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Instrumentation Experiment No.4

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In this experiment, the students have been using the 100microampere meter movement. Its use as a voltage multiplier

(high resistance) if placed in series with the moving meter. For lowvoltage instruments, this resistance is physically mounted inside

the meter case with the meter movement.

The students keep in mind that the meter movement uses

current flow to produce a magnetic field that is proportional to the

current. The meter movement is, therefore, an indicator of current

flow rather than voltage. The addition of the series resistance is

what allows the meter to be calibrated in terms of voltage; that is,

the meter movement of a voltmeter operates because of the

current flow through the meter,

In extending the Voltmeter ranges the value of series

resistance is determined by the current required for full-scale

deflection and by the range of the voltages to be measured. Since

the current through the meter circuit is directly proportional to the

applied voltage, the meter scale can be calibrated directly in volts

for a fixed value of series resistance.

formula: Multi range voltmeters use one meter movement.The resistance (R meter) required to limit the total current in the circuit to 100 microamperes can be found by using the ff. The required resistances are connected in series with the meter by a switching arrangement .

use a high-resistance voltmeter in order to prevent the shunting action of the voltmeter. In this case this action lowers the effective resistance of the circuit and changes the voltage reading. it will draw a substantial amount of current. . The purpose of a voltmeter is to indicate the potential difference between two points in a circuit.Conclusion: The students found out the influence of a voltmeter in a circuit. it shunts the circuit. experiment because the value of the resistance needed to create the volt meter is not exact or rather difficult to find. In addition to that the students encounter a difficulty in performing the ff. If the voltmeter has a low resistance. When a voltmeter is connected across a circuit. The students observe that when making voltage measurements in high-resistance circuits. But the effect is less noticeable in low-resistance circuits because the shunting effect is less like in the experiment.

3 µA Rm = R2 – 2R1 Rm = 17.8 mV/8.04 KΩ) Rm1 = 1.769 KΩ Rm(ave) = R m1+ R m 2+ R m 3 3 Rm(ave) = 1.769 KΩ 3 Rm(ave) = 1.831 KΩ Rm 3 = 1.04 KΩ I = 3.8 mV I = 59.75 KΩ – 2(8.Computation: Meter Movement Data R1 = 8.75 KΩ .65 KΩ Rm 2 = 1.831 KΩ+1.65 KΩ+1.04 KΩ E(mv) = 59.

35 V %e = 2.2 V 6.5 V 26.40% 1.52 % 12.5 V 2.28 V %e = 2.7 V −26.25 V −1.55 V %e = 2.5 V 12.00% 2.35V 6.25 V 2.94 V %e = 3.42% 6.2 V 12.5 V −12.25 V 1.2V 26.94 V 12.7 V 26.Percentage Error E1 E2 Percentage Error % 1.2 V %e = 26.5 V −2.87% .28V 1.55V 2.2 V −6.5 V 6.7 V 1.

Reference: http://www.org/wiki/Circuit_Theory/Circuit_Basics http://www.navymars.html .pdf http://en.com/worksheets/meters1.wikibooks.allaboutcircuits.org/national/training/nmo_courses/nmoc/mod ule16/14188_ch3.

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