force contribution and also within that predominance of parasite drag. Variation of CS moments of inertia for wing box (without ribs) is shown in Fig5. While the chord force per unit length doesn’t follow such behaviour as it can be seen in Fig6. the negative values correspond to the PHAA flight condition in V-n diagram where contribution due to lift force dominates over drag force. “ n= 0.7 Variation of Shear Forces and Moments: Shear forces and moments increase from tip to root. In case of PHAA this is negative because of dominance of lift component over that of drag. As a result root section handles highest magnitude of internal forces and moments. It is also important to notice that in many case shown in Fig6.19. While for chordwise shear force shows different behaviours depending on variation of chord force. 26 and 52. The plots as shown in Fig. for chord force. v=137. only due to Torsion and due to both. Normal and Chordwise Loads for Critical Loading Conditions: The normal and chordwise load per unit length variation alo ng span is plotted in Fig6. v=63. Variation of Normal and Shear stress: It is observed that at the root section the magnitude of Normal as well as shear stress is highest. 23 and 9 in case of shear stress for all the three cases only due to shear force. Thus for a particular load condition it decreases from root to tip proportionally to the reducing mass per unit length of tapered wing. while in case of Normal stress the plots are made for booms having no.5” for two booms having no. Location of CG for any wing section along span is plotted with respect to locus AC ( y = 0 ) in Fig5. The highest shear forces and moments are obtained at root section corresponding to PHAA and PLAA points of the flight envelope. One more point at “ n = 0. 9. 14 are made for three different values of n and v namely “ n= 3. These 3 points were used to further analyse the different aspects of the design and are used for plotting as shown in Fig 8. Overlap of the plots can be seen in case of PHAA and PLAA flight conditions from Fig.5”.5 m/s” shows peak load resultants at root. The reason for this difference is that lift force contributes predominantly to normal force in all cases while in case of chord force it depends on the angle of attack whether lift or drag force is dominant.29”.

“ n= 3.5” as shown in Fig 15. 7.19.Iterations for Weight Reduction: A number of iteration were done to reduce the weight of current wing box design.r.2 % . It can be observed through the scatter plots given in Fig. 20. This helped to reduce wing weight considerably while maintaining the strength of spars to requisite level. v=63. Comparisons of wing weight estimated through current design procedure is done with that obtained through empirical relation given in literature is as follows. The analysis is done for all the three critical n cases as shown in Fig 17.5”.r.29.t theoretical = 63. “ n= 0. There are 4 plots corresponding for each boom with all three n values together in each plot. “n= 0. Another step included faster tapering of spars along the span. Variation of Factor of safety: Factor of safety for all the booms at each station was calculated using von Mises criterion. v=137. 19.89 kg Initial Design: Wing weight = 701. Because of the low n value crushing load values for the case n=0.t theoretical = 49.29 is very less compared to the remaining cases. v=137. The two sets of plot show first and last stages of iterations done to reduce the weight of wing box structure.5”.19.29.6 % Improved Design after fe w Iterations: Wing weight = 640 kg Percentage difference w. Variation of Buckling of Panels: It is observed from the graph that the panels for which the value of critical stress/Normal stress is less than 1 buckles but other panels do not buckle having the ratio greater than 1. 6. v=137. v=63.5”.18.19. Variation of Buckling of stringers: It is observed from the graph that the ratio of critical stress/Normal stress is greater than 1 for all the cases and hence concludes that none of the stringer buckles. “n= 3. After iterations the weight was significantly reduced basically due to faster tapering of spars along the span.Variation of Crushing load: Crushing load is plotted for 4 critical booms namely 6. 19.72 kg Percentage difference w. The analysis is done for all the three critical n values namely “n= 3. Some of the steps pertaining to the procedure include reduction of skin thickness for some portion of the wing while increasing at those locations where we encountered shear failure. v=137. 20 for the three critical n and v values namely “n= 3. Empirical relation estimate for wing weight = 428. As expected the crushing load values decreases from the root to tip and having the maximum value at the root for all the cases.5”. Initially FOS was very high for almost all the booms along the span.5” as shown in Fig 16.19.

The whole work can be summarized into following steps:              Initial Take Off weight estimate. Wing was idealized with 48 booms for 1st part and 40 for second.7. Wing section properties were obtained using both SolidWorks and MatLab. Shear forces and moments were obtained at the stations. 16 critical points were chosen specifically for further analysis. Here the design was specifically done for a UAV aircraft (Drone). Lift and drag per unit length was calculated along the span for the 16 points. wing design features and aerofoil were directly taken from earlier design work. Normal and chordwise forces were further obtained. . Resultant Normal and Shear stresses were computed. Summary: Present work is dedicated to understand important techniques and procedures involved in design of aircraft wing box. V-n Diagram and Gust Load Factor Diagram were drawn according to current mission requirements. Critical booms were analysed. Wing weight was estimated and compared with the theoretical estimate. Iterations were done to reduce the wing weight and finalize the design. 20 ribs were placed in a half span of the wing. Wing was partitioned into 27 wing bays and hence 28 stations. FOS was plotted for all the booms. Inertia gravity loads were estimated.

55.11.4.52112.0.19675.10.7.-2.618548387.15484.1.28).5.0271.12.12.75. 38. CL = [1.5379.10.0.12.343875. Cm = [-0.109.28).0.5.7385.63.0.10.25.06138.0.174125.0.017.25.63.5.329.6.11.1. dy = zeros(1.16. L = zeros(1.5.5. m1 = zeros(1.865.75. 16.3.7.27).96631. den = 2720.9. c = zeros(1. 25.1851].0. 4.199.27).5359.Appendix: %% Name of each item is mentioned above its part in the code.2947].0053]. 16.28).53891.0511.0].378629032.19.11.5409.-0.436. zeros(1. yC = zeros(1.2.42.0221. Cd = 0.0098.5.75.5.0224.1. ynew = [13.8559. F = zeros(1.-0.7.28).6058. zeros(1.6.12.1.8338.12.3. ar = 15. t = 0.0294.11.12.-0.11.7219.3.10.8.5.5029.405645161.3984.6.55975. 4.1.11.27).01408.065168.16.11.0075.12.9.16.137.1256.25.705.5.28).696.3.25.109.5. -0.-1.0.9.28).11.32. e = 0.0.2. n = [3.0296.8885.6.2.5.225. 3.0. dN dC dM dF = = = = zeros(1. v = [63.5409.27.-0.28).75. -0.5.9. M = zeros(1. Fz = zeros(1.10. -0.00087.7.12. %densit W = 5400.559. m2 = zeros(1.1256.5.25. zeros(1.-0.1.55938.55675.0222. alpha = [16. S = 45. . Vz = zeros(1.5.-0.1.28).29.1.5588.75.28).1.999272.6213.425832.2.0221.-0. -0.8.79.137. D = zeros(1.16.5.5.51975806.27).-1.4989]. 0. y = [0.27.1.-0.5.-0.4. -0.109.0.4603.7697. Vx = zeros(1.6 .5.11.6.9.1.27).28).5.05815.55938.137. N = zeros(1. d = 1. points3D = zeros(48.-0.0221.0.8.5.36955.8885.4.45.28). x = zeros(1. C = zeros(1.10. b = 26.10.5.0222. Cd1 = 0.27).0.27).54395.02725].8915.27.75.02425.27).-0. Mass = zeros(1.7215.28).498328.19.8.28).135.559125.0221.61.1.13].10.1.

5*d*v(j)^2)) .1384*1.47)^5)))*10^(-8).47)^4))+((28798. 0.823)*(((c(i)/2.i)/2. else Ixx(i) = (((4312. 0. end F(1.i) = (1/2)*(c(i) + (4*S/(pi()*b))*(1(2*y(i)/b)^2)^(1/2))*(CL(j)*(0. x(i) = -(1.i)/2.5*1. m2(1.025)*((c(i)/2. Iyy = zeros(1. %Section lift coeff Cd = Cd1 + Cl*CL(j)/(pi()*ar*e). else m1(1.47)^5)))*10^(-8).i)^2)))*den. Z = zeros(3. MT = zeros(1. N(i) = L(i)*cosd(alpha(j))+D(i)*sind(alpha(j)).27). %skin Thickness .159)*((c(i)/2.6)*((c(i)/2.5*d*c(i)*(v(j)^2)). sigmaxx = zeros(48. if ( c(i) < 9 ) Ixx(i) = (((4312.28).001175*((c(1.28).02" m2(1. L(1.6)*((c(i)/2.Mz = zeros(1. Y = zeros(3.13)*((c(i)/2. Iyy(i) = (((284293.i) = (5. D(1.27).47-(c(i)/4)).6)*((c(i)/2.i)/2. if i < 15 m1(1.i) = (2*S/((1+t)*b))*(1-(2*(1-t)*y(i)/b)).47)^4))+((434706.i) = (5.27).47)^2))*den.47)^5)))*10^(-8). .505*1.47)^4))+((434706.i) = Cm(j)*(0. 0.6)*((c(i)/2.28).47)^4))+((28798.28).47)^4))+((-4123.008363+0. Ixy = zeros(1.47)^5))))*10^(8).i)/(0.28).00003*(c(1.008363+0.10347*c(i)/2.5*d*c(i)*(v(j)^2)).1384*1.i) = (( 0.i)).28). 0.445)*((c(i)/2.505*1.5*d*(c(i)^2)*(v(j)^2)).001175*((c(1. X = zeros(3.005134)*((c(1. M(1.47)^2))*den.5*1.0. Ixy(i) = (((19714. Cl = L(1.8*(m1(1.47)^4))+((-4123. Ixx = zeros(1.28).i) = ( ( 0.1015*0.i) = Cd*(0.47)^5)))*10^(-8). for i = 1:27 dy(i) = y(i+1)-y(i). end for j = 1 Vz(1) Vx(1) Mz(1) Mx(1) MT(1) = = = = = 0.47)^5)))*10^(-8).159+18393.6)*((c(i)/2. Iyy(i) = (((284293.6)*((c(i)/2. C(i) = D(i)*cosd(alpha(j))-L(i)*sind(alpha(j)).47)^3)+(0.i) = -n(j)*9.i)/2. for i = 1:28 c(1.823+4882.i)+m2(1.005134)*((c(1.1015*0. Mx = zeros(1. Ixy(i) = (((19714.47)^3))*den.445350)*((c(i)/2.

3) = Point(:.6).i) = 0.i)^2)/(2*Point1(6.4)*73.j+1)).2.i) = (1/(N(28-i+1)+N(28-i)))*(N(28-i+1)+2*N(28-i))*(dy(28-i)/3). Crushload(1.i).001*(10^(-9))*sigmaxx(7. end % % Mt = 0.i) Crushload(2.y(j)).j) = (1/2)*(m(j) + m(j+1)). % Mt = Mt + Mass(1. (2*0.i) = (1/(C(28-i+1)+C(28-i)))*(C(28-i+1)+2*C(28-i))*(dy(28-i)/3).i). Z(2.i) = (1/(3*(F(28-i+1)+F(28-i))))*((F(28-i+1)*(2*x(28-i+1)+x(28-i)))+(F(28i)*(2*x(28-i)+x(28-i+1)))).i) = (1/(F(28-i+1)+F(28-i)))*(F(28-i+1)+2*F(28-i))*(dy(28-i)/3). .j)+F(1.i)-dF(28-i)*Y(3.i) = 0. dC(i) = ((C(i)+C(i+1))*dy(i))/2.3). Crushload = zeros(4.1).y(j))*(F(1. % for j = 1:27 % yC(1. Mx(i+1) = (Mx(i) .i)). X(1. points3D(:. Y(3.1.Vz(i)*dy(28-i)-dN(28-i)*Y(1.i)^2)/(2*Point1(7.28). (2*0.j) = (1/2)*(y(j) + y(j+1)). % end % for i=1:27 Y(1.4).4)*73.i) = Point1(:. dM(i) = ((M(i)+M(i+1))*dy(i))/2.4) = Point(:.i) = 0.3)*c(i)/2.i) Crushload(3. Mz(i+1) = Mz(i) +Vx(i)*dy(28-i)+dC(28-i)*Y(2. end for i=1:27 Vz(i+1) = Vz(i)+ dN(28-i)+dF(28-i).001*(10^(-9))*sigmaxx(20. %% Calculation of Normal stress and crush load for k = 1:48 for i = 1:28 Point1(:.4)*c(i)/2. is from tip to root but earlier i is from root to tip Vx(i+1) = (Vx(i) + dC(28-i)). i) = (. sigmaxx(k.( Mz(28-i+1)*Ixx(i)+ Mx(28-i+1)*Ixy(i) )*(Point1(k. (2*0.1).j)*(y(j+1) .i) = y(i).47. % Mass(1. X(2.end end for i = 1:27 dN(i) = ((N(i)+N(i+1))*dy(i))/2.3. MT(i+1) = MT(i) + dM(28-i)-dF(28-i)*X(3.47. % tip to root Y(2.i) Crushload(4.4)*73. % Fz(1.1). points3D(:.4)))/(Ixx(i)*Iyy(i)-Ixy(i)*Ixy(i)). Z(1. points3D(:. X(3.001*(10^(-9))*sigmaxx(19.i) = Point1(:.4)*73.i)^2)/(2*Point1(20.3)) +( Mx(28-i+1)*Iyy(i)+ Mz(28-i+1)*Ixy(i))*(Point1(k.i) = = = = (2*0.001*(10^(-9))*sigmaxx(6.j) = (1/2)*(y(j+1) . dF(i) = ((F(i)+F(i+1))*dy(i))/2.i) = 0. Point1(:.1). two terms are zero end % i here % here Point1 = zeros(48.i)^2)/(2*Point1(19.

15) h_legend = legend('n = 3.v = 63. set(h_legend.14).ratiost(:). Aij = zeros(52.end end %% Buckling of stringers Ixxst = zeros(1. ratiost(l) = sqrt((sigmacr(l)/sigmaxx(18. end end end qo = zeros(52. ds1 = zeros(14. sumcell1 = zeros(14. XLABEL('Span Location (y)'.l))^2). set(gca.14).28). end xr = zeros(1.1*(10)^9)*Ixxst(l+1)/(Areast(l+1)*lengthst(l)^2). sigmacr = zeros(1.28).19. end lengthst(1) = 0.15) YLABEL('(Critical stress/Normal stress) ratio'. qs2o = zeros(3. lengthst(14) = 1. Areast = zeros(1.28).'fontsize'. lengthst(i) = y(i+1)-y(i).28).'ko-').14).'fontsize'. sumcell3 = zeros(8.28). % down to up .28).15).14).13) %% Calculation of Shear stress separately due to shear force and Torsion for r = 1:28 for p=1:44 if (p ~= 3)&&(p ~= 6)&&(p ~= 7)&&(p ~= 10)&&(p ~= 13)&&(p ~= 16)&&(p ~= 19)&&(p ~= 20)&&(p ~= 21)&&(p ~= 25)&&(p ~= 26)&&(p ~= 29)&&(p ~= 32)&&(p ~= 35)&&(p ~= 38)&&(p ~= 39)&&(p ~= 42) sigmaxx(p. sumcellq1 = zeros(14.'fontsize'. figure(1) plot(xr. qs1o = zeros(3. for l= 1:14 sigmacr(l) = (pi()^2*73. ratiost = zeros(1.9*((c(i))^4)/((2.15).96*((c(i))^2)/((2. xr = y(1:14).13). Areast(i) = (1.'FontSize'. lengthst = zeros(1.47)^2))*10^(-4). sumcell2 = zeros(30.6998*lengthst(1). ds2 = zeros(30.r)/10.28). ds3 = zeros(8.5*lengthst(14).28).28). for i=1:14 Ixxst(i) = (4.28).r) = sigmaxx(p.5 m/s').47)^4))*10^(-8).28).

3)*Point1(Pointer(i+1).47)^2.28).5))/Iyy(k)).5) = 0.28). A1 = zeros(1. wall2 = zeros(1.5) = 0.5) = Point(ii. Point1(32. Point1(35. Totalq1 = zeros(52.1).5) = 0. generalstress = zeros(48.5)*(c(k)/2.2)*c(k)/2.28).28).k) = qo(i. end for i=0:51 if i==0 qo(i+1.3)*Point1(Pointer(i+1).5) = 0.sumcellq2 = zeros(30.28).1).3)*c(k)/2.6)*c(k)/2.28). wall1 = zeros(1. Q = zeros(3.5))/Ixx(k)) + ((Vz(29k)*Point1(Pointer(i+1).1)*c(k)/2. for k=1:28 Point1(:. if k>14 Point1(3.28). A3 = zeros(1.5))/Iyy(k)).28). Point1(10.47.47. shearT = zeros(52. Point1(16.4)*Point1(Pointer(i+1). Totalq = zeros(52. end end Point1(:.5) = 0.5) = 0.5) = 0.k) = 0 + ((Vx(29k)*Point1(Pointer(i+1). shear = zeros(52.4)*Point1(Pointer(i+1).28). else Point1(ii.4) = Point(:.5) = Point(ii. elseif i>0 && i<14 qo(i+1.28). sumcellq3 = zeros(8.5))/Ixx(k)) + ((Vz(29k)*Point1(Pointer(i+1). sigma1 = zeros(52. Factorofsafety = zeros(48.5) = 0.47. Point1(29.28).k) + ((Vx(29k)*Point1(Pointer(i+1).28). Point1(42. shear1 = zeros(52. Point1(:. sumqA = zeros(51.28).1) = Point(:. elseif i == 14 . sigma2 = zeros(52. for ii = 1:48 if (p ~= 6)&&(p ~= 7)&&(p ~= 19)&&(p ~= 20)&&(p ~= 25)&&(p ~= 26)&&(p ~= 38)&&(p ~= 39)&&(p ~= 45)&&(p ~= 46)&&(p ~= 47)&&(p ~= 48) Point1(ii. Point1(:.2) = Point(:.47.28). Point1(:.28).3) = Point(:.6) = Point(:.47.28).28). Q1 = zeros(3. Point1(13. Tau = zeros(52. A2 = zeros(1.28).5)*(c(k)/2.47)^(3).4)*c(k)/2.

elseif i>44 qo(i+1.k) = qs2o(1.4)*Point1(Pointer(i+1).k).Point1(Pointer(i).qo(28.k) = qs2o(2.k) = qs2o(1.k) + ((Vx(29k)*Point1(Pointer(i+1).5))/Ixx(k)) + k)*Point1(Pointer(i+1).5))/Iyy(k)).4)*Point1(Pointer(i+1).k) .2)Point1(Pointer(i).5))/Ixx(k)) .5))/Ixx(k)) + k)*Point1(Pointer(i+1).k).k) = sqrt((Point1(Pointer(i+1). qo(49.1))^2).1)*Point1(Pointer(i+1).2)-Point1(Pointer(i). qo(28.1))^2).k) = abs((Point1(Pointer(i).3)*Point1(Pointer(i+1).k). qo(48.((Vz(29k)*Point1(Pointer(43).qo(47.2)*Point1(Pointer(1). qs1o(3.k) = 0 + ((Vx(29k)*Point1(Pointer(i+1).1))^2).k).k).1)*Point1(Pointer(i+1).3)*Point1(Pointer(i+1).k) .2)Point1(Pointer(i).3)*Point1(Pointer(13).k).k).3)*Point1(Pointer(i+1). end end ((Vz(29- ((Vz(29- ((Vz(29- ((Vz(29- qs1o(1.k) = qs1o(2.k) = qs1o(3.4)*Point1(Pointer(i+1).k).2)*Point1(Pointer(i+1). elseif i==44 .4)*Point1(Pointer(i+1).k).Point1(Pointer(i).((Vz(29k)*Point1(Pointer(13). elseif i==14 ds1(14.k) = qo(12. qo(13.k).5))/Iyy(k)).k) = qo(i.k). Aij(i. qs2o(2. qo(43.k) .5))/Ixx(k)) + k)*Point1(Pointer(i+1).2)-Point1(Pointer(i).k) .k) = qs2o(2. qo(12. qs2o(1.k) + ((Vx(29k)*Point1(Pointer(i+1). qo(44.k) .5))/Iyy(k)).k) = qs1o(1. elseif i>14 && i<44 ds2(i-14. qo(42. Aij(i.1).k).2)Point1(Pointer(i).k) = qs2o(3.1)*Point1(Pointer(1).k) = qs1o(3.k) = abs((Point1(Pointer(i).k) = qo(14.k) .k) = qo(13. Aij(14.2))^2 + (Point1(Pointer(i+1).2)-Point1(Pointer(i). qo(47.k).k) = qo(43.5))/Iyy(k)).k) = qs1o(2.qo(48. qs2o(3.k) .1))/2).Point1(Pointer(i).k) = 0 + ((Vx(29k)*Point1(Pointer(i+1).k) = qo(i.5))/Ixx(k)) .3)*Point1(Pointer(43).((Vx(29k)*Point1(Pointer(43). qs1o(2. for i=1:52 if i<14 ds1(i.k).3)*Point1(Pointer(i+1).qo(i+1. elseif i>14 && i<44 qo(i+1.2))^2 + (Point1(Pointer(1). qo(29.qo(49.4)*Point1(Pointer(43).2)*Point1(Pointer(i+1).k) = sqrt((Point1(Pointer(i+1).1))/2).qo(27.1))/2). elseif i==44 qo(i+1.1).k) = qo(44.k).k) = qs2o(3.k) = abs((Point1(Pointer(i).k) = qs1o(1.k) = qo(42.qo(29.k).5))/Ixx(k)) + k)*Point1(Pointer(i+1). qo(14.k) .k) = sqrt((Point1(Pointer(1).1).4)*Point1(Pointer(13).5))/Iyy(k)).2))^2 + (Point1(Pointer(i+1).5))/Iyy(k)).((Vx(29k)*Point1(Pointer(13). qo(27.

k) = abs((Point1(Pointer(i).k). sumqA(i+1. sumqA(1.6).k)*qo(i+1.k)*qo(i.k) = 0 + (ds3(i-44.k) = 0 .2)-Point1(Pointer(i). Aij(i.k)*qs1o(2.6).2)*Point1(Pointer(45).2)Point1(Pointer(i).k) = abs((Point1(Pointer(i). sumqA(i+1.6).6).k) = sumqA(i.1))^2).k) = sumcellq2(28.Point1(Pointer(i).k).k)/Point1(Pointer(i).6). sumcellq2(1.k) + ds3(i-44. % use 44 for cell 2.k) + (ds1(12.k)*qo(i.1).k).k)*qs2o(3.1)*Point1(Pointer(15).k) + 2*Aij(i.173495596*(c(k)^2)/(2.k))/Point1(Pointer(12). elseif i>15 && i<=44 sumcell2(i+1-15. elseif i==52 ds3(8.k)-sumcell1(11.k))/Point1(Pointer(i).k)*qo(i. sumqA(i+1.k) + (ds2(i14.k)*qo(i. end end A1(k) = 0.k)/Point1(Pointer(i+1).ds2(30.k) = sqrt((Point1(Pointer(i+1).6).k) = sumcellq2(i-15. sumcellq1(i+1.k) + ds1(i+1. sumcellq2(29.k) = 0 + ds2(i-14.k))/Point1(Pointer(i).k))/Point1(Pointer(i).k)-sumcell2(27.6).2))^2 + (Point1(Pointer(i+1).k). sumcellq1(12.2)-Point1(Pointer(i).k)/Point1(Pointer(i).k) + 2*Aij(i.6).k)/Point1(Pointer(i+1). A11 = sumcell1(14. % use 52 for cell 3.k) = sumqA(i.k))/Point1(Pointer(13).1)*Point1(Pointer(45).k))/Point1(Pointer(42).k). elseif i>44 && i<52 ds3(i-44. 30 sumcellq2(i+1-15. wall1(k) = sumcell1(14.6).k) + (ds2(30. sumcellq2(28.47^2).k) = sumcellq1(13. % use 15 for cell 1.k) + ds2(i-14. end end for i=0:51 if i==0 sumcell1(i+1.Point1(Pointer(i).6).2)*Point1(Pointer(i+1).k) = abs((Point1(Pointer(i).k) = 0 + ds1(i+1. 14 sumcellq1(i+1. 8 sumcellq3(i+1-44. elseif i>0 && i<14 sumcell1(i+1.k) + (ds2(29.k) + (ds1(14.k)*qo(i. sumcellq2(30.6).6).k)*qs1o(3. sumcellq1(13.k)*qs2o(2.k))/Point1(Pointer(44). sumcellq1(14.2)Point1(Pointer(i).1))/2).k)*qo(i. sumcellq3(i+1-45.47^2). elseif i == 45 sumcell3(i+1-45.6).k) + (ds2(28.473302955*(c(k)^2)/(2.k).k) = sumcellq1(11.k)*qs1o(1.k)*qo(i.k) + 2*Aij(i.k))/Point1(Pointer(i+1).057928*(c(k)^2)/(2.k)/A1(k) + wall1(k)/A2(k).k) = 0 + (ds2(i-14. A3(k) = 0.2))^2 + (Point1(Pointer(15).k) = sqrt((Point1(Pointer(15).2)*Point1(Pointer(15).k) + (ds1(i+1.k) + (ds3(i44.k) = sumcellq3(i-44.1))^2).k) = 0 + (ds1(i+1. sumqA(i+1.k) = sumqA(i.k)*qo(i+1.k)/Point1(Pointer(i). elseif i==15 sumcell2(1.k))/Point1(Pointer(14).k) = sqrt((Point1(Pointer(45).2)-Point1(Pointer(i).k) = sumcellq1(i.6).k). elseif i>44 sumcell3(i+1-44.k) = sumcellq2(27.k) = 0 + ds3(i-44.k) + (ds1(13.1).6). Aij(44.k) = sumcellq2(29. .6).6).k)*qo(i.2)Point1(Pointer(i).k) + 2*Aij(i.1))/2). A2(k) = 0.Point1(Pointer(i).k))/Point1(Pointer(i+1). wall2(k) = sumcell2(30.k)*qs2o(1.47^2).k) = sumcell3(i-44.k) = sumcell2(i-15.1).k))/Point1(Pointer(i).1))/2).k))/Point1(Pointer(43).k) = sumqA(i.k) = sumqA(i.1)*Point1(Pointer(i+1).k)/Point1(Pointer(i).k) + 2*Aij(i.6).k)*qo(i.k) = sumcellq1(12.2))^2 + (Point1(Pointer(45).1))^2).k) = sumcell1(i. Aij(52. sumqA(i+1.

k) = sigmaxx(Pointer(i).1). C1 = -sumcellq1(14.k)+ Q1(3.k)/2)^2 + shear(i. elseif i>=15 && i<45 Totalq(i. elseif i>=45 Totalq(i.k)/A3(k). A31 A32 A33].k)/2 .6).k) + shear1(i.47)/4 . Totalq1(i.k)/Point1(Pointer(i).k) = Totalq1(i. end end %% Calculation of Factor of safety for i=1:52 sigma1(i. A13 = wall2(k)/A2(k). A21 = sumcell1(14.k) = Totalq(i. Q1 = A\transpose(D).k).k) = shear(i.k)/A1(k) + sumcellq2(30.k)/A3(k).k)/Point1(Pointer(i).k)/2)^2 + shear(i.k)/2 + sqrt((sigmaxx(Pointer(i). sigma2(i.k) = qo(i.k) = shear(i.wall1(k)/A1(k).k) + shear1(i. shear1(i.k)^2).sqrt((sigmaxx(Pointer(i).k)+ Q1(1.k)/Point1(Pointer(i).k) = shear(i.k) = qo(i.6).k).k)+ Q(2.k)+ Q(1.k)/A2(k).k) = Totalq(i.k) = qo(i.6). Q = A\transpose(C). A32 = 2*A2(k).k) = qo(i. A23 = -sumcell3(8.k) = Totalq1(i.k) = qo(i.k) = qo(i. shearT(i. A22 = wall2(k)/A3(k) .6). for i = 1:52 if i<15 Totalq(i.k) = sigmaxx(Pointer(i). Totalq1(i.k)/A1(k) + sumcellq3(8. shear1(i.k)/A2(k) + wall1(k)/A1(k)).1).k)^2). shearT(i.k). shear(i. C2 = -sumcellq1(14. shear(i.k) + shear1(i.k) = Totalq(i.k)+ Q1(2. shearT(i.k)^2).k)/Point1(Pointer(i).6). A21 A22 A23 .1).k). D = [C1 C2 D3].A12 = -(sumcell2(30.k)/2)^2 + shear(i. C3 = -Vz(29-k)*(2.k)/Point1(Pointer(i).1).1). D3 = -MT(29-k).1).k) = Totalq1(i.6). A31 = 2*A1(k). Tau(i.k)/A1(k). shear1(i. shear(i.sumqA(52.k)/Point1(Pointer(i). A33 = 2*A3(k). C = [C1 C2 C3]. A = [A11 A12 A13 . end .k) = sqrt((sigmaxx(Pointer(i).k)+ Q(3. Totalq1(i.

young modulus 73.15) % hold on % figure(8) % plot(y.k) = sqrt(sigmaxx(m.'o-'. % XLABEL('Span Location (y)'.15) % hold on % figure(3) % plot(y.15) % hold on % figure(5) % plot(y.'o-'.'fontsize'. % XLABEL('Span Location (y)'.2).for m = 1:48 generalstress(m. 'LineWidth'.2).:).1 GPa .2). end end %% Plots % if j==1 % figure(1) % plot(y.'fontsize'.2). % XLABEL('Span Location (y)'.'fontsize'.'fontsize'.'fontsize'.15) % YLABEL('Shear Stress due to Torsion (in Pa)'.15) % hold on % figure(7) % plot(y.15) % hold on % Aluminium alloy 2024-T3.k) = (345*10^6)/generalstress(m.15) % YLABEL('Crushing load (in N)'.'fontsize'.'o-'. % XLABEL('Span Location (y)'.'o-'.shear1(52.'fontsize'.Crushload(3. % XLABEL('Span Location (y)'.2).shear1(25.:). 'LineWidth'. 'LineWidth'.'fontsize'.'o-'.'fontsize'.k).:). 'LineWidth'. 'LineWidth'.:).Crushload(4. 'LineWidth'.'o-'.15) % hold on % figure(6) % plot(y.'fontsize'.15) % hold on % figure(2) % plot(y.:).:).15) % YLABEL('Shear Stress due to Torsion (in Pa)'. % XLABEL('Span Location (y)'. 'LineWidth'.k)^2)).Crushload(1.Crushload(2.15) % YLABEL('Shear Stress Total (in Pa)'.15) % YLABEL('Shear Stress Total (in Pa)'.15) % YLABEL('Crushing load (in N)'.'fontsize'.'o-'. % XLABEL('Span Location (y)'.'fontsize'. 'LineWidth'.2).:).:).'o-'.2).15) % YLABEL('Crushing load (in N)'. % XLABEL('Span Location (y)'. Factorofsafety(m.'fontsize'.2).k)^2 + 3*(shearT(PointerI(m).shearT(25.'fontsize'.15) % hold on % figure(4) % plot(y.'fontsize'.'fontsize'.shearT(52.15) % YLABEL('Crushing load (in N)'.

5.02725].065168.0221.28).-0.7697.4.27.8559.7385.51975806. -0.0. t = 0.3.-0.1256. yC = zeros(1.10.45.9.1. zeros(1. Cd1 = 0.79.8885.25.0222.-1.-0.0.4. zeros(1. Cm = [-0.137.0.5.137.0098.8.10.559125.6.5.5.25.135.10.225. %densit W = 5400.11.1. -0.7.5.-0.28).11.5379.109. 0.5.02425.27.425832.5. 3.9.109.36955.4989].0.27). Cd = 0.19.2947].017. v = [63. ynew = [13. L = zeros(1.75.7219.378629032.8338.5.5588.1851].5.-0.28). S = 45.16.11.174125.63.1256.0.42.865.05815.27).-0.27).12. den = 2720.6.32.12. points3D = zeros(48. Fz = zeros(1. Mass = zeros(1. N = zeros(1.2.%% Buckling of Panels y = [0.55.3984.55675.75.-0.199.5.53891.27).0]. M = zeros(1.10. alpha = [16.2.96631.10.405645161.10.5409.11.0.06138.00087.11.7.1.0075. .6.28).5. 16. c = zeros(1. m = zeros(1.343875.1. n = [3.5.0224.6 .4603.75. d = 1.19675.75. dN dC dM dF = = = = zeros(1.10. D = zeros(1.1.75.109. dy = zeros(1.3.-0.5.27).5. F = zeros(1.0294.5.436. Vz = zeros(1.0.0.0.28).0.0296.0221.6058.25.52112.28).9.28).1.13].61.8885.-0. -0.3.0.-0.705.19.1.6.11.5.55975.1.1.7.5.10.9.5.1.6213. 25.0. -0.4. Vx = zeros(1.8.55938.137.0511.75.27).0221.7.01408.8.55938.5.9. b = 26.12.28).696.12.12.329.16.29.559.27.498328.7215.-0.5359.16.0053].27).12.1.0271.-1.11. 16.54395.1.28). x = zeros(1. zeros(1.6.999272.1.28).5. 4. e = 0.5.5409.0221.25.8.16.25.11.12. 4.12.0.618548387.5029.2.2.28).63.-2.28).3. ar = 15. 38. CL = [1.8915. -0.15484. C = zeros(1.27).11.0222.

i)+ ( 0. 0.28). end for j = 1:16 Vz(1) Vx(1) Mz(1) Mx(1) MT(1) = = = = = 0.27).10347*c(i)/2. X = zeros(3. sigmaxx = zeros(48. Mx = zeros(1.27).47*100)^4))*10^(-8). for i = 1:28 c(1.47*((c(i)*100)^4)/((2.i)^2))*den.i) = Cd*(0. 0.i) = -n(j)*9.5*d*(c(i)^2)*(v(j)^2)). Ixy(i) = (22401.37183*((c(i)*100)^4)/((2. Iyy(i) = (741233.8*m(1.i)/(0. %skin Thickness . Z = zeros(3. Iyy = zeros(1. L(1. MT = zeros(1. Iyy(i) = (759626. dC(i) = ((C(i)+C(i+1))*dy(i))/2. x(i) = -(1.47*100)^4))*10^(-8).5*d*c(i)*(v(j)^2)).00044256)*(c(1.47-(c(i)/4)).47*100)^4))*10^(-8). C(i) = D(i)*cosd(alpha(j))-L(i)*sind(alpha(j)). 0. dM(i) = ((M(i)+M(i+1))*dy(i))/2.i).28).47*100)^4))*10^(-8).27). Ixy = zeros(1.02*((c(i)*100)^4)/((2.i) = (1/2)*(c(i) + (4*S/(pi()*b))*(1(2*y(i)/b)^2)^(1/2))*(CL(j)*(0. if ( c(i) < 9 ) Ixx(i) = (78097.02" F(1.28).Mz = zeros(1.5*d*v(j)^2)) .24*((c(i)*100)^4)/((2.28). for i = 1:27 dy(i) = y(i+1)-y(i). . N(i) = L(i)*cosd(alpha(j))+D(i)*sind(alpha(j)).00139833+0.37743*((c(i)*100)^4)/((2. Ixy(i) = (22151.49564*((c(i)*100)^4)/((2. else Ixx(i) = (73215.0. m(1.i) = (2*S/((1+t)*b))*(1-(2*(1-t)*y(i)/b)).47*100)^4))*10^(-8).28).28).47*100)^4))*10^(-8).i) = Cm(j)*(0.5*d*c(i)*(v(j)^2)). Y = zeros(3. 0. D(1. Cl = L(1. end end for i = 1:27 dN(i) = ((N(i)+N(i+1))*dy(i))/2. Ixx = zeros(1. %Section lift coeff Cd = Cd1 + Cl*CL(j)/(pi()*ar*e). M(1.i) = (2.0654*0.001*c(1.28).

j) = (1/2)*(y(j) + y(j+1)).4)))/(Ixx(i)*Iyy(i)Ixy(i)*Ixy(i)). Z(1.15).4).j)+F(1. Point1(:. Mz(i+1) = Mz(i) +Vx(i)*dy(28-i)+dC(28-i)*Y(2.i) = 0.6).4) = Point(:. % end % for i=1:27 Y(1. Y(3. lengthst(i) = y(i+1)-y(i).2.3)) +( Mx(28-i+1)*Iyy(i)+ Mz(28-i+1)*Ixy(i))*(Point1(k. % Fz(1.Vz(i)*dy(28-i)-dN(28-i)*Y(1.3.i) = 0. sigmaxx(k. X(2.47)^2))*10^(-4). MT(i+1) = MT(i) + dM(28-i)-dF(28-i)*X(3.i) = Point1(:.3) = Point(:. X(3. % for j = 1:27 % yC(1.i) = (1/(3*(F(28-i+1)+F(28-i))))*((F(28-i+1)*(2*x(28-i+1)+x(28-i)))+(F(28i)*(2*x(28-i)+x(28-i+1)))).i) = 0.dF(i) = ((F(i)+F(i+1))*dy(i))/2. % Mt = Mt + Mass(1. for k = 1:48 for i = 1:28 Point1(:.j+1)).9*((c(i))^4)/((2.i).j) = (1/2)*(m(j) + m(j+1)). . end for i=1:27 Vz(i+1) = Vz(i)+ dN(28-i)+dF(28-i).i) = (1/(N(28-i+1)+N(28-i)))*(N(28-i+1)+2*N(28-i))*(dy(28-i)/3). for i=1:14 Ixxst(i) = (4.i).14). two terms are zero end % i here % here Point1 = zeros(48.4)*c(i)/2.y(j))*(F(1.1. points3D(:.j)*(y(j+1) .j) = (1/2)*(y(j+1) . is from tip to root but earlier i is from root to tip Vx(i+1) = (Vx(i) + dC(28-i)).47.15).96*((c(i))^2)/((2. end end end Ixxst = zeros(1. end % % Mt = 0. i) = (.i) = Point1(:. Areast(i) = (1.i) = (1/(C(28-i+1)+C(28-i)))*(C(28-i+1)+2*C(28-i))*(dy(28-i)/3).47. points3D(:.y(j)).i) = (1/(F(28-i+1)+F(28-i)))*(F(28-i+1)+2*F(28-i))*(dy(28-i)/3).47)^4))*10^(-8).i) = y(i).( Mz(28-i+1)*Ixx(i)+ Mx(28-i+1)*Ixy(i) )*(Point1(k. points3D(:. % tip to root Y(2.3)*c(i)/2.i)-dF(28-i)*Y(3. X(1. Mx(i+1) = (Mx(i) . % Mass(1.i)). lengthst = zeros(1. Z(2.3).i) = 0. Areast = zeros(1.

'fontsize'.'FontSize'. end xr = zeros(1.5 m/s').v = 137. XLABEL('Span Location (y)'.15) YLABEL('(Critical stress/Normal stress) ratio'. figure(1) plot(xr.'ko-'). sigmacr = zeros(1.6998*lengthst(1). set(h_legend.5*lengthst(14).ratiost(:).14). set(gca.14). xr = y(1:14). for l= 1:14 sigmacr(l) = (pi()^2*73.13).l))^2).13) .1*(10)^9)*Ixxst(l+1)/(Areast(l+1)*lengthst(l)^2). ratiost = zeros(1.15) h_legend = legend('n = 0.'fontsize'.'fontsize'.14).295. ratiost(l) = sqrt((sigmacr(l)/sigmaxx(18. lengthst(14) = 1.end lengthst(1) = 0.

260).28.008363+0. end end Mt1 = 0.11.15) YLABEL('Mass/length (in kg/m)'.j)+F(1. XLABEL('Span Location (y)'.i) = (5.05:13. loc = loc + 1. if ( ylong(i) == yrib(loc)) mtt(i) = (m1(1.261).260). M1 = zeros(1.005134)*((c(1. m1 = zeros(1.j+1)).i)+mlrib(loc)).j) = (1/2)*(m2(j) + m2(j+1)).i)/2. m2(1.10.47)^3))*den.12.1015*0.260). if i < 15 m1(1.5.00003*(c(1.9. m2 = zeros(1.i)).'fontsize'. M1(1.261).i) = ( ( 0.5. end % plot(y. else m1(1. % hold on plot(ylong.25. M2 = zeros(1.3.c).261).5. for j = 1:260 yC(1.ylong(j)).261). Mt2 = Mt2 + M2(1.ylong(j))*(F(1. else mtt(i) = (m1(1.i)/2.10.i)^2)))*den.9.7.i)).5.001175*((c(1.2. Mt2 = 0.75.7. t = 0.5.i)+m2(1.'r'.260).5. b = 26.i) = -n*9. M2(1. %skin Thickness . loc = 1. den = 2720.6.i)/2. 25.5.11.4.%% Calculation of mass distribution and C.j) = (1/2)*(m1(j) + m1(j+1)).47)^3)+(0.ylong(j)).G.5.12.mtt.261).'fontsize'.5. n = -1. c = zeros(1. ylong = 0:0.10.12.005134)*((c(1. for i = 1:261 c(1.'LineWidth'.47)^2))*den.75.10. mtt = zeros(1.j)*(ylong(j+1) .4. S = 45.2).6.'fontsize'.i)+m2(1. Mt1 = Mt1 + M1(1.8.j)*(ylong(j+1) . yC = zeros(1. F = zeros(1.25.0. location y = [0. Fz(1.12. end F(1.j) = (1/2)*(ylong(j) + ylong(j+1)).02" m2(1.i) = (2*S/((1+t)*b))*(1-(2*(1-t)*ylong(i)/b)).5.1015*0.15) % YLABEL('d(F)IGz/dy (in N/m)'.13].i) = (( 0.47)^2))*den.i)/2.75. Fz = zeros(1.11.11.008363+0.1.001175*((c(1.15) .i) = (5.i)+m2(1.8.j) = (1/2)*(ylong(j+1) .8*(m1(1.