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Learning Goals
What is a project?
What is a project –program-portfolio management?
Relationship among project management, program management,
portfolio management, organisational project management,
operations management, & organisational strategy.
Business value
Role, Responsibilities, Competences, & Interpersonal Skills of the
Project Manager.
Organisational Influences & Project Stakeholders
Project Life Cycle & Project Management Process for Small and
Large Scale Projects.


•Portfolios •Is a collection of projects. 4 . subportfolios. project or other work which is managed in a coordinated way to support the Portfolio. Organisational planning impacts the projects by means of project prioritisation based on risk. an enhancement or an end item in itself •A service or capability to perform a service •An improvement in the existing product or service lines •A result such as an outcome or document •Example: Building a bridge. funding. they are linked to the Organizations Strategic plan by means of the Organizations Portfolio. and other considerations relevant to the Organisations Strategic Plan. •They are still considered part of the portfolio. •Projects •Individual project that are either within or outside of a program. and operations managed as a group to achieve strategic objectives. programs. Service or Result •End is reached when a project objectives have been achieved or the project is terminated or the need for the project no longer exists •Projects can have social economic or environmental impact •Projects are authorised because •Market Demand •Strategic opportunity / business need •Social need •Environment need •Customer request •Technological advancement •Legal requirement •A Project can create •A product that can be component of another item.•Project •A project is a temporary endeavour with a defined beginning and end •It is undertaken to create a unique Product. movie etc. software. •Programs •Programs are grouped within Portfolios comprise subprograms. PORTFOLIOS PROJECT PROGRAM PROJECT PROGRAM PROJECT PROJECT PROJECT PROJECT PROJECT PROJECT Although the projects and programs within the portfolio may not necessary be interdependent or directly related. house.

core personality. 5 . stakeholder equity. It is defined as the entire value of the business. •Project Manager may report to the functional manager. fixtures. Interpersonal skills are: •Leadership •Teambuilding •Motivation •Communication •Influencing •Decision making •Political and cultural awareness •Negotiation •Trust building •Conflict management •Coaching BUSINESS VALUE Business value is a concept that is unique to each organization. and utility) and intangible elements (goodwill. and conceptual skills to analyse situations and interact appropriately. public benefits and trademarks). Quality Assurance Manager and Subject Matter Experts •They have the responsibility to satisfy the needs. •Only applying the knowledge. tools and techniques is not enough. he should also possess the following competencies: •Knowledge – About the project.ROLE OF THE PROJECT MANAGER RESPONSIBILITIES & COMPETENCIES INTERPERSONAL SKILLS OF THE PROJECT MANAGER •Project Manager – is the person assigned by the organisation to lead the team that is responsible for achieving the project objectives. interpersonal. •Performance – What PM is able accomplish while applying his project management knowledge. •He is the link between the strategy and the team. assets. •They require a balance of ethical. brand recognition. attitude. •Personal – PM’s behaviour. •Project Manager may report to a Program or Portfolio Manager . •The Project Manager also works closely with the Business Analyst. sum of tangible (monetary. and leadership •They accomplish work through the project team and other stakeholders. task needs. team needs and individual needs.

individuals. project staff. business partners. internal or external to the a manager with demonstrable interest in the outcome of the project who is responsible for securing spending authority and resources for the project The project sponsor will participate in and/or lead project initiation. units. which are impacted by. best practice. 6 . the development of the project Charter. and reports to a higher-level manager. sellers.Ensures that project objectives remain aligned with corporate and business needs. procedures. •Project Management Office is an organisation body assigned various responsibilities with a primary function to support project managers in a variety of ways: •Managing shared resources across all projects administered by PMO. •Operations manager – is responsible for ensuring that business operations are efficient. some authority. supporting experts. or organisations. •Project Team – includes the project manager and the group of individuals who act together in performing the work of the project to achieve its objectives. •Identifying and developing project management methodology. – there are dedicated and part-time teams. and •Coordinating communication across projects. and sometimes maintaining a portion of the project plan. •On larger projects. and templates via project audits. some project team members may serve as Team Leads. procedures. or can impact. •The Project Coordinator – this position is similar to the project expediter except the coordinator has some power to make decisions. . templates. budget and monitoring. •Project Owner – is one who accepts accountability for the performance of the project. procedures. supervises the processes. users and customer representatives. •Developing and managing project policies. – Provides resources. •Functional manager – is the person focused on providing management oversight for a functional or business unit.•Stakeholders – are all those groups. providing task and technical leadership. •The Project Expediter acts primarily as a staff assistant and Communications coordinator – The expediter cannot personally make or enforce decisions. business partner members. and other shared documentation (organisational process assets). •Project team includes roles such as project management staff. the outcomes of the project •Stakeholders include all members of the team as well as all interested entities that are internal external to the project Project Sponsor.

Closing Initiating Planning Executing Monitorin g & Cont. Closing PROJECT LIFE CYCLE FOR LARGE SCALL PROJECTS 7 . Closing TEST Initiating Planning Executing Monitorin g & Cont. And some projects will go through steps 2. •Typical development phases of an engineering project. RESEARCH Initiation & Inception DESIGN Planning & Design CODE Execution & Construction TEST Monitoring & Controlling TRANSMITION Completion & Closing PROJECT LIFE CYCLE FOR SMALL SCALL PROJECTS RESEARCH DESIGN Initiating Planning Executing Monitorin g & Cont. Initiation and Inception 2. In the “traditional approach”. 3 and 4 multiple times. Planning and Design 3. five development components of a project can be distinguished. Completion / Closing •Not all projects will have every stage. Some projects do not follow a structured planning and / or monitoring process. but no matter how large or small. as projects can be terminated before they reach completion. Execution and Construction 4. all projects can be mapped to the following life cycle structure •Project Management Process Groups •A traditional phased approach identifies a sequence of steps to be completed. – Projects may vary in size and complexity. Monitoring and Controlling 5.•The Project Life Cycle refers to a series of activities which are necessary to fulfil project goals or objectives. Closing CODE Initiating Planning Executing Monitorin g & Cont. 1. Closing TRANSMITION Initiating Planning Executing Monitorin g & Cont.

Inputs Phases Idea INITIAL Project Management Team INTERMEDIATE FINAL in Process Assets Or (backlog) 27/04/2015 08:42:32 8 .

. adding new functions.  One product consists of many projects phases 27/04/2015 08:42:32 9 . Product – Sequential (non‐overlapping) phases – Retires (Obsolete)  Project – Occurs in one or more phases of product – Example: developing a new product.

milestone. overlapping.      They are divisions within a project Maybe sequential. priority. iterative Phases allow the project to be segmented into logical subsets for ease of management. decision gate. complexity. planning and control Phases can differ in size. 27/04/2015 08:42:32 10 . kill point) Primary objective of the phase requires an extra degree of control to be achieved – (PMBoK uses 5 process groups to do this). stage gate. impact and each has a distinct focus on work Phases result in a transfer of work or handoff on some kind (Phase exit. phase gate.

there are situations when a project might benefit from overlapping or concurrent phases. However. or result.In multi-phased projects. service. the phases are part of a generally sequential process designed to ensure proper control of the project and attain the desired product. There are three basic types of phase-to-phase relationships:  A sequential relationship  An overlapping relationship  An iterative relationship 27/04/2015 08:42:32 11 .

Advantage: The step-by-step nature of this approach reduces risk & uncertainty Disadvantage: Eliminate options for reducing the schedule. where a phase can only start once the previous phase is 100% complete.Definition: A sequential relationship. 27/04/2015 08:42:32 12 .

Definition: An overlapping relationship. Disadvantage:  May increase risk  Can result in rework if a subsequent phase progresses before accurate information is available from the previous phase. 27/04/2015 08:42:32 13 . Advantage: This can sometimes be applied as an example of the schedule compression technique called “fast tracking”. where the phase starts prior to completion of the previous one.

uncertain. Advantage: This approach is useful in largely undefined. 27/04/2015 08:42:32 14 . where only one phase is planned at any given time and the planning for the next is carried out as work progresses on the current phase and deliverables.Definition: An iterative relationship. or rapidly changing environments such as research. Disadvantage: It can reduce the ability to provide long term planning.

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◦ Limited by constraints. ◦ Planned. executed. In general there are 2 Categories of organizational Work: Project work & Operations work These 2 types of work share a number of characteristics: ◦ Performed by individuals.    Organizations perform work to achieve a set of objectives. Both differ primarily in that Operations work is ongoing and does not terminate when current objectives are met .Projects are temporary and end. 27/04/2015 08:42:32 18 . and ◦ Performed to achieve organisational objectives or strategic plans. including resource constraints. monitored & controlled.

sign off 27/04/2015 08:42:32 19 .        They are people or organisations. Actively involved in the project Interests affect positively / negatively on the project May exert influence over the project. Stakeholder requirement: communication. deliverables and resources Internal and external Identification: important & difficult The conflicting stakeholders interests need to be managed. review of products.

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   An organisation’s culture. style. 27/04/2015 08:42:32 21 . When a project involves external entities such as those that are part of joint venture or partnering agreement. The organisation’s level of project management maturity and its project management systems can also influence the project. and structure influence how its projects are performed. the project will be influenced by more than one organisation.

 Organisational culture is shaped by the common experiences of members of the organisation such as: ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Shared visions. and Operating environments. and procedures. beliefs. values. Motivation and reward systems. and authority relationships. methods. policies. View of leadership. work ethic. mission. Regulations. Risk tolerance. and work hours. hierarchy. Code of conduct. 27/04/2015 08:42:32 22 . and expectations.

  Many organisational structures include: Strategic.  Project management systems.  Capacity of the stakeholders to exert influence on the project. 27/04/2015 08:42:32 23 .  Degree of project management maturity. Middle management. and  Organisational communications. and Operational levels The project manager may interact with all three levels depending on factors such as:  Strategic importance of the project.

and  Project team composition 27/04/2015 08:42:32 24 .  Resource availability and management.  Project manager’s role.This interaction determines project characteristics such as:  Project manager’s level of authority.  Entity controlling the project budget.

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guidelines. lessons learned. completed schedules. procedures.P.    O. Should be updated by team members There are two categories: ◦ Corporate Knowledge Base ◦ Processes and procedures 27/04/2015 08:42:32 29 . historical information. risk data. process assets may include: formal and informal plans.A include all process related assets that can be used to influence the project’s success. policies. and earned value data.

calendar. work instructions. project management policies. and acceptance criteria). approving. product and project life cycles. project evaluations.Issue and defect management database -Project Management Database -Financial Database Initiating and Planning: . risks. Monitoring and Controlling: -Change control procedures -Financial controls procedures -Issue and defect management procedures -Organisational communication requirements -Procedures for prioritising. cost. constraints. product validations. response actions. checklists. schedule. final project audits. project schedule network diagram. test criteria -Specific organisational standards such as policies: (HR policies. proposal evaluation criteria.Guidelines.Organizational Process Assets Processes & procedures Corporate Knowledge Base -Plans -Historical information. Executing. and performance measurement criteria. and issuing work authorisation -Risk control procedures -Standardised guidelines. Closing: -Project closure guidelines or requirements (lessons learned. and contract templates). lessons learned -Project files (scope.Communication requirements -Templates (risk register. and standardised process definitions for use in the organisation) . and quality policies and procedures (process audits. risk impact) . work breakdown structure. 27/04/2015 08:42:32 30 . instructions.

organisational project management. program management. portfolio management. Project Life Cycle & Project Management Process for Small and Large Scale Projects Organisational Influences & Project Stakeholders 31 . operations management. & organisational strategy. Business value Role.program . Competences.       What is a project? What is a project . & Interpersonal Skills of the Project Manager as well as other Roles within the Organisation.portfolio management? Relationship among project management. Responsibilities.

17... What is Project Management & who Manages Projects? 12.. What is the relationship between Portfolios. 18. Who Manages Programs? 13. How are Operations deferent from Projects? 27/04/2015 08:42:32 32 . A temporary endeavour with a defined beginning and end is called.. To create a unique product.. Social need. Name some responsibilities and competencies of the Project Manager. What is project? 2. What does Organisational Project Management comprise of? 7.. A market demand.. What’s the work of the Operations Manager? 21. Programs. What’s the work of the Functional Manager? 20..... Who manages Portfolios? 11. What are Portfolios? 8.? 5. What is the primary function of the Project Management Office? 14. What is the main role of the Project Manager? 16. Name some interpersonal Skills of a Project Manager.. and Projects? 10.? 4.1.? 3.. What is the deference between Operations & Projects? 15. Give few examples of projects in deferent industries 6.... customer request are all reasons to do what. What is the deference between the Project Expediter and Project Coordinator? 19. What are Programs? 9.. service or result is what.

. which Organization has the most complex communications? And why? 31..22. Lessons learned are best completed by Stakeholders. . Balanced Matrix or Strong Matrix? 30.. What’s the deference between the Project life Cycle for large projects and for small projects? 27/04/2015 08:42:32 33 .. internal or external to organization. what type of an Organization is the Project Manager working in? 28.. or organisations.. What does the Project Team comprise of? 38. Series of Activities necessary to fulfil projects goals and objective is best described as what? 39... A Project Manager works in a Matrix Organization.. In which type of an Organisation does the Project Manager has most authority? In Function... Who is mostly responsible for the development and changes to the project Charter? Project Manager or Project Sponsor? 36.. 35. What are 3 types of Matrix Organisations? 26.... individuals. or Projectized? 29.are groups. Sum of tangible and intangible elements of a Business is called. In which type of an Organization does the Project Manager has most Authority in. units. An Organization changed from Functional to Projectized. true or false? 34. What’s the role of the Project Owner? 37. Name few Project Stakeholders 32. In a Functional Organization.? 23. Name 5 project management Process Groups? 40. In a Projectized Organization who does the team report to? 27. true or false? 33.... Lessons learned are used as Historical documents for future Projects. who does the Project Manager report to? 24. The Project Manager has little authority over the available resources. Weak Matrix. the outcomes of the project. Name 10 knowledge Areas according to Pmbok 41. or can impact.. Strong Matrix.. which are impacted by. who manages the project budge now? Is it the Project Manager or the Functional Manager? 25..