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Man has been described as a 'social animal' . Aristotle
and Bacon agree that,



ind ividual

impulses to kill and compete, sociability is in the very blood

of Man, because society had existed long before him. In
the lower stages of animal life too, social organization has
been developed, as in an ts and bees, to a point of co ...
operation superior even to any
"The Hamadrays baboons,"
stones to find insects, and when
as many as can stand round it,

flceo in the human race. 1

says Darwin, UtUOl over
they come to a larger one.

turn it over togeth er and

sbilre the booty ..... . ...... Similarly bull bisons, when there
is danger, drive the cows and calves into the middle of tbe
herd, wbile they defend the outside."2 "The gradual formation of social instinct," according to him, 'has been
developed by the young remaining a long time with their
parents."3 In thi s very context. in an answer to Rousseau,
Burke is reported to have said, "Society is not a contract
between contemporaries; it is an unconscious and gradual

formation, and if, at all, there is a contract involved it is

one between tbe pa't, the present and the future"'.

Thus, whatever be its basis, tbere is no denying the
fact, that, based upon social affinity. some form of social
structure has ever been the most fundamental institution of
humanity, and, "there hardly lives a brute with soul so dead
that is not thrilled, at times witb a sense of physical solidarity with Mankind.'"


society being an integral


Dotwitb s taDdin~

and essential part of human

existence, reJigious traditions of almost every Faith, except



Will Durant: Pleasures of Philosophy. P. 91.

Darwin: The Descent of Man, P. 114.
Ibid P.119,
Reflections on French Revolution. P.91.
Will Du rant: Pleasures of Philosophy, P. 281.


Sikh ism and to a lesser extent, Jud aism & Islam have been
enchan ted with the co ncept of abdica lh n or renunciation
of Societ y as a higher form of spiritual effort and even as
means to spiritual elevation and ultimate emancipati on.
Extreme forms of Hi ndu asceticism, Gnosticism of Eygpt
and SyrIa, Neoplaton ic traditions of the later Greeks,
asce tic examples of Christian monks and some oroers of
!vluslim mysticism a fC all inspired-albeit wit h varyi ng
deg rees of emphasis-by the same Ideal , namely, d eliberate
detachment from all munda , ~ efforts and SJ...:iJ.l association,
and obligations.
The common denomina 'or in these t radi tions is the
thought that Uthe m ateri al body is inheren tl y evil a nd
spiritual element alone is good" . The object of asce tic
exercise is, the refore, Htbe ult imate extinction c f body so
that the soul may be free" "Th is is a metaphys ical dualism
which separates sou l and body, God and the worl d,
spiri tual and material into sha rply cont ra ,ted reali ties
and life is looked at more or less as the struggle fo r
,upermacy and t!\e ulti m~te vi ctory of Sp irit b y the
extin cti on of the material and lower eIClllents."7 The degree
of t his metaphysica l d ualism vary from ' the sharp emphas is
o n the negative wo rk of destroyi ng the body so that the
so ul may be free from its desires' t o the positive emphasis
upon th e 'union of so ul wi th jod by abstracti on, Contem plation and fai th as in pie tism.'9

In se mati c religious tradi tion, the damnation of the

human body is traced to the o riginal sin com mitted by the
fi rst parents o f M ankind , Adam and Eve. Since we are all
child ren of Ada m, Augustine a rged , we sha re his guilt, are
indeed the off springs of his guilt . ' Eating the apple,
6. Plato's Timacus P. b9 -7 J.
7. Encyclopae dia of Religion and Ethics 11 . P. 64 .
8. Max-Mullar on Ninwana: Chips from a German Workshop Vol I

( P. 276-287)
Ri (schl's Geschiente des Pict ismus Vo l T. P. 60


brought no t only natural death, but eternal death i.e .

damnati on. because as a resuit of the Sin, Man that , might
have been spiritual in body became ca n al in mind.'10
in Eastern reli gions, more particulary Hinduism
Buddhi sm, and Jainisrn, such an approach is rooted in tbe
hide bound theories of 'Karma' and 'Transmigration of
Soul ', the onl y poss ible escape from which is the gradual
closure of individual account ill the 'Divine Court' by
incapacitation and eVen extincti on of the body to do any
action, good or bad, and tbus grad uall y stri king a zero
balance. As such, the highest good of the ancient Ind ian
philosophies is to get rid of tbe fetters of act ion - and
consequent rebirth-by overcoming the inClination to be
active. Tbey aim at tbe total extinct ion of the individ ual
volition.' 11

As a matter of fact, the rise and gro wth o f asce tic

prac tices and mon as tic orders is generally traced to the ancient Indi an traditions wh ich go as far back as the upnishdic
or even the Rig vedic peri od. For example, Rig veda speaks
of, 'lodra baving conquered heaven by asceticism'.12 Accord
ing to Will Durant 'possibly Asboka's missionaries (250 Bc.)
bad brougbt the monastic form to the Near Eas t and preCbristian anchorities like those of Serapis of Egypt may
have transmitted the same to St. Anthony, tbe first of the
he rmits who was born is Egypt in about 250 A.D. and wbo
... ithdrew from the world about 270 A.D." For fifteen yea rs
he lived alone in a hut near his home and then fo r 20 years
in a remote solitude in the desert. H e practiced extreme
austerities, reducing rood dri nk and sleep to the minimum
required to support li fe. By the end of his li fe, Thebaid
(the desert near Egypit ian Thebes) was full of he rmits who
bad been inspi red by bis example and precepts. 14

11 .
13 .

Bertrand Russell: Western Philosophica l Thought P. 357

Encyc lopaedia of Religions & Ethics II, P. 49L
Rig Veda X 86-2.
Story or Civilizatio n pa rt IV, P. 58.
Bertrc nd Russell : Western Philosophical Thought P. 372.


However, according to anolher school of thought

the beginning of early Christian asceti cism and monasticism

goes back to essentially the influence of the later G reek

and JUdaeo-HelIenic schools of philosopby. Tbe religions of
East, according to it, can at best be crediled with only an
indirect influence namely the syncretism of Ale.andrian
The extent to which tbe concept of asceticism had
impinged upon the Christian doctrines can be gauged from

the fac t tbis that

midd le ages

in early Cburch


and even in deep

was viewed with


Lice we re called 'pearls of God' and were a mark of saintliness Saints would boast that water bad never even touched them'.' And tbe disdain with whi ch a ll worldl y act ivities we re looked d own upo n is appare nt from some of tbe
letters of G rego ry, the Great Pope of the seve nth century.
One of his letters to the bisbop of Cagliari in Sardinia Says:
,It has been t old me that on the Lord's da y, before celebrating the solemnities of mass thou wentest fo rth to pl ough

up the crop .......... .. .. .... Seeing th at we still spare thy gre y

hair, be thin k thee a t length, o ld man, and restrain th yself

from such levity of behaviour and perversit y of deeds .. . ... ' .

Although the Protest a nt Chu rch rejects the hyperasceti cism of middle a ;es, yet, a number of wooted aseetic
obse rvances, li ke keeping week ly and yearl y fast. did pass
over into the practices of Luth !rans, Anglicans and some
other reformed Churches. The contine ntal Pietists, the
Methodists of England and the Presbyterien. of North
America ev ince in ge neral a tendency to withdrawal from
tbe world.
Notwithstanding the ascetic nature of some of the
Islamic religious obligations like fa sting during Rarn zan,
15. Ibid P. 372.
16. Ibid P 378.


ascetis m as such is not sanctioned by Islam and its Founder,

according to whom Rabbaniya (monasti cism) was no part
of Islam.17 And ye t curiously enough, several instances of

persons contemporary with Mohammad are available who

did penance for tb eir sins. For example, Bahlul retired
into mountains in the neighbou rhood of Medina, clad himself in hard cloth and tied bis hand s behind his back with
iron cbains, crying repeatedly :

'0 my G od, see Bahlul bound and shackled

confessing his sins' 18

Probably the intense terror produced by the vivid

description in tbe Quran on tbe day of Judgemen t a od tbe
morbid consciousness of sin encouraged the growth of
asceticism during Umayyad period (661-750 A .D.). Many
stories are told of person < who died of fear on bearing a
preacher describe the anguish that await s the wicked after
tbe resurrection and, of tbose who wept so violently from
terror and remorse that they swooned away. Kahmab-alHassan is said to have wept for forty years because he had
once taken a piece of clay fr om L neighbour's wall. 19 There
was a class of such ascetics, called 'weepers'. Su bsequentl y,
notwithstanding the Quranic sanction~ agalllst the concept
of asceticism, there has been growth o f many monastic

orders in Islam, like Adawis, Qadiris. Rafiai s, Melevis etc.

An order of Muslim ascetics founded in 18th century is
known as RASUL SHAH IS, whose adherents shave
completely the head, moustaches and the eyebrows.'o
However, in no other religion asseticism has been

so widely practiced as in Hinduism.

The injunctions of

their sacred books and the examples of their sages, have

helped to ingrain in the mind of its votaries the thought

that renunciation of the world, with rejection of its
17. Quran iv iJ. 27.
18. Encycloped ia of Religions & Ethics, vol. II P. 100.
19. Ibid P. 100
20 Punjab Tribes and Casts 10324.


pleasu res and pursuits is the supreme good. This otherworid ly or rather anti-worldly a pproach is predo minanlly
foun d in every , chool o f Indian religious th ought. Begi naing
witb Rig-Veda, it became an arti cle of faith by the time of
tho upoishdas when t he twin doctrines of karma and transmigration were first propounded . These doctrines have cast tbeir
shadows on almost all Indian religions) in some form or the

The exte nt to which the concept of ascet ism as a
menn of salvation has ruled the

socia-reli gious sentiments

of the people in Indian has been beautifully described by

the famous Philosopher from Fr ance, Voltaire in a little
story called 'Bababee'. In it Omni asks the Brahmin if
there is any chance of his even tually reaching the nineteentb

"It depe nds, 'replied the Brahmin, ' On what

kind of life you lead'
"I try to be a good ci tizen, a good husband, a
good father, a good friend, I sometimes lend
money without interest to the rich, I give to
the poor, I preserve peace among my neighbours."
"But,' asked th e Brahmin, 'do yo ur occasionally
stick nails into your behind'?
uNever, reverend father."
('1 am soory", the Brahm in repiied, "Yo u will
certainly not attain to the nineteenth beaven."21

The climax of this approach was reached in the

Prayag traditions originating in Mahabharata and the

according to which

sacrifice at

Prayag is of

supreme religious merit. They also prescribe five te rrible

lLethods of suicide namely dro wn ing, destruction by slow
burning fire, scorching by fire from., below with head suspended downward; feeding slices of flesh to the birds and
21. In Noyes, Voltaire 556.


fasting Unto death, References to ,uch types o f 'sacred

suicide' at Paryag da te back to 4th cen tury A.D. and tbe
practice persisted upto the beginning of the 18th cen tury
wben it was stri gently stopped by the British.
While Nietzche accuses such forms of asceticism as
' holy form o f debaucher y,' the most celebrated hi storian
of the present age, Arnold Toynbee desc ri bes them as schism
in the soul of a n individ ual whi ch acco rd ing t o him 'bas
been responsible for the decline and fall of many a society .'
The o the r extreme with similar results, acco rding to

hi m, is held by the ad vocates of t he theory of wild

'Abandon' wbich sanctions free and full sat isfaction of all
natural passions as a way to individual excellence .22
While in the wes t the source of inspirati on of this scbool
of thought is rooted in the Bacchus cult (Di onysus) of Greek
and Ro man mythology, its cou nterpart iu the East is represented by SAK II 'wh ose slender waist bending beneath
the burd en of the ripe fruit s of her breasts swells into
jewe lled hips heavy with the promi se of. infinite maternities,'

embodying fem ale principle Yomi , and SIVA, the male principle Semen, They are lbe two polar principles revolving
around sex. According to some of thei r traditions 'union
with God can be obtained only through sex'23 an :! ' perfection
can be gained by sati sfying all onc's desires; one may eat
any kind of meal , including buman fie sh, may lie, may steal
and commit adult{"ry .'2J.
The havoc the adherents of these traditions can
wrought to any society of human beings is not difficult t o
assess. Return to the natu re call of Jean-Jecques Rousseau
is currently manifest ing ltself in wha t Arnold Toynbee
22. Arnold Toynlee: A study of history P. 161-243:
23. Kutarnava Tantra, vii i. 107.
24. Gubyasamerja Tan tta.


calls 'drug culture' 'which threatens to compose itself into a

dangerous reduction ad-absurdum of the principle of
relativity on the social and political plane undermining the
apparently valid concept that , an irreducible minimum of
fixed poles of orientation is a necessary element in the
psychological health of both individuals and societies.''"
Sikhism, as founded by Guru Nan ak Dev, in the
fifteenth Century not only stea rs clear of both these ext remes
namely of 'wild abandon' and 'hyper-asceticism,' but also
firmly denounces them as erratic and egoistic b<haviour
unworthy of social and spiritual heal tho Accord ing to the
holy Prophet. Pr.cticing self-tonure to subdue desires
only wears off the body. The mind is not subdued tbrough
fasting and penances, { and as such 'he who tortures the

body to wither away is not approved.'

Stressing further tbe barren-ness of the escapist
approach of the ascetic., Sri Guru Nanak Dev Says in
another of his hymns:

Yoga (Tru e Religion) is neither in a patched coat

nor in the Yogi's staff, nor in besmearing one
with asbes.
Nor in wearing ear-rings, nor in close-cropping

of the bead; nor in blowing the horn;

Lead a pious life among the impurities of the world,
thus shalt thou find access to true religion.
True religion (Yoga) does not consist ,n mere words,
True yogi is he who looked upon all creation alike
Yoga does not consist in living in cemctries, or
in pJaces of cremation; Dor in sittmg in

particular postures of contemplation.

Yoga does not consist in roaming in far fetched
lands; nor in bathing at places of pilgrimage;


Arnold Toynbce: A study of history P.

26. Adi Gran th P. 236 Gauroi M. 1.



If one remaineth detached in the midst of

attachments, then verily one attainth the true state
of yoga."
Sheikh Farid, a muslim divine, whose holy bymn ~
have been incorp orated in t he Sikb Scriptures tenders a
similar advice to the recluse. Says has to them :
"Scorcb not thy body like an ovan,
Burn not thy bone s like Firewood,
What harm bave tby bead and feet done thee?
Similarly in a scathing criticism of such p act ices
Nallak IV, Sri Guru Ram Dass says:
"As the teats on a goat' s neck yield no milk,
so yog~ withou t piety yields no advantage. My Sikhs
are family men and may obtain salvation in that
condition of life. It would be impossible for them
to praclise your system of yoga. The best mean of
yoga is the repetition of the holy Name. Without
love and devotion to God, all other means of
obtaining salvation are unprofitable :28
Guru Nanak's refusal to nominate his eldest son,
Sri Chand, as his successor because of his other-worldliness
barred the door to renunciation in Sikhism. The succeeding Gurus jammed it further by reiterating the futility of a
life of a recluse and by mvesting the spiritually-oriented
householders with hitberto unknown dignit y and grace
through a process of washing from tbeir face tbe filth of
social evils like caste callousness, corruption , illiteracy,
infantifide and salli etc as a lso hy inculeating in them the
courage to combat evil and injustice through personal precepls of the highest order.
27. Adi Grant h P. 731. Suhi Mahalia I

Mecauliffe, The Sikhs Reli gion 11 . P. 274.


If renunciation as a way of life is no t ap proved in

Sikllism, a life lost in baser passions is equally denounced
because both of them are de letrious to the growth of social
health. The one is barren, the other is base. These passions
have been identified as Sensuality Anger, Covetousness,
Excessive at tachment to things mundane and Ego. They
have come in for ve ry severe criticism in the holy Si kh
scriptu res . I n one of the holy humns, Guru Nanak Says:
"Covetousness is a dog, falsehood a sweeper,
food obtained by deceit carrion;
Slander of o thers is merely others 'fi lth in
our mouths; the fire of Anger is a sweeper".
In another such hymn the Prophet exh orts the people
to rise above these low passions if they wish to be accepted
in the Lord's court.
"Put away from you, Lust, wrath and Slander.
A hand on nvr:ce, and co veto usness and you shall
be free from care. "29

The fa !lowing hym n o f Guru Gobind Singh whi le

bei ng a most ca tegorical statement of Sikhi sm on th e issues
of asceticism and surrer.der to base r passio ns also lays

down the broad framework o f the ehical standards which it s

votaries are enjo ined to adhere to.
O'man practise ascet ic ism in thi s wa y.

Consider th y ho use altoge th er as the fu rest,

and remain an anchori te at heart .

Make con tin ence thy matted hair, un ion wi l h

God th y abolutio ns, th y d aily religious

duties, the growth of thy nails,
Divine knowledge thy spiritual guide .


Maru Solh c.


Admonish thy heart and apply God's name as ashes

to thy body.
Eat little, sleep little, have love, mercy and
Ever practice mildness and patience and thou
shalt be freed from the three 'qualities,
Attach not to thy heart lust, wrath,
cove tousness, obstinacy and love for world.
Thus shalt thou behold the real soul
of th is world and attain to the Supreme Being.
As 1< evident, therefore, Sikhism is poles apart from
both these extremities rooted in a malignant approach
towards life involving abdication of social responsibilities.
For one it is an opportunity to seek self aggrandisement
while for the other the world is unworthy of any reconciliation being tEvil' and a 'Vale of sin and sorrow'.
Sikhism strongly refutes these theories. Fo r it, the
world is a 'theatre for righteous action' and a manifestation
of the Holy Spirit of the Lord God.
'Holy are the continents created by Thee.
Holy Thy universe
Holy the World and the forms therein
Holy are Thy doing and all that is in Thy mind.30
The human hody similarly is not regarded as a projection of the original Sin, but is accepted as a mansion
of God.
Thi. beautiful mansion, the body,
Is the temple of God.
In which he has instilled
His light Infinite.
Thu s, in Sikhism, the basic postulates of human
existence stand on a different plane. Life is not a puni sh30.

Var Asa Mohalla 1.



ment but a ra re oppo rtunity to a tt ain t o the highest spirit ua l

eleva ti on and the sociaJ o rganiza tio n is tbe necessary con -

text in wh ich the way to such an elevation has to be sought.

The Sikh way of life , t he refore, is firm ly grou nded in society
with no social ac tiv ity beyond its scop~, nOl even poli tical.
In this rel igio n 'man is the source of sp iritua lity, sllcie ty is

the centre of moral ac tions a nd G od is the end of a ll

religio us effo rt s. The object o f Sikhism, as a way o f life is
to create a spi ritual kinship a nd un ity between ma n and
man , bet wee n man and G od , and between man and Soc iet y .'3 1

For a full er a ppreciat ion of these Ideals as basis for

the socio -spiritual regenerati on a passing reference to the
socio-politi cal conditions obt aining in India a t the time of
the advent of Sikhi sm would be imperati ve.
A greater portion of India then had been under the
Muslim rule for the last five centuries. Most of the Mu slim
rul ers we re

e xcess ively

int oreran t and


T hey

t yranni zed over the people, especially the non-muslims, who

were not .lIowed to p~ rsue their religi on or even to eat well
or dress well. As pointed out by Prof. Toynbee 'Islam
impinged upon Hind uism vio len tly, and o n the whole the story
o f the rela tions between the two great rel igions on India n
groun d has been an unhappy tale of mu tua l misundersta nd
ing and hostility." fhe sense of belongi ng to the ruli ng
class w ith a mistaken belief in a d ivine missio n to exterm i-

nate the infide ls and their culture had ge nerated feelings of

s uch arrogance amo .lg the Mu~ lim s towa rd s their Hindu
comp atri ots tha t 'either the ve ry ri ght o f existence was bei ng
denied to them o r if they were allowed t o exist they we re
co nsidered as means towards their selfis h ends' ."
31. Social Phil osophy o f Guru Gobind Sin gh By. Dr. Tirlochln Singh
32 . SlCfCd writings o f the Sikhs P. 10 Un~ co Publication.
33 Dr. Sher Singh: Phil osophy or Sikhism P. 20.



The social pict'lre prese nted by Ihe Muslims was by
no means enviable. Drunk with power their rulers were

sunk in a life of depravilY and debauchery. Their hunger

for riches was insatiable and fo rcible exactions from tbe
people turned them into 'Manealers' a nd their officials
into 'dogs who li cked blood of the people and ate their
Resh.''' Their ow n priestl~ class, the Mullah s, were no
hetter than the H ind u Brahmin s. Instead of ministering to
the spiritual needs of the people they we re thriving on
corruption and malpracti ces.

The few saints in their ranks

were imitating the Hindus in wi thdrawing from the society.

The plight of th e women among M u,lims wa' rathe r sad .
They Were looked upon as pl ay thi ngs for thei r lust; their
intense mistrust at the hands of males made them no better
than prisoners in their homes with a hlack veil over their

face. Infanti cide, strictly forbidden by Quran became quite

common among them too and it is even said that the practice of Satti was not unknown among them in tbe days of
Jahangir.'" Besides, prostitution was very widely practiced.
The Hindus were divided into four varnas which
again were sub-divided into a long range of Jattis. They
were generally ignorant and indifferent to the realities 0 {
life. Armed with the monopOlistic right to recite the
mantras and perform the religious rites, th'i r priestly ell ..
the Brahmins, were very selfish. The people and the priests
both were lost in mean ingless rites and sup: rstitions and in
order to gain petty favo urs at the hand s of the Muslim
rulers, freely imitated their way of li fe . Exposing thei r
hytocritical ways Guru Nanak says about them:
You wear a lion cloth, sacri fica l marks and a
34. Adi GranthP . 1287.
35. Ducan G rcen less: G ospel of Guru Granlh P. xxii.



Yet you earn your li ving from those wbom you ca ll

You perform Hindu worsbip in priv.te
Yet, 0 my brothers, yo u read the books of tb.
Mahamm.dans and adopt their man ners.
The condition o f tbe so-called lowe r classes was still
worse among Hindus. As tbe Muslims treated them, so the
upper classes, in turn treated the 'sudras' and untouchables;

'they had no swords or the right to slay or kill, but they

murdered them with hatred, coutempt and social exclusion'.'
Even a saint like Tulsidas rererred to sudras as 'men whom

even tbe highest virtues could not raise'. One balf of even
the higber castes were also held down by contempt and di slike, woman were considered to be unworthy of attaining
salvati on or entering heaven until they had been reborn as
men; they were considered to be sensual, aod spoilers of
man's spiritual life. Seekers of spirituality turned away
from them and wandered in forests aimlessly.
Such schism of a society alonglines of class, according to Arnold Toynbee is distinctive mark of the phases of
its break down and disintegration." And, as if to hasten
the pro: ess of disintegration, Bab~r descended on the plains'
of Punj ab and sweeping Hindus and Muslim Afghans alike
before him reached Delhi to forcibly woo the thro ne of
Hi ndustan. The wide spread misery and havoc caused by
his ho rdes silenced even the bravest but not Guru Nanak
who denounced him for his act of oppression and chided the
people for their slavish acceptance of the oppre s s ion
telling them that:
'If we live without se lf-respect,
All tbat we eat is undeserved.'
36 . DODcan Greenless: Gospel of Guru Granth P. xi l(.

37. Arnold Toyanbecc: The study of History P. 223 .



For his acts of aggression, Guru Nanak condemned

Babar right at his face and warned him th at if he d id no l
stop oppressing the people, he is bound to go down. No
religious leader before Guru Nanak had ever risked his skin
on behalf of the people like thi s. His ideals and d ispensations smacked of revoluti o n and this is what he aimed at

He had decided t o give to the people a religion of revolution

'which would not be of the kind that justified things as
they were but rather of the kind that PUt dow n the tyrant
from his seat and rai sed up the humble and the meek and
would really change civilization and society in the on ly way
they could be permanently changed-by changing the picture
in man's mind and by revolutionizing his thought and
For such a purpose, the people bad to be freed of
all tbose bonds which wbere holding them down in a state
of perpetual bondage by the kings and the clergy who had
connived to forge ce rtai n mp.taphysica l theories to thei r
advantage . For example Mannu had ordained that ' He,
the resplendent, for the sake of protecting all the creatures,
assigned separate duties to those born of Hi s mouth, arms,
thighs and feet. Teaching and studying the vedas, performing sacrifices and assis ting others in doing so, maki ng

gifts and receivi ng gifts; these he assigned to th e Brahmi ns.

Tbe protection of tbe pe ople, gifts, perfo rming of sacrifices
and stu dying o f Vedas, Donattachment to sensual pleasures;

these he prescribed for kashatriy".

The protect ion of

cattle, gifts, sacrificing a.nd study of vedas, t rade, bank ing

and ag ri cultUre, to the Vaisyas; God allotted only one

duty to sudras, to serve without demand the members of all
the classes mentioned above. ' 39
38. Dr. Sher Singh Philosophy of Sikhism P. 20.
39. S. Kapu r Si ngh Blisakhi of Guru Gobilld Singh P. 393



Endorsing this theo ry, TlJ lsid as in his Ram Chari I

Manas says . 'A Brahmin must be hono ured though devoid
o f eve ry virtue and merit; but a sudra never, th o ugh
distinguished for every virtue and learnin g.' 'Mannu gives

the same privileged position to the r uli ng class as well by

prescribing in his book of Law that 'even an infant king
should not be despi sed for he was a great god in hum an
form and he should be rendered implicit submission alld
ungrud ging se rvice' , indicating thereby a so rt of unholy
al liance between the two upper classes 10 perpetuale thei r
hold on the people . Though not in these terms but Gita
too asserts that 'man qua man must act in the fr ame work
of hi s prakritic nature alone' .o And. what is amazing is
that even in mode rn times th is type of stratification of
society has been defended by such eminent persu ns as
Dr. Radha Krishnan," No wond er, Nietzshe the no ted
Germ an philosopher describes Man u's dispensations as
' holy lies to secure Bra hminic tyranny and expluitation of
the people'. The Sikh scriptures denounce them in no
different terms.
Now, for a fundamental metamorphosis in tbe thoughts and wills of Man, it was imperative to demolish tbese
theories forged in the name of God. Sri Guru Nanak Dev
did so by telling tbe people that all of them high or low,
have got the same rights to socio-spirit"al treasures because
they all are heir to the same DiVine Spirit.
holy words of Nanak V, 'EK PITTA EKES KE HAM
BARAK' i.e. 'the Lord God is our eternal Father and we
all are bis cbildren', though seemingly innocent, were the
pronouncement of a new age and a new society in whicb
there is no room for exploitation of man by man and in
which men and women alike, can have access to an y field of
activity including the reading and teaching of Scriptures
40. Gila 14,56.
4 1. Radha Krishna. Eastern Religions and Thoughts P. 357.



as also to tbe sanctum sanctorium of any of their holy

The idea of unicity of God was not unknown or
unsung before the advent of Guru Nanak, but, tbe real ru b
came in when he preached the ' brotherhood of man.' Recognizing the true import of these word s Cunningham opines
that, ,it was reserved for Nanak to perceive th e true principles of reform and t o lay those broad found at ions whi ch
enabled his successor (Guru) Gobind (Singh) to fi re th e
minds of his countrymen with a new nationality and to give
practical effect to the doctrine that the lowest is equal wi th
the highest, in race as in creed, in poli tical righ ts as in

religious hopes. 42
By the unreserved and unequi voca l condemnation of
the contemporary wayward rulers and their priestl y classes
as 'Dogs' and 'Butchers,' the Guru demolished the theory of
their so-called 'Divine right' and made tb em answe rable
to the people, tbe meanest of whom could now as pi re for
the highest of office, on the strength of his merits.

He alone should sit on the throne

who is fit to rule,43
said the Guru enjoining further that 'tbe outstandi ng
trait in a ruler should be revereoce and fear of the will of
the assembly of the elect'44 besides dedicatioo to impartial
Justice'.'s And, as a reiteration of the principle of equality
Guru Gobind Singh, says in one of his wri tiogs th at . A ki ng
must apply the same laws to himself as he does to others.'
These, then, in a broad sense, are the fundame ntal
postulates of the society envisaged in Sikhism, By laying the

Cunningham: History of the Sikhs P. 34

Adi Gr.nth P. 1039.
Adi Gr,nth P. 992.
Adi Granth, Var Sa raDg M. 1.



founda tion of Pangat (Community Kitcben) and Sangat

(Community prayer), Guru N anak took practi cal steps to
bring down the commensal barriers of Hinduism and these
effo rts strengthened and expa nded by tbe succeeding Gurus,
helped t o build up "Community that was far more homogeneous, unified and integrated than the vertically graded and
sharply stratified Jati Hindus . Tbe common appellat ion
given to its members by Guru Gobind Sin gh immensely
strengthened the sense of unit y and enabled them to share
common objectives, adversity and suffering as also success
and failure. '48
The three basic tenets lair! down in Sikhism for the
healt h, hap piness and growth of such a society both at
individ ual and corporate levels are:
I. NAM JAPO, practice the discipline of the Name,
2. KIRT KARO, Engage in honest non-exploitive

3. VAND CH HAKO, Share your earnings with

'The first tenet inculcates the necessity for spiritual
'Sadhana' for the purpose of purifying and uplifting the
individual soul to the full reali sation of its true essence by
meditating o n God, the second enjo ins honest labour and as
a co rrollary forbids all wealth and material possessions not
acquired through honest and non-exploitive labour, and
according to the third the wbole Community is morall>
ent itled to the fruit s of sucb labour, not, indeed on grounds
of equity o r economic Justice, which are amorphous and
relative concepts, but, on the ground, that nO individual
is spiritually complete.unles. be considers himselfaa part of
the society as a whole.'47
46 . Nirajan Ray The Sikh Gurus & the Sikb Society P. 34.
47. S Kapur Singh, Guru Nanak and a Note on JAPU, a commemora..
tive Lecture given in 1975.



Naturally enough, therefore, the concept of social

service as a means to spiritual elevation is repeatedl y
emphasised in Sikhism, so much so that< it is enjoined to be
sinequa-non for access to Divine grace:
'He alone would earn the Divine grace who engages
himself in the service of the people,'"
says Guru Nanak and Hhai Gurdas the Sikh Savaat,
reiterates the same in his VaTs'.
'Cursed are o ne's hands and feet without service and
in the absence thereof.
All othe r religious deeds are of no avail.'
In this cocnection a tradition connected with Guru
Accord ing to it onCe when three
Sikhs, Bishan Das, Ma nak Chand and Puru begged the
Guru to give th em instruct ions for their own sa lvation and
that of their families, the Guru bade them serve the people
and induce their relations to do Ii kew ise. 4 9
Ram D ass is very tell ing.

To bring home the true import of the Sikhs' concept

of social service, it needs to be stressed that, unlike in
Quran and fundamen talist form of Christianity persons no t
conforming to the Sikh tenets are Dot excluded from the
benefits of such a service. And, above all, the di vine reward
,hat is promised to the Sikhs for the ir social service is not
in the form of a 'paradise of one vast garden with ri ve rs of
milk, honey and wine, where vi rgin s wi th swelling bosoms
and modest gaze wo uld be at their beck and call '.'o The
Sikhs, by serving the people, deem to serve th e Lord at
48. Guru Na nak: Adi Gractb P.

'9. Mac.uliffe II. P. 274,

50. Quran: LV 56-8 ixxviii 33 xxxvii. 48, as quoted in story of civiliza tion by with Durant. P. 179.



whose feet they seek just a little corner. 'My Sikhs desire not
heaven: said Guru Ram Dass to Tappa, 'Heaven they deem
not fit reward for their merits. Their minds are ever
absorbed in God's love. That is their heaven aDd
salvation .'

51. Shri Guru Grantb Kosh. Khalsa Tract , Society. 1927.